Tacoma, Washington

Tacoma, with Mount Rainier in background
Nickname: "The City of Destiny"
Motto: "'"
Official website: http://www.cityoftacoma.org/
Location


Location of Tacoma in
Pierce County and Washington State

Government
County Pierce
Mayor Bill Baarsma (NP)
Geographical characteristics
Area
Total 162.2 km²
Land 129.7 km²
Water 32.5 km²
Population
Total (2005) 196,957 (city proper)
Metro area {{{population_metro}}}
Density 1518.6/km²
Density {{{population_density_mi2}}}/mi²
Latitude 47°14'29" N
Longitude 122°27'34" W
Coordinates {{{latd}}}°{{{latm}}}′0″ {{{latNS}}}
{{{longd}}}°{{{longm}}}′0″ {{{longEW}}}
Elevation m
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)

Tacoma (IPA: [tə ˈko mə]) is the county seat of Pierce CountyGR6, Washington, USA, situated on Puget Sound's Commencement Bay, Tacoma Narrows, and the estuary of the Puyallup River. The 2000 census reported Tacoma's population as 193,556; the city's population on Apr. 1, 2004, was estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau to be 196,800, and a metropolitan area of 750,000 (Trends, No. D3 [Sept. 2004]).

Tacoma is the home of such international companies as Labor Ready, Inc. and the Russell Investment Group, as well as institutions of higher learning, including Pacific Lutheran University, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma Community College, and the University of Washington's Tacoma campus. Tacoma is a major international deep-water container port.

The Museum of Glass opened in downtown Tacoma in 2002, showcasing glass art from the region and around the world. It includes a functional glassblowing studio. Tacoma's downtown Cultural District is also the site of the Washington State History Museum (1996) and the Tacoma Art Museum (2003).

One of the largest urban parks in the U.S, Point Defiance Park, which includes the Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium and Fort Nisqually, is located in Tacoma. Another park in Tacoma is Titlow Beach, which is a popular scuba diving area. Wright Park, located near downtown, is a large, English-style park designed in the late 1800s by E.O. Schwagerl and Ebenezer Rhys Roberts. It contains Wright Park Arboretum.

Beginning in the 1930s, Tacoma became known for its malodorousness, called the "Aroma of Tacoma" -- a distinctive, acrid odor produced by local paper manufacturing on the industrial tide flats. In the late 1990s, however, Simpson Tacoma Kraft reduced total sulfur emissions by 90%, largely eliminating the problem, but a strong smell is occasionally still detectable.

A number of noteworthy individuals have come from Tacoma, among them bowling legend Earl Anthony, singer Bing Crosby, authors Richard Brautigan and Frank Herbert, cartoonist Gary Larson, serial killer Ted Bundy, serial sniper John Allen Muhammad, actress Dyan Cannon, conspiracy gadfly Fred Crisman, Andrew and Thea Foss, first owners and operators of Foss Launch and Tug Company, Puyallup Indian rights activist Robert Satiacum, auto racer Pat Austin, prize fighter Sugar Ray Seales, NFL receiver Ahmad Rashad, Major League baseball player Ron Cey, glass artist Dale Chihuly, and musicians the Wailers, Jerry Miller (Moby Grape), Jerry Cantrell and Neko Case. Chef-author Jeff Smith learned to cook and began his career in Tacoma at the Chaplain's Pantry, later known as the Gourmet Pantry (now closed), on Tacoma Avenue.

History

The SR-509 Bridge leading into downtown.

Tacoma was inhabited for thousands of years by Native American people, predominantly the Puyallup people. It was visited by European and American explorers, including George Vancouver and Charles Wilkes, who named many of the coastal landmarks.

The town was originally settled by pioneer and postmaster Job Carr, a Civil War veteran and land speculator who hoped to profit from the selection of Commencement Bay as the terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad. (A replica of Job Carr's cabin, which also served as Tacoma's first post office, was erected in "Old Town" in 2000 near the original site.)

Tacoma was officially incorporated on November 12, 1875. Its early hopes to live to be the "City of Destiny" were frustrated in the late 19th century, when the discovery of gold in the Klondike turned Seattle into a boom town, eclipsing Tacoma's early lead.

George Francis Train was a resident of Tacoma for a few years in the late 1800s, and was an early civic booster. In 1880, he staged a global circumnavigation starting and ending in Tacoma to promote the city's centrality. A plaque in downtown Tacoma marks the start and finish point.

What came to be known as "Tacoma method" was used in November 1885 to expel several thousand Chinese peaceably living in the city. To quote from the account prepared by the Chinese Reconciliation Project: On the morning of Nov. 3, 1885, "several hundred men, led by the mayor and other city officials, evicted the Chinese from their homes, corralled them at 7th Street and Pacific Avenue, marched them to the railway station at Lakeview, and forced them aboard the morning train to Portland, Oregon. The next day two Chinese settlements were burned to the ground."

Downtown looking west from the Tacoma Sheraton

Tacoma was named after Mount Rainier, whose original name was Tahoma, which derived from the Puyallup tacobet, or "mother of waters."

On April 26, 2003 Tacoma's Chief of Police, David Brame, shot and killed his wife and himself in Gig Harbor, Washington.

Utilities

Electrical power is furnished by Tacoma Power, a division of Tacoma Public Utilities, which owns hydroelectric plants on the North Fork of the Skokomish River. Tacoma Power also operates the Click! Network, a cable television and internet service, one of the first public utilities to provide such a service. Tacoma Power is, along with Tacoma Water and Tacoma Rail, a part of Tacoma Public Utilities.

In addition, Comcast also offers digital cable and internet services in the area.

Geography

Tacoma is located at 47°14'29" North, 122°27'34" West (47.241371, -122.459389)GR1. Its elevation is 116 meters (380 feet).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 162.2 km² (62.6 mi²). 129.7 km² (50.1 mi²) of it is land and 32.5 km² (12.5 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 20.01% water.

Education

Tacoma's main public school district is Tacoma Public Schools. The school district contains 36 elementary schools and 11 middle schools. The district also has 5 high schools, one alternative high school, and one School of the Arts. One of the district's high schools, Henry Foss High School, operates an acclaimed International Baccalaureate program. Also, one of the elementary schools, Sheridan Elementary, operates three foreign language immersion programs (Spanish, French, and Japanese).

Newspapers

The city's only daily newspaper is The News Tribune, since 1986 a subsidiary of McClatchy Newspapers. The paper's circulation is about 128,000 (Sundays 144,000), making it the third-largest newspaper in the state of Washington. A daily newspaper has been in circulation in Tacoma since 1883; in the period from 1907 to 1918, three dailies were published: The Tacoma Ledger, The News, and The Tacoma Tribune.

Demographics

The censusGR2 of 2000 indicated that 193,556 persons, 76,152 households, and 45,919 families resided in Tacoma. Four years later, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that Tacoma's population had increased by 1.7%, to 196,800 (Trends, No. D3 [Sept. 2004]).

In 2000, Tacoma's population density was 1,492.3/km² (3,864.9/mi²). There were 81,102 housing units at an average density of 625.3/km² (1,619.4/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 69.08% White, 11.24% African American, 1.96% Native American, 7.57% Asian, 0.93% Pacific Islander, 2.94% from other races, and 6.28% from two or more races. 6.85% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 76,152 households in Tacoma in 2000; 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.7% were non-families. Almost one third of households (31.7%) were made up of individuals living alone; 10.4% of these were 65 years of age or older. The average household size in 2000 was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.10.

In 2000, the population's demographics were evenly distributed: 25.8% under 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34. For every 100 females there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,879, and the median income for a family was $45,567. Males had a median income of $35,820, versus $27,697 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,130. 15.9% of the population and 11.4% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 20.6% of those under the age of 18 and 10.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Transportation and urban form

Tacoma's system of transportation is based primarily on the automobile. The majority of the city has a system of gridded streets oriented in relation to Pacific Avenue and 6th Avenue, both beginning in Downtown Tacoma. Numbered streets run east to west and are labeled "North" or "South" according to their relationship with 6th Avenue or Division Street. North- and south-running streets are given a name or a letter, and are also labeled "North" or "South" in relation to 6th Avenue. This can lead to confusion, as Union Avenue intersects both North and South 11th Streets. Many first-time visitors have encountered difficulty with this. Most streets east of Pacific Avenue are labeled "East." This system of numbering extends beyond city limits to much of the western portion of Pierce County.

In portions of the city dating back to the Tacoma Streetcar Period (1888-1938), denser mixed use business districts exist alongside single family homes. Twelve such districts have active, city-recognized business associations and hold "small town"-style parades and other festivals. The Proctor, Old Town, Dome, Sixth Avenue, and Lincoln Business Districts are some of the more prominent and popular of these and coordinate their efforts to redevelop urban villages through the Cross District Association of Tacoma. In newer portions of the city to the west and south, residential cul-de-sacs, four-lane collector roads and indoor shopping centers are more commonplace.

The dominant intercity transportation link between Tacoma and other parts of the Puget Sound is Interstate 5. I-5 links Tacoma with Seattle to the north and Portland, Oregon, to the south. Washington State Route 16 runs along a concrete viaduct through Tacoma's Nalley Valley connecting Interstate 5 with West Tacoma, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, and the Kitsap Peninsula. Seattle-Tacoma International Airport lies about 22 miles to the north in the city of SeaTac.

Public Transport

Light Rail in Tacoma

Tacoma has a wide array of alternative transportation services available including busses, commuter rail, light rail, and ferries. Public bus service is provided by Pierce Transit, which serves Tacoma and Pierce County. Pierce Transit operates a total of 55 bus routes on busses powered by natural gas and diesel. Bus service operates at 15 or 30 minute frequencies on weekdays. Several primary routes of note are:


Sound Transit, the regional transit authority, provides daily Sounder Commuter Rail service and express bus service during the week. Sound Transit has also established Tacoma Link light rail, a 1.6-mile electric streetcar line linking Tacoma Dome Station with the University of Washington, Tacoma, Tacoma's Museum District, and the Theater District. This line is presently under consideration for extension. Tacoma is also served by Washington State Ferries system, which has a dock at Point Defiance, providing ferry access to Tahlequah at the southern tip of Vashon Island, typically on the ferry M/V Rhododendron. Tacoma also has Greyhound and Amtrak service, accessible via Tacoma Dome Station.

Sports

Tacoma, in addition to the professional sports teams of Seattle, has one minor league baseball franchise, the Tacoma Rainiers, a Triple-A team playing in the Pacific Coast League as a farm team of the Seattle Mariners. The Rainiers play inside Cheney Stadium, named after local businessman and baseball enthusiast Ben Cheney.

The city has struggled to keep a minor league hockey franchise, having lost the Tacoma Rockets of the WHL to relocation and having the Tacoma Sabercats of the former West Coast Hockey League go defunct due to financial woes. The Tacoma Dome does still host traveling sports and pseudo-sports events such as pro wrestling, figure skating tours, and the Harlem Globetrotters. At one point, the Tacoma Dome was home to a professional indoor soccer team, the Tacoma Stars. For the 1994-1995 season, the Seattle SuperSonics played in the Tacoma Dome while the Seattle Center Coliseum was gutted and renovated into Key Arena, the team's current home.

Tacoma in pop culture

Museum_of_Glass

Neko Case's song "Thrice All American", featured on her album Furnace Room Lullaby, is an ode to Tacoma, which she considers her hometown. The album also includes a song called "South Tacoma Way."

Richard Brautigan wrote of his Tacoma childhood in his autobiographical short stories "Corporal," "The Armoured Car," "The Auction," and "The Ghost Children of Tacoma."

Tacoma is also prominently mentioned in the 1977 Steve Miller Band song "Rock 'N Me" (I went from Phoenix, Arizona, all the way to Tacoma, Philadelphia, Atlanta, L.A.).

A running gag in the 1985 Tom Hanks film Volunteers is the repeated references to Tacoma by John Candy's character, "Tom Tuttle from Tacoma, Washington."

Parts of the movie 10 Things I Hate About You (1999), whose plot is based on William Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew, were filmed at Stadium High School and in the nearby North End neighborhood, although most other exterior scenes were filmed in Seattle. I Love You to Death (1990) was filmed in downtown and central Tacoma. Kevin Kline's pizzeria was located in the flatiron building downtown. Also featured was the 1927-vintage Java Jive, a Tacoma tavern shaped like a giant coffee pot. Other films featuring a Tacoma location include Get Carter (2000). In addition, significant parts of The Hand That Rocks the Cradle (1992) were shot in a North Tacoma home. The long-running series of Tugboat Annie radio dramas, television shows and films (one of which starred a young actor named Ronald Reagan) was based on Tacoma tugboat operator Annie Foss. Sources: ([[2]]) ([[3]]) ([[4]]}

Toyota has named a popular line of pickup trucks the "Toyota Tacoma" after the city.

Tacoma is mentioned in the Sir Mix-a-Lot song "My Hooptie" ("Rollin' in Tacoma, I could get burned (Sound of automatic gunfire) Betta make a u-turn").

Tacoma is also mentioned at the end of Sir Mix-a-Lot's song "Jump On It" ("Tacoma, jump on it...")

Tacoma is mentioned in the song "He's a Grungewhore" from the norwegian punk rock band Turbonegros 1994 album Never Is Forever. [5]

Tacoma was named America's most stressed city in 2004 by Best Places Magazine. [6]

Neighborhoods

Downtown Tacoma

Sister cities

Tacoma has ten sister cities: Ålesund (Norway), Davao (Philippines), Fuzhou (China), George (South Africa), Qiryat Motzkin (Israel), Kitakyushu (Japan), Gunsan (South Korea), Cienfuegos (Cuba), Vladivostok (Russia), and Taichung City (Taiwan).


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Tacoma has ten sister cities: Ålesund (Norway), Davao (Philippines), Fuzhou (China), George (South Africa), Qiryat Motzkin (Israel), Kitakyushu (Japan), Gunsan (South Korea), Cienfuegos (Cuba), Vladivostok (Russia), and Taichung City (Taiwan). However, in New York City, lines on the New York City Subway have been referred to as "trains". [6]. The term rapid transit is used for public transport such as commuter trains, metro and light rail. Tacoma was named America's most stressed city in 2004 by Best Places Magazine. Maglev trains and monorails represent minor technologies in the train field. [5]. They may also be called a trolley.

Tacoma is mentioned in the song "He's a Grungewhore" from the norwegian punk rock band Turbonegros 1994 album Never Is Forever. These are often protected with crossing gates. Tacoma is also mentioned at the end of Sir Mix-a-Lot's song "Jump On It" ("Tacoma, jump on it..."). The term light rail is sometimes used for a modern tram, but it may also mean an intermediate form between a tram and a train, similar to metro except that it may have level crossings. Tacoma is mentioned in the Sir Mix-a-Lot song "My Hooptie" ("Rollin' in Tacoma, I could get burned (Sound of automatic gunfire) Betta make a u-turn"). In some countries such as the United Kingdom the distinction between a tramway and a railway is precise and defined in law. Toyota has named a popular line of pickup trucks the "Toyota Tacoma" after the city. A light one- or two-car rail vehicle running through the streets is not called a train but a tram, trolley, light rail vehicle or streetcar, but the distinction is not always strict.

Sources: ([[2]]) ([[3]]) ([[4]]}. They can accelerate and decelerate faster than heavier, long-distance trains. The long-running series of Tugboat Annie radio dramas, television shows and films (one of which starred a young actor named Ronald Reagan) was based on Tacoma tugboat operator Annie Foss. Usually they run in tunnels in the city center and sometimes on elevated structures in the outer parts of the city. In addition, significant parts of The Hand That Rocks the Cradle (1992) were shot in a North Tacoma home. The trains are electrically powered, usually by third rail, and their railroads are separate from other traffic, without level crossings. Other films featuring a Tacoma location include Get Carter (2000). Large cities often have a metro system, also called underground, subway or tube.

Also featured was the 1927-vintage Java Jive, a Tacoma tavern shaped like a giant coffee pot. Abuse is punished by a fine. Kevin Kline's pizzeria was located in the flatiron building downtown. Passenger trains usually have emergency brake handles (or a "communication cord") that the public can operate. I Love You to Death (1990) was filmed in downtown and central Tacoma. Double deck high speed and sleeper trains are becoming more common in Europe. Parts of the movie 10 Things I Hate About You (1999), whose plot is based on William Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew, were filmed at Stadium High School and in the nearby North End neighborhood, although most other exterior scenes were filmed in Seattle. Some countries have some double-decked passenger trains for use in conurbations.

A running gag in the 1985 Tom Hanks film Volunteers is the repeated references to Tacoma by John Candy's character, "Tom Tuttle from Tacoma, Washington.". Some carriages may be laid out to have more standing room than seats, or to facilitate the carrying of prams, cycles or wheelchairs. Tacoma is also prominently mentioned in the 1977 Steve Miller Band song "Rock 'N Me" (I went from Phoenix, Arizona, all the way to Tacoma, Philadelphia, Atlanta, L.A.). For shorter distances many cities have networks of commuter trains, serving the city and its suburbs. Richard Brautigan wrote of his Tacoma childhood in his autobiographical short stories "Corporal," "The Armoured Car," "The Auction," and "The Ghost Children of Tacoma.". For trains connecting cities, we can distinguish inter-city trains, which do not halt at small stations, and trains that serve all stations, usually known as local trains or "stoppers" (and sometimes an intermediate kind, see also limited-stop). The album also includes a song called "South Tacoma Way.". Tilting is a system where the passenger cars automatically lean into curves, reducing the centrifugal forces acting on passengers and permitting higher speeds on curves in the track with greater passenger comfort.

Neko Case's song "Thrice All American", featured on her album Furnace Room Lullaby, is an ode to Tacoma, which she considers her hometown. Very fast trains sometimes tilt, like the Pendolino or Talgo. For the 1994-1995 season, the Seattle SuperSonics played in the Tacoma Dome while the Seattle Center Coliseum was gutted and renovated into Key Arena, the team's current home. Very long distance trains such as those on the Trans-Siberian railway are usually not high-speed. At one point, the Tacoma Dome was home to a professional indoor soccer team, the Tacoma Stars. Long-distance trains, sometimes crossing several countries, may have a dining or restaurant car; they may also have sleeping cars, but not in the case of high-speed rail, these arrive at their destination before the night falls and are in competition with airplanes in speed. The Tacoma Dome does still host traveling sports and pseudo-sports events such as pro wrestling, figure skating tours, and the Harlem Globetrotters. Passenger trains travel between stations; the distance between stations may vary from under 1 km to much more.

The city has struggled to keep a minor league hockey franchise, having lost the Tacoma Rockets of the WHL to relocation and having the Tacoma Sabercats of the former West Coast Hockey League go defunct due to financial woes. Passenger trains have Passenger cars. The Rainiers play inside Cheney Stadium, named after local businessman and baseball enthusiast Ben Cheney. Electric trains receive their current via overhead lines or through a third rail electric system. Tacoma, in addition to the professional sports teams of Seattle, has one minor league baseball franchise, the Tacoma Rainiers, a Triple-A team playing in the Pacific Coast League as a farm team of the Seattle Mariners. Since the cost per mile of construction is much higher, electric traction is less favored on long-distance lines. Tacoma also has Greyhound and Amtrak service, accessible via Tacoma Dome Station. Electric traction offers a lower cost per mile of train operation but at a very high initial cost, which can only be justified on high traffic lines.

Tacoma is also served by Washington State Ferries system, which has a dock at Point Defiance, providing ferry access to Tahlequah at the southern tip of Vashon Island, typically on the ferry M/V Rhododendron. Historic steam trains still run in many other countries, for the leisure and enthusiast market. This line is presently under consideration for extension. A few countries, most notably the People's Republic of China where coal is in cheap and plentiful supply, still use steam locomotives, but this is being gradually phased out. Sound Transit has also established Tacoma Link light rail, a 1.6-mile electric streetcar line linking Tacoma Dome Station with the University of Washington, Tacoma, Tacoma's Museum District, and the Theater District. Most countries had replaced steam locomotives for day-to-day use by the 1970s.
Sound Transit, the regional transit authority, provides daily Sounder Commuter Rail service and express bus service during the week. From the 1920s onwards they began to be replaced by less labor intensive and cleaner (but more expensive) diesel locomotives and electric locomotives, while at about the same time self-propelled multiple unit vehicles of either power system became much more common in passenger service.

Several primary routes of note are:. The first trains were rope-hauled, gravity powered or pulled by horses, but from the early 19th century almost all were powered by steam locomotives. Bus service operates at 15 or 30 minute frequencies on weekdays. A single uncoupled rail vehicle is not technically a train, but is usually referred to as such for signaling reasons. Pierce Transit operates a total of 55 bus routes on busses powered by natural gas and diesel. Special trains are also used for track maintenance; in some places, this is called maintenance of way. Public bus service is provided by Pierce Transit, which serves Tacoma and Pierce County. Such mixed trains became rare in many countries, but were commonplace on the first 19th-century railroads.

Tacoma has a wide array of alternative transportation services available including busses, commuter rail, light rail, and ferries. Transportation in Mauritania. Seattle-Tacoma International Airport lies about 22 miles to the north in the city of SeaTac. Trains can also be mixed, hauling both passengers and freight, see e.g. Washington State Route 16 runs along a concrete viaduct through Tacoma's Nalley Valley connecting Interstate 5 with West Tacoma, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, and the Kitsap Peninsula. Where the second locomotive is attached temporarily to assist a train up steep banks (or down them by providing breaking power) it is referred to as 'banking'. I-5 links Tacoma with Seattle to the north and Portland, Oregon, to the south. This practice typically being used when there are no reversing facilities available.

The dominant intercity transportation link between Tacoma and other parts of the Puget Sound is Interstate 5. A train with a locomotive attached each end is described as 'top and tailed'. In newer portions of the city to the west and south, residential cul-de-sacs, four-lane collector roads and indoor shopping centers are more commonplace. In the United Kingdom, a train hauled by two locomotives is said to be "double-headed", and in Canada and the United States it is quite common for a long freight train to be headed by three, four, or even five locomotives. The Proctor, Old Town, Dome, Sixth Avenue, and Lincoln Business Districts are some of the more prominent and popular of these and coordinate their efforts to redevelop urban villages through the Cross District Association of Tacoma. Freight trains comprise wagons or trucks rather than carriages, though some parcel and mail trains (especially Travelling Post Offices) are outwardly more like passenger trains. Twelve such districts have active, city-recognized business associations and hold "small town"-style parades and other festivals. In many parts of the world, particularly Japan and Europe, high-speed rail is utilized extensively for passenger travel.

In portions of the city dating back to the Tacoma Streetcar Period (1888-1938), denser mixed use business districts exist alongside single family homes. Alternatively, a train may consist entirely of passenger carrying coaches, some or all of which are powered as a "multiple unit". Most streets east of Pacific Avenue are labeled "East." This system of numbering extends beyond city limits to much of the western portion of Pierce County. A passenger train may consist of one or several locomotives, and one or more coaches. Many first-time visitors have encountered difficulty with this. Special kinds of trains running on corresponding special 'railways' are atmospheric railways, monorails, high-speed railways, Dinky Trains, maglev, rubber-tired underground, funicular and cog railways. This can lead to confusion, as Union Avenue intersects both North and South 11th Streets. Trains can also be hauled by horses, pulled by a cable, or run downhill by gravity.

North- and south-running streets are given a name or a letter, and are also labeled "North" or "South" in relation to 6th Avenue. A train can consist of a combination of a locomotive and attached railroad cars, or a self-propelled multiple unit (or occasionally a single powered coach, called a railcar). Numbered streets run east to west and are labeled "North" or "South" according to their relationship with 6th Avenue or Division Street. There are various types of trains designed for particular purposes. The majority of the city has a system of gridded streets oriented in relation to Pacific Avenue and 6th Avenue, both beginning in Downtown Tacoma. . Tacoma's system of transportation is based primarily on the automobile. In American railway terminology, and increasingly in the United Kingdom, a consist is used to describe the group of rail vehicles which make up a train.

Out of the total population, 20.6% of those under the age of 18 and 10.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Historically the steam engine was the dominant form of locomotive power, and other sources of power (such as horses, rope, gravitiy, pneumatics, or gas turbines) are possible as well. 15.9% of the population and 11.4% of families were below the poverty line. Power is usually derived from diesel engines or from electricity supplied by trackside systems. The per capita income for the city was $19,130. Propulsion for the train is typically provided by a separate locomotive, or from individual motors in self-propelled multiple units. Males had a median income of $35,820, versus $27,697 for females. The guideway (permanent way) usually consists of conventional rail tracks, but might also be monorail or maglev.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,879, and the median income for a family was $45,567. In rail transport, a train consists of a single or several connected rail vehicles that are capable of being moved together along a guideway to transport freight or passengers from one place to another along a planned route. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females there were 95.2 males. The median age was 34.

In 2000, the population's demographics were evenly distributed: 25.8% under 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The average household size in 2000 was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.10. Almost one third of households (31.7%) were made up of individuals living alone; 10.4% of these were 65 years of age or older. There were 76,152 households in Tacoma in 2000; 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.7% were non-families.

6.85% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. The racial makeup of the city was 69.08% White, 11.24% African American, 1.96% Native American, 7.57% Asian, 0.93% Pacific Islander, 2.94% from other races, and 6.28% from two or more races. There were 81,102 housing units at an average density of 625.3/km² (1,619.4/mi²). In 2000, Tacoma's population density was 1,492.3/km² (3,864.9/mi²).

2004]). D3 [Sept. Census Bureau estimated that Tacoma's population had increased by 1.7%, to 196,800 (Trends, No. Four years later, the U.S.

The censusGR2 of 2000 indicated that 193,556 persons, 76,152 households, and 45,919 families resided in Tacoma. A daily newspaper has been in circulation in Tacoma since 1883; in the period from 1907 to 1918, three dailies were published: The Tacoma Ledger, The News, and The Tacoma Tribune. The paper's circulation is about 128,000 (Sundays 144,000), making it the third-largest newspaper in the state of Washington. The city's only daily newspaper is The News Tribune, since 1986 a subsidiary of McClatchy Newspapers.

Also, one of the elementary schools, Sheridan Elementary, operates three foreign language immersion programs (Spanish, French, and Japanese). One of the district's high schools, Henry Foss High School, operates an acclaimed International Baccalaureate program. The district also has 5 high schools, one alternative high school, and one School of the Arts. The school district contains 36 elementary schools and 11 middle schools.

Tacoma's main public school district is Tacoma Public Schools. The total area is 20.01% water. 129.7 km² (50.1 mi²) of it is land and 32.5 km² (12.5 mi²) of it is water. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 162.2 km² (62.6 mi²).

Its elevation is 116 meters (380 feet). Tacoma is located at 47°14'29" North, 122°27'34" West (47.241371, -122.459389)GR1. In addition, Comcast also offers digital cable and internet services in the area. Tacoma Power is, along with Tacoma Water and Tacoma Rail, a part of Tacoma Public Utilities.

Tacoma Power also operates the Click! Network, a cable television and internet service, one of the first public utilities to provide such a service. Electrical power is furnished by Tacoma Power, a division of Tacoma Public Utilities, which owns hydroelectric plants on the North Fork of the Skokomish River. On April 26, 2003 Tacoma's Chief of Police, David Brame, shot and killed his wife and himself in Gig Harbor, Washington. Tacoma was named after Mount Rainier, whose original name was Tahoma, which derived from the Puyallup tacobet, or "mother of waters.".

The next day two Chinese settlements were burned to the ground.". 3, 1885, "several hundred men, led by the mayor and other city officials, evicted the Chinese from their homes, corralled them at 7th Street and Pacific Avenue, marched them to the railway station at Lakeview, and forced them aboard the morning train to Portland, Oregon. To quote from the account prepared by the Chinese Reconciliation Project: On the morning of Nov. What came to be known as "Tacoma method" was used in November 1885 to expel several thousand Chinese peaceably living in the city.

A plaque in downtown Tacoma marks the start and finish point. In 1880, he staged a global circumnavigation starting and ending in Tacoma to promote the city's centrality. George Francis Train was a resident of Tacoma for a few years in the late 1800s, and was an early civic booster. Its early hopes to live to be the "City of Destiny" were frustrated in the late 19th century, when the discovery of gold in the Klondike turned Seattle into a boom town, eclipsing Tacoma's early lead.

Tacoma was officially incorporated on November 12, 1875. (A replica of Job Carr's cabin, which also served as Tacoma's first post office, was erected in "Old Town" in 2000 near the original site.). The town was originally settled by pioneer and postmaster Job Carr, a Civil War veteran and land speculator who hoped to profit from the selection of Commencement Bay as the terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad. It was visited by European and American explorers, including George Vancouver and Charles Wilkes, who named many of the coastal landmarks.

Tacoma was inhabited for thousands of years by Native American people, predominantly the Puyallup people. . Chef-author Jeff Smith learned to cook and began his career in Tacoma at the Chaplain's Pantry, later known as the Gourmet Pantry (now closed), on Tacoma Avenue. A number of noteworthy individuals have come from Tacoma, among them bowling legend Earl Anthony, singer Bing Crosby, authors Richard Brautigan and Frank Herbert, cartoonist Gary Larson, serial killer Ted Bundy, serial sniper John Allen Muhammad, actress Dyan Cannon, conspiracy gadfly Fred Crisman, Andrew and Thea Foss, first owners and operators of Foss Launch and Tug Company, Puyallup Indian rights activist Robert Satiacum, auto racer Pat Austin, prize fighter Sugar Ray Seales, NFL receiver Ahmad Rashad, Major League baseball player Ron Cey, glass artist Dale Chihuly, and musicians the Wailers, Jerry Miller (Moby Grape), Jerry Cantrell and Neko Case.

In the late 1990s, however, Simpson Tacoma Kraft reduced total sulfur emissions by 90%, largely eliminating the problem, but a strong smell is occasionally still detectable. Beginning in the 1930s, Tacoma became known for its malodorousness, called the "Aroma of Tacoma" -- a distinctive, acrid odor produced by local paper manufacturing on the industrial tide flats. It contains Wright Park Arboretum. Schwagerl and Ebenezer Rhys Roberts.

Wright Park, located near downtown, is a large, English-style park designed in the late 1800s by E.O. Another park in Tacoma is Titlow Beach, which is a popular scuba diving area. One of the largest urban parks in the U.S, Point Defiance Park, which includes the Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium and Fort Nisqually, is located in Tacoma. Tacoma's downtown Cultural District is also the site of the Washington State History Museum (1996) and the Tacoma Art Museum (2003).

It includes a functional glassblowing studio. The Museum of Glass opened in downtown Tacoma in 2002, showcasing glass art from the region and around the world. Tacoma is a major international deep-water container port. and the Russell Investment Group, as well as institutions of higher learning, including Pacific Lutheran University, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma Community College, and the University of Washington's Tacoma campus.

Tacoma is the home of such international companies as Labor Ready, Inc. 2004]). D3 [Sept. Census Bureau to be 196,800, and a metropolitan area of 750,000 (Trends, No.

1, 2004, was estimated by the U.S. The 2000 census reported Tacoma's population as 193,556; the city's population on Apr. Tacoma (IPA: [tə ˈko mə]) is the county seat of Pierce CountyGR6, Washington, USA, situated on Puget Sound's Commencement Bay, Tacoma Narrows, and the estuary of the Puyallup River.
Location of Tacoma in
Pierce County and Washington State.

West End. South Tacoma. South End. Northeast Tacoma.

Dome District. Stadium District. North End. McKinley Hill.

Hilltop. Eastside. Central. Old Town.

Route 3, "Downtown Tacoma – Lakewood via Tacoma Mall". Route 2, "South 19th – Bridgeport Way via Tacoma Community College", and. Route 1, "Pacific Avenue – 6th Avenue".

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