Tacoma, Washington

Tacoma, with Mount Rainier in background
Nickname: "The City of Destiny"
Motto: "'"
Official website: http://www.cityoftacoma.org/
Location


Location of Tacoma in
Pierce County and Washington State

Government
County Pierce
Mayor Bill Baarsma (NP)
Geographical characteristics
Area
Total 162.2 km²
Land 129.7 km²
Water 32.5 km²
Population
Total (2005) 196,957 (city proper)
Metro area {{{population_metro}}}
Density 1518.6/km²
Density {{{population_density_mi2}}}/mi²
Latitude 47°14'29" N
Longitude 122°27'34" W
Coordinates {{{latd}}}°{{{latm}}}′0″ {{{latNS}}}
{{{longd}}}°{{{longm}}}′0″ {{{longEW}}}
Elevation m
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)

Tacoma (IPA: [tə ˈko mə]) is the county seat of Pierce CountyGR6, Washington, USA, situated on Puget Sound's Commencement Bay, Tacoma Narrows, and the estuary of the Puyallup River. The 2000 census reported Tacoma's population as 193,556; the city's population on Apr. 1, 2004, was estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau to be 196,800, and a metropolitan area of 750,000 (Trends, No. D3 [Sept. 2004]).

Tacoma is the home of such international companies as Labor Ready, Inc. and the Russell Investment Group, as well as institutions of higher learning, including Pacific Lutheran University, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma Community College, and the University of Washington's Tacoma campus. Tacoma is a major international deep-water container port.

The Museum of Glass opened in downtown Tacoma in 2002, showcasing glass art from the region and around the world. It includes a functional glassblowing studio. Tacoma's downtown Cultural District is also the site of the Washington State History Museum (1996) and the Tacoma Art Museum (2003).

One of the largest urban parks in the U.S, Point Defiance Park, which includes the Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium and Fort Nisqually, is located in Tacoma. Another park in Tacoma is Titlow Beach, which is a popular scuba diving area. Wright Park, located near downtown, is a large, English-style park designed in the late 1800s by E.O. Schwagerl and Ebenezer Rhys Roberts. It contains Wright Park Arboretum.

Beginning in the 1930s, Tacoma became known for its malodorousness, called the "Aroma of Tacoma" -- a distinctive, acrid odor produced by local paper manufacturing on the industrial tide flats. In the late 1990s, however, Simpson Tacoma Kraft reduced total sulfur emissions by 90%, largely eliminating the problem, but a strong smell is occasionally still detectable.

A number of noteworthy individuals have come from Tacoma, among them bowling legend Earl Anthony, singer Bing Crosby, authors Richard Brautigan and Frank Herbert, cartoonist Gary Larson, serial killer Ted Bundy, serial sniper John Allen Muhammad, actress Dyan Cannon, conspiracy gadfly Fred Crisman, Andrew and Thea Foss, first owners and operators of Foss Launch and Tug Company, Puyallup Indian rights activist Robert Satiacum, auto racer Pat Austin, prize fighter Sugar Ray Seales, NFL receiver Ahmad Rashad, Major League baseball player Ron Cey, glass artist Dale Chihuly, and musicians the Wailers, Jerry Miller (Moby Grape), Jerry Cantrell and Neko Case. Chef-author Jeff Smith learned to cook and began his career in Tacoma at the Chaplain's Pantry, later known as the Gourmet Pantry (now closed), on Tacoma Avenue.

History

The SR-509 Bridge leading into downtown.

Tacoma was inhabited for thousands of years by Native American people, predominantly the Puyallup people. It was visited by European and American explorers, including George Vancouver and Charles Wilkes, who named many of the coastal landmarks.

The town was originally settled by pioneer and postmaster Job Carr, a Civil War veteran and land speculator who hoped to profit from the selection of Commencement Bay as the terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad. (A replica of Job Carr's cabin, which also served as Tacoma's first post office, was erected in "Old Town" in 2000 near the original site.)

Tacoma was officially incorporated on November 12, 1875. Its early hopes to live to be the "City of Destiny" were frustrated in the late 19th century, when the discovery of gold in the Klondike turned Seattle into a boom town, eclipsing Tacoma's early lead.

George Francis Train was a resident of Tacoma for a few years in the late 1800s, and was an early civic booster. In 1880, he staged a global circumnavigation starting and ending in Tacoma to promote the city's centrality. A plaque in downtown Tacoma marks the start and finish point.

What came to be known as "Tacoma method" was used in November 1885 to expel several thousand Chinese peaceably living in the city. To quote from the account prepared by the Chinese Reconciliation Project: On the morning of Nov. 3, 1885, "several hundred men, led by the mayor and other city officials, evicted the Chinese from their homes, corralled them at 7th Street and Pacific Avenue, marched them to the railway station at Lakeview, and forced them aboard the morning train to Portland, Oregon. The next day two Chinese settlements were burned to the ground."

Downtown looking west from the Tacoma Sheraton

Tacoma was named after Mount Rainier, whose original name was Tahoma, which derived from the Puyallup tacobet, or "mother of waters."

On April 26, 2003 Tacoma's Chief of Police, David Brame, shot and killed his wife and himself in Gig Harbor, Washington.

Utilities

Electrical power is furnished by Tacoma Power, a division of Tacoma Public Utilities, which owns hydroelectric plants on the North Fork of the Skokomish River. Tacoma Power also operates the Click! Network, a cable television and internet service, one of the first public utilities to provide such a service. Tacoma Power is, along with Tacoma Water and Tacoma Rail, a part of Tacoma Public Utilities.

In addition, Comcast also offers digital cable and internet services in the area.

Geography

Tacoma is located at 47°14'29" North, 122°27'34" West (47.241371, -122.459389)GR1. Its elevation is 116 meters (380 feet).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 162.2 km² (62.6 mi²). 129.7 km² (50.1 mi²) of it is land and 32.5 km² (12.5 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 20.01% water.

Education

Tacoma's main public school district is Tacoma Public Schools. The school district contains 36 elementary schools and 11 middle schools. The district also has 5 high schools, one alternative high school, and one School of the Arts. One of the district's high schools, Henry Foss High School, operates an acclaimed International Baccalaureate program. Also, one of the elementary schools, Sheridan Elementary, operates three foreign language immersion programs (Spanish, French, and Japanese).

Newspapers

The city's only daily newspaper is The News Tribune, since 1986 a subsidiary of McClatchy Newspapers. The paper's circulation is about 128,000 (Sundays 144,000), making it the third-largest newspaper in the state of Washington. A daily newspaper has been in circulation in Tacoma since 1883; in the period from 1907 to 1918, three dailies were published: The Tacoma Ledger, The News, and The Tacoma Tribune.

Demographics

The censusGR2 of 2000 indicated that 193,556 persons, 76,152 households, and 45,919 families resided in Tacoma. Four years later, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that Tacoma's population had increased by 1.7%, to 196,800 (Trends, No. D3 [Sept. 2004]).

In 2000, Tacoma's population density was 1,492.3/km² (3,864.9/mi²). There were 81,102 housing units at an average density of 625.3/km² (1,619.4/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 69.08% White, 11.24% African American, 1.96% Native American, 7.57% Asian, 0.93% Pacific Islander, 2.94% from other races, and 6.28% from two or more races. 6.85% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 76,152 households in Tacoma in 2000; 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.7% were non-families. Almost one third of households (31.7%) were made up of individuals living alone; 10.4% of these were 65 years of age or older. The average household size in 2000 was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.10.

In 2000, the population's demographics were evenly distributed: 25.8% under 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34. For every 100 females there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,879, and the median income for a family was $45,567. Males had a median income of $35,820, versus $27,697 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,130. 15.9% of the population and 11.4% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 20.6% of those under the age of 18 and 10.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Transportation and urban form

Tacoma's system of transportation is based primarily on the automobile. The majority of the city has a system of gridded streets oriented in relation to Pacific Avenue and 6th Avenue, both beginning in Downtown Tacoma. Numbered streets run east to west and are labeled "North" or "South" according to their relationship with 6th Avenue or Division Street. North- and south-running streets are given a name or a letter, and are also labeled "North" or "South" in relation to 6th Avenue. This can lead to confusion, as Union Avenue intersects both North and South 11th Streets. Many first-time visitors have encountered difficulty with this. Most streets east of Pacific Avenue are labeled "East." This system of numbering extends beyond city limits to much of the western portion of Pierce County.

In portions of the city dating back to the Tacoma Streetcar Period (1888-1938), denser mixed use business districts exist alongside single family homes. Twelve such districts have active, city-recognized business associations and hold "small town"-style parades and other festivals. The Proctor, Old Town, Dome, Sixth Avenue, and Lincoln Business Districts are some of the more prominent and popular of these and coordinate their efforts to redevelop urban villages through the Cross District Association of Tacoma. In newer portions of the city to the west and south, residential cul-de-sacs, four-lane collector roads and indoor shopping centers are more commonplace.

The dominant intercity transportation link between Tacoma and other parts of the Puget Sound is Interstate 5. I-5 links Tacoma with Seattle to the north and Portland, Oregon, to the south. Washington State Route 16 runs along a concrete viaduct through Tacoma's Nalley Valley connecting Interstate 5 with West Tacoma, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, and the Kitsap Peninsula. Seattle-Tacoma International Airport lies about 22 miles to the north in the city of SeaTac.

Public Transport

Light Rail in Tacoma

Tacoma has a wide array of alternative transportation services available including busses, commuter rail, light rail, and ferries. Public bus service is provided by Pierce Transit, which serves Tacoma and Pierce County. Pierce Transit operates a total of 55 bus routes on busses powered by natural gas and diesel. Bus service operates at 15 or 30 minute frequencies on weekdays. Several primary routes of note are:


Sound Transit, the regional transit authority, provides daily Sounder Commuter Rail service and express bus service during the week. Sound Transit has also established Tacoma Link light rail, a 1.6-mile electric streetcar line linking Tacoma Dome Station with the University of Washington, Tacoma, Tacoma's Museum District, and the Theater District. This line is presently under consideration for extension. Tacoma is also served by Washington State Ferries system, which has a dock at Point Defiance, providing ferry access to Tahlequah at the southern tip of Vashon Island, typically on the ferry M/V Rhododendron. Tacoma also has Greyhound and Amtrak service, accessible via Tacoma Dome Station.

Sports

Tacoma, in addition to the professional sports teams of Seattle, has one minor league baseball franchise, the Tacoma Rainiers, a Triple-A team playing in the Pacific Coast League as a farm team of the Seattle Mariners. The Rainiers play inside Cheney Stadium, named after local businessman and baseball enthusiast Ben Cheney.

The city has struggled to keep a minor league hockey franchise, having lost the Tacoma Rockets of the WHL to relocation and having the Tacoma Sabercats of the former West Coast Hockey League go defunct due to financial woes. The Tacoma Dome does still host traveling sports and pseudo-sports events such as pro wrestling, figure skating tours, and the Harlem Globetrotters. At one point, the Tacoma Dome was home to a professional indoor soccer team, the Tacoma Stars. For the 1994-1995 season, the Seattle SuperSonics played in the Tacoma Dome while the Seattle Center Coliseum was gutted and renovated into Key Arena, the team's current home.

Tacoma in pop culture

Museum_of_Glass

Neko Case's song "Thrice All American", featured on her album Furnace Room Lullaby, is an ode to Tacoma, which she considers her hometown. The album also includes a song called "South Tacoma Way."

Richard Brautigan wrote of his Tacoma childhood in his autobiographical short stories "Corporal," "The Armoured Car," "The Auction," and "The Ghost Children of Tacoma."

Tacoma is also prominently mentioned in the 1977 Steve Miller Band song "Rock 'N Me" (I went from Phoenix, Arizona, all the way to Tacoma, Philadelphia, Atlanta, L.A.).

A running gag in the 1985 Tom Hanks film Volunteers is the repeated references to Tacoma by John Candy's character, "Tom Tuttle from Tacoma, Washington."

Parts of the movie 10 Things I Hate About You (1999), whose plot is based on William Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew, were filmed at Stadium High School and in the nearby North End neighborhood, although most other exterior scenes were filmed in Seattle. I Love You to Death (1990) was filmed in downtown and central Tacoma. Kevin Kline's pizzeria was located in the flatiron building downtown. Also featured was the 1927-vintage Java Jive, a Tacoma tavern shaped like a giant coffee pot. Other films featuring a Tacoma location include Get Carter (2000). In addition, significant parts of The Hand That Rocks the Cradle (1992) were shot in a North Tacoma home. The long-running series of Tugboat Annie radio dramas, television shows and films (one of which starred a young actor named Ronald Reagan) was based on Tacoma tugboat operator Annie Foss. Sources: ([[2]]) ([[3]]) ([[4]]}

Toyota has named a popular line of pickup trucks the "Toyota Tacoma" after the city.

Tacoma is mentioned in the Sir Mix-a-Lot song "My Hooptie" ("Rollin' in Tacoma, I could get burned (Sound of automatic gunfire) Betta make a u-turn").

Tacoma is also mentioned at the end of Sir Mix-a-Lot's song "Jump On It" ("Tacoma, jump on it...")

Tacoma is mentioned in the song "He's a Grungewhore" from the norwegian punk rock band Turbonegros 1994 album Never Is Forever. [5]

Tacoma was named America's most stressed city in 2004 by Best Places Magazine. [6]

Neighborhoods

Downtown Tacoma

Sister cities

Tacoma has ten sister cities: Ålesund (Norway), Davao (Philippines), Fuzhou (China), George (South Africa), Qiryat Motzkin (Israel), Kitakyushu (Japan), Gunsan (South Korea), Cienfuegos (Cuba), Vladivostok (Russia), and Taichung City (Taiwan).


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Tacoma has ten sister cities: Ålesund (Norway), Davao (Philippines), Fuzhou (China), George (South Africa), Qiryat Motzkin (Israel), Kitakyushu (Japan), Gunsan (South Korea), Cienfuegos (Cuba), Vladivostok (Russia), and Taichung City (Taiwan). Eidos was awarded the rights to the domain name nuderaider.com. [6]. However, the complete accuracy of such reports may be called into question[citation needed], as it is likely that the rumors are exaggerated to an extent. Tacoma was named America's most stressed city in 2004 by Best Places Magazine. It is also reported[citation needed] that Eidos intend to pursue action against unauthorized "home-made" patches for the game, and indeed any other games that the publisher has ownership rights to. [5]. In April 2004, it is also alleged[citation needed] that an insider from Eidos reported to a Tomb Raider electronic mailing list that Eidos had begun suing gamers using the Nude Raider patches and sent cease and desist letters to servers hosting the Nude Raider patch, enforcing their intellectual property of Tomb Raider.

Tacoma is mentioned in the song "He's a Grungewhore" from the norwegian punk rock band Turbonegros 1994 album Never Is Forever. This program, when added to an existing Tomb Raider game, caused Lara to appear naked. Tacoma is also mentioned at the end of Sir Mix-a-Lot's song "Jump On It" ("Tacoma, jump on it..."). However, many people downloaded the patch and uploaded it to different websites. Tacoma is mentioned in the Sir Mix-a-Lot song "My Hooptie" ("Rollin' in Tacoma, I could get burned (Sound of automatic gunfire) Betta make a u-turn"). It is alleged that someone within Eidos created the patch then released it on the Eidos website back in 1996, where it remained for a few hours until Eidos discovered it and removed the patch. Toyota has named a popular line of pickup trucks the "Toyota Tacoma" after the city. A development in Lara's history is the so-called Nude Raider patch.

Sources: ([[2]]) ([[3]]) ([[4]]}. The PC version was also later reissued with added bonus levels. The long-running series of Tugboat Annie radio dramas, television shows and films (one of which starred a young actor named Ronald Reagan) was based on Tacoma tugboat operator Annie Foss. The Saturn version offers slightly faster gameplay over the PlayStation version but sacrifices some graphical quality. In addition, significant parts of The Hand That Rocks the Cradle (1992) were shot in a North Tacoma home. No notable differences between versions exist, although the graphics on the PC version are of superior quality. Other films featuring a Tacoma location include Get Carter (2000). Tomb Raider was released for the PC and the PlayStation and Sega Saturn game consoles.

Also featured was the 1927-vintage Java Jive, a Tacoma tavern shaped like a giant coffee pot. Several large corporations such as Timberland wanted to use the character for their advertising. Kevin Kline's pizzeria was located in the flatiron building downtown. The amount of media coverage Lara received was at the time unheard of, with many magazines even outside the video game industry printing articles on her. I Love You to Death (1990) was filmed in downtown and central Tacoma. Aside from game appearances, Lara was featured on covers of magazines, in comic books and movies. Parts of the movie 10 Things I Hate About You (1999), whose plot is based on William Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew, were filmed at Stadium High School and in the nearby North End neighborhood, although most other exterior scenes were filmed in Seattle. Nevertheless, Lara caused a sensation in the gaming world and catapultated her to cyber celebrity status.

A running gag in the 1985 Tom Hanks film Volunteers is the repeated references to Tacoma by John Candy's character, "Tom Tuttle from Tacoma, Washington.". The game's use of a hard edged, female heroine has been both hailed as revolutionary (breaking away from the male perspective of game playing) and derided as sexist for its stereotypical depiction of a woman designed to appeal to an audience of teenage boys. Tacoma is also prominently mentioned in the 1977 Steve Miller Band song "Rock 'N Me" (I went from Phoenix, Arizona, all the way to Tacoma, Philadelphia, Atlanta, L.A.). Some fans complained at the lack of action in favor of puzzle solving, although ironically, Tomb Raider II would be criticized for its overabundance of violence, especially against human opponents. Richard Brautigan wrote of his Tacoma childhood in his autobiographical short stories "Corporal," "The Armoured Car," "The Auction," and "The Ghost Children of Tacoma.". Nevertheless, Tomb Raider received some criticism for minor camera and object glitches, as well as its difficult save system. The album also includes a song called "South Tacoma Way.". Although the game spawned numerous sequels, often superior in scope and graphics, the original remains the most beloved among fans and critics.

Neko Case's song "Thrice All American", featured on her album Furnace Room Lullaby, is an ode to Tacoma, which she considers her hometown. As one of the top selling games of the system, it was one of the first to be released on PlayStation's Platinum series, and its success made Tomb Raider II one of the most anticipated games of 1997. For the 1994-1995 season, the Seattle SuperSonics played in the Tacoma Dome while the Seattle Center Coliseum was gutted and renovated into Key Arena, the team's current home. The resulting sales were consequential, Topping the British charts a record three times, and contributing much to the success of the PlayStation. At one point, the Tacoma Dome was home to a professional indoor soccer team, the Tacoma Stars. The level of sophistication Tomb Raider reached by combining state-of-the-art graphics, classical music and a cinematic approach to gameplay was at the time unprecedented. The Tacoma Dome does still host traveling sports and pseudo-sports events such as pro wrestling, figure skating tours, and the Harlem Globetrotters. Upon its release, Tomb Raider was widely praised by gaming magazines for its revolutionary graphics, inventive gameplay and involving storyline.

The city has struggled to keep a minor league hockey franchise, having lost the Tacoma Rockets of the WHL to relocation and having the Tacoma Sabercats of the former West Coast Hockey League go defunct due to financial woes. However, ultimately, it would be the PlayStation rendition that would be known best. The Rainiers play inside Cheney Stadium, named after local businessman and baseball enthusiast Ben Cheney. The first glints of the game were seen on Sega Saturn development kits. Tacoma, in addition to the professional sports teams of Seattle, has one minor league baseball franchise, the Tacoma Rainiers, a Triple-A team playing in the Pacific Coast League as a farm team of the Seattle Mariners. It is also rumoured that Tomb Raider's publishing company Eidos was near bankrupcy when Tomb Raider was created. Tacoma also has Greyhound and Amtrak service, accessible via Tacoma Dome Station. Interestingly enough, it is Core's contention that the company was struggling somewhat with 32-bit development at that time.

Tacoma is also served by Washington State Ferries system, which has a dock at Point Defiance, providing ferry access to Tahlequah at the southern tip of Vashon Island, typically on the ferry M/V Rhododendron. As he was resizing it back to normal, the other designers saw what he was working on and told him they loved it and that she should keep the double size. This line is presently under consideration for extension. Toby Gard was fudging around with the model when he accidentally blew up Lara's bosom to 150% of what he intended it to be. Sound Transit has also established Tacoma Link light rail, a 1.6-mile electric streetcar line linking Tacoma Dome Station with the University of Washington, Tacoma, Tacoma's Museum District, and the Theater District. Lara's famous breast size was in actuality brought about by accident.
Sound Transit, the regional transit authority, provides daily Sounder Commuter Rail service and express bus service during the week. According to Toby Gard, the idea to make her a female Indiana Jones was not present from the beginning, but rather grew naturally out of the development process as the game took its final form.

Several primary routes of note are:. Personality-wise, Lara was a cold-blooded militaristic type in the early concepts. Bus service operates at 15 or 30 minute frequencies on weekdays. However at the same time, her backstory started to shape up and it was decided she should become more British, hence Cruise was changed to Croft to accommodate this. Pierce Transit operates a total of 55 bus routes on busses powered by natural gas and diesel. "Laura" was later dropped in favor of Lara, to appeal more to American audiences. Public bus service is provided by Pierce Transit, which serves Tacoma and Pierce County. As such Lara was born under the name Laura Cruise.

Tacoma has a wide array of alternative transportation services available including busses, commuter rail, light rail, and ferries. In its earliest conception, Lara Croft was a male placeholder for an as yet undefined character, but as Core decided that puzzles and stealth should be more important to the game than action, they found that these requirements better suited a female character than a classic male action hero. Seattle-Tacoma International Airport lies about 22 miles to the north in the city of SeaTac. The character went through several changes before Core settled on the version she became famous for. Washington State Route 16 runs along a concrete viaduct through Tacoma's Nalley Valley connecting Interstate 5 with West Tacoma, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, and the Kitsap Peninsula. The team consisted of six people, among them Toby Gard, who is credited with the invention of Lara Croft. I-5 links Tacoma with Seattle to the north and Portland, Oregon, to the south. The title was crafted by Core Design of Europe, who took 18 months to develop it.

The dominant intercity transportation link between Tacoma and other parts of the Puget Sound is Interstate 5. Preliminary work on Tomb Raider commenced in 1993, but it was not until November 1996 that the game actually saw the light of day as a retail product. In newer portions of the city to the west and south, residential cul-de-sacs, four-lane collector roads and indoor shopping centers are more commonplace. The levels for Tomb Raider Gold were created in the San Francisco office of Eidos Interactive by Phil Campbell, Rebecca Shearin and Gary LaRochelle. The Proctor, Old Town, Dome, Sixth Avenue, and Lincoln Business Districts are some of the more prominent and popular of these and coordinate their efforts to redevelop urban villages through the Cross District Association of Tacoma. In Unfinished Business, having learned of the existence of a hive of surviving creatures guarding an alien hatchery, Lara returns to Atlantis to destroy the aliens before they invade again. Twelve such districts have active, city-recognized business associations and hold "small town"-style parades and other festivals. In Shadow of the Cat, Lara returns to the City of Khamoon in search of an undiscovered tomb dedicated to the Egyptian cat-goddess, Bastet.

In portions of the city dating back to the Tacoma Streetcar Period (1888-1938), denser mixed use business districts exist alongside single family homes. The re-release was exclusive to the PC. Most streets east of Pacific Avenue are labeled "East." This system of numbering extends beyond city limits to much of the western portion of Pierce County. The expansion featured the regular game as well as four new bonus levels in two extra scenarios called The Shadow of the Cat and Unfinished Business. Many first-time visitors have encountered difficulty with this. In 1998 Tomb Raider was re-released as Tomb Raider Gold for PC. This can lead to confusion, as Union Avenue intersects both North and South 11th Streets. The Atlantis levels are among the hardest in the game.

North- and south-running streets are given a name or a letter, and are also labeled "North" or "South" in relation to 6th Avenue. This is where the mystery unfolds. Numbered streets run east to west and are labeled "North" or "South" according to their relationship with 6th Avenue or Division Street. Lara Croft has tracked down Natla and her goons to a remote island, where mining operations of Natla Technologies have partially exposed the great pyramid of Atlantis. The majority of the city has a system of gridded streets oriented in relation to Pacific Avenue and 6th Avenue, both beginning in Downtown Tacoma. The levels in Egypt are all of hard difficulty. Tacoma's system of transportation is based primarily on the automobile. The long lost third ruler of Atlantis was buried here, along with the third piece of the Scion.

Out of the total population, 20.6% of those under the age of 18 and 10.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. In a hidden canyon near the Valley of Kings, Lara explores buried pyramids and a sphinx while fighting pumas, crocodiles, and some surprising mystical monsters. 15.9% of the population and 11.4% of families were below the poverty line. Stages in this monastery range from average to hard difficulty. The per capita income for the city was $19,130. Here Lara battles lions, alligators and monkeys as she explores ruins of these ancient civilizations, and races for the second piece of the Scion with a man named Pierre DuPont, who unfortunately entered before Lara did. Males had a median income of $35,820, versus $27,697 for females. Francis was built upon the side of a mountain that conceals layer upon layer of civilization, harkening back to the The Golden Age of Greece and Rome.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,879, and the median income for a family was $45,567. This medieval monastery of St. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. The levels in Peru are of an average difficulty. For every 100 females there were 95.2 males. The player must guide Lara through the lost Incan city while battling wolves, bats, bears and more. The median age was 34. Here she makes her way through the remains of a civilization that flourished for hundreds of years, in valleys where time literally stood still.

In 2000, the population's demographics were evenly distributed: 25.8% under 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. Natla sends Lara Croft to Peru, where she discovers the entrance to the long lost tomb of Qualopec high up in the mountains. The average household size in 2000 was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.10. The story mode begins with an introductional sequence. Almost one third of households (31.7%) were made up of individuals living alone; 10.4% of these were 65 years of age or older. This tutorial is designed to get the player acquainted with the basics of the game and includes jumping and climbing techniques on ten vaulting boxes. There were 76,152 households in Tacoma in 2000; 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.7% were non-families. From the options menu, the player may choose to complete the training course in Lara's home before getting started with the main game.

6.85% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. A stage is finished when a certain doorway is reached or an artifact recovered. The racial makeup of the city was 69.08% White, 11.24% African American, 1.96% Native American, 7.57% Asian, 0.93% Pacific Islander, 2.94% from other races, and 6.28% from two or more races. A compromise was reached with Tomb Raider III under the form of "collectible save crystals." The PC and Mac versions of the game allow the player to save at any time. There were 81,102 housing units at an average density of 625.3/km² (1,619.4/mi²). Following criticism on this system, Core implemented a save anywhere at anytime feature in Tomb Raider II, which, ironically, lead to complaints that the game was made too easy. In 2000, Tacoma's population density was 1,492.3/km² (3,864.9/mi²). The scarcity of these points, however, means that if the player dies, large portions of each level must be replayed, much to the players' frustration.

2004]). When Lara touches one of these the option to save is made available. D3 [Sept. In the PlayStation and Sega Saturn versions of Tomb Raider, saving the game is restricted to fixed save points within each level, marked by a floating blue crystal. Census Bureau estimated that Tacoma's population had increased by 1.7%, to 196,800 (Trends, No. The player is usually rewarded with extra med-packs, ammo and occasionally, new weapons. Four years later, the U.S. Some may be hidden along the roadside in bushes, others require the completion of a hidden course or optional puzzle to be found.

The censusGR2 of 2000 indicated that 193,556 persons, 76,152 households, and 45,919 families resided in Tacoma. The locations of these secrets vary in difficulty to reach. A daily newspaper has been in circulation in Tacoma since 1883; in the period from 1907 to 1918, three dailies were published: The Tacoma Ledger, The News, and The Tacoma Tribune. Discovering these secrets is optional, and when the player has found one a tune plays. The paper's circulation is about 128,000 (Sundays 144,000), making it the third-largest newspaper in the state of Washington. Throughout each stage, one or more secrets may be located. The city's only daily newspaper is The News Tribune, since 1986 a subsidiary of McClatchy Newspapers. The puzzles that the player encounters across each level vary: pulling specific combinations of levers, a course of timed jumps, avoiding a certain trap or collecting several keystones.

Also, one of the elementary schools, Sheridan Elementary, operates three foreign language immersion programs (Spanish, French, and Japanese). Any item that is collected is held onto in Lara's inventory until it is used. One of the district's high schools, Henry Foss High School, operates an acclaimed International Baccalaureate program. Game-specific items are keys and artifacts required to complete a stage. The district also has 5 high schools, one alternative high school, and one School of the Arts. Regular items to pick up include ammo, and small and large medpacks. The school district contains 36 elementary schools and 11 middle schools. A general action button is used to perform a wide range of movements in Tomb Raider, such as picking up items, pulling switches, firing guns, pushing or pulling blocks and grabbing onto ledges.

Tacoma's main public school district is Tacoma Public Schools. Other means by which the game will prematurely end include drowning, electrocution, being shot, being crushed and turning to gold. The total area is 20.01% water. Should Lara touch it, she will immediately catch fire and die within seconds unless the player manages to dive into a nearby pond. 129.7 km² (50.1 mi²) of it is land and 32.5 km² (12.5 mi²) of it is water. Fire is a lethal substance in the game. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 162.2 km² (62.6 mi²). Furthermore, they cannot climb on higher platforms and as such remain confined to the rooms they inhabit.

Its elevation is 116 meters (380 feet). The various animals that attack Lara, while dangerous in large numbers, are easily avoided and gunned down. Tacoma is located at 47°14'29" North, 122°27'34" West (47.241371, -122.459389)GR1. Also note that landing on spikes, even if they are jumped upon from ground level, are always fatal. In addition, Comcast also offers digital cable and internet services in the area. Although Lara may survive a drop from high peaks, she will easily break her neck if she performs the dive move even from relatively low heights. Tacoma Power is, along with Tacoma Water and Tacoma Rail, a part of Tacoma Public Utilities. As the game adopts a platform style approach of progress, well timed jumps must often bring Lara safely to the other side of a ledge or she will plummet to the ground below.

Tacoma Power also operates the Click! Network, a cable television and internet service, one of the first public utilities to provide such a service. Numerous enemies as well as a variety of lethal traps can bring about Lara's death in Tomb Raider, the most immediate threat of which is falling to death. Electrical power is furnished by Tacoma Power, a division of Tacoma Public Utilities, which owns hydroelectric plants on the North Fork of the Skokomish River. This development went on to become a staple of the series. On April 26, 2003 Tacoma's Chief of Police, David Brame, shot and killed his wife and himself in Gig Harbor, Washington. At a certain point in the story, Lara will be stripped of all her weapons, leaving the player defenseless and forced to recover her pistols. Tacoma was named after Mount Rainier, whose original name was Tahoma, which derived from the Puyallup tacobet, or "mother of waters.". Additional weapons include the shotgun, dual magnums and dual uzis.

The next day two Chinese settlements were burned to the ground.". By default she carries two pistols with infinite ammo. 3, 1885, "several hundred men, led by the mayor and other city officials, evicted the Chinese from their homes, corralled them at 7th Street and Pacific Avenue, marched them to the railway station at Lakeview, and forced them aboard the morning train to Portland, Oregon. In a free environment, Lara has two basic stances: one with weapons drawn and one with her hands free. To quote from the account prepared by the Chinese Reconciliation Project: On the morning of Nov. While swimming, an extra statusbar appears under the health meter to indicate the amount of breath left in Lara's lungs. What came to be known as "Tacoma method" was used in November 1885 to expel several thousand Chinese peaceably living in the city. Besides walking, running and jumping, Lara can perform side-steps, hang on ledges, roll over, dive and swim through water.

A plaque in downtown Tacoma marks the start and finish point. Movement in the game is varied and allows for complex interactions with the environment. In 1880, he staged a global circumnavigation starting and ending in Tacoma to promote the city's centrality. As such, Tomb Raider in essence harkens back to the classical form of platform style gameplay. George Francis Train was a resident of Tacoma for a few years in the late 1800s, and was an early civic booster. Instead the emphasis lies on solving of puzzles and performing trick jumps to complete each level. Its early hopes to live to be the "City of Destiny" were frustrated in the late 19th century, when the discovery of gold in the Klondike turned Seattle into a boom town, eclipsing Tacoma's early lead. Gunplay is restricted to the killing of various animals that appear throughout each stage, although ocassionally Lara may be faced with a human opponent.

Tacoma was officially incorporated on November 12, 1875. On the way, she must kill dangerous animals and other creatures, while collecting objects and solving puzzles to gain access to an ultimate prize, usually a powerful artifact. (A replica of Job Carr's cabin, which also served as Tacoma's first post office, was erected in "Old Town" in 2000 near the original site.). The object of Tomb Raider is to guide Lara through a series of tombs and other locations in search of treasures and artifacts. The town was originally settled by pioneer and postmaster Job Carr, a Civil War veteran and land speculator who hoped to profit from the selection of Commencement Bay as the terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad. Ledges, walls and ceilings sit at 90 degrees to each other (although the game designers used some clever tricks to make this less obvious). It was visited by European and American explorers, including George Vancouver and Charles Wilkes, who named many of the coastal landmarks. The world she inhabits is fully drawn in three dimensions and characterized by its cubic nature.

Tacoma was inhabited for thousands of years by Native American people, predominantly the Puyallup people. Lara is always visible and the camera follows the action from behind or over her shoulder. . The game is presented in third person perspective. Chef-author Jeff Smith learned to cook and began his career in Tacoma at the Chaplain's Pantry, later known as the Gourmet Pantry (now closed), on Tacoma Avenue. In Tomb Raider, the player controls the female archeologist Lara Croft, in search for the three mysterious Scion artifacts across the world. A number of noteworthy individuals have come from Tacoma, among them bowling legend Earl Anthony, singer Bing Crosby, authors Richard Brautigan and Frank Herbert, cartoonist Gary Larson, serial killer Ted Bundy, serial sniper John Allen Muhammad, actress Dyan Cannon, conspiracy gadfly Fred Crisman, Andrew and Thea Foss, first owners and operators of Foss Launch and Tug Company, Puyallup Indian rights activist Robert Satiacum, auto racer Pat Austin, prize fighter Sugar Ray Seales, NFL receiver Ahmad Rashad, Major League baseball player Ron Cey, glass artist Dale Chihuly, and musicians the Wailers, Jerry Miller (Moby Grape), Jerry Cantrell and Neko Case. As she delves into the reasons why Natla would double-cross her, she uncovers a mystery that reaches back before the dawn of recorded time to the treachery that destroyed the Atlantean civilization and the disasters that struck the world when it fell.

In the late 1990s, however, Simpson Tacoma Kraft reduced total sulfur emissions by 90%, largely eliminating the problem, but a strong smell is occasionally still detectable. Using her cunning wits and athletic strength, Lara escapes. Beginning in the 1930s, Tacoma became known for its malodorousness, called the "Aroma of Tacoma" -- a distinctive, acrid odor produced by local paper manufacturing on the industrial tide flats. However after discovering the fragment, things get ugly when Lara finds herself face to face with one of Natla's hired goons. It contains Wright Park Arboretum. Wasting no time, Lara sets out on her quest to find one of the three pieces of the ancient Atlantean Scion, a talisman of incredible power. Schwagerl and Ebenezer Rhys Roberts. After Lara Croft returns from a hunting trip in the Himalayas, she is contacted by Jacqueline Natla, a conniving businesswoman who convinces Lara to recover a mysterious artifact from the tomb of Qualopec in Peru.

Wright Park, located near downtown, is a large, English-style park designed in the late 1800s by E.O. . Another park in Tacoma is Titlow Beach, which is a popular scuba diving area. It spawned numerous sequels and an entire franchise of related media. One of the largest urban parks in the U.S, Point Defiance Park, which includes the Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium and Fort Nisqually, is located in Tacoma. The game is widely considered to be among the best and most influential games ever made. Tacoma's downtown Cultural District is also the site of the Washington State History Museum (1996) and the Tacoma Art Museum (2003). Tomb Raider follows the exploits of Lara Croft, a British archaeologist in search of ancient treasures à la Indiana Jones.

It includes a functional glassblowing studio. It was originally released in 1996 for PC, PlayStation and Sega Saturn. The Museum of Glass opened in downtown Tacoma in 2002, showcasing glass art from the region and around the world. Tomb Raider is a video game developed by Core Design and published by Eidos Interactive. Tacoma is a major international deep-water container port. 11, 2006. and the Russell Investment Group, as well as institutions of higher learning, including Pacific Lutheran University, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma Community College, and the University of Washington's Tacoma campus. Retrieved Feb.

Tacoma is the home of such international companies as Labor Ready, Inc. The Face. 2004]). "Lara hit in The Face". D3 [Sept. Sawyer, Miranda (June 1997). Census Bureau to be 196,800, and a metropolitan area of 750,000 (Trends, No. By inserting the Tomb Raider disc into a regular CD player, audio and music from the game can be heard, among them an unused track of an early Eidos game called Firestorm.

1, 2004, was estimated by the U.S. Lara Croft's mansion was modelled after the front of the Derby Studios building where Core Design worked on the game. The 2000 census reported Tacoma's population as 193,556; the city's population on Apr. Tomb Raider pays homage to Indiana Jones in a number of ways, including references to traps from Raiders of the Lost Ark, such as the spiked pits, poison darts, boulders and the collapsing temples. Tacoma (IPA: [tə ˈko mə]) is the county seat of Pierce CountyGR6, Washington, USA, situated on Puget Sound's Commencement Bay, Tacoma Narrows, and the estuary of the Puyallup River. In 1998, Tomb Raider won the Origins Award for Best Action Computer Game of 1997.
Location of Tacoma in
Pierce County and Washington State. Level 15: The Great Pyramid.

West End. Level 14: Atlantis. South Tacoma. Level 13: Natla's Mines. South End. Level 12: Sanctuary of the Scion. Northeast Tacoma. Level 11: Obelisk of Khamoon.

Dome District. Level 10: City of Khamoon. Stadium District. Level 9: Tomb of Tihocan. North End. Level 8: Cistern. McKinley Hill. Level 7: Palace Midas.

Hilltop. Level 6: Colosseum. Eastside. Francis Folly. Central. Level 5: St. Old Town. Level 4: Tomb of Qualopec.

Route 3, "Downtown Tacoma – Lakewood via Tacoma Mall". Level 3: The Lost Valley. Route 2, "South 19th – Bridgeport Way via Tacoma Community College", and. Level 2: City of Vilcabamba. Route 1, "Pacific Avenue – 6th Avenue". Level 1: Caves. Tihocan: Another ruler of Atlantis, Tihocan was buried around the isles of Greece.

Qualopec: One of the ancient rulers of the lost continent of Atlantis, whose tomb is located somewhere in South American mountains. Pierre DuPont is rival French archeologist hired by Natla to recover the second piece of the Scion. Francis Folly. Pierre DuPont: This dangerous hireling stalks Lara Croft through the labyrinths of St.

He double-crosses her early in the game and manages to track her down to Egypt later on. Larson: One of Natla's henchmen, Larson is the trigger-happy American who first brings Lara Croft into contact with Natla. At the start of the game, she contacts Lara to find the mysterious Scion artifact for her in Peru. Jacqueline Natla: A wealthy businesswoman and the owner of Natla Technologies.

Lara Croft: The heroine of the game, Lara Croft is a British archeologist working for hire to recover lost artifacts, whether from tombs, or the clutches of selfish collectors.

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