Tacoma, Washington

Tacoma, with Mount Rainier in background
Nickname: "The City of Destiny"
Motto: "'"
Official website: http://www.cityoftacoma.org/
Location


Location of Tacoma in
Pierce County and Washington State

Government
County Pierce
Mayor Bill Baarsma (NP)
Geographical characteristics
Area
Total 162.2 km²
Land 129.7 km²
Water 32.5 km²
Population
Total (2005) 196,957 (city proper)
Metro area {{{population_metro}}}
Density 1518.6/km²
Density {{{population_density_mi2}}}/mi²
Latitude 47°14'29" N
Longitude 122°27'34" W
Coordinates {{{latd}}}°{{{latm}}}′0″ {{{latNS}}}
{{{longd}}}°{{{longm}}}′0″ {{{longEW}}}
Elevation m
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)

Tacoma (IPA: [tə ˈko mə]) is the county seat of Pierce CountyGR6, Washington, USA, situated on Puget Sound's Commencement Bay, Tacoma Narrows, and the estuary of the Puyallup River. The 2000 census reported Tacoma's population as 193,556; the city's population on Apr. 1, 2004, was estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau to be 196,800, and a metropolitan area of 750,000 (Trends, No. D3 [Sept. 2004]).

Tacoma is the home of such international companies as Labor Ready, Inc. and the Russell Investment Group, as well as institutions of higher learning, including Pacific Lutheran University, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma Community College, and the University of Washington's Tacoma campus. Tacoma is a major international deep-water container port.

The Museum of Glass opened in downtown Tacoma in 2002, showcasing glass art from the region and around the world. It includes a functional glassblowing studio. Tacoma's downtown Cultural District is also the site of the Washington State History Museum (1996) and the Tacoma Art Museum (2003).

One of the largest urban parks in the U.S, Point Defiance Park, which includes the Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium and Fort Nisqually, is located in Tacoma. Another park in Tacoma is Titlow Beach, which is a popular scuba diving area. Wright Park, located near downtown, is a large, English-style park designed in the late 1800s by E.O. Schwagerl and Ebenezer Rhys Roberts. It contains Wright Park Arboretum.

Beginning in the 1930s, Tacoma became known for its malodorousness, called the "Aroma of Tacoma" -- a distinctive, acrid odor produced by local paper manufacturing on the industrial tide flats. In the late 1990s, however, Simpson Tacoma Kraft reduced total sulfur emissions by 90%, largely eliminating the problem, but a strong smell is occasionally still detectable.

A number of noteworthy individuals have come from Tacoma, among them bowling legend Earl Anthony, singer Bing Crosby, authors Richard Brautigan and Frank Herbert, cartoonist Gary Larson, serial killer Ted Bundy, serial sniper John Allen Muhammad, actress Dyan Cannon, conspiracy gadfly Fred Crisman, Andrew and Thea Foss, first owners and operators of Foss Launch and Tug Company, Puyallup Indian rights activist Robert Satiacum, auto racer Pat Austin, prize fighter Sugar Ray Seales, NFL receiver Ahmad Rashad, Major League baseball player Ron Cey, glass artist Dale Chihuly, and musicians the Wailers, Jerry Miller (Moby Grape), Jerry Cantrell and Neko Case. Chef-author Jeff Smith learned to cook and began his career in Tacoma at the Chaplain's Pantry, later known as the Gourmet Pantry (now closed), on Tacoma Avenue.

History

The SR-509 Bridge leading into downtown.

Tacoma was inhabited for thousands of years by Native American people, predominantly the Puyallup people. It was visited by European and American explorers, including George Vancouver and Charles Wilkes, who named many of the coastal landmarks.

The town was originally settled by pioneer and postmaster Job Carr, a Civil War veteran and land speculator who hoped to profit from the selection of Commencement Bay as the terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad. (A replica of Job Carr's cabin, which also served as Tacoma's first post office, was erected in "Old Town" in 2000 near the original site.)

Tacoma was officially incorporated on November 12, 1875. Its early hopes to live to be the "City of Destiny" were frustrated in the late 19th century, when the discovery of gold in the Klondike turned Seattle into a boom town, eclipsing Tacoma's early lead.

George Francis Train was a resident of Tacoma for a few years in the late 1800s, and was an early civic booster. In 1880, he staged a global circumnavigation starting and ending in Tacoma to promote the city's centrality. A plaque in downtown Tacoma marks the start and finish point.

What came to be known as "Tacoma method" was used in November 1885 to expel several thousand Chinese peaceably living in the city. To quote from the account prepared by the Chinese Reconciliation Project: On the morning of Nov. 3, 1885, "several hundred men, led by the mayor and other city officials, evicted the Chinese from their homes, corralled them at 7th Street and Pacific Avenue, marched them to the railway station at Lakeview, and forced them aboard the morning train to Portland, Oregon. The next day two Chinese settlements were burned to the ground."

Downtown looking west from the Tacoma Sheraton

Tacoma was named after Mount Rainier, whose original name was Tahoma, which derived from the Puyallup tacobet, or "mother of waters."

On April 26, 2003 Tacoma's Chief of Police, David Brame, shot and killed his wife and himself in Gig Harbor, Washington.

Utilities

Electrical power is furnished by Tacoma Power, a division of Tacoma Public Utilities, which owns hydroelectric plants on the North Fork of the Skokomish River. Tacoma Power also operates the Click! Network, a cable television and internet service, one of the first public utilities to provide such a service. Tacoma Power is, along with Tacoma Water and Tacoma Rail, a part of Tacoma Public Utilities.

In addition, Comcast also offers digital cable and internet services in the area.

Geography

Tacoma is located at 47°14'29" North, 122°27'34" West (47.241371, -122.459389)GR1. Its elevation is 116 meters (380 feet).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 162.2 km² (62.6 mi²). 129.7 km² (50.1 mi²) of it is land and 32.5 km² (12.5 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 20.01% water.

Education

Tacoma's main public school district is Tacoma Public Schools. The school district contains 36 elementary schools and 11 middle schools. The district also has 5 high schools, one alternative high school, and one School of the Arts. One of the district's high schools, Henry Foss High School, operates an acclaimed International Baccalaureate program. Also, one of the elementary schools, Sheridan Elementary, operates three foreign language immersion programs (Spanish, French, and Japanese).

Newspapers

The city's only daily newspaper is The News Tribune, since 1986 a subsidiary of McClatchy Newspapers. The paper's circulation is about 128,000 (Sundays 144,000), making it the third-largest newspaper in the state of Washington. A daily newspaper has been in circulation in Tacoma since 1883; in the period from 1907 to 1918, three dailies were published: The Tacoma Ledger, The News, and The Tacoma Tribune.

Demographics

The censusGR2 of 2000 indicated that 193,556 persons, 76,152 households, and 45,919 families resided in Tacoma. Four years later, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that Tacoma's population had increased by 1.7%, to 196,800 (Trends, No. D3 [Sept. 2004]).

In 2000, Tacoma's population density was 1,492.3/km² (3,864.9/mi²). There were 81,102 housing units at an average density of 625.3/km² (1,619.4/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 69.08% White, 11.24% African American, 1.96% Native American, 7.57% Asian, 0.93% Pacific Islander, 2.94% from other races, and 6.28% from two or more races. 6.85% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 76,152 households in Tacoma in 2000; 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.7% were non-families. Almost one third of households (31.7%) were made up of individuals living alone; 10.4% of these were 65 years of age or older. The average household size in 2000 was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.10.

In 2000, the population's demographics were evenly distributed: 25.8% under 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34. For every 100 females there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,879, and the median income for a family was $45,567. Males had a median income of $35,820, versus $27,697 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,130. 15.9% of the population and 11.4% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 20.6% of those under the age of 18 and 10.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Transportation and urban form

Tacoma's system of transportation is based primarily on the automobile. The majority of the city has a system of gridded streets oriented in relation to Pacific Avenue and 6th Avenue, both beginning in Downtown Tacoma. Numbered streets run east to west and are labeled "North" or "South" according to their relationship with 6th Avenue or Division Street. North- and south-running streets are given a name or a letter, and are also labeled "North" or "South" in relation to 6th Avenue. This can lead to confusion, as Union Avenue intersects both North and South 11th Streets. Many first-time visitors have encountered difficulty with this. Most streets east of Pacific Avenue are labeled "East." This system of numbering extends beyond city limits to much of the western portion of Pierce County.

In portions of the city dating back to the Tacoma Streetcar Period (1888-1938), denser mixed use business districts exist alongside single family homes. Twelve such districts have active, city-recognized business associations and hold "small town"-style parades and other festivals. The Proctor, Old Town, Dome, Sixth Avenue, and Lincoln Business Districts are some of the more prominent and popular of these and coordinate their efforts to redevelop urban villages through the Cross District Association of Tacoma. In newer portions of the city to the west and south, residential cul-de-sacs, four-lane collector roads and indoor shopping centers are more commonplace.

The dominant intercity transportation link between Tacoma and other parts of the Puget Sound is Interstate 5. I-5 links Tacoma with Seattle to the north and Portland, Oregon, to the south. Washington State Route 16 runs along a concrete viaduct through Tacoma's Nalley Valley connecting Interstate 5 with West Tacoma, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, and the Kitsap Peninsula. Seattle-Tacoma International Airport lies about 22 miles to the north in the city of SeaTac.

Public Transport

Light Rail in Tacoma

Tacoma has a wide array of alternative transportation services available including busses, commuter rail, light rail, and ferries. Public bus service is provided by Pierce Transit, which serves Tacoma and Pierce County. Pierce Transit operates a total of 55 bus routes on busses powered by natural gas and diesel. Bus service operates at 15 or 30 minute frequencies on weekdays. Several primary routes of note are:


Sound Transit, the regional transit authority, provides daily Sounder Commuter Rail service and express bus service during the week. Sound Transit has also established Tacoma Link light rail, a 1.6-mile electric streetcar line linking Tacoma Dome Station with the University of Washington, Tacoma, Tacoma's Museum District, and the Theater District. This line is presently under consideration for extension. Tacoma is also served by Washington State Ferries system, which has a dock at Point Defiance, providing ferry access to Tahlequah at the southern tip of Vashon Island, typically on the ferry M/V Rhododendron. Tacoma also has Greyhound and Amtrak service, accessible via Tacoma Dome Station.

Sports

Tacoma, in addition to the professional sports teams of Seattle, has one minor league baseball franchise, the Tacoma Rainiers, a Triple-A team playing in the Pacific Coast League as a farm team of the Seattle Mariners. The Rainiers play inside Cheney Stadium, named after local businessman and baseball enthusiast Ben Cheney.

The city has struggled to keep a minor league hockey franchise, having lost the Tacoma Rockets of the WHL to relocation and having the Tacoma Sabercats of the former West Coast Hockey League go defunct due to financial woes. The Tacoma Dome does still host traveling sports and pseudo-sports events such as pro wrestling, figure skating tours, and the Harlem Globetrotters. At one point, the Tacoma Dome was home to a professional indoor soccer team, the Tacoma Stars. For the 1994-1995 season, the Seattle SuperSonics played in the Tacoma Dome while the Seattle Center Coliseum was gutted and renovated into Key Arena, the team's current home.

Tacoma in pop culture

Museum_of_Glass

Neko Case's song "Thrice All American", featured on her album Furnace Room Lullaby, is an ode to Tacoma, which she considers her hometown. The album also includes a song called "South Tacoma Way."

Richard Brautigan wrote of his Tacoma childhood in his autobiographical short stories "Corporal," "The Armoured Car," "The Auction," and "The Ghost Children of Tacoma."

Tacoma is also prominently mentioned in the 1977 Steve Miller Band song "Rock 'N Me" (I went from Phoenix, Arizona, all the way to Tacoma, Philadelphia, Atlanta, L.A.).

A running gag in the 1985 Tom Hanks film Volunteers is the repeated references to Tacoma by John Candy's character, "Tom Tuttle from Tacoma, Washington."

Parts of the movie 10 Things I Hate About You (1999), whose plot is based on William Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew, were filmed at Stadium High School and in the nearby North End neighborhood, although most other exterior scenes were filmed in Seattle. I Love You to Death (1990) was filmed in downtown and central Tacoma. Kevin Kline's pizzeria was located in the flatiron building downtown. Also featured was the 1927-vintage Java Jive, a Tacoma tavern shaped like a giant coffee pot. Other films featuring a Tacoma location include Get Carter (2000). In addition, significant parts of The Hand That Rocks the Cradle (1992) were shot in a North Tacoma home. The long-running series of Tugboat Annie radio dramas, television shows and films (one of which starred a young actor named Ronald Reagan) was based on Tacoma tugboat operator Annie Foss. Sources: ([[2]]) ([[3]]) ([[4]]}

Toyota has named a popular line of pickup trucks the "Toyota Tacoma" after the city.

Tacoma is mentioned in the Sir Mix-a-Lot song "My Hooptie" ("Rollin' in Tacoma, I could get burned (Sound of automatic gunfire) Betta make a u-turn").

Tacoma is also mentioned at the end of Sir Mix-a-Lot's song "Jump On It" ("Tacoma, jump on it...")

Tacoma is mentioned in the song "He's a Grungewhore" from the norwegian punk rock band Turbonegros 1994 album Never Is Forever. [5]

Tacoma was named America's most stressed city in 2004 by Best Places Magazine. [6]

Neighborhoods

Downtown Tacoma

Sister cities

Tacoma has ten sister cities: Ålesund (Norway), Davao (Philippines), Fuzhou (China), George (South Africa), Qiryat Motzkin (Israel), Kitakyushu (Japan), Gunsan (South Korea), Cienfuegos (Cuba), Vladivostok (Russia), and Taichung City (Taiwan).


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Tacoma has ten sister cities: Ålesund (Norway), Davao (Philippines), Fuzhou (China), George (South Africa), Qiryat Motzkin (Israel), Kitakyushu (Japan), Gunsan (South Korea), Cienfuegos (Cuba), Vladivostok (Russia), and Taichung City (Taiwan). USA, (1996) ISBN 1887178171. [6]. Fisher, Tube, the Invention of Television, Counterpoint, Washington D.C. Tacoma was named America's most stressed city in 2004 by Best Places Magazine. Fisher and Marshall J. [5]. David E.

Tacoma is mentioned in the song "He's a Grungewhore" from the norwegian punk rock band Turbonegros 1994 album Never Is Forever. Almost since the medium's inception there have been charges that some programming is, in one way or another, inappropriate, offensive or indecent. Tacoma is also mentioned at the end of Sir Mix-a-Lot's song "Jump On It" ("Tacoma, jump on it..."). There is already a fair amount of internet tv, while mobile phone tv is planned to become mainstream, if it can be effectively sold, early in 2006. Tacoma is mentioned in the Sir Mix-a-Lot song "My Hooptie" ("Rollin' in Tacoma, I could get burned (Sound of automatic gunfire) Betta make a u-turn"). Both mobile phone networks and the internet are capable of carrying video streams. Toyota has named a popular line of pickup trucks the "Toyota Tacoma" after the city. Television service providers also offer video on demand, a set of programs which could be watched at any time.

Sources: ([[2]]) ([[3]]) ([[4]]}. Consumers could watch programs on their own schedule once they were broadcast and recorded. The long-running series of Tugboat Annie radio dramas, television shows and films (one of which starred a young actor named Ronald Reagan) was based on Tacoma tugboat operator Annie Foss. The viewership's dependence on schedule lessened with the invention of programmable video recorders, such as the Videocassette recorder and the Digital video recorder. In addition, significant parts of The Hand That Rocks the Cradle (1992) were shot in a North Tacoma home. The term appointment television was coined by marketers to describe this kind of attachment. Other films featuring a Tacoma location include Get Carter (2000). Fans of regular shows planned their schedules so that they could be available to watch their shows at their time of broadcast.

Also featured was the 1927-vintage Java Jive, a Tacoma tavern shaped like a giant coffee pot. In its infancy, television was an ephemeral medium. Kevin Kline's pizzeria was located in the flatiron building downtown. In other words, the more the child watched television, the less likely he was to finish school and enroll in a university. I Love You to Death (1990) was filmed in downtown and central Tacoma. A longitudinal study in New Zealand involving 1000 people (from childhood to 26 years of age) demonstrated that "television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with poor educational achievement by 26 years of age". Parts of the movie 10 Things I Hate About You (1999), whose plot is based on William Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew, were filmed at Stadium High School and in the nearby North End neighborhood, although most other exterior scenes were filmed in Seattle. A February 23, 2002 article in Scientific American suggested that compulsive television watching was no different from any other addiction, a finding backed up by reports of withdrawal symptoms among families forced by circumstance to cease watching.

A running gag in the 1985 Tom Hanks film Volunteers is the repeated references to Tacoma by John Candy's character, "Tom Tuttle from Tacoma, Washington.". children watch an average of 25 hours of television per week and features studies showing it interferes with the educational and maturational process. Tacoma is also prominently mentioned in the 1977 Steve Miller Band song "Rock 'N Me" (I went from Phoenix, Arizona, all the way to Tacoma, Philadelphia, Atlanta, L.A.). In the U.S., the National Institute on Media and the Family (not a government agency) points out that U.S. Richard Brautigan wrote of his Tacoma childhood in his autobiographical short stories "Corporal," "The Armoured Car," "The Auction," and "The Ghost Children of Tacoma.". For example, the Swedish government imposed a total ban on advertising to children under twelve in 1991 (see advertising). The album also includes a song called "South Tacoma Way.". Paralleling television's growing primacy in family life and society, an increasingly vocal chorus of legislators, scientists and parents are raising objections to the uncritical acceptance of the medium.

Neko Case's song "Thrice All American", featured on her album Furnace Room Lullaby, is an ode to Tacoma, which she considers her hometown. Also, affiliates rarely buy or produce non-network programming that isn't intensely local. For the 1994-1995 season, the Seattle SuperSonics played in the Tacoma Dome while the Seattle Center Coliseum was gutted and renovated into Key Arena, the team's current home. Unlike the U.S., repeat FTA screenings of a FTA network program almost only occur only on that network. At one point, the Tacoma Dome was home to a professional indoor soccer team, the Tacoma Stars. This practice is increasing however, generally on digital only FTA channels, or with subscriber-only first run material appearing on FTA. The Tacoma Dome does still host traveling sports and pseudo-sports events such as pro wrestling, figure skating tours, and the Harlem Globetrotters. First run programming is increasing on subscription services outside the U.S., but few domestically produced programs are syndicated on domestic FTA elsewhere.

The city has struggled to keep a minor league hockey franchise, having lost the Tacoma Rockets of the WHL to relocation and having the Tacoma Sabercats of the former West Coast Hockey League go defunct due to financial woes. however, the first wave occurs on the FTA networks and subscription services, and the second wave travels via all means of distribution. The Rainiers play inside Cheney Stadium, named after local businessman and baseball enthusiast Ben Cheney. In the U.S. Tacoma, in addition to the professional sports teams of Seattle, has one minor league baseball franchise, the Tacoma Rainiers, a Triple-A team playing in the Pacific Coast League as a farm team of the Seattle Mariners. In most countries, the first wave occurs primarily on free-to-air (FTA) television, while the second wave happens on subscription TV and in other countries. Tacoma also has Greyhound and Amtrak service, accessible via Tacoma Dome Station. This typically happens on two levels:.

Tacoma is also served by Washington State Ferries system, which has a dock at Point Defiance, providing ferry access to Tahlequah at the southern tip of Vashon Island, typically on the ferry M/V Rhododendron. After production the next step is to market and deliver the product to whatever markets are open to using it. This line is presently under consideration for extension. Getting TV programming shown to the public can happen in many different ways. Sound Transit has also established Tacoma Link light rail, a 1.6-mile electric streetcar line linking Tacoma Dome Station with the University of Washington, Tacoma, Tacoma's Museum District, and the Theater District. advertising rates are determined primarily by Nielsen ratings.
Sound Transit, the regional transit authority, provides daily Sounder Commuter Rail service and express bus service during the week. U.S.

Several primary routes of note are:. Since their inception in the USA in 1941, TV commercials have become one of the most effective, most pervasive, and most popular methods of selling products of many sorts, especially consumer goods. Bus service operates at 15 or 30 minute frequencies on weekdays.
. Pierce Transit operates a total of 55 bus routes on busses powered by natural gas and diesel.
. Public bus service is provided by Pierce Transit, which serves Tacoma and Pierce County. Many such devices which are used for programme reception, are known generically as Set Top Boxes.

Tacoma has a wide array of alternative transportation services available including busses, commuter rail, light rail, and ferries. A few add-ons include Video Game Consoles, VCRs, Cable Boxes, Satellite Boxes, DVD players, or Digital Video Recorders (including personal video recorders, PVRs), the television add-on market is ever growing. Seattle-Tacoma International Airport lies about 22 miles to the north in the city of SeaTac. Today there are many add-ons for the television set. Washington State Route 16 runs along a concrete viaduct through Tacoma's Nalley Valley connecting Interstate 5 with West Tacoma, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, and the Kitsap Peninsula. Horizontal expansion has advantages in situations in which several people are watching the same set, as it compensates for watching at an oblique angle. I-5 links Tacoma with Seattle to the north and Portland, Oregon, to the south. A common compromise is to shoot or create material at an aspect ratio of 14:9, and to lose some image at each side for 4:3 presentation, and some image at top and bottom for 16:9 presentation.

The dominant intercity transportation link between Tacoma and other parts of the Puget Sound is Interstate 5. A conventional aspect (square) image on a widescreen aspect (rectangular) display can be shown:. In newer portions of the city to the west and south, residential cul-de-sacs, four-lane collector roads and indoor shopping centers are more commonplace. Displaying a widescreen aspect (rectangular) image on a conventional aspect (square) display can be shown:. The Proctor, Old Town, Dome, Sixth Avenue, and Lincoln Business Districts are some of the more prominent and popular of these and coordinate their efforts to redevelop urban villages through the Cross District Association of Tacoma. The television industry changing aspect ratios is not without teething difficulties, and can present a considerable problem. Twelve such districts have active, city-recognized business associations and hold "small town"-style parades and other festivals. This was a result of widescreen computer display engineers' uninformed assumption that people viewing 16:9 content on their computer would prefer that an area of the screen be reserved for playback controls or subtitles, as opposed to viewing content full-screen.

In portions of the city dating back to the Tacoma Streetcar Period (1888-1938), denser mixed use business districts exist alongside single family homes. Furthermore, computer and laptop widescreen displays are in the 16:10 aspect ratio both physically in size and in pixel counts, and not in 16:9 of consumer televisions, leading to further complexity. Most streets east of Pacific Avenue are labeled "East." This system of numbering extends beyond city limits to much of the western portion of Pierce County. There are some complaints about distortions of movie picture ratio due to some DVD playback software not taking account of aspect ratios; but this will subside as the DVD playback software matures. Many first-time visitors have encountered difficulty with this. Recently "widescreen" has spread from television to computing where both desktop and laptop computers are commonly equipped with widescreen displays, and it remains to be seen whether Work or movie enjoyment will take over. This can lead to confusion, as Union Avenue intersects both North and South 11th Streets. The anamorphic widescreen 16:9 format was first introduced via European PAL-Plus television broadcasts and then later on "widescreen" DVDs; the ATSC HDTV system uses straight widescreen format, no image squashing or expanding is used.

North- and south-running streets are given a name or a letter, and are also labeled "North" or "South" in relation to 6th Avenue. The image is squashed horizontally when recorded, then expanded again when played back. Numbered streets run east to west and are labeled "North" or "South" according to their relationship with 6th Avenue or Division Street. This format is very similar to the technique used to fit a widescreen movie frame inside a 1.33:1 35mm film frame. The majority of the city has a system of gridded streets oriented in relation to Pacific Avenue and 6th Avenue, both beginning in Downtown Tacoma. There are two methods for transporting widescreen content, the better of which uses what is called anamorphic widescreen format. Tacoma's system of transportation is based primarily on the automobile. This enables TV to get closer to the aspect ratio of modern widescreen movies, which range from 1.78:1 through 1.85:1 to 2.35:1.

Out of the total population, 20.6% of those under the age of 18 and 10.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. The switch to digital television systems has been used as an opportunity to change the standard television picture format from the old ratio of 4:3 (approximately 1.33:1) to an aspect ratio of 16:9 (approximately 1.78:1). 15.9% of the population and 11.4% of families were below the poverty line. Some people argued that widescreen is actually a disadvantage when showing objects that are tall instead of panoramic, others would say that natural vision is more panoramic than tall, and therefore widescreen is easier on the eye. The per capita income for the city was $19,130. Although this was initially just a gimmick, widescreen is still the format of choice today and square aspect ratio movies are rare. Males had a median income of $35,820, versus $27,697 for females. In the 1950s, movie studios moved towards widescreen aspect ratios such as Cinerama in an effort to distance their product from television.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,879, and the median income for a family was $45,567. (Today's CRT technology allows the manufacture of much wider tubes, and the flat screen technologies which are becoming steadily more popular have no aspect ratio limitations at all.) The BBC's television service used a more squarish 5:4 ratio from 1936 to circa 1949, when it too switched to a 4:3 ratio. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. This ratio was also square enough to be conveniently viewed on round cathode-ray tubes (CRTs), which were all that could be produced given the manufacturing technology of the time. For every 100 females there were 95.2 males. Most of the early electronic TV systems from the mid-1930s onward shared the same aspect ratio of 4:3 which was chosen to match the Academy Ratio used in cinema films at the time. The median age was 34. Mechanically scanned television as first demonstrated by John Logie Baird in 1926 used a 7:3 vertical aspect ratio, oriented for the head and shoulders of a single person in close-up.

In 2000, the population's demographics were evenly distributed: 25.8% under 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The number of ways to connect a video device to a television has increased over the years:. The average household size in 2000 was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.10. They will get better with time. Almost one third of households (31.7%) were made up of individuals living alone; 10.4% of these were 65 years of age or older. The playback of the recording is not brilliant, but these are the first generation. There were 76,152 households in Tacoma in 2000; 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.7% were non-families. With SD cards now available with 1G of memory (soon 2GB, and Panasonic is also working on one that contains over 30GB of memory), a user can record over 1,000 minutes at low quality, and around 80 minutes on the highest quality.

6.85% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. On the new Panasonic LCDs and Plasmas (Viera), users have the capability to record onto SD card and then play it back on a hand-held PC or digital camera (anything that allows MPEG4). The racial makeup of the city was 69.08% White, 11.24% African American, 1.96% Native American, 7.57% Asian, 0.93% Pacific Islander, 2.94% from other races, and 6.28% from two or more races. Today, some LCD and Plasma sets have SD Card slots, so users can view pictures from a digital camera. There were 81,102 housing units at an average density of 625.3/km² (1,619.4/mi²). Some TVs integrate a pair of ports to connect computer cases and peripherals to it or to connect the set to an A/V home network (HAVI) (USB port for cord connection and Bluetooth/WiFi for wireless). In 2000, Tacoma's population density was 1,492.3/km² (3,864.9/mi²). They are multifunctional, because they are used like computer monitors too (VGA and DVI or HDMI connections).

2004]). Flat panel LCDs and plasma displays are as little as 4in (10cm) thick and can be hung on a wall like a picture or put over a pedestal. D3 [Sept. Modern advances have brought flat panels to TV that use active matrix LCD or plasma display technology. Census Bureau estimated that Tacoma's population had increased by 1.7%, to 196,800 (Trends, No. Three types of projection systems are used in projection TVs: CRT-based, LCD-based, and DLP(reflective micromirror chip)-based. Four years later, the U.S. The most common are direct view CRTs for up to 40in (100cm) (in 4:3) and 46in (115cm) (in 16:9) diagonally; most big screen TVs (up to over 100 inch (254 cm)) use projection technology.

The censusGR2 of 2000 indicated that 193,556 persons, 76,152 households, and 45,919 families resided in Tacoma. There are many kinds of video monitors used in modern TV sets. A daily newspaper has been in circulation in Tacoma since 1883; in the period from 1907 to 1918, three dailies were published: The Tacoma Ledger, The News, and The Tacoma Tribune. Starting in the 1990s, modern television sets diverged into three different trends:. The paper's circulation is about 128,000 (Sundays 144,000), making it the third-largest newspaper in the state of Washington. Cable television, being a pay service and operating with closed coaxial cables, does not use the public airwaves and is therefore protected under freedom of speech using the same rationale as protected Larry Flynt, allowing cable-only broadcasters to carry programming which would be considered indecent over public airwaves. The city's only daily newspaper is The News Tribune, since 1986 a subsidiary of McClatchy Newspapers. Later, the master antenna would be shared by members of a community, with cable companies being established to administer the maintenance of the system.

Also, one of the elementary schools, Sheridan Elementary, operates three foreign language immersion programs (Spanish, French, and Japanese). Specialized antennas were often set up for individual channels, and their signals combined and distributed through the building. One of the district's high schools, Henry Foss High School, operates an acclaimed International Baccalaureate program. The master antenna was often located on the roof to avoid problems with signal reflections causing the ghosting common in large buildings and urban areas. The district also has 5 high schools, one alternative high school, and one School of the Arts. Cable services were introduced in the late 1950s as MATV systems, where a "master" antenna was shared among residents of an apartment building. The school district contains 36 elementary schools and 11 middle schools. In strong signal areas the antenna can be indoors, attached to or near the receiver, such as an adjustable dipole antenna called "rabbit ears" for the VHF band and a small loop antenna for the UHF band.

Tacoma's main public school district is Tacoma Public Schools. This can be an outdoor Yagi antenna. The total area is 20.01% water. Over-the-air broadcast television requires an antenna (aerial). 129.7 km² (50.1 mi²) of it is land and 32.5 km² (12.5 mi²) of it is water. Television in its original form involves sending images and sound over radio waves in the VHF and UHF bands, which are received by a television set. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 162.2 km² (62.6 mi²). Meanwhile in North America the original NTSC 525-line standard from 1941 was retained.

Its elevation is 116 meters (380 feet). Eventually the whole of Europe switched to the 625-line PAL standard, once more following Germany's example. Tacoma is located at 47°14'29" North, 122°27'34" West (47.241371, -122.459389)GR1. France initially adopted the German 441-line standard but later upgraded to 819 lines, which gave the highest picture definition of any analogue TV system, approximately four times the resolution of the British 405-line system. In addition, Comcast also offers digital cable and internet services in the area. For many years different countries used different technical standards. Tacoma Power is, along with Tacoma Water and Tacoma Rail, a part of Tacoma Public Utilities. In Britain, there were 15,000 television households in 1947, 1.4 million in 1952, and 15.1 million by 1968.

Tacoma Power also operates the Click! Network, a cable television and internet service, one of the first public utilities to provide such a service. households had a television set in 1946, 55.7% had one in 1954, and 90% by 1962. Electrical power is furnished by Tacoma Power, a division of Tacoma Public Utilities, which owns hydroelectric plants on the North Fork of the Skokomish River. While only 0.5% of U.S. On April 26, 2003 Tacoma's Chief of Police, David Brame, shot and killed his wife and himself in Gig Harbor, Washington. Television usage in the United States skyrocketed after World War II with the lifting of the manufacturing freeze, war-related technological advances, the gradual expansion of the television networks westward, the drop in set prices caused by mass production, increased leisure time, and additional disposable income. Tacoma was named after Mount Rainier, whose original name was Tahoma, which derived from the Puyallup tacobet, or "mother of waters.". before the War Production Board halted manufacture in April 1942, which resumed in October 1945.

The next day two Chinese settlements were burned to the ground.". About 7,000-8,000 electronic sets were made in the U.S. 3, 1885, "several hundred men, led by the mayor and other city officials, evicted the Chinese from their homes, corralled them at 7th Street and Pacific Avenue, marched them to the railway station at Lakeview, and forced them aboard the morning train to Portland, Oregon. An estimated 19,000 electronic television sets were manufactured in Britain, and about 1,600 in Germany, before World War II. To quote from the account prepared by the Chinese Reconciliation Project: On the morning of Nov. The cheapest model with a 12-inch (30 cm) screen was $445 ($6,256). What came to be known as "Tacoma method" was used in November 1885 to expel several thousand Chinese peaceably living in the city. The cheapest of the pre-War World II factory-made American sets, a 1938 image-only model with a 3-inch (8 cm) screen, cost US$125, the equivalent of US$1,732 in 2005.

A plaque in downtown Tacoma marks the start and finish point. The first commercially made electronic television sets with cathode ray tubes were manufactured by Telefunken in Germany in 1934, followed by other makers in Britain (1936) and America (1938). In 1880, he staged a global circumnavigation starting and ending in Tacoma to promote the city's centrality. The Televisor sold in 1930-1933 is considered the first mass-produced set, selling about a thousand units, and is a highly sought-after collectible which most people wouldn't even recognize as being a television set. George Francis Train was a resident of Tacoma for a few years in the late 1800s, and was an early civic booster. The Baird "Televisor" was also available without the radio. Its early hopes to live to be the "City of Destiny" were frustrated in the late 19th century, when the discovery of gold in the Klondike turned Seattle into a boom town, eclipsing Tacoma's early lead. in 1928 were radios with the addition of a television device consisting of a neon tube behind a mechanically spinning disk (the Nipkow disk) with a spiral of apertures that produced a red postage-stamp size image, enlarged to twice that size by a magnifying glass.

Tacoma was officially incorporated on November 12, 1875. and the U.S. (A replica of Job Carr's cabin, which also served as Tacoma's first post office, was erected in "Old Town" in 2000 near the original site.). The earliest commercially made sets sold by Baird in the U.K. The town was originally settled by pioneer and postmaster Job Carr, a Civil War veteran and land speculator who hoped to profit from the selection of Commencement Bay as the terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad. In television's electromechanical era, commercially made television sets were sold from 1928 to 1934 in the United Kingdom, United States, and Russia. It was visited by European and American explorers, including George Vancouver and Charles Wilkes, who named many of the coastal landmarks. There are many means of distributing television broadcasts, including both analogue and digital versions of:.

Tacoma was inhabited for thousands of years by Native American people, predominantly the Puyallup people. These figures are now estimated to be significantly higher. . An estimated two-thirds of Americans got most of their news about the world from TV, and nearly half got all of their news from TV. Chef-author Jeff Smith learned to cook and began his career in Tacoma at the Chaplain's Pantry, later known as the Gourmet Pantry (now closed), on Tacoma Avenue. On average, Americans watch four hours of television per day. A number of noteworthy individuals have come from Tacoma, among them bowling legend Earl Anthony, singer Bing Crosby, authors Richard Brautigan and Frank Herbert, cartoonist Gary Larson, serial killer Ted Bundy, serial sniper John Allen Muhammad, actress Dyan Cannon, conspiracy gadfly Fred Crisman, Andrew and Thea Foss, first owners and operators of Foss Launch and Tug Company, Puyallup Indian rights activist Robert Satiacum, auto racer Pat Austin, prize fighter Sugar Ray Seales, NFL receiver Ahmad Rashad, Major League baseball player Ron Cey, glass artist Dale Chihuly, and musicians the Wailers, Jerry Miller (Moby Grape), Jerry Cantrell and Neko Case. had at least one TV set.

In the late 1990s, however, Simpson Tacoma Kraft reduced total sulfur emissions by 90%, largely eliminating the problem, but a strong smell is occasionally still detectable. By the late 1980s, 98% of all homes in the U.S. Beginning in the 1930s, Tacoma became known for its malodorousness, called the "Aroma of Tacoma" -- a distinctive, acrid odor produced by local paper manufacturing on the industrial tide flats. Television has grown up all over the world, enabling every country to share aspects of their culture and society with others. It contains Wright Park Arboretum. Practically every country in the world now has developed at least one television channel. Schwagerl and Ebenezer Rhys Roberts. Development of cable and satellite means of distribution in the 1970s pushed businessmen to target channels towards a certain audience, and enabled the rise of subscription-based television channels, such as HBO and Sky.

Wright Park, located near downtown, is a large, English-style park designed in the late 1800s by E.O. By contrast, the United Kingdom chose a different route, imposing a television licence fee on owners of television reception equipment, to fund the BBC, which had public service as part of its Royal Charter. Another park in Tacoma is Titlow Beach, which is a popular scuba diving area. In the U.S., the Federal Communications Commission allowed stations to broadcast advertisements, but insisted on public service programming commitments as a requirement for a license. One of the largest urban parks in the U.S, Point Defiance Park, which includes the Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium and Fort Nisqually, is located in Tacoma. Because bandwidth was limited, government regulation was normal. Tacoma's downtown Cultural District is also the site of the Washington State History Museum (1996) and the Tacoma Art Museum (2003). At first, terrestrial broadcasting was the only way television could be distributed.

It includes a functional glassblowing studio. Programming is broadcast on television stations (sometimes called channels). The Museum of Glass opened in downtown Tacoma in 2002, showcasing glass art from the region and around the world. Reportedly, the first continuous live broadcast of a breaking news story in the world was conducted by the CBC during the Springhill Mining Disaster which began on October 23 of that year. Tacoma is a major international deep-water container port. In 1958, the CBC completed the longest television network in the world, from Sydney, Nova Scotia to Victoria, British Columbia. and the Russell Investment Group, as well as institutions of higher learning, including Pacific Lutheran University, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma Community College, and the University of Washington's Tacoma campus. The first live transcontinental television broadcast took place in San Francisco, California from the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference on September 4, 1951.

Tacoma is the home of such international companies as Labor Ready, Inc. The first regular television transmissions in Canada began in 1952 when the CBC put two stations on the air, one in Montreal, Quebec on September 6, and another in Toronto, Ontario two days later. 2004]). Regular broadcasting began on December 31, 1938. D3 [Sept. The first experimental transmissions of electronic television took place in Moscow on March 9, 1937, using equipment manufactured and installed by RCA. Census Bureau to be 196,800, and a metropolitan area of 750,000 (Trends, No. The Soviet Union began offering 30-line electromechanical test broadcasts in Moscow on October 31, 1931, and a commercially manufactured television set in 1932.

1, 2004, was estimated by the U.S. The outbreak of the Second World War caused the BBC service to be suspended on September 1, 1939, resuming from Alexandra Palace on June 7, 1946. The 2000 census reported Tacoma's population as 193,556; the city's population on Apr. The corporation decided that Marconi-EMI's electronic picture gave the superior picture, and the Baird system was dropped in February 1937. Tacoma (IPA: [tə ˈko mə]) is the county seat of Pierce CountyGR6, Washington, USA, situated on Puget Sound's Commencement Bay, Tacoma Narrows, and the estuary of the Puyallup River. On November 2, 1936 the BBC began broadcasting a dual-system service, alternating on a weekly basis between Marconi-EMI's 405-line standard and Baird's improved 240-line standard, from Alexandra Palace in London, making the BBC Television Service (now BBC One) the world's first regular high-definition television service.
Location of Tacoma in
Pierce County and Washington State. On August 22, 1932, BBC launched its own regular service using Baird's 30-line electromechanical system, continuing until September 11, 1935.

West End. Baird provided a limited amount of programming five days a week by 1930. South Tacoma. The first British television broadcast was made by Baird Television's electromechanical system over the BBC radio transmitter in September 1929. South End. The Germans had a 441-line system on the air in February 1937, and during World War II brought it to France, where they broadcast off the Eiffel Tower. Northeast Tacoma. The Berlin Summer Olympic Games were televised, using both direct television and intermediate film cameras, to 28 public television rooms in Berlin and Hamburg in August 1936.

Dome District. Live transmissions began on January 15, 1936. Stadium District. Network electronic service started on March 22, 1935, on 180 lines using only telecine transmission of film or an intermediate film system. North End. Electromechanical broadcasts began in Germany in 1929, but were without sound until 1934. McKinley Hill. With the adoption of NTSC television engineering standards in 1941, the FCC saw television ready for commercial licensing, with the first such licenses issued to NBC and CBS owned stations in New York on July 1, 1941, followed by Philco's station in Philadelphia.

Hilltop. By April 1939, regularly scheduled 441-line electronic television broadcasts were available in New York City and Los Angeles, and by November on General Electric's station in Schenectady. Eastside. RCA demonstrated in New York City a 343-line electronic television broadcast, with live and film segments, to its licensees on July 7, 1936, and made its first public demonstration to the press on November 6. Central. On June 15, 1936, Don Lee Broadcasting began a month-long demonstration of all-electronic television in Los Angeles on W6XAO (later KTSL) with a 300-line image from motion picture film. Old Town. Just as importantly, Philo Farnsworth's 1934 demonstration of an all-electronic system pointed the direction of television's future.

Route 3, "Downtown Tacoma – Lakewood via Tacoma Mall". were granted only experimental and not commercial licenses, hampering television's economic development. Route 2, "South 19th – Bridgeport Way via Tacoma Community College", and. The Federal Communications Commission saw television in the continual flux of development with no consistent technical standards, hence all such stations in the U.S. Route 1, "Pacific Avenue – 6th Avenue". By 1935, electromechanical television broadcasting had ceased in the United States except for a handful of stations run by public universities that continued to 1939. The service ended in February 1933.

The first broadcast included Mayor Jimmy Walker, the Boswell Sisters, Kate Smith, and George Gershwin. CBS's New York City station W2XAB began broadcasting the first regular seven days a week television schedule in the United States on July 21, 1931, with a 60-line electromechanical system. General Electric's experimental station in Schenectady, New York, on the air sporadically since January 13, 1928, was able to broadcast reflected-light, 48-line images via shortwave as far as Los Angeles, and by September was making four television broadcasts weekly. But for at least the first eighteen months, only silhouette images from motion picture film were broadcast due to the narrow 10kHz bandwidth allotted by the FRC.

Jenkins to broadcast from experimental station W3XK in a suburb of Washington, D.C. The Federal Radio Commission authorized C.F. The first regularly scheduled television service in the United States began on July 2, 1928. Canadian stations began their own color broadcasts in 1966.

Color television became available in Canada soon after regular color broadcasting began in the neighbouring United States. In Japan, NHK introduced color television in 1960. The first British show to be made in color was the drama series The Adventures of Sir Lancelot (1956-57), which was initially made in black and white but later shot in color for sale to the NBC network in the United States. It should be noted that some British television programmes, particularly those made by or for ITC Entertainment, were made in color before the introduction of color television to the UK, for the purpose of sales to US networks.

Both systems broadcast on UHF frequencies, the VHF being used for legacy black and white, 405 lines in UK or 819 lines in France, till the beginning of the eighties. In addition to France and Luxembourg, SECAM was adopted by Soviet Union, much of Eastern Europe, much of Africa and of the Middle East. PAL was eventually adopted by West Germany, the UK, Australia, New Zealand, much of Africa, Asia and South America, and most Western European countries except France. Germans did their first broadcast in September (PAL), while the French in October (SECAM).

The first regular color broadcasts in Europe were by BBC2 beginning on July 1, 1967, using PAL. The French continued with SECAM, notably involving Russians in the development. An important advantage of PAL was the automatic color correction which partially relied on the imperfections of the human eye. Unsatisfied with the performance of NTSC and of initial SECAM implementations, the Germans unveiled PAL (phase alternating line) in 1963, staying closer to NTSC but borrowing some ideas from SECAM.

As a consequence, although work on various color encoding systems started already in the 1950s, with the first SECAM patent being registered in 1956, many years had passed till the first broadcasts actually started in 1967. There was also less urgency, since there were fewer commercial motivations, European television broadcasters being predominantly state-owned at the time. color standard, which was widely perceived as wanting anyway, because of its tint control problems. Having decided to adopt a higher-definition 625-line system for monochrome transmissions, with a lower frame rate but with a higher overall bandwidth, Europeans could not directly adopt the U.S.

European color television was developed somewhat later and was hindered by a continuing division on technical standards. and the audio in the 40 metre band. The video signal was transmitted at a frequency of 115 MHz. #1, in Mexico City.

In August 31, 1946 he sent his first color transmission from his lab in the offices of The Mexican League of Radio Experiments in Lucerna St. The 1942 patent was for a mechanically scanned color filter adapter for an existing monochrome electronic transmission system. Patent 1942 (2296019), 1960 and 1962. He received patents for color television systems in 1940 (U.S.

In Mexico, Guillermo González Camarena (1917–1965), invented an early color television transmission system. had a color set. did not exceed black and white sales until 1972, which was also the first year that more than fifty percent of television households in the U.S. (It is also worth noting that, while at least one show, CBS' The Lucy Show, did not broadcast its episodes in color until the start of the 1965-66 broadcast season, that show's producers began filming in color in 1963, with the thought that they would command more money when sold into syndication.) But the number of color television sets sold in the U.S.

All three broadcast networks were airing full color prime time schedules by the 1966–67 broadcast season. NBC provided the catalyst for rapid color expansion by announcing that its prime time schedule for fall 1965 would be almost entirely in color (the exception being I Dream of Jeannie). had a color set. Thus the relatively small amount of network color programming, combined with the high cost of color television sets, meant that as late as 1964 only 3.1 percent of television households in the U.S.

The Du Mont network, although it did have a television-manufacturing parent company, was in financial decline by 1954 and was dissolved two years later. CBS and ABC, which were not affiliated with set manufacturers, and were not eager to promote their competitor's product, dragged their feet into color, with ABC delaying its first color series (The Flintstones and The Jetsons) until 1962. NBC was naturally at the forefront of color programming because its parent company RCA manufactured the most successful line of color sets in the 1950s. NBC's anthology series Ford Theatre became the first color filmed series that October.

Television's first prime time network color series was The Marriage, a situation comedy broadcast live by NBC in the summer of 1954. A few days later Admiral brought out the first commercially made color television set using the RCA standards, followed in March by RCA's own model. NBC made the first coast-to-coast color broadcast when it covered the Tournament of Roses Parade on January 1, 1954, with public demonstrations given across the United States on prototype color receivers. The first publicly announced experimental TV broadcast of a program using the NTSC-RCA "compatible color" system was an episode of NBC's Kukla, Fran and Ollie on August 30, 1953.

When CBS testified before Congress in March 1953 that it had no further plans for its own color system, the path was open for the NTSC to submit its petition for FCC approval in July 1953, which was granted in December. television industry, represented by the National Television System Committee, worked in 1950-1953 to develop a color system that was compatible with existing black and white sets and would pass FCC quality standards, with RCA developing the hardware elements. Starting before CBS color even got on the air, the U.S. Only 200 sets had been shipped, and only 100 sold, when CBS pulled the plug on its color television system on October 20, 1951, and bought back all the CBS color sets it could to prevent law suits by disappointed customers.

But it was too little, too late. In desperation, CBS bought a television manufacturer, and on September 20, 1951, production began on the first and only CBS color television model. While the CBS color broadcasting schedule gradually expanded to twelve hours per week (but never into prime time), and the color network expanded to eleven affiliates as far west as Chicago, its commercial success was doomed by the lack of color receivers necessary to watch the programs, the refusal of television manufacturers to create adaptor mechanisms for their existing black and white sets, and the unwillingness of advertisers to sponsor broadcasts seen by almost no one. Regular color broadcasts began that same week with the daytime series The World Is Yours and Modern Homemakers.

Viewership was again extremely limited: the program could not be seen on black and white sets, and Variety estimated that only thirty prototype color receivers were available in the New York area. An unsuccessful lawsuit by RCA delayed the world's first network color broadcast until June 25, 1951, when a musical variety special titled simply Premiere was shown over a network of five east coast CBS affiliates. color broadcasting standard on October 11, 1950. After a series of hearings beginning in September 1949, the FCC found the RCA and CTI systems fraught with technical problems, inaccurate color reproduction, and expensive equipment, and so formally approved the CBS system as the U.S.

color broadcasting standard: CBS's field sequential system, which was incompatible with existing black and white sets without an adaptor; RCA's dot sequential system, which in 1949 became compatible with existing black and white sets; and CTI's system (also incompatible with existing black and white sets), which used three camera lenses, behind which were color filters that produced red, green, and blue images side by side on a single scanning tube, and a receiver set that used lenses in front of the picture tube (which had sectors treated with different phosphorescent compounds to glow in red, green, or blue) to project these three side by side images into one combined picture on the viewing screen. The post-war development of color television was dominated by three systems competing for approval by the FCC as the U.S. After a channel re-shuffle, WNBT became channel 4. These tests eventually led to the first regular broadcast by a TV station - WNBT-TV (channel 1) just after WWII.

The War Production Board halted the manufacture of television and radio equipment for civilian use from April 1, 1942 to October 1, 1945, limiting any opportunity to introduce color television to the general public. These color systems were not compatible with existing black and white television sets, and as no color television sets were available to the public at this time, viewership of the color field tests was limited to RCA and CBS engineers and the invited press. CBS began daily color field tests on June 1, 1941. The first field test (i.e., broadcast) of color television was by NBC (owned by RCA) on February 20, 1941.

These signals were sorted by a second switching device in the receiver set and sent to red, green, and blue picture tubes, and combined by a second set of dichroic mirrors into a full color image. RCA's later "dot sequential" color system had no moving parts, using a series of dichroic mirrors to separate and direct red, green, and blue light from the subject through three separate lenses into three scanning tubes, and electronic switching that allowed the tubes to send their signals in rotation, dot by dot. The CBS "field sequential" color system was partly mechanical, with a disc made of red, blue, and green filters spinning inside the television camera at 1,200 rpm, and a similar disc spinning in synchronization in front of the cathode ray tube inside the receiver set. CBS began non-broadcast color experiments using film as early as August 28, 1940, and live cameras by November 12.

In the electronically scanned era, the first color television demonstration was on February 5, 1940, when RCA privately showed to members of the FCC at the RCA plant in Camden, New Jersey, a television receiver producing images in color by a field sequential color system. Mechanically scanned color television was demonstrated by Bell Laboratories in June 1929 using three complete systems of photoelectric cells, amplifiers, glow-tubes, and color filters, with a series of mirrors to superimpose the red, green, and blue images into one full color image. Color television in the United States had a protracted history due to conflicting technical systems vying for approval by the Federal Communications Commission for commercial use. John Logie Baird demonstrated the world's first color transmission on July 3, 1928, using scanning discs at the transmitting and receiving ends with three spirals of apertures, each spiral with filters of a different primary color; and three light sources at the receiving end, with a commutator to alternate their illumination.

Most television researchers appreciated the value of color image transmission, with an early patent application in Russia in 1889 for a mechanically-scanned color system showing how early the importance of color was realized. Even though Farnsworth eventually won the legal battle over this issue, he was never able to fully capitalize financially on his invention. Some of this debate stems from the fact that while Farnsworth appears to have gotten there first as an inventor, RCA brought television sets to market before Farnsworth, and it was RCA employees who first wrote the history of television. The controversy over whether it was first Farnsworth or Zworykin who invented modern television is still hotly debated today.

His previous work with Rosing on electromechanical television gave him key insights into how to produce such a system, but his (and RCA's) claim to being its original inventor was largely invalidated by three facts: a) Zworykin's 1923 patent presented an incomplete design, incapable of working in its given form (it was not until 1933 that Zworykin achieved a working implementation), b) the 1923 patent application was not granted until 1938, and not until it had been seriously revised, and c) courts eventually found that RCA was in violation of the television design patented by Philo Taylor Farnsworth, whose lab Zworykin had visited while working on his designs for RCA. His design was one of the first to demonstrate a television system with all the features of modern picture tubes. Vladimir Kosma Zworykin is also sometimes cited as the father of electronic television because of his invention of the iconoscope in 1923 and his invention of the kinescope in 1929. All modern picture tube televisions descend directly from his design.

His breakthrough freed television from reliance on spinning discs and other mechanical parts. At age 21, he demonstrated a working system at his own laboratory in San Francisco. He continued to pursue the idea at Brigham Young Academy (now Brigham Young University). He discussed the idea with his high school chemistry teacher, who could think of no reason why it would not work (Farnsworth would later credit this teacher, Justin Tolman, as providing key insights into his invention).

Farnsworth, a Mormon farm boy from Rigby, Idaho, first envisioned his system at age 14. Over a three week period, vaudeville acts, athletic and sports demonstrations, politicians, and hundreds of ordinary citizens were captured on Farnsworth's cameras in the open air and simultaneously shown on his receiving sets. Seven years later, on August 25, 1934, at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Farnsworth gave the world's first public demonstration of a working, all-electronic television system, with 220 lines per picture, 30 pictures per second. A fully electronic system was first achieved by Philo Taylor Farnsworth on September 7, 1927, although the low-resolution, light-insensitive camera tube limited the image to a plate of glass painted black, with a straight line etched across it, rotated in front of a bright carbon arc lamp.

Although his system was never built, the cathode ray tube did come to be used to display images in almost all television sets and computer monitors until the invention of the LCD panel. He lectured on the subject in 1911 and displayed circuit diagrams, but no one, including Swinton, knew how to realize the design. He proposed using an electron beam in both the camera and the receiver, which could be steered electronically to produce moving pictures. Campbell-Swinton wrote a letter to Nature on the 18 June 1908 describing his concept of electronic television using the cathode ray tube, which had been invented in 1897 by the German physicist and Nobel prize winner Karl Ferdinand Braun.

A.A. By 1934, all electromechanical television systems were outmoded, although electromechanical broadcasts continued on some stations until 1939. Although the discoveries of Nipkow, Rosing, Baird and others were extraordinary, little of their technology is used in modern television. The subjects, which included Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, were illuminated by a flying spot beam and scanned by a 50-aperture disk at 16 pictures per second.

But Bell Labs gave the most dramatic demonstration of television yet on April 7, 1927, when it field tested reflected-light television systems using small-scale (2 by 2.5 inches) and large-scale (24 by 30 inches) viewing screens over a wire link from Washington to New York City, and over-the-air broadcast from Whippany, New Jersey. AT&T's Bell Telephone Laboratories transmitted half-tone images of transparencies in May 1925. In the U.S., Charles Francis Jenkins was able to demonstrate on June 13, 1925, the transmission of the silhouette image of a toy windmill in motion from a naval radio station to his laboratory in Washington, using a lensed disk scanner with 48 lines per picture, 16 pictures per second. Baird's electromechanical system reached a peak of 240 lines of resolution on BBC television broadcasts in 1936, before being discontinued in favor of a 405 line all-electronic system.

In 1932 he demonstrated ultra-short wave television. In 1931 he made the first live transmission, of the Epsom Derby. In 1929 he became involved in the first experimental electromechanical television service in Germany. In parallel he developed a video disk recording system dubbed "Phonovision"; a number of the Phonovision[1] recordings, dating back to 1927, still exist.

He also demonstrated an electromechanical color, infrared (dubbed "Noctovision"), and stereoscopic television, using additional lenses, disks and filters. In 1928 Iestyn'sPhillips company (Baird Television Development Company / Cinema Television) broadcast the first transatlantic television signal, between London and New York, and the first shore to ship transmission. Unlike later electronic systems with several hundred lines of resolution, Baird's vertically scanned image, using a scanning disk embedded with a double spiral of lenses, had only 30 lines, just enough to reproduce a recognizable human face. Then he gave the world's first public demonstration of a working television system to members of the Royal Institution and a newspaper reporter on January 26, 1926 at his laboratory in London.

But if television is defined as the transmission of live, moving, half-tone (grayscale) images, and not silhouette or still images, Baird achieved this privately on October 2, 1925. On March 25, 1925, Scottish inventor John Logie Baird gave a demonstration of televised silhouette images at Selfridge's Department Store in London. Moving images were not possible because, in the scanner, "the sensitivity was not enough and the selenium cell was very laggy." Zworykin later went to work for RCA to build a purely electronic television, the design of which was eventually found to violate patents by Philo Taylor Farnsworth. In 1911, Boris Rosing and his student Vladimir Kosma Zworykin created a television system that used a mechanical mirror-drum scanner to transmit, in Zworykin's words, "very crude images" over wires to the electronic Braun tube (cathode ray tube) in the receiver.

Perskeyi's paper reviewed the existing electromechanical technologies, mentioning the work of Nipkow and others. Meanwhile, Constantin Perskyi had coined the word television in a paper read to the International Electricity Congress at the International World Fair in Paris on August 25, 1900. However, it wasn't until 1907 that developments in amplification tube technology made the design practical. Nipkow's spinning disk design is credited with being the first television image rasterizer.

The German student Paul Nipkow proposed and patented the first electromechanical television system in 1885. It is often abbreviated as TV or the telly. Tele- is Greek for "far", while -vision is from the Latin visio, meaning "vision" or "sight". The word television is a hybrid word, created from both Greek and Latin.

From the latter descended all modern televisions, but these would not have been possible without discoveries and insights from the mechanical systems. The development of television technology can be divided along two lines: those developments that depended upon both mechanical and electronic principles, and those which are purely electronic. . The term has come to refer to all the aspects of television programming and transmission as well.

Television is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance. Smith-Shomade, Shaded Lives: African-American Women and Television, Rutgers University Press, 2002. Beretta E. Jerry Mander, Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television, Perennial, 1978.

Jacques Derrida, Bernard Stiegler, Echographies of Television, Polity Press, 2002. Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle, Zone Books, 1995. Pierre Bourdieu, On Television, The New Press, 2001. Erik Barnouw, Tube of Plenty: The Evolution of American Television, Oxford University Press, 1992.

ISBN 0670804541. Penguin USA, 1985. Neil Postman, Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. Aric Sigman,Remotely Controlled: How television is damaging our lives - and what we can do about it,Vermilion 2005.

Dr. In many cases other companies, TV stations or individuals are engaged to do the syndication work, in other words to sell the product into the markets they are allowed to sell into by contract from the copyright holders, in most cases the producers. It includes secondary runs in the country of first issue, but also international usage which may or may not be managed by the originating producer. Syndication - this is the terminology rather broadly used to describe secondary programming usages (beyond original run).

Original Run or First Run - a producer creates a program of one or multiple episodes and shows it on a station or network which has either paid for the production itself or to which a license has been granted by the producers to do the same. Web TV. Ultra High Definition Video (UHDV). Video on-demand (VOD).

Picture-in-picture (PiP). Pay Per View. LCD and Plasma display Flat Screen TV. Internet television.

IPTV. High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI). High Definition TV (HDTV). Flicker-free (100Hz or 120Hz, depending on country).

DVD. Direct Broadcast Satellite TV (DBS). Digital Video Recorders. Digital television (DTV).

Digital Rights Management (DRM). Digital Light Processing (DLP). CableCARD™. Broadcast flag.

with the image horizontally distorted. with upper and lower portions of the image cut off (or in "tilt and scan", parts selected by an operator). in "pillar box" format, with black vertical bars to the left and right. with the image horizontally compressed.

with part of the image being cropped, usually the extreme left and right of the image being cut off (or in "pan and scan", parts selected by an operator). in "letterbox" format, with black horizontal bars at the top and bottom. Long runs must be properly supported away from metal objects and should be mounted with a loose twist in the cable - see unshielded twisted pair cables which operate by the same principle as properly installed twin-lead. Twin-lead wiring is sensitive to nearby metal objects.

Nominal impedance was 300 ohms; connecting an older set to cable or VCRs requires an inexpensive matching transformer to avoid signal degradation due to impedance mismatch. Connection to the set was by connecting the wire to a pair of screws on the back of the television set. 300 ohm twin-lead - The predecessor to coaxial cable, generally a flat insulated cable with a pair of wires separated by 0.5 inch, found on NTSC television sets from 1940 to about 1985, and originally used to connect rabbit ears to a receiver. Most set-top TV antennas have a 300 ohm impedance, so to connect them to a coaxial input requires an inexpensive matching transformer to avoid signal degradation.

NTSC sets use a 75 ohm F-connector; most PAL sets use a 50 ohm Belling Lee. Most modern DVD players and other video devices no longer modulate RF output, so very old TV sets made before composite video jacks became commonplace will need a modulator. This is the type of cable usually used for cable television. Most TVs manufactured during the past 15–20 years accept coaxial connection, and the video is typically "tuned" on channel 3 or 4.

Coaxial RF - All audio channels and picture components are transmitted through one coaxial cable and modulated on a radio frequency. Audio is not carried on this cable, though two separate cables with similar red and white RCA jacks for right and left line-level audio are commonly bonded to composite video cables. Most televisions provide this option with a yellow RCA jack or occasionally a BNC connector. Composite video - The most common form of connecting external devices, putting all the video information into one signal.

Audio is not carried on this cable. This will sometimes, completely incorrectly, be referred to as an SVHS connector. Use started in the 1980s for S-VHS, Hi-8, and early NTSC DVD players to relay high quality video before component was available. Provides most of the benefit of component video, with slightly less color fidelity.

Also referred to as Y/C video. S-Video - small round connector with two separate video signals, one carrying brightness (luminance), the other carrying color (chroma). Japan uses a 21 pin RGB connector which is visually similar to SCART but with different pin configurations. This system has been standard in Europe since mid-1980s for all consumer electronics, which meant that RGBS was available on even the earliest PAL DVD players and satellite receivers.

widescreen). SCART - a large 21 pin connector that may carry: one video signal composite video; or two video signals S-Video; or for picture quality similar to component video, three signals of separate red, green and blue or RGB; or for best picture quality, four video signals of separate red, green, blue and sync or RGBS; plus right and left line-level audio channels; along with a number of control signals including an aspect-ratio flag (e.g. This connection provides for picture quality superior to S-Video and is typically used in home theater for DVDs, satellite and analogue HDTV; less common in Europe but is starting to become more widely available. Audio is not carried on this cable.

Component video - three separate RCA jacks (colored red, green and blue) carry three video signals, one brightness (luminance) and two colors (chromas), and is usually referred to as "Y, B-Y, R-Y", "Y Cr Cb" (interlaced) or "Y Pr Pb" (progressive), or YUV. Copy protection is available using HDCP. DVI - a 17 to 29 pin connector that carries digital video signals, designed to carry HDTV but also used in current DVD players and latest digital displays. This is the most advanced form of connection currently available.

Essentially an enhanced version of DVI that includes digital audio. HDMI - a compact 19 to 29 pin connector that carries digital video and digital audio signals. This approach appeals to videophiles who prefer components that can be upgraded separately. component systems with separate big-screen video monitor, tuner, audio system which the owner connects the pieces together as a high-end home theater system.

integrated systems with DVD players and/or VHS VCR capabilities built into the TV set itself (mostly for small size TVs with up to 21" screen, the main idea is to have a complete portable system);. standalone TV sets;. MMDS (Wireless cable). Cable television.

Satellite television. Stratovision (From aircraft flying in a loop). Terrestrial television.

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