Switchfoot is a United States rock and alternative rock band that rose to mainstream prominence in the mid-2000s. According to Jon Foreman, the name "Switchfoot" is a surfing term. "We all love to surf and have been surfing all our lives so to us, the name made sense. To switch your feet means to take a new stance facing the opposite direction. It's about change and movement, a different way of approaching life and music."

A number of Switchfoot's songs were included in the 2002 movie A Walk to Remember. Singer and actor Mandy Moore, who starred in the movie, sang Switchfoot's song "Only Hope" during a scene in the movie.

Their latest album, The Beautiful Letdown, has been their most successful to date. The hit single "Meant to Live" enjoyed widespread airplay on rock radio stations and transitioned into the top 40. A re-recorded version of "Dare You to Move" has been high on the charts as well. The song "Gone" has also received airplay on Christian radio stations but wasn't released as an actual single. In 2005, Switchfoot received five Dove Award nominations, including Artist of the Year.


  • Jon Foreman: vocals, guitar
  • Tim Foreman: bass
  • Chad Butler: drums
  • Jerome Fontamillas: guitar, keyboard
  • Drew Shirley: guitar


  • The Beautiful Letdown (2003)
    • Meant to Live 3.25 min
    • This Is Your Life 4.18 min
    • More Than Fine 4.15 min
    • Ammunition 3.45 min
    • Dare You to Move 4.11 min
    • Redemption 3.07 min
    • The Beautiful Letdown 5.21 min
    • Gone 3.43 min
    • On Fire 4.39 min
    • Adding to the Noise 2.50 min
    • Twenty-Four 4.52 min
  • Learning To Breathe (2000)
    • I Dare You to Move 4.08 min
    • Learning to Breathe 4.35 min
    • You Already Take Me There 2.43 min
    • Love Is the Movement 5.10 min
    • Poparazzi 3.20 min
    • Innocence Again 3.28 min
    • Playing for Keeps 3.44 min
    • The Loser 3.39 min
    • Economy of Mercy 3.56 min
    • Erosion 3.23 min
    • Living Is Simple 5.17 min
  • New Way to Be Human (1999)
    • New Way to Be Human
    • Incomplete
    • Sooner or Later
    • Company Car
    • Let That Be Enough
    • Something More
    • Only Hope
    • Amy's Song
    • I Turn Everything Over
    • Under the Floor
  • Legend of Chin (1997)
    • Bomb
    • Chem 6a
    • Underwater
    • The Edge of My Seat
    • Home
    • Might Have Ben Hur
    • Concrete Girl
    • Life and Love and Why
    • You
    • Ode to Chin
    • Don't Be There

Billboard Chart Positions, by song

  • "Meant To Live," Adult Top 40, peaked at #5
  • "Meant To Live," Mainstream rock tracks, peaked at #36
  • "Meant To Live," Modern rock tracks, peaked at #5
  • "Meant To Live," Hot 100, peaked at #18
  • "Meant To Live," Top 40 mainstream, peaked at #6
  • "Meant To Live," Top 40 tracks, peaked at #9
  • "Dare You to Move," Modern rock tracks, peaked at #9 (as of writing)
  • "Dare You to Move," Top 40 mainstream, peaked at #29 (as of writing)

Billboard Chart Positions, by album

  • New Way to Be Human, Heatseekers, #31
  • New Way to Be Human, Top Contemporary Christian, #21
  • Learning to Breathe, Heatseekers, #34
  • Learning to Breathe, Top Contemporary Christian, #23
  • The Beautiful Letdown, Top Contemporary Christian, #2
  • The Beautiful Letdown, Billboard 200, #16
  • The Beautiful Letdown, Top Christian albums, #1
  • The Beautiful Letdown, Top Internet albums, #16

External Links

  • Switchfoot (http://www.switchfoot.com/)
  • Columbia Records (http://www.columbiarecords.com/)
  • Switchfoot lyrics (http://www.christianrocklyrics.com/switchfoot.php)
  • +Stars+ Switchfoot fansite (http://www.shrimpdesign.com/sf/)

This page about Switchfoot includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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In 2005, Switchfoot received five Dove Award nominations, including Artist of the Year. The following albums reached the Top Ten on either the United States pop albums chart or the United Kingdom pop albums chart. The song "Gone" has also received airplay on Christian radio stations but wasn't released as an actual single. Also included are the singles that hit #1 on the US R&B charts. A re-recorded version of "Dare You to Move" has been high on the charts as well. The following singles reached the Top Ten of either the Unites States pop singles chart or the United Kingdom pop singles chart. The hit single "Meant to Live" enjoyed widespread airplay on rock radio stations and transitioned into the top 40. For a detailed listing of albums and singles, see: Temptations discography.

Their latest album, The Beautiful Letdown, has been their most successful to date. aka The Elgins. Singer and actor Mandy Moore, who starred in the movie, sang Switchfoot's song "Only Hope" during a scene in the movie. aka Otis Williams & the Siberians and The El Domingoes. A number of Switchfoot's songs were included in the 2002 movie A Walk to Remember. For a detailed listing of the various versions of The Temptations, see: Temptations chronology. It's about change and movement, a different way of approaching life and music.". Richard Street and Damon Harris sometimes perform together as well.

To switch your feet means to take a new stance facing the opposite direction. Ali-Ollie Woodson fronts an act called Ali-Ollie Woodson & the Emperors of Soul--Emperors of Soul being the name of the 1994 Temptations box set. "We all love to surf and have been surfing all our lives so to us, the name made sense. Dennis Edwards tours frequently with his own group, sometimes billing himself as Dennis Edwards & The Temptations or The Temptations Review featuring Dennis Edwards, drawing the legal wrath of Motown. According to Jon Foreman, the name "Switchfoot" is a surfing term. A number of ex-Temptations continue to perform outside of the group. Switchfoot is a United States rock and alternative rock band that rose to mainstream prominence in the mid-2000s. In late 2004, The Temptations asked to be released from their Motown contract, and are now currently an independent act.

+Stars+ Switchfoot fansite (http://www.shrimpdesign.com/sf/). Their latest album, Legacy, was released in 2004. Switchfoot lyrics (http://www.christianrocklyrics.com/switchfoot.php). Cameron from The Spinners, and bass Joe Herndon continue to record and perform on tour. Columbia Records (http://www.columbiarecords.com/). The current Temptations lineup of Otis Williams, Ron Tyson, Terry Weeks, new lead singer G.C. Switchfoot (http://www.switchfoot.com/). The next year, their latest album, Ear-Resistible, won the group its third Grammy, this one for Best Traditional R&B Vocal Performance.

The Beautiful Letdown, Top Internet albums, #16. The Temptations were inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 1999. The Beautiful Letdown, Top Christian albums, #1. The judges ruled in favor of the defendants, and the ruling was upheld when the plaintiffs appealed in 2001. The Beautiful Letdown, Billboard 200, #16. Otis Williams' ex-wife Josephine, Melvin Franklin's mother Rose Franklin, and, on David Ruffin's behalf, his family, filed suit against Williams, Motown, De Passe Entertainment, Hallmark Entertainment, and NBC for a number of charges, including defamation of character. The Beautiful Letdown, Top Contemporary Christian, #2. The miniseries was a ratings success and won an Emmy award for Best Direction; it was subsequently rerun on the VH-1 cable television network and released to VHS and DVD.

Learning to Breathe, Top Contemporary Christian, #23. 1998 also saw the debut of The Temptations, a four-hour television miniseries broadcast in two parts on NBC on November 1 and November 2, 1998. Learning to Breathe, Heatseekers, #34. Main entry: The Temptations (miniseries). New Way to Be Human, Top Contemporary Christian, #21. By this time, Ali-Ollie Woodson and Theo Peoples had departed the group, replaced with Barrington "Bo" Henderson and Terry Weeks, respectively. New Way to Be Human, Heatseekers, #31. The album was anchored by the single "Stay", a #1 hit on the adult contemporary charts that featured a sample from The Temptations' "My Girl".

"Dare You to Move," Top 40 mainstream, peaked at #29 (as of writing). In 1998, The Temptations released Phoenix Rising, their first million-selling album in over twenty years. "Dare You to Move," Modern rock tracks, peaked at #9 (as of writing). Ray Davis from Parliament - Funkadelic assumed the bass role for the 1995 pop standards album For Lovers Only, and Harry McGilberry became the permanent bass. "Meant To Live," Top 40 tracks, peaked at #9. Two years later, Melvin Franklin was forced to leave the group because of failing health; he died on February 23, 1995 at age 52 after suffering a brain seizure. "Meant To Live," Top 40 mainstream, peaked at #6. Richard Street left The Temptations in 1992 after a twenty-year association with the group, with Theo Peoples taking his place.

"Meant To Live," Hot 100, peaked at #18. Kendrick was diagnosed with lung cancer and retired; he died on October 5, 1992 at the age of 52 in his native Birmingham. "Meant To Live," Modern rock tracks, peaked at #5. The tour was carried out, much to the chagrin of Otis Williams and Motown, but production on the album was cut short when Ruffin, age 50, died on June 1, 1991 after overdosing on cocaine. "Meant To Live," Mainstream rock tracks, peaked at #36. After reuniting at the induction ceremony, Edwards, Ruffin, and Kendricks made plans to tour and record as "Ruffin/Kendrick/Edwards, Former Leads of The Temptations". "Meant To Live," Adult Top 40, peaked at #5. In 1989, The Temptations were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, honoring Edwards, Franklin, Otis Williams, David Ruffin, Eddie Kendrick, and, posthumously, Paul Williams.

Don't Be There. An updated version of the book was published in 2002. Ode to Chin. The book chronicled the careers of The Temptations from the Primes/Distants days to the present, focusing on the lives of Williams and his best friend Melvin Franklin. You. The same year, Otis Williams published his autobiography, Temptations, which he co-authored with Patricia Romanowski. Life and Love and Why. Dennis Edwards left The Temptations for the third and final time in 1988, with Ali-Ollie Woodson re-joining the lineup.

Concrete Girl. Woodson remained with The Temptations until 1987, when he was replaced by a returning (for the second time) Dennis Edwards. Might Have Ben Hur. In 1984, Edwards left the group for a solo career, and was replaced with Ali-Ollie Woodson, who sang lead on the #2 R&B hit "Treat Her Like A Lady", co-written by Woodson and Otis Williams. Home. "Love on My Mind Tonight" made it to #17, and "Sail Away", produced by a returning Norman Whitfield, made it to #13. The Edge of My Seat. By this time, The Temptations' releases were no longer performing well on the pop charts, though they sometimes made the R&B Top 20.

Underwater. Glenn Leonard also left and was replaced by Ron Tyson. Chem 6a. At the conclusion of the Reunion tour, Ruffin and Kendricks were fired; they began touring and performing together as a duo. Bomb. The Reunion tour with all seven Temptations (Ruffin, Kendricks, Edwards, Otis Williams, Melvin Franklin, Richard Street, and Glenn Leonard) was only partially successful; Kendricks' voice had weakened after decades of chain smoking, and Ruffin, still addicted to cocaine, missed a number of the performances. Legend of Chin (1997)

    . The song, which featured Ruffin, Kendricks, and Dennis Edwards on lead, went to #6 on the R&B charts.

    Under the Floor. Motown funk star Rick James, who had used The Temptations as backup vocalists on his 1981 hit "Super Freak", wrote, produced, and guest starred on the album's lead single, "Standing on the Top". I Turn Everything Over. Eddie Kendricks and David Ruffin, whose solo careers had by now run dry, agreed to re-join The Temptations for the Reunion album and tour. Amy's Song. Two years of underperforming singles and albums followed until, in 1982, Motown began making plans for a Temptations reunion tour. Only Hope. Berry Gordy co-wrote and produced The Temptations' first single under the new contract, "Power", which missed the Top 40 but hit #11 on the R&B charts.

    Something More. Upon the return to Motown, Price departed from the group, and Dennis Edwards returned to the lineup. Let That Be Enough. The Atlantic Temptations releases, with Louis Price as the main lead vocalist in Edwards' place, did no better than their Motown releases, and Berry Gordy fought to re-sign The Temptations to Motown, finally succeeding in 1980. Company Car. Dennis Edwards left The Temptations when the group, citing the label's inattention as the reason for their declining sales and popularity, departed Motown for Atlantic Records in 1977. Sooner or Later. Damon Harris left the group between House Party and The Temptations Do The Temptations and was replaced by Glenn Leonard.

    Incomplete. Wings of Love's only single, "Up the Creek (Without a Paddle)" was written by Sly Stone, the inspiration for many of the Temptations' psychedelci soul records; because of tax reasons, he could not take a publishing credit on the song. New Way to Be Human. A number of producers, including Bowen, Brian Holland, James Carmichael, and even The Temptations themselves tried producing hits for the next three LP's, Wings of Love, House Party, and The Temptations Do The Temptations, but each single performed worse than the next. New Way to Be Human (1999)

      . Bowen's first LP with The Temptations was 1975's A Song For You, which included a cover of the titular Leon Russell tune (popularized with soul audiences by Donny Hathaway), along with the Top 40 hits "Shakey Ground" (featuring instrumentation by P-Funk members) and "Glasshouse". Living Is Simple 5.17 min. Whitfield left Motown shortly afterwards, and in 1975 established Whitfield Records, taking The Undisputed Truth, and Rose Royce, who performed the instrumental track for "Let Your Hair Down", with him.

      Erosion 3.23 min. The Temptations complained about Whitfield to Berry Gordy, who intervened and reassigned them to producer Jeffery Bowen. Economy of Mercy 3.56 min. 1973 saw the release of the final Whitfield-produced album, 1990, which included the Top 30 single "Let Your Hair Down". The Loser 3.39 min. They felt Whitfield was arrogant and difficult to work with; his productions began to emphasize his talents over the group's. Playing for Keeps 3.44 min. Tensions developed between The Temptations and Whitfield.

      Innocence Again 3.28 min. The success of "Papa Was a Rolling Stone" led him to create more elongated, operatic pieces, including the Top 40 hit "Masterpiece" (1973) and the tracks on the album it anchored, also called Masterpiece. Poparazzi 3.20 min. After "Papa Was a Rolling Stone", Whitfield stopped working with Barrett Strong, and began writing and arranging The Temptations' material on his own. Love Is the Movement 5.10 min. Whitfield and arranger/conductor Paul Riser won Best R&B Instrumental Performance with the instrumental version of "Papa" on the single's b-side, and Whitfield and Barrett Strong won the songwriters' Best R&B Song Award. You Already Take Me There 2.43 min. An edited seven-minute version was released as a single in September 1972, hitting #1 on the pop charts and #5 on the R&B charts. In 1973, "Papa Was a Rolling Stone" won The Temptations their second Grammy for Best R&B Performance by a Group.

      Learning to Breathe 4.35 min. Originally a record Whitfield had written and produced for The Undisputed Truth, Whitfield took the somber tune and created a sprawling, dramatic twelve-minute version for The Temptations. I Dare You to Move 4.08 min. 1972 saw the release of Norman Whitfield's magnum opus, "Papa Was a Rolling Stone". Learning To Breathe (2000)

        . Otis Williams, Dennis Edwards, Melvin Franklin, Richard Street, and Damon Harris continued recording and performing; and Norman Whitfield continued producing hits for The Temptations, including the Top 40 hits "Superstar (Remember How You Got Where You Are)" (1971), a message from The Temptations to the estranged David Ruffin and Eddie Kendricks, and "Take A Look Around" (1972). Twenty-Four 4.52 min. After Williams had recovered enough to perform again, Motown made plans for a Paul Williams solo career, but Williams committed suicide on August 17, 1973.

        Adding to the Noise 2.50 min. Later the same year, Richard Street officially replaced Paul Williams, who remained on The Temptations' payroll as an advisor and choreographer. On Fire 4.39 min. Kendricks quit the group in between shows at a March 1971 Copacabana engagement and was replaced with Ricky Owens, who almost immediately was replaced by Damon Harris. Gone 3.43 min. The final Temptations single to feature a lead by Kendricks was the #1 pop hit "Just My Imagination (Running Away With Me)", a whistful, lush ballad recorded in late 1970, and released in early 1971. The Beautiful Letdown 5.21 min. He began an association with David Ruffin, who convinced him to quit The Temptations and go solo.

        Redemption 3.07 min. In addition, Kendricks was uncomfortable with the psychedelic soul material the group was now performing, preferring the material from the earlier days. Dare You to Move 4.11 min. Eddie Kendricks was also becoming detached from the group and sometimes would pick fights with Otis Wlliams and Melvin Franklin. Ammunition 3.45 min. At some Temptations performances, former Distant Richard Street was called upon to sing Williams' parts from offstage, while an inebriated Williams danced and lip-synced for the audience. More Than Fine 4.15 min. After he developed alcoholism, it became hard for him to continue with the group.

        This Is Your Life 4.18 min. Paul Williams had sickle-cell anemia and frequently was in poor health. Meant to Live 3.25 min. More Temptations psychedelic soul singles would follow over the next two years, including "Runaway Child, Running Wild", the #1 pop hit "I Can't Get Next to You", "Psychedelic Shack" in 1969), and "Ball of Confusion (That's What the World is Today)" and "Ungena Za Ulimwengu (Unite the World)" (with "Hum Along and Dance" as a b-side) in 1970. The Beautiful Letdown (2003)

          . The blending of the Motown sound and psychedelic rock sound resulted in a new subgenre of music called "psychedelic soul", also evident in the work of Diana Ross & the Supremes' ("Reflections", "Love Child"), Marvin Gaye's ("I Heard It Through The Grapevine"), and the music of The Fifth Dimension and War. Drew Shirley: guitar. The instrumentation was funkier, the beat was hard-driving, and all five Temptations traded lead vocals à la the Family Stone. "Cloud Nine", the centerpiece of the group's landmark Cloud Nine LP, was a Top 10 hit and won Motown its first Grammy Award, for Best R&B Group Performance of 1968.

          Jerome Fontamillas: guitar, keyboard. In late 1968, Norman Whitfield began producing psychedelic-based material for The Temptations, based on the sound of funk band Sly & The Family Stone. This new style, which debuted with "Cloud Nine" in fall 1968, was a marked departure from the David Ruffin-era ballads. Chad Butler: drums. on Broadway (aired November 12, 1969). Tim Foreman: bass. Beginning in 1968, Berry Gordy commissioned a number of collaborations for The Temptations with their old colleagues Diana Ross & the Supremes, including a joint tour, two studio albums (Diana Ross & The Supremes Join The Temptations, featuring the #2 hit single "I'm Gonna Make You Love Me", and Together), and two NBC television specials, TCB (aired December 9, 1968) and G.I.T. Jon Foreman: vocals, guitar. Ruffin sued Motown in 1969, and Motown settled with Ruffin by offering him a solo recording contract.

          Extra security guards were hired to prevent Ruffin from attending The Temptations' performances. The audiences were delighted, but The Temptations and Motown were frustrated and embarrassed. Shortly afterward, however, he began turning up at The Temptations' shows, jumping onstage and stealing the spotlight. Edwards and Ruffin were good friends, and Ruffin at first went along with the changing of the guard.

          There was general agreement among the rest of The Temptations that Ruffin needed to be replaced, and in the summer of 1968, Dennis Edwards, formerly of The Contours, was brought in as the new lead singer. After seeing how Motown had made Diana Ross the focus of The Supremes by renaming the group "Diana Ross & the Supremes", Ruffin demanded that his group be renamed, as well — to "David Ruffin & the Temptations.". In addition, Ruffin wanted top billing. He missed a number of rehearsals, concerts, and group meetings; and began regularly using cocaine.

          There were problems that affected group morale and performances, as well. He demanded special treatment, riding to and from gigs in a mink-lined limousine with his then-girlfriend singer Tammi Terrell, instead of in the group's station wagon. David Ruffin felt that he was almost single-handedly responsible for the group's success. Many soul and R&B vocal groups, such as 1970s Motown act The Jackson 5, the Johnny Gill-led version of New Edition; Dru Hill; and, perhaps most notably, 1990s Motown act Boyz II Men were influenced by The Temptations.

          Paul Williams and Motown choreographer Cholly Atkins created The Temptation's trademark precise; energetic, yet refined, dance steps. The most famous of these, the "Temptation Walk", or "Temptation Strut", was adapted from similar moves by a 1950s act called The Flamingos and a 1960s act called The Vibrations, from which The Temptations briefly gained Ricky Owens when they broke apart for a time in 1971. From those two sources, Paul Williams crafted the group's signature dance routine. Berry Gordy insisted his acts be equally appealing to white and black audiences, and employed a creative team to help tailor Motown talent for crossover success. Only a few performers, including contemporaries Marvin Gaye and Sam Cooke, showed the refined style that would be popularized by The Temptations. Before The Temptations became popular, most black vocal groups were rough, high-energy acts with rawer vocals and more improvisational dance movements.

          The Temptations' sophisticated soul, with their tailored suits and tight choreography, set the bar for male soul and R&B groups. The group appeared frequently on television shows such as American Bandstand and The Ed Sullivan Show, and catered to middle America with a pop standards album (The Temptations in a Mellow Mood, 1967) and performances at the Copacabana in New York City and other such supper clubs. Between 1964 and 1968, The Temptations went from unknown hopefuls to international stars. Barrett Strong, the singer on Motown's first hit "Money (That's What I Want)", began his long songwriting partnership with Whitfield with the December 1967 release "I Wish It Would Rain".

          Other singles from this prolific period included "You're My Everything", on which Ruffin and Kendricks share lead vocals, and "All I Need", produced by Whitfield's protégé Frank Wilson. Whitfield's writing partners during this period included Roger Penzabene, Cornelius Grant, and Edward Holland, Jr. Nearly all of the pre-1968 Whitfield-produced Temptations singles featured David Ruffin on lead vocals, including the R&B #1/pop Top 10 hits "Beauty Is Only Skin Deep" and "(I Know) I'm Losing You". In 1966, Norman Whitfield became The Temptations' new main producer, after his "Ain't Too Proud to Beg" performed better than Smokey Robinson's "Get Ready" on the US pop charts. That song, "My Girl," became The Temptations’ first #1 pop hit in December, and is today their signature song. Ruffin also sung lead on the next three Temptations singles, "It's Growing", "Since I Lost My Baby" and "My Baby", all of which made it to the Top 20 in 1965.

          While traveling as part of Motown's Motortown Revue later that year, Robinson and fellow Miracle Ronald White wrote a song for the emotive Ruffin to sing lead on, which The Temptations recorded in the fall of 1964. In January 1964, Robinson co-wrote and produced "The Way You Do the Things You Do" with Kendricks on lead; the single became The Temptations' first Top 20 hit that April. Many songwriter and producer teams had been trying to craft a hit for The Temptations, including Berry Gordy, Mickey Stevenson, Clarence Paul, and Norman Whitfield, but Miracles lead singer Smokey Robinson had the best rapport with the group. His replacement was David Ruffin, younger brother of Motown artist Jimmy Ruffin.

          After a performance at the 1963 Motown company Christmas party, Bryant was fired from the group. Bryant, who preferred his day job as a milkman to performing, soon became restless and uncooperative. Paul Williams and Eddie Kendricks split most of the leads, with Al Bryant, Otis Williams, and Melvin Franklin occasionally singing lead. All of The Temptations' first seven singles, released between 1961 and 1963, failed to make it onto the US pop singles charts; "Dream Come True" (1962) made it to #22 on the R&B chart.

          The Temptations released two singles on Miracle before it was closed and merged with the Gordy label (to avoid confusion with The Miracles singing group). Four months prior, The Primes' former protégés The Primettes signed to Motown, and Gordy had their name changed to The Supremes. headquarters. Otis Williams and Miracle employee Bill Mitchell came up with the name The Temptations on the steps of Motown's Hitsville U.S.A.

          Gordy agreed to sign the group to his Miracle Records imprint, provided they change their name. The new lineup of Otis Williams, Franklin, Bryant, Kendricks, and Paul Williams took on the name The Elgins and auditioned for Motown in March 1961. Kendricks agreed, with one condition — that he could bring Paul Williams with him. Eddie Kendricks called Otis Williams, who, needing two more members for an audition for Gordy, offered Kendricks a place in the Distants.

          Kel Osbourne left the Primes and moved to California, and Eddie Kendricks and Paul Williams returned to Alabama for a short time before returning to Detroit. The two groups were friendly rivals. The Distants were acquainted with The Primes, as both groups made the same rounds to local record hops, talent shows, and concerts. Street would front a new group of Distants for the local Thelma label during the early 1960s.

          At the same time, it lost Mooch Harrell, Richard Street, and the rights to use its name. After receiving an offer from Berry Gordy of Motown Records, the group got out of its contract with Matthews and left Northern. Although "Come On" sold decently in the Detroit area, the Distants never saw much of their share from the record sales, and the second single was not as successful. The musicians at the recording session for the Distants' "Come On" included James Jamerson on bass; The Andantes on background vocals; and, on tambourine, Norman Whitfield.

          The various members of The Primes and The Distants who would later become part of The Temptations met a number of their later Motown bandmates, labelmates, and producers during the early part of their careers. Melvin Franklin had been a member of the recording group The Voice Masters, which also included among its ranks Lamont Dozier and David Ruffin. Other important inspirations included The Cadillacs, Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers, The Drifters, and the Isley Brothers. The Miracles were known for their excellent stage show, and their pop success was something for which both groups strived. The Primes and The Distants were but two of dozens of local male vocal acts, the most famous of which was The Miracles, led by Smokey Robinson.

          "Come On" was a local hit for the Distants, and the Warwick label picked the record up for national distribution. Between these two releases, Albert "Mooch" Harrell replaced Pee-Wee Crawford. The Distants recorded two singles for Northern, "Come On" (1959, featuring additional background vocals by The Andantes), and "Alright" (1960). The group soon signed with Northern Records, run by Jonnie Mae Matthews, who renamed the group Otis Williams & the Distants.

          Montgomery, Alabama native Melvin Franklin replaced Arthur Walton as the bass singer, and Franklin's cousin Richard Street replaced Vernard Plain as lead singer. At this time, more changes took place. The single never took off outside the local Detroit market, and the Siberians changed their name to The El Domingoes shortly afterward. This quintet recorded the single "Pecos Kid" backed with "All of My Life" for a label run by local dee-jay Senator Bristol Bryant.

          By 1958, he was the leader of Otis Williams & the Siberians, a doo-wop group that included Williams, his friend Elbridge "Al" Bryant, James "Pee-Wee" Crawford, Vernard Plain, and Arthur Walton. Otis Williams had moved from Texarkana, Texas, to Detroit as a young boy. Group manager Milton Jenkins even created a sister group for the Primes called The Primettes, recruiting junior high schoolers Florence Ballard, Mary Wilson, Diane Ross, and Betty McGlown for the spin-off act. The Primes, as the doo-wop trio was called, were well-known around Detroit for their meticulous performances.

          After first moving to Cleveland, Ohio, they settled in Detroit. Best friends Eddie Kendricks and Paul Williams, along with singing partner Kel Osbourne, left their native Birmingham, Alabama, in 1955 in order to break into the music business. Two more awards were conferred upon the songwriters and producers who crafted their seminal 1972 hit "Papa Was a Rolling Stone". Over the course of their career, The Temptations have released four #1 pop hit singles, and 10 more #1 R&B hit singles. Their material has earned them three Grammy Awards.

          Among the most notable future Temptations were lead singers David Ruffin and Dennis Edwards, both of whom became successful Motown solo artists after leaving the group; Richard Street, also a former Distant; Ron Tyson; and Ali-Ollie Woodson. The original group included members of two local Detroit vocal groups: tenor/baritone Otis Williams, tenor Elbridge "Al" Bryant and bass Melvin Franklin from Otis Williams & The Distants, tenor/falsetto Eddie Kendricks, and baritone Paul Williams (no relation to Otis) from The Primes. Like its sister group The Supremes, The Temptations' lineup has changed frequently over the years. As of 2005, The Temptations continue to perform as an independent act with only one original member, founder Otis Williams, in its lineup.

          From 1977 to 1980 they were signed to Atlantic Records. In addition, they have the second-longest tenure on Motown (behind Stevie Wonder), as they were with the label for a total of 40 years: 16 years from 1961 to 1977, and 24 more from 1980 to 2004. Having sold an estimated 22 million albums by 1982 [2] (http://www.memorabletv.com/memorablemusic/temptations.htm), The Temptations are the most successful group in black music history [3] (http://classic.motown.com/artist.aspx?ob=ros&src=lb&aid=52) and were the definitive male vocal group of the 1960s [4] (http://www.vghf.com/Inductees/temptations.htm). The group, known for its finely tuned choreography, distinct harmonies, and stylish suits, has been said to be as influential to soul as The Beatles are to rock [1] (http://www.freep.com/motownat40/archives/082888mo.htm).

          The Temptations (also abbreviated as "The Tempts" or "The Temps") are an American Motown singing group whose repertoire has included doo-wop, soul, psychedelia, funk, disco, R&B, and adult contemporary. Formed in Detroit, Michigan, in 1961, The Temptations has always featured five African-American male vocalists/dancers. ISBN 071-199511-7. London: Omnibus Press. Where Did Our Love Go: The Rise and Fall of the Motown.

          2003). George, Nelson (1985, rev. ISBN 081-541218-5. Lanham, MD: Cooper Square.

          Williams, Otis and Romanowski, Patricia (1988, updated 2002). Temptations. New York: Motown Record Co., L.P. The Temptations: Emperors of Soul [CD Box Set]. "Sunshine on a Cloudy Day".

          Weinger, Harry (1994). Detroit Free Press. Eddie Kendrick: once again, he's doing fine on cloud nine (http://www.freep.com/motownat40/archives/040686mo.htm). Teegardin, Carol (April 6, 1986).

          ISBN 037-550062-6. New York: Random House. Motown : Music, Money, Sex, and Power. Posner, Gerald (2002).

          Retrieved on February 9, 2005 from http://www.ritchie-hardin.com/soul/temps0.html. The Ritchie Hardin Network. The Tangled History of The Temptations. Hardin, Ritchie (July 17, 2004).

          Detroit Free Press. Temptations: Otis tells the group's tale (http://www.freep.com/motownat40/archives/082888mo.htm|The). Graff, Gary (Aug 28, 1988). New York: Motown Record Co., L.P.

          The Temptations: Emperors of Soul [CD Box Set]. "Cool as They Wanna Be". George, Nelson. Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/3/39/1998-tempts-stay.ogg) of "Stay" (lead: Barrington "Bo" Henderson and Ron Tyson).

          Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/59/1984-tempts-treat-her-like.ogg) of "Treat Her Like a Lady" (lead: Ali-Ollie Woodson). Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/52/1982-tempts-james-standing-top.ogg) of "Standing on the Top" featuring Rick James (lead: Dennis Edwards, Eddie Kendricks, Rick James, and David Ruffin). Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/53/1972-tempts-papa-rolling-stone.ogg) of "Papa Was a Rolling Stone" (lead: all). Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/cc/1971-tempts-just-my-imagination.ogg) of "Just My Imagination (Running Away With Me)" (lead: Eddie Kendricks and Paul Williams).

          Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/82/1970-tempts-ball_of_confusion.ogg) of "Ball of Confusion (That's What the World is Today)" (lead: all). Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/20/1970-psychedelic-shack.ogg) of "Psychedelic Shack" (lead: all). Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/8e/1969-tempts-cant-get-next.ogg) of "I Can't Get Next to You" (lead: all). Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/97/1968-tempts-cloud-9.ogg) of "Cloud Nine" (lead: all).

          Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/d7/1967-tempts-wish-it-would-rain.ogg) of "I Wish It Would Rain" (lead: David Ruffin). Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/77/1966-tempts-im-losing-you.ogg) of "(I Know) I'm Losing You" (lead: David Ruffin). Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/6e/1966-tempts-aint-too-proud.ogg) of "Ain't Too Proud to Beg" (lead: David Ruffin). Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b4/1966-tempts-get_ready.ogg) of "Get Ready" (lead: Eddie Kendricks).

          Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e5/1964-tempts-my-girl.ogg) of "My Girl" (lead: David Ruffin). Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e4/1964-tempts-the-way.ogg) of "The Way You Do the Things You Do" (lead: Eddie Kendricks). Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/44/1959-distants-come-on.ogg) of "Come On" by Otis Williams & the Distants and The Andantes (lead: Richard Street).. 1970: Psychedelic Shack (US #9).

          1969: Puzzle People (US #5). 1969: Cloud Nine (US #4). 1968: TCB (with Diana Ross & The Supremes) (US #1). 1968: Diana Ross & The Supremes Join The Temptations (with Diana Ross & The Supremes) (US #2).

          1967: The Temptations With a Lot o' Soul (US #7). 1967: Temptations Live! (US #10). 1966: The Temptations' Greatest Hits (US #5). 1981: "Super Freak (Part I)" (Rick James featuring The Temptations) (US #6).

          1975: "Shakey Ground" (R&B #1). 1974: "Happy People" (R&B #1). 1973: "Let Your Hair Down" (R&B #1). 1973: "Masterpiece" (US #7, R&B #1).

          1972: "Papa Was a Rolling Stone" (US #1). 1971: "Just My Imagination (Running Away With Me)" (US #1, R&B #1). 1970: "Ball of Confusion (That's What the World is Today)" (US #3). 1969: "Psychedelic Shack" (US #7).

          1969: "I Can't Get Next to You" (US #1, R&B #1). 1969: "Runaway Child, Running Wild" (US #6, R&B #1). 1968: "I'm Gonna Make You Love Me" (with Diana Ross & the Supremes) (US #2). 1968: "Cloud Nine" (US #6).

          1968: "I Could Never Love Another (After Loving You)" (R&B #1). 1967: "I Wish It Would Rain" (US #4, R&B #1). 1967: "You're My Everything" (US #6). 1967: "All I Need" (US #8).

          1966: "(I Know) I'm Losing You" (US #8, R&B #1). 1966: "Beauty is Only Skin Dep" (US #3, R&B #1). 1966: "Ain't Too Proud to Beg" (R&B #1). 1966: "Get Ready" (R&B #1).

          1964: "My Girl" (US #1, R&B #1). Joe Herndon (2003 – present). Cameron (2003 – present). G.C.

          Terry Weeks (1998 - present). Barrington “Bo” Henderson (1998 - 2003). Harry McGilberry (1995 - 2003). Ray Davis (1994 - 1995).

          Theo Peoples (1992 – 1998). Ali-Ollie Woodson (1984 – 1986, 1987 -1998). Ron Tyson (1983 – present). Louis Price (1977 – 1980).

          Glenn Leonard (1975 – 1982). Damon Harris (1971 – 1975). Richard Street (1971 – 1992). Ricky Owens (1971).

          Dennis Edwards (1968 – 1977, 1980 – 1984, 1987). David Ruffin (1964 – 1968, 1982 reunion). Paul Williams (1960 – 1971). Eddie Kendricks (1960 – 1971, 1982 reunion).

          Melvin Franklin (1960 – 1994). Elbridge "Al" Bryant (1960 – 1963). Otis Williams (1960 – present). Albert "Mooch" Harrell (1959 – 1960).

          Richard Street (1959 – 1960). Melvin Franklin (1959 – 1960). Athrur Walton (1958 – 1959). Vernard Plain (1958 – 1959).

          James "Pee-Wee" Crawford (1958 – 1959). Elbridge "Al" Bryant (1958 – 1960). Otis Williams (1958 – 1960). Kel Osbourne (1955 – 1960).

          Eddie Kendricks (1955 – 1960). Paul Williams (1955 – 1960).

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