Studebaker

Studebaker's "Lazy S" logo designed by Raymond Loewy was used from the 1950s until 1966

Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer that was incorporated in 1868[1]. The company left the automobile business in 1966.

Early history

Henry Studebaker was a farmer, blacksmith, and wagon-maker who lived near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania in the early 19th century. By 1840 he had moved to Ohio and taught his five sons to make wagons. They all went into that business as they grew westward with the country.

Logo used by Studebaker for its cars produced before the mid 1930s

Clement and Henry, Jr. became blacksmiths and foundrymen in South Bend, Indiana. They first made metal parts for freight wagons and later expanded into the manufacture of wagons. John made wheelbarrows in California and Peter made wagons in Saint Joseph, Missouri. The first major expansion in their business came from their being in place to meet the needs of the California Gold Rush in 1849.

When the gold rush settled down, John returned to Indiana and bought out Henry's share of the business. They brought in their youngest brother Jacob and incorporated in 1852. Expansion continued to support westward migration, but the next major increase came from supplying wagons for the Union Army in the American Civil War. After the war they reviewed what they had accomplished and set a direction for the company.

They reorganized into the Studebaker Brother's Manufacturing Company in 1868, built around the motto of "Always give more than you promise". By this time the railroad and steamship companies had become the big freight movers in the east. So they set their sights on supplying individuals and farmers the ability to move themselves and their goods. Peter's business became a branch operation.

During the height of westward migration and wagon train pioneering, half of the wagons were Studebakers. They made about a quarter of them, and manufactured the metal fittings to sell to other builders in Missouri for another quarter.

Studebaker Automobiles 1897-1966

Studebaker's Big Six Touring Car, from a 1920 magazine ad.

Studebaker experimented with motor vehicles as early as 1897, choosing electric over gasoline powered engines. The company entered into a distribution agreement with Everett-Metzger-Flanders (E-M-F) Company of Detroit; E-M-F would manufacture vehicles and the Studebakers would distribute them through their wagon dealers. Problems with E-M-F made the cars unreliable leading the public to say that E-M-F stood for "Every Morning Fix-it". J.M. Studebaker, unhappy with E-M-F's poor quality, gained control of the assets and plant facilities in 1910. To remedy the damage done by E-M-F, Studebaker paid mechanics to visit each unsatisfied owner and replace the defective parts in their vehicles at a cost of US$1 million to the company.

Worlds largest living sign was planted at the Studebaker Proving Grounds, west of South Bend, Indiana.

Studebaker also began putting its name on new automobiles produced at the former E-M-F facilities, both as an assurance that the vehicles were well-built, and as its commitment to making automobile production and sales a success. In 1911 the company reorganized as the Studebaker Corporation.

In addition to cars, Studebaker also added a truck line, which in time, replaced the horse drawn wagon business started in 1851. In 1926, Studebaker became the first automobile manufacturer in the United States to open a controlled outdoor proving ground; in 1937 the company planted 5,000 pine trees in a pattern that when viewed from the air spelled "STUDEBAKER."

From the 1920s to the 1960s, the South Bend company originated many style and engineering milestones, including the classic 1929-1932 Studebaker President and the 1939 Studebaker Champion. Studebaker continued to build models that appealed to the average American and their need for transportation and mobility.

Cover of Turning Wheels magazine showing stock-appearing Studebaker Starliner at Bonneville. The streamlined shapes of Studebakers made them very popular for top speed record seekers.

However, ballooning labor costs (the company had never had an official United Auto Workers (UAW) strike and Studebaker workers and retirees were among the highest paid in the industry), quality control issues and the new car sales war between Ford and General Motors in the early 1950s wreaked havoc on Studebaker's balance sheet. Professional financial managers stressed short term earnings rather than long term vision. There was enough momentum to keep going for another ten years, but stiff competition and price cutting by the Big Three doomed the enterprise.

Hoping to stem the tide of losses and bolster its market position, Studebaker allowed itself to be acquired by Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit; the merged entity was called the Studebaker-Packard Corporation. Studebaker's cash position was far worse than it led Packard to believe and in 1956 the nearly bankrupt automaker brought in a management team from aircraft maker Curtiss-Wright to help get it back on its feet. At the behest of C-W's president Roy T. Hurley, the company became the American importer for Mercedes-Benz, Auto Union and DKW automobiles and many Studebaker dealers sold those brands as well. In 1958, the Packard name was discontinued, although the company continued to bear the Studebaker-Packard name through 1962.

1953 Studebaker Commander Starliner, showing the streamlined design of the 1950s Studebaker. In the 1980s, a multi-national panel of renowned automobile journalists, voted the 1953 Studebaker Starliner "one of the top ten most beautiful automobiles ever made".

With an abundance of tax credits in hand from the years of financial losses, at the insistence of the company's banks and some members of the board of directors, Studebaker-Packard began diversifying away from automobiles in the late 1950s. While this was good for the corporate bottom line, it virtually guaranteed there would be little spending on Studebaker's mainstay products, its automobiles.

The automobiles which came after the diversification process began, including the ingeniously-designed compact Lark (1959) and even the "Avanti" sports car (1963) were based on old chassis and engine designs. The Lark, in particular, was based on existing parts to the degree that it even utilized the central body section of the company's 1953 cars, but was a clever enough design to be quite popular in its first year, selling over 150,000 units and delivering an unexpected $28 million profit to the automaker.

Sadly, everything that was tried in the years following the Lark's debut proved to be not enough to stop the financial bleeding. The company closed its operations in South Bend in December 1963, selling its Avanti brand to Nate Altman who continued to produce the car in South Bend under the brand name Avanti II. Automotive production was consolidated at the company's last remaining production facility in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, where Studebaker produced cars until April, 1966, when it left the automobile business to focus on its profitable wholly-owned subsidiaries. The last car manufactured was a turquoise-and-white Cruiser four-door sedan.

Many of Studebaker's dealers converted to Mercedes-Benz dealerships following the closure of the Canadian plant. Studebaker's proving grounds were acquired by its former supplier Bendix Corporation, which later donated the grounds for use as a park to the St. Joseph County, Indiana parks department. As a condition of the donation, the new park was named park Bendix Woods. Today, the former proving ground is owned by Robert Bosch GmbH, and it continues to be active some 80 years after it was first built. Its General Products Divsion, which handled defence contracts, was acquired by Kaiser Industries, and continues to this day as AM General.

Even as financial difficulties continued to mount in 1963, Studebaker offered a full range of models including the Avanti, Hawk, Wagonaire and Lark based Cruiser, Commander, and Daytona convertible.

After 1966, Studebaker continued to exist as a closed investment group, with income derived from its numerous diversified units including STP, Gravely Tractor, Onan Electric Generators, and Clarke Floor Machine. Studebaker was acquired by Wagner Electric in 1967. Subsequently, Studebaker was then merged with the Worthington Corporation to form Studebaker-Worthington. The Studebaker name disappeared from the American business scene in 1979 when McGraw-Edison acquired Studebaker-Worthington. McGraw-Edison, was itself purchased in 1985 by Cooper Industries, which sold off all its auto-parts divisions to Federal-Mogul some years later.

Nearly aborted revival

Cover of Turning Wheels magazine, featuring Bonneville racers. On the left is a modified Studebaker Starliner, on the right a modified Avanti.

In 2003 the owners of the Studebaker XUV trademark, Avanti Motor Corporation, now based in Villa Rica, Georgia, announced a Studebaker-branded SUV, the XUV, for production that fall, bringing a demonstration model to the Chicago Auto Show. General Motors sued, claiming infringement of the trade dress of their Hummer model. In 2004 both parties announced a settlement after a redesign of the XUV concept, but owner Michael Kelly decided to retire, announcing an auction of the Avanti company. Whether there were bidders or a sale had not been made public and there were no further public announcements made regarding any such sale. However, it appears that Avanti is currently producing vehicles again, as Avanti Motors recently announced that its 2006 model-year vehicles are now available.

The XUV has been joined for 2006 by the Studebaker XUT, a pickup version that is similar in concept to the Chevrolet Avalanche, although it is not known if the XUT has the same type of "mid-gate" that allows the expansion of the cargo area into the passenger cabin.

Survivor?

As reported by Forbes magazine in 2004 in an article on companies which survived the 1929 stock market crash, the remains of the automaker still exist as Studebaker-Worthington Leasing, a subsidiary of State Bank of Long Island (amex: STB).

Revival

Studebaker Motor Company Inc. is a separate company from that of Avanti Motor Corp and claims to be licensed with the NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration "USDOT" Department of Transportation as a manufacturer of land vehicles including passenger cars, trucks, pickup trucks and motorcycles, although at this point it appears to consist of little more than an incomplete website. The company's public relations office has stated in email. That the current site will be changed in following months. Also stated that there will be a big press release during this year about their product line in whole.


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Also stated that there will be a big press release during this year about their product line in whole. Volume 15 and later are released in the HDCD format. That the current site will be changed in following months. About three new volumes were being released each year. The company's public relations office has stated in email. Started in 1993, as of January 14, 2006 there are thirty-six volumes in the series, each covering a part or all of one or more concerts. is a separate company from that of Avanti Motor Corp and claims to be licensed with the NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration "USDOT" Department of Transportation as a manufacturer of land vehicles including passenger cars, trucks, pickup trucks and motorcycles, although at this point it appears to consist of little more than an incomplete website. The above list does not include the Dick's Picks series of concert recordings taken from the band's archives, selected by archivist Dick Latvala and, after his death, David Lemieux.

Studebaker Motor Company Inc.
. As reported by Forbes magazine in 2004 in an article on companies which survived the 1929 stock market crash, the remains of the automaker still exist as Studebaker-Worthington Leasing, a subsidiary of State Bank of Long Island (amex: STB). As of now, any future plans are unknown, and are largely contingent on Weir and Lesh making up. The XUV has been joined for 2006 by the Studebaker XUT, a pickup version that is similar in concept to the Chevrolet Avalanche, although it is not known if the XUT has the same type of "mid-gate" that allows the expansion of the cargo area into the passenger cabin. Their inability to reconcile these differences kept Deadheads from seeing a tour to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Grateful Dead, and also made the annual celebration honoring Jerry Garcia seem a little flat, as his own bandmates couldn't put aside their differences to take the stage together in his honor. However, it appears that Avanti is currently producing vehicles again, as Avanti Motors recently announced that its 2006 model-year vehicles are now available. The band did not tour in 2005, due to a fight between Bob Weir and Phil Lesh over how they believe certain things happened in the history of the band.

Whether there were bidders or a sale had not been made public and there were no further public announcements made regarding any such sale. Haynes is best known for his work with Gov't Mule and the Allman Brothers Band. In 2004 both parties announced a settlement after a redesign of the XUV concept, but owner Michael Kelly decided to retire, announcing an auction of the Avanti company. Blues." The band accepted Warren Haynes as their new lead guitarist. General Motors sued, claiming infringement of the trade dress of their Hummer model. The members would continue to tour on and off through the end of their 2004 Summer Tour, the "Wave That Flag" tour, named after a lyric from the song, "U.S. In 2003 the owners of the Studebaker XUV trademark, Avanti Motor Corporation, now based in Villa Rica, Georgia, announced a Studebaker-branded SUV, the XUV, for production that fall, bringing a demonstration model to the Chicago Auto Show. On February 14, 2003, (as they said) "reflecting the reality that [was]," they renamed themselves The Dead, reflecting the abbreviated form of the band name that fans had long used and keeping "Grateful" retired out of respect for Garcia.

McGraw-Edison, was itself purchased in 1985 by Cooper Industries, which sold off all its auto-parts divisions to Federal-Mogul some years later. The mid-2002 fall tour of The Other Ones, with Bob, Bill, Phil and Mickey, was so successful and satisfying that the band decided the name was no longer appropriate. The Studebaker name disappeared from the American business scene in 1979 when McGraw-Edison acquired Studebaker-Worthington. The remaining members occasionally got together under the pseudonym Crusader Rabbit Stealth Band during the late 1990s, infrequently playing unannounced shows. Subsequently, Studebaker was then merged with the Worthington Corporation to form Studebaker-Worthington. Though some of them occasionally toured through the late 1990s under the name "The Other Ones", they mainly chose to pursue various solo projects, most notably Bob Weir's Ratdog, Phil Lesh and Friends and Mickey Hart's music for the 1996 Olympics. Studebaker was acquired by Wagner Electric in 1967. Following Garcia's death in 1995, the remaining members formally decided to disband.

After 1966, Studebaker continued to exist as a closed investment group, with income derived from its numerous diversified units including STP, Gravely Tractor, Onan Electric Generators, and Clarke Floor Machine. These records largely featured the band's laid-back acoustic musicianship and more traditional song structures. Its General Products Divsion, which handled defence contracts, was acquired by Kaiser Industries, and continues to this day as AM General. The 1969 live album Live/Dead did capture more of their essence, but commercial success did not come until Workingman's Dead and American Beauty, both released in 1970. Today, the former proving ground is owned by Robert Bosch GmbH, and it continues to be active some 80 years after it was first built. The early records reflected the Dead's live repertoire — lengthy instrumental jams with guitar solos by Garcia, best exemplified by "Dark Star" — but, lacking the energy of the shows, did not sell well. As a condition of the donation, the new park was named park Bendix Woods. Most connoisseurs believe that the Grateful Dead's true spirit was rarely well captured in studio performance.

Joseph County, Indiana parks department. Often (both in performance and on recording) the Dead left room for exploratory, spacey soundscapes—a form of psychedelia that might run the gamut from strange to exotically beautiful. Studebaker's proving grounds were acquired by its former supplier Bendix Corporation, which later donated the grounds for use as a park to the St. Individual tunes within their repertoire could be identified under one of these stylistic labels, but overall their music drew on all of these genres and more, frequently melding several of them. Many of Studebaker's dealers converted to Mercedes-Benz dealerships following the closure of the Canadian plant. The Dead were not inclined to fit their music to an established category such as pop rock, blues, folk rock, or country/western. The last car manufactured was a turquoise-and-white Cruiser four-door sedan. This was natural, because they played psychedelic dances, open-air park events, and closed-street Haight-Ashbury block parties.

Automotive production was consolidated at the company's last remaining production facility in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, where Studebaker produced cars until April, 1966, when it left the automobile business to focus on its profitable wholly-owned subsidiaries. The Grateful Dead’s early music (in the mid 1960s) was part of the process of establishing what "psychedelic music" was, but theirs was essentially a "street party" form of it. The company closed its operations in South Bend in December 1963, selling its Avanti brand to Nate Altman who continued to produce the car in South Bend under the brand name Avanti II. Listening to their first LP (The Grateful Dead, Warner Brothers, 1967), one is also reminded that it was recorded only a few years after the big "surfing music" craze; that California rock-music sound seeped in, to some degree, as well. Sadly, everything that was tried in the years following the Lark's debut proved to be not enough to stop the financial bleeding. But the new Dead music was also naturally different from bands like Dylan's or the Spoonful, partly because their fellow musician Phil Lesh came out of a schooled classical and electronic-music background, while Ron "Pigpen" McKernan was a no-nonsense deep blues lover and drummer Bill Kreutzmann had a jazz background. The Lark, in particular, was based on existing parts to the degree that it even utilized the central body section of the company's 1953 cars, but was a clever enough design to be quite popular in its first year, selling over 150,000 units and delivering an unexpected $28 million profit to the automaker. It was natural for Jerry Garcia and Bob Weir, each of whom had been immersed in the American folk-music revival of the late 1950s and early '60s, to be open-minded toward electric guitars.

The automobiles which came after the diversification process began, including the ingeniously-designed compact Lark (1959) and even the "Avanti" sports car (1963) were based on old chassis and engine designs. Grateful Dead members have said that it was after attending a concert by the touring New York "folk-rock" band The Lovin' Spoonful that they decided to "go electric." Gradually, many of the East-Coast American folk musicians, formerly luminaries of the coffee-house scene, were moving in the electric direction. While this was good for the corporate bottom line, it virtually guaranteed there would be little spending on Studebaker's mainstay products, its automobiles. Former folk-scene star Bob Dylan had recently put out a couple of records featuring electric instrumentation. With an abundance of tax credits in hand from the years of financial losses, at the insistence of the company's banks and some members of the board of directors, Studebaker-Packard began diversifying away from automobiles in the late 1950s. The Grateful Dead formed during the era when bands like the Beatles and Rolling Stones were dominating the airwaves. In 1958, the Packard name was discontinued, although the company continued to bear the Studebaker-Packard name through 1962. Kahle claimed that the whole affair had been a "misunderstanding," but John Perry Barlow, one of the band's lyricists, claimed that concerts had been restored after several members of the band had backed away from their earlier opposition after realizing they had created a public relations "catastrophe.".

Hurley, the company became the American importer for Mercedes-Benz, Auto Union and DKW automobiles and many Studebaker dealers sold those brands as well. Several days after the announcement that the concerts had been removed, Brewster Kahle of Archive.Org made a cryptic announcement that audience tapes of the concerts would again become available, though so-called board tapes would only be available as streaming audio. At the behest of C-W's president Roy T. The removal of the Dead's concerts from Archive.org created a storm of protest, in addition to a rapidly spreading boycott of the band's remaining commercial products. Studebaker's cash position was far worse than it led Packard to believe and in 1956 the nearly bankrupt automaker brought in a management team from aircraft maker Curtiss-Wright to help get it back on its feet. However, David Gans, host of a syndicated radio program, "The Grateful Dead Hour," speculates that the band is motivated by money, noting "when they were making $50 million a year on the road, there wasn't a lot of pressure to monetize their archives."[5]. Hoping to stem the tide of losses and bolster its market position, Studebaker allowed itself to be acquired by Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit; the merged entity was called the Studebaker-Packard Corporation. The band's spokesman, Dennis McNally, claimed such a repository "doesn't represent Grateful Dead values" because it doesn't foster one-to-one connections between fans.

There was enough momentum to keep going for another ten years, but stiff competition and price cutting by the Big Three doomed the enterprise. In November of 2005, the Dead's management outraged fans by asking the operators of the popular Internet Archive (archive.org) to stop making concerts available for download, and to offer only streamcast recordings instead. Professional financial managers stressed short term earnings rather than long term vision. Not surprisingly, these Internet-only albums have met with the same success as their CD-based brethren. However, ballooning labor costs (the company had never had an official United Auto Workers (UAW) strike and Studebaker workers and retirees were among the highest paid in the industry), quality control issues and the new car sales war between Ford and General Motors in the early 1950s wreaked havoc on Studebaker's balance sheet. In the summer of 2005 the Dead began offering downloadable versions of both their existing live releases, and a new internet-only series, The Grateful Dead Download Series, that is available exclusively through both their own GDStore.com (which offers the albums in both 256 kbit/s mp3 files and FLAC files -- a preferred audio standard for those who archive Dead and other fan-made live recordings on the Internet) and the iTunes Music Store (which offers them in their 128 kbit/s AAC format). Studebaker continued to build models that appealed to the average American and their need for transportation and mobility. All three series of releases continue to this day.

From the 1920s to the 1960s, the South Bend company originated many style and engineering milestones, including the classic 1929-1932 Studebaker President and the 1939 Studebaker Champion. A series of videos began to trickle out of "The Vault", starting with View From the Vault (recorded in Pittsburgh on July 8, 1990 at Three Rivers Stadium) and View from the Vault II (recorded in Washington, DC on June 14, 1991 at RFK Stadium); these releases are accompanied by the simultaneous release of multi-disc soundtrack CDs of the same shows represented on the videos. In 1926, Studebaker became the first automobile manufacturer in the United States to open a controlled outdoor proving ground; in 1937 the company planted 5,000 pine trees in a pattern that when viewed from the air spelled "STUDEBAKER.". There have been at least 36 Dick's Picks releases as of November 2005. In addition to cars, Studebaker also added a truck line, which in time, replaced the horse drawn wagon business started in 1851. Starting in 1991, the Grateful Dead released numerous live concerts from their archives in two concurrent series: the From the Vault releases are multi-track remixes, whereas the Dick's Picks series (named for the band's late archivist, Dick Latvala) are based on two-track mixes made at the time of the recording. In 1911 the company reorganized as the Studebaker Corporation. After the show, a deadhead with the post-show munchies could probably find a grilled cheese sandwich made on a camping stove at the door of a VW bus by a friendly hippie.

Studebaker also began putting its name on new automobiles produced at the former E-M-F facilities, both as an assurance that the vehicles were well-built, and as its commitment to making automobile production and sales a success. (Some deadheads would earn their entire touring budget selling such items.) Concertgoers typically congregated in the lot for hours before a show, playing guitar, hacky sacking and getting high. To remedy the damage done by E-M-F, Studebaker paid mechanics to visit each unsatisfied owner and replace the defective parts in their vehicles at a cost of US$1 million to the company. One could find items for sale at many cars in the lot, from grilled cheese sandwiches to "kind" brews and nitrous balloons. Studebaker, unhappy with E-M-F's poor quality, gained control of the assets and plant facilities in 1910. The parking lot of a Grateful Dead concert was as much a part of the event as the concert itself. J.M. Whatever their differences, the deadheads are often considered to be the most devoted fans in the rock world.

Problems with E-M-F made the cars unreliable leading the public to say that E-M-F stood for "Every Morning Fix-it". The late 1980s and 90s saw the Grateful Dead attracting a huge following that left many long time deadheads in doubt as to whether people were coming out for shows to see the band, or simply to be part of the atmosphere. The company entered into a distribution agreement with Everett-Metzger-Flanders (E-M-F) Company of Detroit; E-M-F would manufacture vehicles and the Studebakers would distribute them through their wagon dealers. These new followers were deemed "Touchheads" by the more established fans, a reference to their relative inexperience with the band. Studebaker experimented with motor vehicles as early as 1897, choosing electric over gasoline powered engines. In the 1980s, the band scored a top 40 hit with the song "Touch of Grey" (from In the Dark), which garnered a much younger and more mainstream fandom that was considered sharply different from the traditional Deadheads. They made about a quarter of them, and manufactured the metal fittings to sell to other builders in Missouri for another quarter. The band allowed sharing of tapes of their shows, as long as no profits were made on the sale of their show tapes.

During the height of westward migration and wagon train pioneering, half of the wagons were Studebakers. For many years, almost all of their shows would have dedicated taping sections. Peter's business became a branch operation. In contrast to many other bands, the Grateful Dead encouraged their fans to tape their shows. So they set their sights on supplying individuals and farmers the ability to move themselves and their goods. Many of their fans, commonly referred to as Deadheads, would follow the band on tour. By this time the railroad and steamship companies had become the big freight movers in the east. Bitchin'!!" Kelly/Mouse Studios then began including the icon in most of the band's posters and graphics.

They reorganized into the Studebaker Brother's Manufacturing Company in 1868, built around the motto of "Always give more than you promise". The band's skull-and-lightning-bolt icon is called Steal Your Face, a sanitized version of the icon's original name, Skull Fuck, which was a direct reflection both of the anti-establishment sensibilities of the times and of the Grateful Dead's role as a voice for the "hippies." Garcia and McKernan are said to have been tripping on ancient icons from the Aztec or Mayan visual lexicon, particularly the celebration of Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead) and to have exclaimed, "Fuck they're all skulls.. After the war they reviewed what they had accomplished and set a direction for the company. '. Expansion continued to support westward migration, but the next major increase came from supplying wagons for the Union Army in the American Civil War. The rising cost of fuel and personnel, as well as friction among many of the newer crew members (and associated hangers-on), contributed to the band's 1974 "retirement." The Wall of Sound was disassembled, and when the Dead began touring again in 1976, it was with a more logistically practical sound system. They brought in their youngest brother Jacob and incorporated in 1852. The Wall's quadraphonic format never translated well to soundboard tapes made during the period, as the sound was compressed into an unnatural stereo format and suffers from a pronounced tinniness.

When the gold rush settled down, John returned to Indiana and bought out Henry's share of the business. Because this was often switched to the vocal mikes, many of Lagin's parts were lost in the mix. The first major expansion in their business came from their being in place to meet the needs of the California Gold Rush in 1849. Synthesist Ned Lagin, who toured with the group throughout much of 1974, never received his own dedicated input into the system, and was forced to use the vocal subsystem for amplification. John made wheelbarrows in California and Peter made wagons in Saint Joseph, Missouri. The Wall of Sound was very efficient for its day, but it did have its pitfalls in addition to its sheer size. They first made metal parts for freight wagons and later expanded into the manufacture of wagons. Though the initial framework and a rudimentary form of the system was unveiled in February 1973 (ominously, every speaker tweeter blew as the band began their first number), the Grateful Dead did not begin to tour with the full system until a year later in 1974.

became blacksmiths and foundrymen in South Bend, Indiana. Four semi trucks and 21 crew members were required to haul and set up the 75-ton Wall. Clement and Henry, Jr. It was the largest portable sound system ever built (although "portable" is a relative term). They all went into that business as they grew westward with the country. It was capable of producing acceptable sound at a quarter mile, and excellent sound for up to six hundred feet, when the sound began to be distorted by wind. By 1840 he had moved to Ohio and taught his five sons to make wagons. The Wall of Sound used 89 300-Watt solid state and three 350-Watt tube amplifiers to produce 26,400 total Watts RMS of audio power.

Henry Studebaker was a farmer, blacksmith, and wagon-maker who lived near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania in the early 19th century. The signals were summed, the sound that was common to both mics (the sound from the Wall) was cancelled, and only the vocals were amplified. . The vocalist sang into the top microphone, and the lower mic picked up whatever other sound was present in the stage environment. The company left the automobile business in 1966. The Dead used matched pairs of condenser microphones spaced 60mm apart and run out-of-phase. Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer that was incorporated in 1868[1]. Because of this, a special microphone system had to be designed to prevent feedback.

The Wall of Sound was designed to act as its own monitor system, and it was therefore assembled behind the band so the members could hear exactly what their audience was hearing. Because each speaker was producing the sound of just one instrument or vocalist, the sound was exceptionally clear and intermodulation distortion between instruments was nonexistent. One channel amplified the bass drum, and two channels amplified the other drums and cymbals in stereo. Phil Lesh's bass was quadraphonic, each of the four strings having its own channel and set of speakers.

Vocals, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, and piano each had their own channel and set of speakers. After Owsley Stanley was released from prison in late 1972, he, along with Dan Healey, Mark Raizene of the Grateful Dead's sound crew, and Ron Wickersham, Rick Turner, and John Curl of Alembic Inc accomplished this by essentially combining eleven separate sound systems. The desire driving the development of the Wall of Sound was for a distortion-free sound system that could serve as its own monitor system. The band also welcomed Dan Healy into the fold on a permanent basis that year; Healy was a more superior engineer than Stanley and would mix the Grateful Dead's live sound until 1993.

Because of this, Alembic would play an integral role in the research, development, and production of the Wall of Sound. In 1971, the band purchased their first solid sound system from Alembic Inc Studios. After Stanley was placed in jail for LSD production in 1970, the group briefly used house PAs, but ultimately found them to be less reliable than the systems conceived by their former soundman. Stanley's sound systems were delicate and finicky, and frequently brought shows to a halt with technical issues.

The band were never satisfied with the house system anywhere they played, so in their early days, soundman Owsley "Bear" Stanley designed a PA and monitor system for them. The Wall of Sound was an enormous sound system designed specifically for the Grateful Dead. Musically this may be illustrated in that the band not only improvised within the form of a song, yet also improvised with the forms. A hallmark of their concert sets were continuous sets of music where each song would blend into the next (a segue).

The band was famous for its extended jams, which showcased both individual improvisation as well as a distinctive "group-mind" improvisation where each of the band members improvised individually, while still blending together as a cohesive musical unit, often engaging in extended improvisational flights of fancy. Their numerous studio albums were generally collections of new songs that had been initially played in concert. (They also appeared at the legendary Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and the even more famous Woodstock Festival in 1969; their largest concert audience came in 1973 when they played, along with The Allman Brothers Band and The Band, before an estimated 600,000 people at the Summer Jam at Watkins Glen.). With the exception of 1975, when the band was on "hiatus" and played only four concerts together, the Grateful Dead toured regularly around the USA from the winter of 1965 until July 9, 1995—with a few detours to Canada, Europe and three nights at the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in 1978.

In their early years, the band was also dedicated to their community, the Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco, making available free food, lodging, music and health care to all comers; they were the "first among equals in giving unselfishly of themselves to hippie culture, performing 'more free concerts than any band in the history of music'" [4]. They promoted a sense of community among their fans, who became known as Deadheads, many of whom followed their tours for months or years on end. The Grateful Dead are well-known for their near constant touring throughout their long career in music. Owsley "Bear" Stanley was the Grateful Dead's soundman for many years; he was also one of the largest suppliers of LSD.

Robert Hunter and John Perry Barlow were the band's primary lyricists. For a year and a half, Welnick was often joined by special guest Bruce Hornsby on piano. Almost immediately, former Tubes keyboardist Vince Welnick joined on keyboards and vocals. He became the third Dead keyboardist to die.

Brent Mydland was the keyboardist for the Dead for 11 years until his death in 1990. Keith Godchaux died in a car accident in 1980. Keith and Donna left the band in 1979, and Brent Mydland joined as keyboardist and vocalist. In early 1972, Keith's wife, Donna Jean Godchaux, joined the Dead as a backing vocalist.

Two years later, in late 1971, Pigpen was joined by another keyboardist, Keith Godchaux, who played grand piano alongside Pigpen's Hammond B-3 organ. Tom "TC" Constanten played keyboards alongside Pigpen from 1968 to 1970. Hart rejoined the Dead for good in 1975. Hart quit the Grateful Dead in 1971, embarrassed by the financial misdealings of his father, Dead money manager Lenny Hart, and leaving Kreutzmann once again as the sole percussionist.

Bill Kreutzmann played drums, and in 1968 was joined by a second drummer, New York native Mickey Hart, who also played a wide variety of other percussion instruments. All of the previously mentioned Grateful Dead members shared in vocal performance of songs, although none of them had a particularly strong or tuneful voice. Ron "Pigpen" McKernan played keyboards, harmonica and was also a group vocalist until shortly before his death in 1973 at the age of 27. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played rhythm guitar.

Classically-trained trumpeter Phil Lesh played bass guitar. One of the main influences on his musical style was bluegrass music, and Garcia also performed-—on banjo, his other great instrumental love-—in the bluegrass band Old and in the Way with mandolinist David Grisman. Jerry was a native of San Francisco and grew up in the Excelsior District. De facto bandleader Jerry Garcia was the lead guitarist for the band—-although he was often seen both by the public and the media as 'leader' or a primary spokesperson for the Grateful Dead, he was reluctant to be seen that way, especially since Garcia and the other group members saw themselves as equal participants and contributors to their collective musical and creative output.

. These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world." [3]. Their musical influences varied widely with input from the psychedelic music of the era, combined with blues, jazz, rock and roll, and bluegrass. The Grateful Dead became the de facto resident band of Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters, with the early sound heavily influenced by Kesey's LSD-soaked Acid Tests, as well as R&B.

62), "...Jer (Garcia) picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...(and)...In that silvery elf-voice he said to me, 'Hey, man, how about the Grateful Dead?'". Some claim it was a Funk & Wagnalls, others an Oxford Dictionary, but according to Phil Lesh, in his biography (pp. The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen at random from a dictionary. The Grateful Dead most embodied "all the elements of the San Francisco scene and came, therefore, to represent the counterculture to the rest of the country" [2].

(Also see entry for the San Francisco Sound.) Of these bands, the Grateful Dead had members with arguably the highest level of musicianship, including banjo and guitar player Jerry Garcia, blues musician "Pigpen" McKernan, the classically trained Phil Lesh and drummer Bill Kreutzmann [1]. Many bands from this area, such as Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother & the Holding Company, and Santana, went on to national fame, giving San Francisco an image as a center for the hippie counterculture of the era. Eventually, they moved to the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. The Grateful Dead's career began under the name "The Warlocks" in Palo Alto, California, but as another band was already recording under that name (interestingly, it was the future Velvet Underground), the band had to change its name in order to get a recording contract.

Many followers referred to the band simply as The Dead. These so-called Deadheads were renowned for their dedication to the band's music. Some of the band's fans followed the band from concert to concert for years. Formed in 1965 in San Francisco from the remnants of another band, "Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions," the Grateful Dead were known for their unique and eclectic songwriting style—which fused elements of rock, folk music, bluegrass, blues, country, and jazz—and for live performances of long modal jams.

The Grateful Dead was an American psychedelia-influenced rock band. 36: September 21, 1972 from the Spectrum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Vol. 35: August 7, 1971 from San Diego, California and August 24, 1971 from Chicago, Illinois with bonus tracks of August 6, 1971 from the Palladium, Hollywood, California.

Vol. 34: November 5, 1977 from the Community War Memorial, Rochester, New York with bonus tracks of November 2, 1977 from the Seneca College Field House, Toronto, Ontario. Vol. 33: October 9 and 10, 1976 from the Oakland Stadium, Oakland, California (one of Bill Graham's Days on the Green).

Vol. 32: August 7, 1982 from the Alpine Valley, East Troy, Wisconsin. Vol. 31: August 4 and 5, 1974 from the Philadelphia Civic Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and August 6, 1974 from the Roosevelt Stadium, Jersey City, New Jersey.

Vol. 30: March 28, 1972 from the Academy of Music, New York City and March 25, 1972 (including five songs with Bo Diddley). Vol. 29: May 19, 1977 from the Fox Theatre, Atlanta, Georgia and May 21, 1977 from the Lakeland Civic Arena, Lakeland, Florida.

Vol. 28: February 26, 1973 from the Pershing Municipal Auditorium, Lincoln, Nebraska and February 28, 1973 from the Salt Palace, Salt Lake City, Utah. Vol. 27: December 16, 1992 from the Oakland Coliseum Arena, Oakland, California.

Vol. 26: April 26, 1969 from the Electric Theater, Chicago, Illinois and April 27, 1969 from the Labor Temple, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Vol. 25: May 10, 1978 from the Veterans Memorial Coliseum, New Haven, Connecticut and May 11, 1978 from the Springfield Civic Center, Springfield, Massachusetts.

Vol. 24: March 23, 1974 from the Cow Palace, Daly City, California. Vol. 23: September 17, 1972 from the Baltimore Civic Center, Baltimore, Maryland.

Vol. 22: February 23 and 24, 1968 from the Kings Beach Bowl, Lake Tahoe, California. Vol. 21: November 1, 1985, from the Richmond Coliseum, Richmond, Virginia and some tracks from September 2, 1980.

Vol. 20: September 25, 1976 from the Capital Center, Landover, Maryland and September 28, 1976 from the Onondaga County War Memorial, Syracuse, New York. Vol. 19: October 19, 1973 from the Fairgrounds Arena, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Vol. 18: February 3, 1978 from the Dane County Coliseum, Madison, Wisconsin and February 5, 1978 from the Uni-Dome, Cedar Falls, Iowa. Vol. 17: September 25, 1991 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts with two songs from March 31, 1991.

Vol. 16: November 8, 1969 from the Fillmore, San Francisco, California. Vol. 15: September 3, 1977 from the Raceway Park, Englishtown, New Jersey.

Vol. 14: November 30 and December 2, 1973 from the Boston Music Hall (now Symphony Hall), Boston, Massachusetts. Vol. 13: May 6, 1981 from the Nassau Coliseum, Long Island, New York.

Vol. 12: June 26, 1974 from the Providence Civic Center, Providence, Rhode Island and June 28, 1974 from the Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts. Vol. 11: September 27, 1972 from the Stanley Theater, Jersey City, New Jersey.

Vol. 10: December 29 and 30, 1977 from the Winterland, San Francisco, California. Vol. 9: September 16, 1990 from Madison Square Garden, New York City.

Vol. 8: May 2, 1970 from Harpur College, Binghamton, New York. Vol. 7: September 1974 from the Alexandra Palace, London, England.

Vol. 6: October 14, 1983 from the Hartford Civic Center, Hartford, Connecticut. Vol. 5: December 26, 1979 from the Oakland Arena, Oakland, California.

Vol. 4: February 13 and 14, 1970 from the Fillmore East, New York City. Vol. 3: May 22, 1977 from the Hollywood Sportatorium, Hollywood, Florida.

Vol. 2: October 31, 1971 from the Ohio Theatre, Columbus, Ohio. Vol. 1: December 19, 1973 from Tampa, Florida.

Vol. The Complete Fillmore West 1969 (2005: boxed set, live). Rare Cuts and Oddities 1966 (2005). Beyond Description (2004: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Grateful Dead Records and Arista Records, 1973-1989).

The Very Best of The Grateful Dead (2003: compilation). Postcards of the Hanging (2002: live compilation). The Golden Road (2001: boxed set, consisting of the Dead's years with Warner Brothers Records, 1967-1972). So Many Roads 1965-1995 (1999: boxed set).

Fallout from the Phil Zone (1997: live compilation). The Arista Years (1996: compilation). Grateful Dead 1977-1995 (1996: compilation). Grayfolded (1996: live compilation).

Infrared Roses (1991: live compilation). Without a Net (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Dozin' at the Knick (1990: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Dylan & The Dead (live, with Bob Dylan) (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland).

Built to Last (1989: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). In the Dark (1987: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Dead Set (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Reckoning (1981: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland).

Go to Heaven (1980: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/Mydland). Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Shakedown Street (1978: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K.

What a Long Strange Trip It's Been (1977: compilation). Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Terrapin Station (1977: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K.

Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Blues for Allah (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux).

Godchaux/D. One From the Vault (1975: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/K. Godchaux). Godchaux/D.

Steal Your Face (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Grateful Dead From the Mars Hotel (1974: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K.

Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Wake of the Flood (1973: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/K. Skeletons from the Closet (Best of the Grateful Dead) (1973: compilation).

Godchaux). Godchaux/D. Europe '72 (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Godchaux).

Godchaux/D. Hundred Year Hall (1972: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan/K. Grateful Dead (aka Skull & Roses) (1971: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan). American Beauty (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan).

Workingman's Dead (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). History of the Grateful Dead, Volume One (Bear's Choice) (1970: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). Live/Dead (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten). Aoxomoxoa (1969: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan/Constanten).

Two from the Vault (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). Anthem of the Sun (1968: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/Hart/McKernan). The Grateful Dead (1967: Garcia/Weir/Lesh/Kreutzmann/McKernan). Vince Welnick - keyboards, vocals (1990 - 1995).

Brent Mydland - keyboards, vocals (1979 - 1990). Donna Jean Godchaux - vocals (1972 - 1979). Keith Godchaux - keyboards (1971 - 1979). Tom Constanten - keyboards (1968 - 1970).

Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - keyboards, vocals, harmonica, percussion (1965 - 1973). Mickey Hart - drums (1967 - 1971, 1975 - 1995). Bill Kreutzmann - drums (1965 - 1995). Phil Lesh - bass, vocals (1965 - 1995).

Bob Weir - rhythm guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995). Jerry Garcia - lead guitar, vocals (1965 - 1995).

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