Studebaker

Studebaker's "Lazy S" logo designed by Raymond Loewy was used from the 1950s until 1966

Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer that was incorporated in 1868[1]. The company left the automobile business in 1966.

Early history

Henry Studebaker was a farmer, blacksmith, and wagon-maker who lived near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania in the early 19th century. By 1840 he had moved to Ohio and taught his five sons to make wagons. They all went into that business as they grew westward with the country.

Logo used by Studebaker for its cars produced before the mid 1930s

Clement and Henry, Jr. became blacksmiths and foundrymen in South Bend, Indiana. They first made metal parts for freight wagons and later expanded into the manufacture of wagons. John made wheelbarrows in California and Peter made wagons in Saint Joseph, Missouri. The first major expansion in their business came from their being in place to meet the needs of the California Gold Rush in 1849.

When the gold rush settled down, John returned to Indiana and bought out Henry's share of the business. They brought in their youngest brother Jacob and incorporated in 1852. Expansion continued to support westward migration, but the next major increase came from supplying wagons for the Union Army in the American Civil War. After the war they reviewed what they had accomplished and set a direction for the company.

They reorganized into the Studebaker Brother's Manufacturing Company in 1868, built around the motto of "Always give more than you promise". By this time the railroad and steamship companies had become the big freight movers in the east. So they set their sights on supplying individuals and farmers the ability to move themselves and their goods. Peter's business became a branch operation.

During the height of westward migration and wagon train pioneering, half of the wagons were Studebakers. They made about a quarter of them, and manufactured the metal fittings to sell to other builders in Missouri for another quarter.

Studebaker Automobiles 1897-1966

Studebaker's Big Six Touring Car, from a 1920 magazine ad.

Studebaker experimented with motor vehicles as early as 1897, choosing electric over gasoline powered engines. The company entered into a distribution agreement with Everett-Metzger-Flanders (E-M-F) Company of Detroit; E-M-F would manufacture vehicles and the Studebakers would distribute them through their wagon dealers. Problems with E-M-F made the cars unreliable leading the public to say that E-M-F stood for "Every Morning Fix-it". J.M. Studebaker, unhappy with E-M-F's poor quality, gained control of the assets and plant facilities in 1910. To remedy the damage done by E-M-F, Studebaker paid mechanics to visit each unsatisfied owner and replace the defective parts in their vehicles at a cost of US$1 million to the company.

Worlds largest living sign was planted at the Studebaker Proving Grounds, west of South Bend, Indiana.

Studebaker also began putting its name on new automobiles produced at the former E-M-F facilities, both as an assurance that the vehicles were well-built, and as its commitment to making automobile production and sales a success. In 1911 the company reorganized as the Studebaker Corporation.

In addition to cars, Studebaker also added a truck line, which in time, replaced the horse drawn wagon business started in 1851. In 1926, Studebaker became the first automobile manufacturer in the United States to open a controlled outdoor proving ground; in 1937 the company planted 5,000 pine trees in a pattern that when viewed from the air spelled "STUDEBAKER."

From the 1920s to the 1960s, the South Bend company originated many style and engineering milestones, including the classic 1929-1932 Studebaker President and the 1939 Studebaker Champion. Studebaker continued to build models that appealed to the average American and their need for transportation and mobility.

Cover of Turning Wheels magazine showing stock-appearing Studebaker Starliner at Bonneville. The streamlined shapes of Studebakers made them very popular for top speed record seekers.

However, ballooning labor costs (the company had never had an official United Auto Workers (UAW) strike and Studebaker workers and retirees were among the highest paid in the industry), quality control issues and the new car sales war between Ford and General Motors in the early 1950s wreaked havoc on Studebaker's balance sheet. Professional financial managers stressed short term earnings rather than long term vision. There was enough momentum to keep going for another ten years, but stiff competition and price cutting by the Big Three doomed the enterprise.

Hoping to stem the tide of losses and bolster its market position, Studebaker allowed itself to be acquired by Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit; the merged entity was called the Studebaker-Packard Corporation. Studebaker's cash position was far worse than it led Packard to believe and in 1956 the nearly bankrupt automaker brought in a management team from aircraft maker Curtiss-Wright to help get it back on its feet. At the behest of C-W's president Roy T. Hurley, the company became the American importer for Mercedes-Benz, Auto Union and DKW automobiles and many Studebaker dealers sold those brands as well. In 1958, the Packard name was discontinued, although the company continued to bear the Studebaker-Packard name through 1962.

1953 Studebaker Commander Starliner, showing the streamlined design of the 1950s Studebaker. In the 1980s, a multi-national panel of renowned automobile journalists, voted the 1953 Studebaker Starliner "one of the top ten most beautiful automobiles ever made".

With an abundance of tax credits in hand from the years of financial losses, at the insistence of the company's banks and some members of the board of directors, Studebaker-Packard began diversifying away from automobiles in the late 1950s. While this was good for the corporate bottom line, it virtually guaranteed there would be little spending on Studebaker's mainstay products, its automobiles.

The automobiles which came after the diversification process began, including the ingeniously-designed compact Lark (1959) and even the "Avanti" sports car (1963) were based on old chassis and engine designs. The Lark, in particular, was based on existing parts to the degree that it even utilized the central body section of the company's 1953 cars, but was a clever enough design to be quite popular in its first year, selling over 150,000 units and delivering an unexpected $28 million profit to the automaker.

Sadly, everything that was tried in the years following the Lark's debut proved to be not enough to stop the financial bleeding. The company closed its operations in South Bend in December 1963, selling its Avanti brand to Nate Altman who continued to produce the car in South Bend under the brand name Avanti II. Automotive production was consolidated at the company's last remaining production facility in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, where Studebaker produced cars until April, 1966, when it left the automobile business to focus on its profitable wholly-owned subsidiaries. The last car manufactured was a turquoise-and-white Cruiser four-door sedan.

Many of Studebaker's dealers converted to Mercedes-Benz dealerships following the closure of the Canadian plant. Studebaker's proving grounds were acquired by its former supplier Bendix Corporation, which later donated the grounds for use as a park to the St. Joseph County, Indiana parks department. As a condition of the donation, the new park was named park Bendix Woods. Today, the former proving ground is owned by Robert Bosch GmbH, and it continues to be active some 80 years after it was first built. Its General Products Divsion, which handled defence contracts, was acquired by Kaiser Industries, and continues to this day as AM General.

Even as financial difficulties continued to mount in 1963, Studebaker offered a full range of models including the Avanti, Hawk, Wagonaire and Lark based Cruiser, Commander, and Daytona convertible.

After 1966, Studebaker continued to exist as a closed investment group, with income derived from its numerous diversified units including STP, Gravely Tractor, Onan Electric Generators, and Clarke Floor Machine. Studebaker was acquired by Wagner Electric in 1967. Subsequently, Studebaker was then merged with the Worthington Corporation to form Studebaker-Worthington. The Studebaker name disappeared from the American business scene in 1979 when McGraw-Edison acquired Studebaker-Worthington. McGraw-Edison, was itself purchased in 1985 by Cooper Industries, which sold off all its auto-parts divisions to Federal-Mogul some years later.

Nearly aborted revival

Cover of Turning Wheels magazine, featuring Bonneville racers. On the left is a modified Studebaker Starliner, on the right a modified Avanti.

In 2003 the owners of the Studebaker XUV trademark, Avanti Motor Corporation, now based in Villa Rica, Georgia, announced a Studebaker-branded SUV, the XUV, for production that fall, bringing a demonstration model to the Chicago Auto Show. General Motors sued, claiming infringement of the trade dress of their Hummer model. In 2004 both parties announced a settlement after a redesign of the XUV concept, but owner Michael Kelly decided to retire, announcing an auction of the Avanti company. Whether there were bidders or a sale had not been made public and there were no further public announcements made regarding any such sale. However, it appears that Avanti is currently producing vehicles again, as Avanti Motors recently announced that its 2006 model-year vehicles are now available.

The XUV has been joined for 2006 by the Studebaker XUT, a pickup version that is similar in concept to the Chevrolet Avalanche, although it is not known if the XUT has the same type of "mid-gate" that allows the expansion of the cargo area into the passenger cabin.

Survivor?

As reported by Forbes magazine in 2004 in an article on companies which survived the 1929 stock market crash, the remains of the automaker still exist as Studebaker-Worthington Leasing, a subsidiary of State Bank of Long Island (amex: STB).

Revival

Studebaker Motor Company Inc. is a separate company from that of Avanti Motor Corp and claims to be licensed with the NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration "USDOT" Department of Transportation as a manufacturer of land vehicles including passenger cars, trucks, pickup trucks and motorcycles, although at this point it appears to consist of little more than an incomplete website. The company's public relations office has stated in email. That the current site will be changed in following months. Also stated that there will be a big press release during this year about their product line in whole.


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Also stated that there will be a big press release during this year about their product line in whole.
Career Statistics
. That the current site will be changed in following months. The Ted Williams Tunnel in Boston, and Ted Williams Parkway in San Diego (1992) were named in his honor while he was still alive. The company's public relations office has stated in email. As Glenn put it, "That carcass has nothing to do with the Ted Williams I knew.". is a separate company from that of Avanti Motor Corp and claims to be licensed with the NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration "USDOT" Department of Transportation as a manufacturer of land vehicles including passenger cars, trucks, pickup trucks and motorcycles, although at this point it appears to consist of little more than an incomplete website. In a radio interview during the time of the controversy, Williams' old friend John Glenn made the practical and plain-spoken point that it was merely a body under discussion, not the man.

Studebaker Motor Company Inc. Allegations of poor treatment were disputed by Alcor and the editor of Minor League News, who criticized the Sports Illustrated article as sensational and misleading. As reported by Forbes magazine in 2004 in an article on companies which survived the 1929 stock market crash, the remains of the automaker still exist as Studebaker-Worthington Leasing, a subsidiary of State Bank of Long Island (amex: STB). A 2003 Sports Illustrated article claimed that Williams underwent neuropreservation with separate storage of his body at Alcor. The XUV has been joined for 2006 by the Studebaker XUT, a pickup version that is similar in concept to the Chevrolet Avalanche, although it is not known if the XUT has the same type of "mid-gate" that allows the expansion of the cargo area into the passenger cabin. Whether the document was truly genuine or not, the legal issues were ultimately settled, and after John-Henry developed leukemia and died in 2004, his body was also taken to Alcor, in full accordance with the disputed "pact". However, it appears that Avanti is currently producing vehicles again, as Avanti Motors recently announced that its 2006 model-year vehicles are now available. In his book, Ted Williams: The Biography of An American Hero, author Leigh Montville makes the case that the "pact" in question was merely a "practice" Ted Williams autograph on a plain piece of paper, around which the "agreement" had later been hand-printed, presumably by John Henry and Claudia.

Whether there were bidders or a sale had not been made public and there were no further public announcements made regarding any such sale. John Henry's lawyer then produced an informal family pact signed by Ted, John Henry, and Ted's daughter, Claudia, in which they agreed "to be put into biostasis after we die." The dispute was resolved on December 20, 2002 when Ferrell withdrew her objections after a judge agreed that a $645,000 trust would be distributed equally among the siblings. In 2004 both parties announced a settlement after a redesign of the XUV concept, but owner Michael Kelly decided to retire, announcing an auction of the Avanti company. Fearing John Henry was planning to sell their father's DNA for possible cloning, Barbara Joyce Ferrell, Ted's daughter by his first wife, sued, saying his will stated that he wanted to be cremated. General Motors sued, claiming infringement of the trade dress of their Hummer model. Announcing there would be no funeral, John Henry secretly had Ted's body flown to the Alcor Life Extension Foundation in Scottsdale, Arizona, and placed in cryonic suspension. In 2003 the owners of the Studebaker XUV trademark, Avanti Motor Corporation, now based in Villa Rica, Georgia, announced a Studebaker-branded SUV, the XUV, for production that fall, bringing a demonstration model to the Chicago Auto Show. A public dispute over the disposition of Williams' body was waged after his death.

McGraw-Edison, was itself purchased in 1985 by Cooper Industries, which sold off all its auto-parts divisions to Federal-Mogul some years later. After suffering a series of strokes and congestive heart failures, he died of cardiac arrest in Crystal River, Florida, on July 5, 2002. The Studebaker name disappeared from the American business scene in 1979 when McGraw-Edison acquired Studebaker-Worthington. He had a pacemaker installed in November 2000 and underwent open-heart surgery in January 2001. Subsequently, Studebaker was then merged with the Worthington Corporation to form Studebaker-Worthington. In his last years Williams suffered from poor health, specifically cardiac problems. Studebaker was acquired by Wagner Electric in 1967. He had also been ranked that year as Number 8 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players, where he was the highest-ranking left fielder.

After 1966, Studebaker continued to exist as a closed investment group, with income derived from its numerous diversified units including STP, Gravely Tractor, Onan Electric Generators, and Clarke Floor Machine. Later in the year, he was among the members of the Major League Baseball All-Century Team introduced to the crowd at Turner Field in Atlanta prior to Game 2 of the World Series. Its General Products Divsion, which handled defence contracts, was acquired by Kaiser Industries, and continues to this day as AM General. The ceremony had to be cut short, as Williams' appearance threatened to delay the start of the game. Today, the former proving ground is owned by Robert Bosch GmbH, and it continues to be active some 80 years after it was first built. Among them was fellow San Diegan Tony Gwynn, a hitter often compared to Williams who starred with the major league edition of the San Diego Padres. As a condition of the donation, the new park was named park Bendix Woods. At the pitcher's mound he was surrounded by players from both teams, and spoke with several.

Joseph County, Indiana parks department. Fans responded with a standing ovation that lasted several minutes. Studebaker's proving grounds were acquired by its former supplier Bendix Corporation, which later donated the grounds for use as a park to the St. He proudly waved his cap to the crowd - a gesture he had never done as a player. Many of Studebaker's dealers converted to Mercedes-Benz dealerships following the closure of the Canadian plant. Able to walk only a short distance, Williams was brought to the pitcher's mound in a golf cart. The last car manufactured was a turquoise-and-white Cruiser four-door sedan. One of Ted Williams' final, and most memorable, public appearances was at the 1999 All-Star Game in Boston.

Automotive production was consolidated at the company's last remaining production facility in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, where Studebaker produced cars until April, 1966, when it left the automobile business to focus on its profitable wholly-owned subsidiaries. Although many felt that Ted was being used by his son, there is no real evidence that the younger Williams was doing anything illicit or unsavory with his father's earnings. The company closed its operations in South Bend in December 1963, selling its Avanti brand to Nate Altman who continued to produce the car in South Bend under the brand name Avanti II. The younger Williams provided structure to his father's business affairs, and rationed his father's public appearances and memorabilia signings to maximize their earnings. Sadly, everything that was tried in the years following the Lark's debut proved to be not enough to stop the financial bleeding. In his later years, Williams became a fixture at autograph shows and card shows after his son (by his third wife), John Henry Williams, took control of his career, becoming his de facto manager. The Lark, in particular, was based on existing parts to the degree that it even utilized the central body section of the company's 1953 cars, but was a clever enough design to be quite popular in its first year, selling over 150,000 units and delivering an unexpected $28 million profit to the automaker. He was also extensively involved in the Jimmy Fund, having lost a brother to leukemia, and spent much of his spare time, effort, and money in support of the organization.

The automobiles which came after the diversification process began, including the ingeniously-designed compact Lark (1959) and even the "Avanti" sports car (1963) were based on old chassis and engine designs. Williams reached an extensive deal with Sears, lending his name and talent toward marketing, developing, and endorsing a line of in-house fishing and baseball equipment. While this was good for the corporate bottom line, it virtually guaranteed there would be little spending on Studebaker's mainstay products, its automobiles. Shortly after Williams' death, conservative pundit Steve Sailer called him "possibly the most technically proficient American of the 20th Century, as his mastery of three highly different callings demonstrates." [1]. With an abundance of tax credits in hand from the years of financial losses, at the insistence of the company's banks and some members of the board of directors, Studebaker-Packard began diversifying away from automobiles in the late 1950s. Some opined that Williams was a rare individual who might have been the best in the world in three different disciplines: baseball hitter, fighter jet pilot, and fly fisherman. In 1958, the Packard name was discontinued, although the company continued to bear the Studebaker-Packard name through 1962. Williams was named to the International Game Fish Association Hall of Fame in 2000.

Hurley, the company became the American importer for Mercedes-Benz, Auto Union and DKW automobiles and many Studebaker dealers sold those brands as well. An avid and expert fly fisherman and deep-sea fisherman, he spent many summer vacations after baseball fishing the Miramichi River, in Miramichi, New Brunswick, Canada. At the behest of C-W's president Roy T. He was much more successful in fishing. Studebaker's cash position was far worse than it led Packard to believe and in 1956 the nearly bankrupt automaker brought in a management team from aircraft maker Curtiss-Wright to help get it back on its feet. Before and after leaving Texas (which would be his only manager job) he occasionally appeared at Red Sox spring training as a guest hitting instructor. Hoping to stem the tide of losses and bolster its market position, Studebaker allowed itself to be acquired by Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit; the merged entity was called the Studebaker-Packard Corporation. Like many great players, Williams became impatient with ordinary athletes' abilities and attitudes, and his managerial career was short and largely unsuccessful.

There was enough momentum to keep going for another ten years, but stiff competition and price cutting by the Big Three doomed the enterprise. He was chosen manager of the year after that season. Professional financial managers stressed short term earnings rather than long term vision. Williams best season as a manager was 1969 when he led the expansion Senators to an 86-76 record in their only winning season in Washington. However, ballooning labor costs (the company had never had an official United Auto Workers (UAW) strike and Studebaker workers and retirees were among the highest paid in the industry), quality control issues and the new car sales war between Ford and General Motors in the early 1950s wreaked havoc on Studebaker's balance sheet. After retirement from play, Williams served as manager of the Washington Senators, continuing with the team when the became the Texas Rangers after the 1971 season. Studebaker continued to build models that appealed to the average American and their need for transportation and mobility. Williams remains the career leader in walks per plate appearance.

From the 1920s to the 1960s, the South Bend company originated many style and engineering milestones, including the classic 1929-1932 Studebaker President and the 1939 Studebaker Champion. He was also second to Ruth in career walks, but has since dropped to fourth place behind Barry Bonds and Rickey Henderson. In 1926, Studebaker became the first automobile manufacturer in the United States to open a controlled outdoor proving ground; in 1937 the company planted 5,000 pine trees in a pattern that when viewed from the air spelled "STUDEBAKER.". Although Barry Bonds broke Williams' single-season on-base record in 2002, Williams remains first in career on-base percentage. In addition to cars, Studebaker also added a truck line, which in time, replaced the horse drawn wagon business started in 1851. Williams was also second to Ruth in career slugging percentage, where he remains today, and first in on-base percentage. In 1911 the company reorganized as the Studebaker Corporation. At the time of his retirement, Williams ranked third all-time in home runs (behind Babe Ruth and Jimmie Foxx), seventh in RBIs (after Ruth, Cap Anson, Lou Gehrig, Ty Cobb, Foxx, and Mel Ott; Stan Musial would pass Williams in 1962, two years after Williams' retirement), and seventh in batting average (behind Cobb, Rogers Hornsby, Shoeless Joe Jackson, Lefty O'Doul, Ed Delahanty and Tris Speaker).

Studebaker also began putting its name on new automobiles produced at the former E-M-F facilities, both as an assurance that the vehicles were well-built, and as its commitment to making automobile production and sales a success. The Red Sox played three more games on the road in New York; however, Williams did not appear in any of them. To remedy the damage done by E-M-F, Studebaker paid mechanics to visit each unsatisfied owner and replace the defective parts in their vehicles at a cost of US$1 million to the company. Williams' aloof attitude led Updike to wryly observe that "Gods do not answer letters." Williams' final home run did not take place during the final game of the 1960 season, but rather the Red Sox' final home game of the season. Studebaker, unhappy with E-M-F's poor quality, gained control of the assets and plant facilities in 1910. Williams also refused to tip his cap as he was replaced in left field by Carroll Hardy to start the 9th inning, although he continued to receive warm cheers. J.M. Williams, who had been on bad terms with the Boston newspapers for nearly twenty years and had a frosty and distant relationship with the Boston fans, characteristically refused either to tip his cap as he circled the bases or to respond to the prolonged cheers of "We want Ted" from the crowd.

Problems with E-M-F made the cars unreliable leading the public to say that E-M-F stood for "Every Morning Fix-it". This home run - a solo shot hit off Baltimore pitcher Jack Fisher in the 8th inning that reduced the Orioles lead to 4-3 - was immortalized in The New Yorker essay "Hub Fans Bid Kid Adieu", by John Updike. The company entered into a distribution agreement with Everett-Metzger-Flanders (E-M-F) Company of Detroit; E-M-F would manufacture vehicles and the Studebakers would distribute them through their wagon dealers. He retired from the game in 1960 and hit a home run in his final at-bat, on September 28, 1960, in front of only 10,454 fans at Fenway Park. Studebaker experimented with motor vehicles as early as 1897, choosing electric over gasoline powered engines. Rather than bunting the ball into the open space, the proud Williams batted as usual against the contrived defense. They made about a quarter of them, and manufactured the metal fittings to sell to other builders in Missouri for another quarter. His hitting was so feared that opponents frequently employed the radical, defensive "Williams Shift" against him, leaving only one fielder on the third base half of the field.

During the height of westward migration and wagon train pioneering, half of the wagons were Studebakers. Williams, Lou Gehrig, and Chuck Klein are the only players since the establishment of the MVP award to win the Triple Crown and not be named MVP for that season. Peter's business became a branch operation. Amazingly, he did not win the MVP award in either of his Triple Crown seasons. So they set their sights on supplying individuals and farmers the ability to move themselves and their goods. Along with Rogers Hornsby, he is one of only two players to win the Triple Crown twice. By this time the railroad and steamship companies had become the big freight movers in the east. His two MVP Awards and two Triple Crowns came in four different years.

They reorganized into the Studebaker Brother's Manufacturing Company in 1868, built around the motto of "Always give more than you promise". These absences in the prime of his career significantly reduced his career totals, and considering his scientific approach to hitting, those totals would have been even more impressive had he not missed those four seasons. After the war they reviewed what they had accomplished and set a direction for the company. Williams served as a US Marine pilot during both World War II and the Korean War, serving in the same unit as John Glenn in the latter. Expansion continued to support westward migration, but the next major increase came from supplying wagons for the Union Army in the American Civil War. Despite his lack of range in the field, he was considered a sure fielder with a good throwing arm, although he occasionally stated that his one regret was that he did not work harder on his fielding. They brought in their youngest brother Jacob and incorporated in 1852. He felt that with more speed he could have raised his average considerably.

When the gold rush settled down, John returned to Indiana and bought out Henry's share of the business. He lacked foot speed, as attested by his career total of 24 stolen bases, one inside-the-park home run, and one occasion of hitting for the cycle. The first major expansion in their business came from their being in place to meet the needs of the California Gold Rush in 1849. In 1970 he wrote a book on the subject, The Science of Hitting; revised (1986), which is still read by many baseball players. John made wheelbarrows in California and Peter made wagons in Saint Joseph, Missouri. An obsessive student of batting, Williams hit for both power and average. They first made metal parts for freight wagons and later expanded into the manufacture of wagons. Additionally, it has been conjectured that Williams was adversely affected by an injured elbow suffered during an pre-World Series exhibition game played while the Cardinals and Brooklyn Dodgers were involved in a best-of-three series to determine the National League champion.

became blacksmiths and foundrymen in South Bend, Indiana. This shift was a version of the Boudreau Shift, popularized by Cleveland Indians manager Lou Boudreau in an attempt to reduce Williams' effectiveness. Clement and Henry, Jr. Much of this was due to his stubborn insistence into hitting into the Cardinals' defensive shift, which frequently involved five or six of the Cardinals' fielders positioned to the right of second base. They all went into that business as they grew westward with the country. Louis Cardinals in the 8th inning of the seventh game. By 1840 he had moved to Ohio and taught his five sons to make wagons. Williams managed just 5 singles in 25 at-bats, with just 1 RBI, as the Red Sox lost to the St.

Henry Studebaker was a farmer, blacksmith, and wagon-maker who lived near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania in the early 19th century. Among the few black marks on Williams' playing record was his performance in his lone postseason appearance, the 1946 World Series. . Archival footage shows a delighted Williams hopping around the bases, clapping; he later said this was his greatest thrill in baseball. The company left the automobile business in 1966. One of Williams' other memorable accomplishments was his game-winning home run off of Rip Sewell's notorious eephus pitch during the 1946 All-Star Game. Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer that was incorporated in 1868[1]. In 1957, Williams reached base in 16 consecutive plate appearances, also a major league record.

In addition to this record, Williams also holds the third-longest and fourth-longest such streaks. A lesser-known accomplishment is Williams' feat of reaching base for the most consecutive games, 84. That record would last until 2002, when Barry Bonds upped this mark to .582. Also in 1941, Williams set a major-league record for on-base percentage in a season at .551.

Their rivalry was accentuated by the press; Williams always felt himself the better hitter, but acknowledged that DiMaggio was the better all-around player. At the time, this achievement was overshadowed by Joe DiMaggio's 56-game hitting streak in the same season. He got 6 hits in 8 at bats, raising his season average to .406; no one has hit .400 since. Williams opted to play in both games of the day's doubleheader and risk losing his record.

His manager left the decision whether to play up to him. This would have been rounded up to .400, making him the first man to hit .400 since Bill Terry in 1930. In 1941, he entered the last day of the season with a batting average of .3996. Williams moved up to the major league Red Sox in 1939.

After graduation, he turned professional and had minor league stints for his hometown San Diego Padres and the Minneapolis Millers. Williams played high school baseball at Herbert Hoover High School and lived at 4121 Utah Street in the North Park area of San Diego. He said it just relaxed him. He also loved to fish.

Early in his career, he stated that he wished to be remembered as the "greatest hitter who ever lived", an honor that he indeed achieved in many eyes by the end of his career. His father, (Samuel) a photographer and great admirer of the late president, and his mother, a Salvation Army worker of Mexican descent, were generally absentee parents whom he later came to resent.1 . At some point, his birth certificate was changed to "Theodore", as was the date of birth, but his mother always called him Teddy. Williams was born in San Diego, California as Teddy Samuel Williams, after Teddy Roosevelt.

. An avid sport fisherman, he hosted a television show about fishing, and was inducted into the Fishing Hall of Fame. He had a career batting average of .344, with 521 home runs, and was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1966. Williams was a two-time American League Most Valuable Player (MVP) winner, led the league in batting six times, and won the Triple Crown twice.

It has been argued that he was the greatest hitter in the history of baseball. Theodore Samuel Williams (August 30, 1918 – July 5, 2002), nicknamed "The Kid", the "Splendid Splinter", "Teddy Ballgame" and "The Thumper", was an American left fielder in Major League Baseball who played 19 seasons, twice interrupted by military service as a Marine Corps pilot, with the Boston Red Sox. 1 Williams' early life and extensive documentation on his ancestry is contained in the book "The Kid: Ted Williams in San Diego" written by eight members of the Society for American Baseball Research (SABR).

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