Studebaker

Studebaker's "Lazy S" logo designed by Raymond Loewy was used from the 1950s until 1966

Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer that was incorporated in 1868[1]. The company left the automobile business in 1966.

Early history

Henry Studebaker was a farmer, blacksmith, and wagon-maker who lived near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania in the early 19th century. By 1840 he had moved to Ohio and taught his five sons to make wagons. They all went into that business as they grew westward with the country.

Logo used by Studebaker for its cars produced before the mid 1930s

Clement and Henry, Jr. became blacksmiths and foundrymen in South Bend, Indiana. They first made metal parts for freight wagons and later expanded into the manufacture of wagons. John made wheelbarrows in California and Peter made wagons in Saint Joseph, Missouri. The first major expansion in their business came from their being in place to meet the needs of the California Gold Rush in 1849.

When the gold rush settled down, John returned to Indiana and bought out Henry's share of the business. They brought in their youngest brother Jacob and incorporated in 1852. Expansion continued to support westward migration, but the next major increase came from supplying wagons for the Union Army in the American Civil War. After the war they reviewed what they had accomplished and set a direction for the company.

They reorganized into the Studebaker Brother's Manufacturing Company in 1868, built around the motto of "Always give more than you promise". By this time the railroad and steamship companies had become the big freight movers in the east. So they set their sights on supplying individuals and farmers the ability to move themselves and their goods. Peter's business became a branch operation.

During the height of westward migration and wagon train pioneering, half of the wagons were Studebakers. They made about a quarter of them, and manufactured the metal fittings to sell to other builders in Missouri for another quarter.

Studebaker Automobiles 1897-1966

Studebaker's Big Six Touring Car, from a 1920 magazine ad.

Studebaker experimented with motor vehicles as early as 1897, choosing electric over gasoline powered engines. The company entered into a distribution agreement with Everett-Metzger-Flanders (E-M-F) Company of Detroit; E-M-F would manufacture vehicles and the Studebakers would distribute them through their wagon dealers. Problems with E-M-F made the cars unreliable leading the public to say that E-M-F stood for "Every Morning Fix-it". J.M. Studebaker, unhappy with E-M-F's poor quality, gained control of the assets and plant facilities in 1910. To remedy the damage done by E-M-F, Studebaker paid mechanics to visit each unsatisfied owner and replace the defective parts in their vehicles at a cost of US$1 million to the company.

Worlds largest living sign was planted at the Studebaker Proving Grounds, west of South Bend, Indiana.

Studebaker also began putting its name on new automobiles produced at the former E-M-F facilities, both as an assurance that the vehicles were well-built, and as its commitment to making automobile production and sales a success. In 1911 the company reorganized as the Studebaker Corporation.

In addition to cars, Studebaker also added a truck line, which in time, replaced the horse drawn wagon business started in 1851. In 1926, Studebaker became the first automobile manufacturer in the United States to open a controlled outdoor proving ground; in 1937 the company planted 5,000 pine trees in a pattern that when viewed from the air spelled "STUDEBAKER."

From the 1920s to the 1960s, the South Bend company originated many style and engineering milestones, including the classic 1929-1932 Studebaker President and the 1939 Studebaker Champion. Studebaker continued to build models that appealed to the average American and their need for transportation and mobility.

Cover of Turning Wheels magazine showing stock-appearing Studebaker Starliner at Bonneville. The streamlined shapes of Studebakers made them very popular for top speed record seekers.

However, ballooning labor costs (the company had never had an official United Auto Workers (UAW) strike and Studebaker workers and retirees were among the highest paid in the industry), quality control issues and the new car sales war between Ford and General Motors in the early 1950s wreaked havoc on Studebaker's balance sheet. Professional financial managers stressed short term earnings rather than long term vision. There was enough momentum to keep going for another ten years, but stiff competition and price cutting by the Big Three doomed the enterprise.

Hoping to stem the tide of losses and bolster its market position, Studebaker allowed itself to be acquired by Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit; the merged entity was called the Studebaker-Packard Corporation. Studebaker's cash position was far worse than it led Packard to believe and in 1956 the nearly bankrupt automaker brought in a management team from aircraft maker Curtiss-Wright to help get it back on its feet. At the behest of C-W's president Roy T. Hurley, the company became the American importer for Mercedes-Benz, Auto Union and DKW automobiles and many Studebaker dealers sold those brands as well. In 1958, the Packard name was discontinued, although the company continued to bear the Studebaker-Packard name through 1962.

1953 Studebaker Commander Starliner, showing the streamlined design of the 1950s Studebaker. In the 1980s, a multi-national panel of renowned automobile journalists, voted the 1953 Studebaker Starliner "one of the top ten most beautiful automobiles ever made".

With an abundance of tax credits in hand from the years of financial losses, at the insistence of the company's banks and some members of the board of directors, Studebaker-Packard began diversifying away from automobiles in the late 1950s. While this was good for the corporate bottom line, it virtually guaranteed there would be little spending on Studebaker's mainstay products, its automobiles.

The automobiles which came after the diversification process began, including the ingeniously-designed compact Lark (1959) and even the "Avanti" sports car (1963) were based on old chassis and engine designs. The Lark, in particular, was based on existing parts to the degree that it even utilized the central body section of the company's 1953 cars, but was a clever enough design to be quite popular in its first year, selling over 150,000 units and delivering an unexpected $28 million profit to the automaker.

Sadly, everything that was tried in the years following the Lark's debut proved to be not enough to stop the financial bleeding. The company closed its operations in South Bend in December 1963, selling its Avanti brand to Nate Altman who continued to produce the car in South Bend under the brand name Avanti II. Automotive production was consolidated at the company's last remaining production facility in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, where Studebaker produced cars until April, 1966, when it left the automobile business to focus on its profitable wholly-owned subsidiaries. The last car manufactured was a turquoise-and-white Cruiser four-door sedan.

Many of Studebaker's dealers converted to Mercedes-Benz dealerships following the closure of the Canadian plant. Studebaker's proving grounds were acquired by its former supplier Bendix Corporation, which later donated the grounds for use as a park to the St. Joseph County, Indiana parks department. As a condition of the donation, the new park was named park Bendix Woods. Today, the former proving ground is owned by Robert Bosch GmbH, and it continues to be active some 80 years after it was first built. Its General Products Divsion, which handled defence contracts, was acquired by Kaiser Industries, and continues to this day as AM General.

Even as financial difficulties continued to mount in 1963, Studebaker offered a full range of models including the Avanti, Hawk, Wagonaire and Lark based Cruiser, Commander, and Daytona convertible.

After 1966, Studebaker continued to exist as a closed investment group, with income derived from its numerous diversified units including STP, Gravely Tractor, Onan Electric Generators, and Clarke Floor Machine. Studebaker was acquired by Wagner Electric in 1967. Subsequently, Studebaker was then merged with the Worthington Corporation to form Studebaker-Worthington. The Studebaker name disappeared from the American business scene in 1979 when McGraw-Edison acquired Studebaker-Worthington. McGraw-Edison, was itself purchased in 1985 by Cooper Industries, which sold off all its auto-parts divisions to Federal-Mogul some years later.

Nearly aborted revival

Cover of Turning Wheels magazine, featuring Bonneville racers. On the left is a modified Studebaker Starliner, on the right a modified Avanti.

In 2003 the owners of the Studebaker XUV trademark, Avanti Motor Corporation, now based in Villa Rica, Georgia, announced a Studebaker-branded SUV, the XUV, for production that fall, bringing a demonstration model to the Chicago Auto Show. General Motors sued, claiming infringement of the trade dress of their Hummer model. In 2004 both parties announced a settlement after a redesign of the XUV concept, but owner Michael Kelly decided to retire, announcing an auction of the Avanti company. Whether there were bidders or a sale had not been made public and there were no further public announcements made regarding any such sale. However, it appears that Avanti is currently producing vehicles again, as Avanti Motors recently announced that its 2006 model-year vehicles are now available.

The XUV has been joined for 2006 by the Studebaker XUT, a pickup version that is similar in concept to the Chevrolet Avalanche, although it is not known if the XUT has the same type of "mid-gate" that allows the expansion of the cargo area into the passenger cabin.

Survivor?

As reported by Forbes magazine in 2004 in an article on companies which survived the 1929 stock market crash, the remains of the automaker still exist as Studebaker-Worthington Leasing, a subsidiary of State Bank of Long Island (amex: STB).

Revival

Studebaker Motor Company Inc. is a separate company from that of Avanti Motor Corp and claims to be licensed with the NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration "USDOT" Department of Transportation as a manufacturer of land vehicles including passenger cars, trucks, pickup trucks and motorcycles, although at this point it appears to consist of little more than an incomplete website. The company's public relations office has stated in email. That the current site will be changed in following months. Also stated that there will be a big press release during this year about their product line in whole.


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Also stated that there will be a big press release during this year about their product line in whole. In the following cases, the sword stands for arms in general, and has often been retained as a symbol even after it had in operational practice been replaced with firearms etcetera. That the current site will be changed in following months. Another example of this metaphorical significance comes in the old saying "The pen is mightier than the sword" -- attributed to Edward Bulwer-Lytton. The company's public relations office has stated in email. Ewart Oakeshott in The Sword in The Age of Chivalry (1964, revised 1981) introduced a system of classification for medieval sword blades into types, numbered X – XXII as a continuation of Wheeler's system. is a separate company from that of Avanti Motor Corp and claims to be licensed with the NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration "USDOT" Department of Transportation as a manufacturer of land vehicles including passenger cars, trucks, pickup trucks and motorcycles, although at this point it appears to consist of little more than an incomplete website. Jan Petersen in De Norske Vikingsverd ("The Norwegian Viking Swords", 1919) introduced the most widely-used classification.

Studebaker Motor Company Inc. Certain martial arts styles, such as kendo, use shinai as their primary weapons, both in training and in competition. As reported by Forbes magazine in 2004 in an article on companies which survived the 1929 stock market crash, the remains of the automaker still exist as Studebaker-Worthington Leasing, a subsidiary of State Bank of Long Island (amex: STB). Special sparring weapons, such as the bamboo shinai and the steel federschwerter, were also devised and used. The XUV has been joined for 2006 by the Studebaker XUT, a pickup version that is similar in concept to the Chevrolet Avalanche, although it is not known if the XUT has the same type of "mid-gate" that allows the expansion of the cargo area into the passenger cabin. These were known as wasters in Europe and bokken in Japan. However, it appears that Avanti is currently producing vehicles again, as Avanti Motors recently announced that its 2006 model-year vehicles are now available. In both Europe and Asia, wooden "swords" were created to practice fencing without the physical danger of a real sword.

Whether there were bidders or a sale had not been made public and there were no further public announcements made regarding any such sale. A machete as a tool resembles such a single-edged sword and serves to cut through thick vegetation, and indeed many of the terms listed above describe weapons that originated as farmers' tools used on the battlefield. In 2004 both parties announced a settlement after a redesign of the XUV concept, but owner Michael Kelly decided to retire, announcing an auction of the Avanti company. Many of these essentially refer to identical weapons, and the different names may relate to their use in different countries at different times. General Motors sued, claiming infringement of the trade dress of their Hummer model. Other terms include falchion, scimitar, cutlass, or mortuary sword. In 2003 the owners of the Studebaker XUV trademark, Avanti Motor Corporation, now based in Villa Rica, Georgia, announced a Studebaker-branded SUV, the XUV, for production that fall, bringing a demonstration model to the Chicago Auto Show. Europeans also frequently refer to their own single-edged weapons as swords--generically backswords, including sabres.

McGraw-Edison, was itself purchased in 1985 by Cooper Industries, which sold off all its auto-parts divisions to Federal-Mogul some years later. However, general usage of the term remains inconsistent and it has important cultural overtones, so that commentators almost universally recognize the single-edged Asian weapons (dāo 刀, Katana 刀) as "swords", simply because they have very similar prestige to that which is attached to the European sword. The Studebaker name disappeared from the American business scene in 1979 when McGraw-Edison acquired Studebaker-Worthington. One strict definition of a sword restricts it to a double-edged weapon used for both slashing and stabbing. Subsequently, Studebaker was then merged with the Worthington Corporation to form Studebaker-Worthington.
. Studebaker was acquired by Wagner Electric in 1967. As noted above, the terms longsword, broad sword and great sword (and Gaelic claymore) are used relative to the era under consideration and do themselves designate a particular type of sword.

After 1966, Studebaker continued to exist as a closed investment group, with income derived from its numerous diversified units including STP, Gravely Tractor, Onan Electric Generators, and Clarke Floor Machine. For any other type than listed below, and even for uses other than as a weapon, see the article Sword-like object. Its General Products Divsion, which handled defence contracts, was acquired by Kaiser Industries, and continues to this day as AM General. The main distinguishing characteristics include blade shape (cross-section, tapering and length), shape and size of hilt and pommel, age and place of origin. Today, the former proving ground is owned by Robert Bosch GmbH, and it continues to be active some 80 years after it was first built. Swords can fall into categories of varying scope. As a condition of the donation, the new park was named park Bendix Woods. The tang consists of the extension of the blade structure through the hilt.

Joseph County, Indiana parks department. It may also have a tassel or sword knot. Studebaker's proving grounds were acquired by its former supplier Bendix Corporation, which later donated the grounds for use as a park to the St. The pommel in addition to improving the grip, can also be used as a blunt instrument at close range. Many of Studebaker's dealers converted to Mercedes-Benz dealerships following the closure of the Canadian plant. The hilt is the collective term of the parts allowing the handling of the blade, consisting of the grip, the pommel, and in post-Viking Age swords usually a crossguard (called cruciform hilts). The last car manufactured was a turquoise-and-white Cruiser four-door sedan. Middle Eastern swords, intended for use with the arm bent, had a smaller radius.

Automotive production was consolidated at the company's last remaining production facility in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, where Studebaker produced cars until April, 1966, when it left the automobile business to focus on its profitable wholly-owned subsidiaries. European swords, intended for use at arm's length, had a radius of curvature of around a meter. The company closed its operations in South Bend in December 1963, selling its Avanti brand to Nate Altman who continued to produce the car in South Bend under the brand name Avanti II. This allowed the blade to have a sawing effect rather than simply delivering a heavy cut. Sadly, everything that was tried in the years following the Lark's debut proved to be not enough to stop the financial bleeding. with an edge, have been curved with the radius of curvature equal to the distance from the swordman's body at which it was to be used. The Lark, in particular, was based on existing parts to the degree that it even utilized the central body section of the company's 1953 cars, but was a clever enough design to be quite popular in its first year, selling over 150,000 units and delivering an unexpected $28 million profit to the automaker. From the 18th century onwards swords intended for slashing, i.e.

The automobiles which came after the diversification process began, including the ingeniously-designed compact Lark (1959) and even the "Avanti" sports car (1963) were based on old chassis and engine designs. On Japanese blades the mark appears on the tang under the handle. While this was good for the corporate bottom line, it virtually guaranteed there would be little spending on Studebaker's mainstay products, its automobiles. The ricasso normally bears the maker's mark. With an abundance of tax credits in hand from the years of financial losses, at the insistence of the company's banks and some members of the board of directors, Studebaker-Packard began diversifying away from automobiles in the late 1950s. On some large weapons, such as the German zweihander, a leather cover surrounded the ricasso, and a swordsman might grip it in one hand to make the weapon more easily wielded in close-quarters combat. In 1958, the Packard name was discontinued, although the company continued to bear the Studebaker-Packard name through 1962. Many swords have no ricasso.

Hurley, the company became the American importer for Mercedes-Benz, Auto Union and DKW automobiles and many Studebaker dealers sold those brands as well. The ricasso or shoulder identifies a short section of blade immediately forward of the guard that is left completely unsharpened, and can be gripped with a finger to increase tip control. At the behest of C-W's president Roy T. The section in between the CoP and the CoB is the middle. Studebaker's cash position was far worse than it led Packard to believe and in 1956 the nearly bankrupt automaker brought in a management team from aircraft maker Curtiss-Wright to help get it back on its feet. The part of the blade between the Center of Percussion (CoP) and the point is called the weak of the blade, and that between the Center of Balance (CoB) and the hilt the strong. Hoping to stem the tide of losses and bolster its market position, Studebaker allowed itself to be acquired by Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit; the merged entity was called the Studebaker-Packard Corporation. The blade may taper more or less sharply towards a point, used for thrusting.

There was enough momentum to keep going for another ten years, but stiff competition and price cutting by the Big Three doomed the enterprise. The blade may have grooves or fullers for the purpose of lightening the blade while allowing it to retain its strength, in the same manner as an "I" beam in construction. Professional financial managers stressed short term earnings rather than long term vision. Some hilt designs define which edge is the 'long' one, while more symmetrical designs allow the long and short edges to be inverted by turning the sword. However, ballooning labor costs (the company had never had an official United Auto Workers (UAW) strike and Studebaker workers and retirees were among the highest paid in the industry), quality control issues and the new car sales war between Ford and General Motors in the early 1950s wreaked havoc on Studebaker's balance sheet. The blade is usually double-edged; when handling the sword, the long or true edge is the one used for straight cuts or strikes, while the short or false edge is the one used for backhand strikes. Studebaker continued to build models that appealed to the average American and their need for transportation and mobility. Three types of attacks can be performed with the blade: striking, cutting, and thrusting.

From the 1920s to the 1960s, the South Bend company originated many style and engineering milestones, including the classic 1929-1932 Studebaker President and the 1939 Studebaker Champion. The name scabbard applies to the case which houses the sword when not in use. In 1926, Studebaker became the first automobile manufacturer in the United States to open a controlled outdoor proving ground; in 1937 the company planted 5,000 pine trees in a pattern that when viewed from the air spelled "STUDEBAKER.". The sword consists of the blade and the hilt. In addition to cars, Studebaker also added a truck line, which in time, replaced the horse drawn wagon business started in 1851. Cavalry charges still occurred as late as World War II during which Japanese and Pacific Islanders also occasionally used swords, but by then an enemy armed with machine guns, barbed wire and armored vehicles would usually completely outmatch swordsmen. In 1911 the company reorganized as the Studebaker Corporation. The last units of British heavy cavalry switched to using armoured vehicles as late as 1938.

Studebaker also began putting its name on new automobiles produced at the former E-M-F facilities, both as an assurance that the vehicles were well-built, and as its commitment to making automobile production and sales a success. For example, the British Army formally adopted a completely new design of cavalry sword in 1908, almost the last change in British Army weapons before the outbreak of the war. To remedy the damage done by E-M-F, Studebaker paid mechanics to visit each unsatisfied owner and replace the defective parts in their vehicles at a cost of US$1 million to the company. Swords continued in use, but increasingly limited to military officers and ceremonial uniforms, although most armies retained heavy cavalry until well after World War I. Studebaker, unhappy with E-M-F's poor quality, gained control of the assets and plant facilities in 1910. Even as a personal sidearm, the sword began to lose its pre-eminence in the late 18th century, paralleling the development of reliable handguns. J.M. The sword served more as a weapon of self-defence than for use on the battlefield, and the military importance of swords steadily decreased during the Modern Age.

Problems with E-M-F made the cars unreliable leading the public to say that E-M-F stood for "Every Morning Fix-it". The French martial art la canne developed to fight with canes and swordsticks and has now evolved into a sport. The company entered into a distribution agreement with Everett-Metzger-Flanders (E-M-F) Company of Detroit; E-M-F would manufacture vehicles and the Studebakers would distribute them through their wagon dealers. Some examples of canes—those known as swordsticks—incorporate a concealed blade. Studebaker experimented with motor vehicles as early as 1897, choosing electric over gasoline powered engines. As the wearing of swords fell out of fashion, canes took their place in a gentleman's wardrobe. They made about a quarter of them, and manufactured the metal fittings to sell to other builders in Missouri for another quarter. Both the smallsword and the rapier remained popular dueling swords well into the 18th century.

During the height of westward migration and wagon train pioneering, half of the wagons were Studebakers. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the shorter smallsword became an essential fashion accessory in European countries, and most wealthy men carried one. Peter's business became a branch operation. Both the rapier and the Italian schiavona developed the crossguard into a basket for hand protection. So they set their sights on supplying individuals and farmers the ability to move themselves and their goods. The rapier evolved from the Spanish espada ropera in the 16th century. By this time the railroad and steamship companies had become the big freight movers in the east. The sword in this time period was the most personal weapon, the most prestigious, and the most versatile for close combat, but it came to find a greater role in civilian self-defense than in military use as technology changed warfare.

They reorganized into the Studebaker Brother's Manufacturing Company in 1868, built around the motto of "Always give more than you promise". In the 16th century, the large Zweihänder concluded the trend of ever increasing sword sizes (mostly due to the beginning of the decline of plate armor and the advent of firearms), and the early Modern Age returned to lighter one-handed weapons. After the war they reviewed what they had accomplished and set a direction for the company. Though capable of penetrating even the thickest armor, it ultimately proved too unwieldy for common use. Expansion continued to support westward migration, but the next major increase came from supplying wagons for the Union Army in the American Civil War. His "Vervierfachen Sie hat gereicht Blatt" was a sword nearly twelve feet in length, requiring two men to wield effectively. They brought in their youngest brother Jacob and incorporated in 1852. The largest recorded sword was that forged by Gustav Heinshreck in the 16th century.

When the gold rush settled down, John returned to Indiana and bought out Henry's share of the business. Though light blades were retained by cavalry for some time, the infantry blade was eventually abandoned entirely. The first major expansion in their business came from their being in place to meet the needs of the California Gold Rush in 1849. As armor thickened, blacksmiths labored to increase the size of the sword, resulting in such weapons as the bastard and two-handed sword. John made wheelbarrows in California and Peter made wagons in Saint Joseph, Missouri. This sword gradually became obsolete as thicker forms of armor rendered the piercing blade ineffective. They first made metal parts for freight wagons and later expanded into the manufacture of wagons. The estoc became popular because of its ability to thrust into the gaps in-between plates of armor.

became blacksmiths and foundrymen in South Bend, Indiana. The longsword became popular due to is extreme reach and cutting and thrusting abilities. Clement and Henry, Jr. Another variant was the specialization of armour-piercing swords of the Estoc type. They all went into that business as they grew westward with the country. By 1400 this type of sword, at the time called langes Schwert (longsword) or spadone, were common, and a number of 15th and 16th century "fechtbucher" teaching their use survive. By 1840 he had moved to Ohio and taught his five sons to make wagons. The main transition was the lengthening of the grip, allowing two-handed use, and a longer blade.

Henry Studebaker was a farmer, blacksmith, and wagon-maker who lived near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania in the early 19th century. From around 1300, in concert with improved armour, innovative sword designs evolved more and more rapidly. . 900 AD (see Japanese sword), is also derived from the Dao. The company left the automobile business in 1966. The Japanese Katana (刀; かたな), production of which is recorded from ca. Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer that was incorporated in 1868[1]. Derived from the Chinese Dao, the Korean Hwandudaedo are known from the early medieval Three Kingdoms.

Single-edged weapons became popular throughout Asia. However when a knight thrusts his sword, his defense is completely down, and a stab is easier to dodge than a slice. A stab is more fatal than a slice and difficult to parry. The swords were made to be for thrusting.

During the Crusades of the 12th to (13th) century, this cruciform type of arming sword remains essentially stable, with variations mainly concerning the shape of the pommel. It is only from the 11th century that Norman swords begin to develop the quillion or crossguard. The Viking Age sees again a more standardized production, but the basic design remains indebted to the Spatha. Vendel Age Spathas decorated with Germanic artwork (not unlike the Germanic bracteates fashioned after Roman coins).

The Spatha type remained popular throughout the Migration period and well into the Middle Ages. The Chinese Dao (刀 pinyin dāo) is single-edged, sometimes translated as sabre or broadsword, and the Jian (劍 pinyin jiàn) double edged. Chinese steel swords make their appearance from the 3rd century BC Qin Dynasty. The late Roman Empire introduced the longer Spatha (the term for its wielder, spatharius, became a court rank in Constantinople), and from this time, the term "long sword" is applied to swords comparatively long for their respective periods.

The Greek Xiphos and the Roman Gladius are typical examples of the type, measuring some 60 to 70 cm. By the time of Classical Antiquity and the Parthian and Sassanid Empires in Iran, iron swords were common. Over time different methods developed all over the world. Several different methods of swordmaking existed in ancient times, including most famously pattern welding.

Eventually smiths learned that by adding an amount of carbon (added during smelting in the form of charcoal) in the iron, they could produce an improved alloy (now known as steel). Early Iron swords were not comparable to later steel blades, being brittle and soft, they were even inferior to good bronze weapons, but the easier production, and the better availability of the raw material for the first time permitted the equipment of entire armies with metal weapons. Iron has the advantage of mass-production due to the wider availability of the raw material. The Hittites, the Mycenean Greeks, and the Proto-Celtic Hallstatt culture figured among the early users of iron swords.

Iron swords became increasingly common from the 13th century BC. However Areliux, a celtian chief, made the "simitar" a sword that could kill with one hit. All in all, these primitive weapons functioned more like sharpened bludgeons. They were without later incorporated features, such as hilts and pommels.

Historians debate the exact size of this first sword, but it is generally accepted that the weapons were bronze bars, sharpened along a single edge, between one and two feet in length. These were later dubbed machaira, or sword. When a regiment of Periphero Chortos arrived and witnessed the tanner's use of this curious blade, they requested duplicates of the "arm-length knife" for their own use. Hephastus hit upon the idea of making larger "knives" to assist the local tanner in skinning animals of their hides.

Although numerous origin accounts exist, the first sword is believed to have been forged by the Greek bronzeworker Hephastus (2800 B.C.), who would later be deified as the Grecian god of blacksmiths. Sword production in China is attested from the Bronze Age Shang Dynasty. 1400 BC show characteristic spiral patterns. Swords from the Nordic Bronze Age from ca.

Bronze Age swords with typical leaf-shaped blades first appear near the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, and in Mesopotamia. The hilt at first simply allowed a firm grip, and prevented the hand from slipping onto the blade when executing a stab. The sword developed from the dagger when the construction of longer blades became possible, from the early 2nd millennium BC. Humans have manufactured and used bladed weapons from the Bronze Age onwards.

. The names given to many swords in mythology, literature, and history reflect the high prestige of the weapon (see list of swords). The basic intent and physics of swordsmanship remain fairly constant, but the actual techniques vary between cultures and periods as a result of the differences in blade design and purpose. Sword (Old English: sweord; akin to Old High German: swerd, "wounding tool"; Proto-Indo-European: *swer-, "to wound, to hurt") is a term for a long-edged, bladed weapon, consisting in its most fundamental design of a blade, usually with two edges for striking and cutting, a point for thrusting, and a hilt for gripping.

It is also not unusual for swords to represent reason - as in "cutting through" a series of elements in a problem in order to leave only those with proven relevance, for example. regiment) of such a corps - as these are numerous, inevitably many variations and combinations (two crossed swords, or with a laurel wreath, crown, national or founder/patron's emblem etcetera) are used. as symbol of armed force, or of a corps entitled to use force as the strong arm of the law, as in military and police insignia, or of a unit (e.g. as symbol of power, such as a Sword of State and a Sword of Justice (both can be used as regalia);.

Swords are also used as emblem or insignia (in or on formal dress such as uniforms, badges, various objects, even coats of arms), especially:

    . For example, "sword swallowing" is used as an euphemism of fellatio. The sword often functions as a symbol of masculinity and particularly -since its form lends itself to this, especially in erect position- as a phallic symbol of virility. Swords form a suit in the Tarot deck (replaced by spades in the French deck of playing cards).

    Jesus' statement, "Those who live by the sword shall die by the sword" uses the term in this sense. The sword can symbolise violence, combat, or military intervention. The shinai, a practice sword, is also used in Japan as a spanking implement, more common in prized private extracurricular schools (illustrated in these 1975 and 1977 articles [2] & [3]) than the US school paddling; in fact hundreds of cases of illegal corporal punishment were reported from public schools as well. For example, the Chinese movie Farewell to my concubine (1993 - see IMDb [1]) shows how a flat, not even very hard type of paddle, called the master's sword, is used intensively to discipline young opera trainees both on the (usually bared) buttock and on the hand (even drawing blood).

    Similarly paddle-like sword-like devices for physical punishment are used in Asia, in western terms for paddling or caning, depending whether the implement is flat or round. Real swords can be used to administer various physical punishments: to perform either capital punishment by decapitation (the use of the sword, an honourable weapon on military men, was regarded a privilege) or non-surgical amputation. The 16th century Zweihänder. The longsword (and bastard sword) of the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

    Light duelling swords, like the rapier and the smallsword, in use from Early Modern times. The cut & thrust swords of the Renaissance, similar to the older arming sword but balanced for increased thrusting. The late medieval Swiss baselard and the Renaissance Italian Cinquedea and German Katzbalger essentially re-introduce the functionality of the Spatha, coinciding with the strong cultural movement to emulate the Classical world. 110 cm.

    The classical arming sword of the Crusades, measuring up to ca. 80–90 cm. Spatha, measuring ca. Iron Age swords like the Xiphos, Gladius and Jian 劍, similar in shape to their Bronze Age predecessors.

    60 cm, leaf shaped blade. Bronze Age swords, length ca. In European or Asian swords sold today, many advertised "full" tangs may actually involve a forged rat-tail tang. In a "full" tang (most commonly used in knives and machetes) the tang has about the same width as the blade.

    Modern lower quality replicas often feature a "screw-on" pommel or a pommel nut which holds the hilt together and allows dismantling. Swordsmiths peened such tangs over the end of the pommel, or occasionally welded the hilt furniture to the tang and threaded the end for screwing on a pommel. Traditional tangs go through the handle: this gives much more durability than a rat-tail tang. In traditional construction, the swordsmith forged the tang as a part of the sword rather than welding it on.

    Traditional sword-making does not use this construction method, which does not serve for traditional sword usage as the sword can easily break at the welding point. This occurs most commonly in decorative replicas, or cheap sword-like objects. In the case of a rat-tail tang, the maker welds a thin rod to the end of the blade at the crossguard; this rod goes through the handle (in 20th-century and later construction).

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