Studebaker

Studebaker's "Lazy S" logo designed by Raymond Loewy was used from the 1950s until 1966

Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer that was incorporated in 1868[1]. The company left the automobile business in 1966.

Early history

Henry Studebaker was a farmer, blacksmith, and wagon-maker who lived near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania in the early 19th century. By 1840 he had moved to Ohio and taught his five sons to make wagons. They all went into that business as they grew westward with the country.

Logo used by Studebaker for its cars produced before the mid 1930s

Clement and Henry, Jr. became blacksmiths and foundrymen in South Bend, Indiana. They first made metal parts for freight wagons and later expanded into the manufacture of wagons. John made wheelbarrows in California and Peter made wagons in Saint Joseph, Missouri. The first major expansion in their business came from their being in place to meet the needs of the California Gold Rush in 1849.

When the gold rush settled down, John returned to Indiana and bought out Henry's share of the business. They brought in their youngest brother Jacob and incorporated in 1852. Expansion continued to support westward migration, but the next major increase came from supplying wagons for the Union Army in the American Civil War. After the war they reviewed what they had accomplished and set a direction for the company.

They reorganized into the Studebaker Brother's Manufacturing Company in 1868, built around the motto of "Always give more than you promise". By this time the railroad and steamship companies had become the big freight movers in the east. So they set their sights on supplying individuals and farmers the ability to move themselves and their goods. Peter's business became a branch operation.

During the height of westward migration and wagon train pioneering, half of the wagons were Studebakers. They made about a quarter of them, and manufactured the metal fittings to sell to other builders in Missouri for another quarter.

Studebaker Automobiles 1897-1966

Studebaker's Big Six Touring Car, from a 1920 magazine ad.

Studebaker experimented with motor vehicles as early as 1897, choosing electric over gasoline powered engines. The company entered into a distribution agreement with Everett-Metzger-Flanders (E-M-F) Company of Detroit; E-M-F would manufacture vehicles and the Studebakers would distribute them through their wagon dealers. Problems with E-M-F made the cars unreliable leading the public to say that E-M-F stood for "Every Morning Fix-it". J.M. Studebaker, unhappy with E-M-F's poor quality, gained control of the assets and plant facilities in 1910. To remedy the damage done by E-M-F, Studebaker paid mechanics to visit each unsatisfied owner and replace the defective parts in their vehicles at a cost of US$1 million to the company.

Worlds largest living sign was planted at the Studebaker Proving Grounds, west of South Bend, Indiana.

Studebaker also began putting its name on new automobiles produced at the former E-M-F facilities, both as an assurance that the vehicles were well-built, and as its commitment to making automobile production and sales a success. In 1911 the company reorganized as the Studebaker Corporation.

In addition to cars, Studebaker also added a truck line, which in time, replaced the horse drawn wagon business started in 1851. In 1926, Studebaker became the first automobile manufacturer in the United States to open a controlled outdoor proving ground; in 1937 the company planted 5,000 pine trees in a pattern that when viewed from the air spelled "STUDEBAKER."

From the 1920s to the 1960s, the South Bend company originated many style and engineering milestones, including the classic 1929-1932 Studebaker President and the 1939 Studebaker Champion. Studebaker continued to build models that appealed to the average American and their need for transportation and mobility.

Cover of Turning Wheels magazine showing stock-appearing Studebaker Starliner at Bonneville. The streamlined shapes of Studebakers made them very popular for top speed record seekers.

However, ballooning labor costs (the company had never had an official United Auto Workers (UAW) strike and Studebaker workers and retirees were among the highest paid in the industry), quality control issues and the new car sales war between Ford and General Motors in the early 1950s wreaked havoc on Studebaker's balance sheet. Professional financial managers stressed short term earnings rather than long term vision. There was enough momentum to keep going for another ten years, but stiff competition and price cutting by the Big Three doomed the enterprise.

Hoping to stem the tide of losses and bolster its market position, Studebaker allowed itself to be acquired by Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit; the merged entity was called the Studebaker-Packard Corporation. Studebaker's cash position was far worse than it led Packard to believe and in 1956 the nearly bankrupt automaker brought in a management team from aircraft maker Curtiss-Wright to help get it back on its feet. At the behest of C-W's president Roy T. Hurley, the company became the American importer for Mercedes-Benz, Auto Union and DKW automobiles and many Studebaker dealers sold those brands as well. In 1958, the Packard name was discontinued, although the company continued to bear the Studebaker-Packard name through 1962.

1953 Studebaker Commander Starliner, showing the streamlined design of the 1950s Studebaker. In the 1980s, a multi-national panel of renowned automobile journalists, voted the 1953 Studebaker Starliner "one of the top ten most beautiful automobiles ever made".

With an abundance of tax credits in hand from the years of financial losses, at the insistence of the company's banks and some members of the board of directors, Studebaker-Packard began diversifying away from automobiles in the late 1950s. While this was good for the corporate bottom line, it virtually guaranteed there would be little spending on Studebaker's mainstay products, its automobiles.

The automobiles which came after the diversification process began, including the ingeniously-designed compact Lark (1959) and even the "Avanti" sports car (1963) were based on old chassis and engine designs. The Lark, in particular, was based on existing parts to the degree that it even utilized the central body section of the company's 1953 cars, but was a clever enough design to be quite popular in its first year, selling over 150,000 units and delivering an unexpected $28 million profit to the automaker.

Sadly, everything that was tried in the years following the Lark's debut proved to be not enough to stop the financial bleeding. The company closed its operations in South Bend in December 1963, selling its Avanti brand to Nate Altman who continued to produce the car in South Bend under the brand name Avanti II. Automotive production was consolidated at the company's last remaining production facility in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, where Studebaker produced cars until April, 1966, when it left the automobile business to focus on its profitable wholly-owned subsidiaries. The last car manufactured was a turquoise-and-white Cruiser four-door sedan.

Many of Studebaker's dealers converted to Mercedes-Benz dealerships following the closure of the Canadian plant. Studebaker's proving grounds were acquired by its former supplier Bendix Corporation, which later donated the grounds for use as a park to the St. Joseph County, Indiana parks department. As a condition of the donation, the new park was named park Bendix Woods. Today, the former proving ground is owned by Robert Bosch GmbH, and it continues to be active some 80 years after it was first built. Its General Products Divsion, which handled defence contracts, was acquired by Kaiser Industries, and continues to this day as AM General.

Even as financial difficulties continued to mount in 1963, Studebaker offered a full range of models including the Avanti, Hawk, Wagonaire and Lark based Cruiser, Commander, and Daytona convertible.

After 1966, Studebaker continued to exist as a closed investment group, with income derived from its numerous diversified units including STP, Gravely Tractor, Onan Electric Generators, and Clarke Floor Machine. Studebaker was acquired by Wagner Electric in 1967. Subsequently, Studebaker was then merged with the Worthington Corporation to form Studebaker-Worthington. The Studebaker name disappeared from the American business scene in 1979 when McGraw-Edison acquired Studebaker-Worthington. McGraw-Edison, was itself purchased in 1985 by Cooper Industries, which sold off all its auto-parts divisions to Federal-Mogul some years later.

Nearly aborted revival

Cover of Turning Wheels magazine, featuring Bonneville racers. On the left is a modified Studebaker Starliner, on the right a modified Avanti.

In 2003 the owners of the Studebaker XUV trademark, Avanti Motor Corporation, now based in Villa Rica, Georgia, announced a Studebaker-branded SUV, the XUV, for production that fall, bringing a demonstration model to the Chicago Auto Show. General Motors sued, claiming infringement of the trade dress of their Hummer model. In 2004 both parties announced a settlement after a redesign of the XUV concept, but owner Michael Kelly decided to retire, announcing an auction of the Avanti company. Whether there were bidders or a sale had not been made public and there were no further public announcements made regarding any such sale. However, it appears that Avanti is currently producing vehicles again, as Avanti Motors recently announced that its 2006 model-year vehicles are now available.

The XUV has been joined for 2006 by the Studebaker XUT, a pickup version that is similar in concept to the Chevrolet Avalanche, although it is not known if the XUT has the same type of "mid-gate" that allows the expansion of the cargo area into the passenger cabin.

Survivor?

As reported by Forbes magazine in 2004 in an article on companies which survived the 1929 stock market crash, the remains of the automaker still exist as Studebaker-Worthington Leasing, a subsidiary of State Bank of Long Island (amex: STB).

Revival

Studebaker Motor Company Inc. is a separate company from that of Avanti Motor Corp and claims to be licensed with the NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration "USDOT" Department of Transportation as a manufacturer of land vehicles including passenger cars, trucks, pickup trucks and motorcycles, although at this point it appears to consist of little more than an incomplete website. The company's public relations office has stated in email. That the current site will be changed in following months. Also stated that there will be a big press release during this year about their product line in whole.


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Also stated that there will be a big press release during this year about their product line in whole. In philosophy, theoreticism refers to the overuse of theory. That the current site will be changed in following months. In the humanities, theory is often used as an abbreviation for critical theory or literary theory, referring to continental philosophy's aesthetics or its attempts to understand the structure of society and to conceptualize alternatives. The company's public relations office has stated in email. Theories exist not only in the so-called hard sciences; but in all fields of academic study, from philosophy to music to literature. is a separate company from that of Avanti Motor Corp and claims to be licensed with the NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration "USDOT" Department of Transportation as a manufacturer of land vehicles including passenger cars, trucks, pickup trucks and motorcycles, although at this point it appears to consist of little more than an incomplete website. This sets a fundamental limit to the applicability of any mathematical system.

Studebaker Motor Company Inc. However, Gödel's incompleteness theorem shows that no consistent theory capable of defining the concept of natural numbers can derive all true statements about those numbers. As reported by Forbes magazine in 2004 in an article on companies which survived the 1929 stock market crash, the remains of the automaker still exist as Studebaker-Worthington Leasing, a subsidiary of State Bank of Long Island (amex: STB). Obvious examples include arithmetic (abstracting the concept of number), geometry (the concept of space), and probability (the concept of randomness). The XUV has been joined for 2006 by the Studebaker XUT, a pickup version that is similar in concept to the Chevrolet Avalanche, although it is not known if the XUT has the same type of "mid-gate" that allows the expansion of the cargo area into the passenger cabin. The resulting theorems often provide solutions to real-world problems which correspond to the original abstraction. However, it appears that Avanti is currently producing vehicles again, as Avanti Motors recently announced that its 2006 model-year vehicles are now available. A typical theory will present certain axioms and rules, corresponding to a useful or interesting abstraction, and then derive non-obvious theorems from those axioms.

Whether there were bidders or a sale had not been made public and there were no further public announcements made regarding any such sale. A theory in this sense is a set of statements closed under certain rules of inference. In 2004 both parties announced a settlement after a redesign of the XUV concept, but owner Michael Kelly decided to retire, announcing an auction of the Avanti company. The term "theory" also has a formal usage in mathematics, particularly in mathematical logic and model theory. General Motors sued, claiming infringement of the trade dress of their Hummer model. Examples include group theory, set theory, Lebesgue integration theory and field theory. In 2003 the owners of the Studebaker XUV trademark, Avanti Motor Corporation, now based in Villa Rica, Georgia, announced a Studebaker-branded SUV, the XUV, for production that fall, bringing a demonstration model to the Chicago Auto Show. This knowledge consists of axioms, definitions, theorems and computational techniques, all related in some way by tradition or practice.

McGraw-Edison, was itself purchased in 1985 by Cooper Industries, which sold off all its auto-parts divisions to Federal-Mogul some years later. In mathematics, the word theory is used informally to refer to certain distinct bodies of knowledge about mathematics. The Studebaker name disappeared from the American business scene in 1979 when McGraw-Edison acquired Studebaker-Worthington. One can sum up all this by saying that the criterion of the scientific status of a theory is its falsifiability, or refutability, or testability."--end quote. Subsequently, Studebaker was then merged with the Worthington Corporation to form Studebaker-Worthington. (I later described such a rescuing operation as a "conventionalist twist" or a "conventionalist stratagem."). Studebaker was acquired by Wagner Electric in 1967. Such a procedure is always possible, but it rescues the theory from refutation only at the price of destroying, or at least lowering, its scientific status.

After 1966, Studebaker continued to exist as a closed investment group, with income derived from its numerous diversified units including STP, Gravely Tractor, Onan Electric Generators, and Clarke Floor Machine. Some genuinely testable theories, when found to be false, are still upheld by their admirers — for example by introducing ad hoc some auxiliary assumption, or by reinterpreting the theory ad hoc in such a way that it escapes refutation. Its General Products Divsion, which handled defence contracts, was acquired by Kaiser Industries, and continues to this day as AM General. 7. Today, the former proving ground is owned by Robert Bosch GmbH, and it continues to be active some 80 years after it was first built. (I now speak in such cases of "corroborating evidence."). As a condition of the donation, the new park was named park Bendix Woods. Confirming evidence should not count except when it is the result of a genuine test of the theory; and this means that it can be presented as a serious but unsuccessful attempt to falsify the theory.

Joseph County, Indiana parks department. 6. Studebaker's proving grounds were acquired by its former supplier Bendix Corporation, which later donated the grounds for use as a park to the St. Testability is falsifiability; but there are degrees of testability: some theories are more testable, more exposed to refutation, than others; they take, as it were, greater risks. Many of Studebaker's dealers converted to Mercedes-Benz dealerships following the closure of the Canadian plant. Every genuine test of a theory is an attempt to falsify it, or to refute it. The last car manufactured was a turquoise-and-white Cruiser four-door sedan. 5.

Automotive production was consolidated at the company's last remaining production facility in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, where Studebaker produced cars until April, 1966, when it left the automobile business to focus on its profitable wholly-owned subsidiaries. Irrefutability is not a virtue of a theory (as people often think) but a vice. The company closed its operations in South Bend in December 1963, selling its Avanti brand to Nate Altman who continued to produce the car in South Bend under the brand name Avanti II. A theory which is not refutable by any conceivable event is non-scientific. Sadly, everything that was tried in the years following the Lark's debut proved to be not enough to stop the financial bleeding. 4. The Lark, in particular, was based on existing parts to the degree that it even utilized the central body section of the company's 1953 cars, but was a clever enough design to be quite popular in its first year, selling over 150,000 units and delivering an unexpected $28 million profit to the automaker. The more a theory forbids, the better it is.

The automobiles which came after the diversification process began, including the ingeniously-designed compact Lark (1959) and even the "Avanti" sports car (1963) were based on old chassis and engine designs. Every "good" scientific theory is a prohibition: it forbids certain things to happen. While this was good for the corporate bottom line, it virtually guaranteed there would be little spending on Studebaker's mainstay products, its automobiles. 3. With an abundance of tax credits in hand from the years of financial losses, at the insistence of the company's banks and some members of the board of directors, Studebaker-Packard began diversifying away from automobiles in the late 1950s. Confirmations should count only if they are the result of risky predictions; that is to say, if, unenlightened by the theory in question, we should have expected an event which was incompatible with the theory — an event which would have refuted the theory. In 1958, the Packard name was discontinued, although the company continued to bear the Studebaker-Packard name through 1962. 2.

Hurley, the company became the American importer for Mercedes-Benz, Auto Union and DKW automobiles and many Studebaker dealers sold those brands as well. It is easy to obtain confirmations, or verifications, for nearly every theory — if we look for confirmations. At the behest of C-W's president Roy T. 1. Studebaker's cash position was far worse than it led Packard to believe and in 1956 the nearly bankrupt automaker brought in a management team from aircraft maker Curtiss-Wright to help get it back on its feet. Karl Popper described the characteristics of a scientific theory as:. Hoping to stem the tide of losses and bolster its market position, Studebaker allowed itself to be acquired by Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit; the merged entity was called the Studebaker-Packard Corporation. The fewer which are matched, the less scientific it is; those that meet only several or none at all, cannot be said to be scientific in any meaningful sense of the word.

There was enough momentum to keep going for another ten years, but stiff competition and price cutting by the Big Three doomed the enterprise. Theories considered scientific meet at least most, but ideally all, of the above criteria. Professional financial managers stressed short term earnings rather than long term vision. This is true of such established theories as special and general relativity, quantum mechanics, plate tectonics, evolution, etc. However, ballooning labor costs (the company had never had an official United Auto Workers (UAW) strike and Studebaker workers and retirees were among the highest paid in the industry), quality control issues and the new car sales war between Ford and General Motors in the early 1950s wreaked havoc on Studebaker's balance sheet. In science, a body of descriptions of knowledge is usually only called a theory once it has a firm empirical basis, i.e., it. Studebaker continued to build models that appealed to the average American and their need for transportation and mobility. This falsification, though, did not necessarily mean that only one alternative theory was necessarily the "correct" replacement — both the Copernican system and the Tychonic system predicted the phases of Venus.

From the 1920s to the 1960s, the South Bend company originated many style and engineering milestones, including the classic 1929-1932 Studebaker President and the 1939 Studebaker Champion. Evidence, in the form of Galileo's observation of the phases of Venus in 1610, was produced which was completely incompatible with the predictions set forth by the theory. In 1926, Studebaker became the first automobile manufacturer in the United States to open a controlled outdoor proving ground; in 1937 the company planted 5,000 pine trees in a pattern that when viewed from the air spelled "STUDEBAKER.". A canonical example of a disproved theory is the geocentric model of the universe proposed by Ptolemy. In addition to cars, Studebaker also added a truck line, which in time, replaced the horse drawn wagon business started in 1851. A law is a general statement based on observations. In 1911 the company reorganized as the Studebaker Corporation. Theories and laws are not rungs in a ladder of truth, but different sets of data.

Studebaker also began putting its name on new automobiles produced at the former E-M-F facilities, both as an assurance that the vehicles were well-built, and as its commitment to making automobile production and sales a success. This, however, rests on a mistaken assumption of what theories and laws are. To remedy the damage done by E-M-F, Studebaker paid mechanics to visit each unsatisfied owner and replace the defective parts in their vehicles at a cost of US$1 million to the company. Some scientific theories (such as the theory of gravity) are so widely accepted that they are often seen as laws. Studebaker, unhappy with E-M-F's poor quality, gained control of the assets and plant facilities in 1910. In scientific theories, this then leads to research, in combination with auxiliary and other hypotheses (see scientific method), which may then eventually lead to a theory. J.M. Theories start out with empirical observations such as "sometimes water turns into ice." At some point, there is a need or curiosity to find out why this is, which leads to a theoretical/scientific phase.

Problems with E-M-F made the cars unreliable leading the public to say that E-M-F stood for "Every Morning Fix-it". Instead, theories remain standing until they are disproved, at which point they are thrown out altogether or modified to fit the additional data. The company entered into a distribution agreement with Everett-Metzger-Flanders (E-M-F) Company of Detroit; E-M-F would manufacture vehicles and the Studebakers would distribute them through their wagon dealers. In science, a theory is not considered fact or infallible, because we can never assume we know all there is to know. Studebaker experimented with motor vehicles as early as 1897, choosing electric over gasoline powered engines. A theory is an established paradigm that explains all or much of the data we have and offers valid predictions that can be tested. They made about a quarter of them, and manufactured the metal fittings to sell to other builders in Missouri for another quarter. But in science and generally in academic usage, a theory is much more than that.

During the height of westward migration and wagon train pioneering, half of the wagons were Studebakers. As noted above, in common usage a theory is defined as little more than a guess or a hypothesis. Peter's business became a branch operation. The process of accepting theories, or of extending existing theory, is part of the scientific method. So they set their sights on supplying individuals and farmers the ability to move themselves and their goods. Theories are more likely to be accepted if they connect a wide range of phenomena. By this time the railroad and steamship companies had become the big freight movers in the east. Theories which are simpler, and more mathematically elegant, tend to be accepted over theories which are complex.

They reorganized into the Studebaker Brother's Manufacturing Company in 1868, built around the motto of "Always give more than you promise". Theories can become accepted if they are able to make correct predictions and avoid incorrect ones. After the war they reviewed what they had accomplished and set a direction for the company. A theory is also different from a physical law in that the latter is a model of reality, whereas the former is an explanatory statement of what has been observed, explaining the why and how of the observed physical law. Expansion continued to support westward migration, but the next major increase came from supplying wagons for the Union Army in the American Civil War. The latter is a statement of mathematical fact which logically follows from a set of axioms. They brought in their youngest brother Jacob and incorporated in 1852. The former is a model of physical events and cannot be proved from basic axioms.

When the gold rush settled down, John returned to Indiana and bought out Henry's share of the business. A theory is different from a theorem. The first major expansion in their business came from their being in place to meet the needs of the California Gold Rush in 1849. Most theory evolves from hypotheses, but the reverse is not true: many hypotheses turn out to be false and so do not evolve into theory. John made wheelbarrows in California and Peter made wagons in Saint Joseph, Missouri. There are two uses of the word theory; a supposition which is not backed by observation is known as a conjecture, and if backed by observation it is a hypothesis. They first made metal parts for freight wagons and later expanded into the manufacture of wagons. In engineering practise, to avoid confusion with a physical model (e.g., the winged rockets built by Convair to test the Whitcomb area rule for the F-106 supersonic aircraft), the above are called "mathematical models".

became blacksmiths and foundrymen in South Bend, Indiana. So one can see how a theory is a model of reality that explains certain scientific facts yet may not be a true picture of reality and another more accurate theory can later replace the previous model. Clement and Henry, Jr. Mathematical calculations could be made for the prediction of where the planets would be to a great degree of accuracy, so that this model of the planetary system survived over 1500 years until the time of Copernicus. They all went into that business as they grew westward with the country. This could actually be built into a literal model and illustrated as a model. By 1840 he had moved to Ohio and taught his five sons to make wagons. Retrograde motion of the planets was explained by smaller circular orbits of individual planets.

Henry Studebaker was a farmer, blacksmith, and wagon-maker who lived near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania in the early 19th century. In Ptolemy's planetary model, the earth was at the center, the planets and the sun made circular orbits around the earth, and the stars were on a sphere outside of the orbits of the planet and the earth. . The Greeks formulated theories that were recorded by the astronomer Ptolemy. The company left the automobile business in 1966. An example of how theories are models can be seen from theories on the planetary system. Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer that was incorporated in 1868[1]. Therefore, the model created in his theory is based on the assumption that light maintains a constant velocity (or more precisely the speed of light is a constant).

He assumed that both of these were correct and formulated his theory based on these assumptions by simply altering the Galilean transformation to accommodate the lack of addition of velocities with regard to the speed of light. that the "addition of velocities" is valid (Galilean transformation) and that light did not appear to have an "addition of velocities" (Michelson-Morley experiment). He took two phenomena that had been observed i.e. An example of using assumptions to formulate a theory is when Albert Einstein put forth his Special Theory of Relativity.

Since we must start somewhere, we must have assumptions, but at least let us have as few assumptions as possible." (See Ockham's razor). On the other hand, it seems obvious that assumptions are the weak points in any argument, as they have to be accepted on faith in a philosophy of science that prides itself on its rationalism. (If there were, it would no longer be an assumption.) It is better to consider assumptions as either useful or useless, depending on whether deductions made from them corresponded to reality. An assumption according to Asimov is "something accepted without proof, and it is incorrect to speak of an assumption as either true or false, since there is no way of proving it to be either.

Arguments or theories always begin with some premises - "arbitrary elements" as Hawking calls them (see above), which are here described as "assumptions". In Understanding Physics, Asimov spoke of theories as "arguments" where one deduces a "scheme" or model. This is a view shared by Isaac Asimov. On the other hand, you can disprove a theory by finding even a single repeatable observation that disagrees with the predictions of the theory.".

No matter how many times the results of experiments agree with some theory, you can never be sure that the next time the result will not contradict the theory. According to Stephen Hawking in A Brief History of Time, "a theory is a good theory if it satisfies two requirements: It must accurately describe a large class of observations on the basis of a model that contains only a few arbitrary elements, and it must make definite predictions about the results of future observations." He goes on to state, "any physical theory is always provisional, in the sense that it is only a hypothesis; you can never prove it. A theory makes generalizations about observations and consists of an interrelated, coherent set of ideas and models. In many instances, this is seen to be the construction of models of reality.

inanimate things, events, or the behaviour of animals). Humans construct theories in order to explain, predict and master phenomena (e.g. Yet a California Academy of Sciences exhibit on fossils included this line: "Scientists have a number of theories about why ammonites develop spines on their shells" (emphasis added; from Morrison, 2005). Even scientists tend to use the now common definition in everyday speech and writing, being more careful in published material.

39):. In everyday English, a theory is (Morrison, 2005, p. This change can be seen in modern dictionaries which now list theory as a "guess or hunch" in preference to the former scientific definition that used to be the dominant one. Most troublesome for the scientific community is the fact that, in common speech, theory has almost the opposite meaning from its use in the sciences.

A hypothesis, however, is still vastly more reliable than a conjecture, which is at best an untested guess consistent with selected data and often simply a belief based on non-repeatable experiments, anecdotes, popular opinion, "wisdom of the ancients," commercial motivation, or mysticism. Unfortunately, usage of the term theory is muddled by scientists in such examples as string theory and various theories of everything, which are more correctly characterized at present as a bundle of competing hypotheses or a protoscience. For a given body of theory to be considered part of established scientific knowledge, it is usually necessary for it to characterize a critical experiment, namely an experimental result not predicted by any existing established theory. Conversely, at any time in the study of physics there can also be confirmed experimental results that are not yet explained by theory.

It is not uncommon in the history of physics for theory to produce predictions that are later confirmed by experiment; failed predictions, however, also occur, and sometimes work to falsify a theory. For example, until recently, black holes were considered theoretical. The term theoretical is used in science to describe a result that is predicted by theory but has not yet been observed. This theory is usually taken to be synonymous with classical electromagnetism.

A good example is electromagnetic theory, which encompasses the results that can be derived from Maxwell's equations. In physics, the term theory is generally used for a mathematical framework derived from a small set of basic principles, capable of producing experimental predictions for a given category of physical systems. In this sense, a theory is a systematic and formalized expression of all previous observations made that is predictive, logical, testable, and has never been falsified. In various sciences, a theory is a logically self-consistent model or framework for describing the behavior of a certain natural or social phenomenon, thus either originating from or supported by experimental evidence (see scientific method).

The "theory of global warming" refers instead to scientific work that attempts to explain how and why this could be happening. For example, "global warming" refers to the observation that worldwide temperatures seem to be increasing. Theories are typically ways of explaining why things happen, often, but not always after their occurrence is no longer in scientific dispute. A theory is in this context a set of hypotheses that are logically bound together (See also hypothetico-deductive method).

All scientific understanding takes the form of hypotheses, or conjectures. Scientific theories are never proven to be true, but can be disproven. In scientific usage, a theory does not mean an unsubstantiated guess or hunch, as it often does in other contexts. The term ‘theoria’ (a noun) was already used by the scholars of ancient Greeks.

According to some sources, it was used frequently in terms of ‘looking at’ a theatre stage, which may explain why sometimes the word ‘theory’ is used as something provisional or not completely resembling real. The word ‘theory’ derives from the Greek ‘theorein’, which means ‘to look at’. . Theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on the context and their methodologies.

Other: Obsolete scientific theories - Phlogiston theory. Statistics : Extreme value theory. Sociology: Social theory - Critical social theory - Value theory. Planetary science: Giant impact theory.

Physics: Theory of relativity - Special relativity - General relativity - Quantum field theory - Acoustic theory - Antenna theory. Philosophy: Speculative reason. Music: Music theory. Mathematics: Axiomatic set theory - Catastrophe theory - Chaos theory - Graph theory - Number theory - Probability theory.

Literature: Literary theory. Humanities: Critical theory. Geology: Continental drift - Plate tectonics. Games: Rational choice theory - Game theory.

Engineering: Circuit theory - Control theory - Signal theory - Systems theory. Computer science: Algorithmic information theory - Computation theory. Climatology: Global warming. Chemistry: Atomic theory - Kinetic theory of gases.

Biology: Evolution by natural selection - Cell theory. is the most parsimonious explanation, sparing in proposed entities or explanations, commonly referred to as passing Ockham's razor. is tentative, correctable and dynamic, in allowing for changes to be made as new data is discovered, rather than asserting certainty, and. makes predictions that might someday be used to disprove the theory,.

is supported by many strands of evidence rather than a single foundation, ensuring that it probably is a good approximation if not totally correct,. is consistent with pre-existing theory to the extent that the pre-existing theory was experimentally verified, though it will often show pre-existing theory to be wrong in an exact sense,.

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