Staffordshire

Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. The county town is Stafford. Part of the National Forest lies within its borders. It adjoins the ceremonial counties of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, West Midlands, Worcestershire and Shropshire.

The major city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent. Lichfield is also a city but is considerably smaller. Major towns include Burton-upon-Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Tamworth and Stafford itself.

Staffordshire is divided into a number of districts. These are Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Stafford, Staffordshire Moorlands and Tamworth. Stoke-on-Trent is administered as a separate unitary authority.

History

Main article History of Staffordshire.

The historic county of Staffordshire included Wolverhampton, Walsall, and West Bromwich, these were removed in 1974 to the new county of West Midlands. The resulting administrative area of Staffordshire has a narrow southwards protrusion that runs west of West Midlands to the border of Worcestershire. Further, Stoke-on-Trent was removed in the 1990s to form a unitary authority, but is still considered part of Staffordshire for ceremonial and geographical purposes.

Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Offlow, Pirehill, Seisdon and Totmonslow.

Dogs

A type of bull terrier called the Staffordshire Bull Terrier was bred for hunting purposes in this county. Later, a fighting dog was created called the Staffordshire pit bull. They are known affectionately as "Staffies".

Railways

Due to Wedgewood's pottery being moved increasingly by road transport, and both the decline in mining, qarrying and farming in general, several once-busy stations were shut down. Staffordshire's railways were reduced by the Beeching report in the 1960s, and several stations, like Uttoxeter and Norton Bridge, only narrowly missed closure. Both Stone, Barlaston and Titensor, Wedgewood and Norton Bridge all closed in 2003, but may re-open due to heavy local campaigning around the town of Stone. Eturia, Longport and Kidsgrove closed in 2005, but only services to Eturia had any popular support.

  • Coald meace works - Closed by 1900.
  • Alton (Alton towers) - Closed by 1970. It may be reopened by the Alton Towers amusment park.
  • Great Bridgeford, Whitmore and Standon moor - Both freight-only by 1955 and closed by 1970.
  • Littelton colliery and Hume end - Closed by 1946.
  • Madeley - Freight-only by 1955 and closed by 2000.
  • Oakmoor - Freight-only by 1970 and closed by 2000. It may be reopened by the preservationists that now run Consall and some nearby stations on that line.
  • Consall - Closed by 1970, but was saved by a local steam preservation movement.
  • Leek, Chedale, Trentham guardens and Brownhills - All went freight-only by 1970 and closed by 2000.
  • Caldon Lowe - Station closed by 1946. A quarry-worker's halt was opened by 1970, but – like the quarry itself – closed by 2000.
  • Trentham colliery - Closed by 2000.
  • Florence colliery - Opened by 1970 and closed by 2000.
  • Stafford common- The station had closed by 1946 and the goods department closed by 2000.
  • Kingsley and Frognal goods depot - Closed by 1970.

The collieries handle mostly freight along with a few workers trains. Stoke-on-Trent's goods yard had closed by 2000 due to increased competition from road haulage.

Note: at both Brownhills, Oakmoor, Chedale, Caldon Lowe and Whitmore the lines are over-grown and/or the stations neglected; but they may re-open for freight trains or for use by railway enthusiasts.

References

Ian alan books - British railways atlas 1947, Complete atlas of railway station names (U.K., 2002 edition), Rail Atlas 1970, British railway atlas 1955. A few recent newspaper articles.

Geography

In the north and in the south the county is hilly, with wild moorlands in the far north and Cannock Chase an area of natural beauty in the south. In the middle regions the surface is low and undulating. Throughout the entire county there are vast and important coal fields. In the southern part there are also rich iron ore deposits. The largest river is the Trent. The soil is chiefly clay and agriculture was not highly developed until the mechanisation of farms.

Towns and villages

See the list of places in Staffordshire and the List of civil parishes in Staffordshire

Places of interest

  • Alton Towers
  • Lichfield Cathedral [1]
  • Shugborough Hall [2]
  • Blithfield Hall
  • Dovecliff Hall
  • Festival Park
  • Ford Green Hall, Smallthorne
  • Madeley Old Hall
  • Moseley Old Hall, Featherstone,_Staffordshire
  • Sandon Hall
  • Whitmore Hall
  • Biddulph Grange
  • Eccleshall Castle
  • Mow Cop Castle
  • Stafford Castle
  • Tamworth Castle
  • Tutbury Castle
  • Croxden Abbey
  • Broad Eye Windmill, Stafford
  • Cheddleton Flint Mill, watermill
  • Watermill housing Brindley Water Museum, Leek
  • Izaak Walton Cottage Museum
  • Weston Park
  • Cannock Chase
  • Hazel Slade Reserve
  • RSPB Coombes Valley
  • National Memorial Arboretum [3]
  • Trentham Gardens
  • Rudyard Lake
  • Tittesworth Reservoir [4]
  • Chasewater [5]
  • River Trent
  • River Blythe
  • River Churnet
  • Birmingham and Fazeley Canal
  • Caldon Canal
  • Coventry Canal
  • Shropshire Union Canal
  • Trent and Mersey Canal, Harecastle Tunnel
  • Heritage railways: Chasewater Railway, Foxfield Steam Railway, Manifold Valley Railway
  • Churnet Valley Railway [6]
  • Long distance footpaths: Heart of England Way, Staffordshire Way

Local Groups

  • West Midland Bird Club
  • Lichfield Cricket Club
  • Tipton Harriers

This page about Staffordshire includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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See the list of places in Staffordshire and the List of civil parishes in Staffordshire. The pledge to the Texas Flag is:. The soil is chiefly clay and agriculture was not highly developed until the mechanisation of farms. airports with scheduled non-stop domestic and international service (221 destinations), trailing only Atlanta Hartsfield with 250 destinations. The largest river is the Trent. IAH currently ranks second in the United States among U.S. In the southern part there are also rich iron ore deposits. With 30 destinations in Mexico, IAH offers service to more Mexican destinations than any other US airport.

Throughout the entire county there are vast and important coal fields. A long list of cities within Texas, as well as international destinations are served directly from this airport. In the middle regions the surface is low and undulating. Because of Houston's proximity to American Airlines' hub in Dallas-Fort Worth, that airline also maintains a large presence at IAH. In the north and in the south the county is hilly, with wild moorlands in the far north and Cannock Chase an area of natural beauty in the south. Houston is the headquarters of Continental Airlines, and George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH) is Continental Airline's largest hub, with over 750 daily departures (over 250 operated by Continental Airlines). A few recent newspaper articles. The airport is the ninth-busiest in the United States for total passengers, and nineteenth busiest worldwide.

Ian alan books - British railways atlas 1947, Complete atlas of railway station names (U.K., 2002 edition), Rail Atlas 1970, British railway atlas 1955. Texas's second-largest air facility is the George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH). Note: at both Brownhills, Oakmoor, Chedale, Caldon Lowe and Whitmore the lines are over-grown and/or the stations neglected; but they may re-open for freight trains or for use by railway enthusiasts. The airport serves 135 domestic destinations and 37 international, and is the largest and main hub for American Airlines (900 daily departures), the world's largest airline, and also the largest hub for American Eagle. Stoke-on-Trent's goods yard had closed by 2000 due to increased competition from road haulage. In terms of traffic, DFW is the busiest in the state, fourth busiest in the United States, and sixth busiest in the world. The collieries handle mostly freight along with a few workers trains. The Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, located in the equidistant to downtown Dallas and Fort Worth, is the largest airport in state, the second largest in the United States, and third largest in the world.

Eturia, Longport and Kidsgrove closed in 2005, but only services to Eturia had any popular support. New landscaping projects and a longstanding ban on new billboards are ways Houston has tried to control the potential side effects of convenience. Both Stone, Barlaston and Titensor, Wedgewood and Norton Bridge all closed in 2003, but may re-open due to heavy local campaigning around the town of Stone. Frontage roads provide access to the freeway from businesses alongside, such as gas stations and retail stores. Staffordshire's railways were reduced by the Beeching report in the 1960s, and several stations, like Uttoxeter and Norton Bridge, only narrowly missed closure. Alongside most freeways are two to four lanes in each direction parallel to the freeway permitting easy access to individual city streets. Due to Wedgewood's pottery being moved increasingly by road transport, and both the decline in mining, qarrying and farming in general, several once-busy stations were shut down. One characteristic of Texas's freeways are its frontage roads.

They are known affectionately as "Staffies". Houston and San Antonio have extensive networks of freeway cameras linked to transit control centers to monitor and study traffic. Later, a fighting dog was created called the Staffordshire pit bull. Timed freeway entrances, which regulate the addition of cars to the freeway, are also common. A type of bull terrier called the Staffordshire Bull Terrier was bred for hunting purposes in this county. Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) planners have sought ways to reduce rush hour congestion, primarly through High-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane for vans and carpools. Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Offlow, Pirehill, Seisdon and Totmonslow. Texas freeways are heavily traveled and often under construction to meet the demands of continuing growth.

Further, Stoke-on-Trent was removed in the 1990s to form a unitary authority, but is still considered part of Staffordshire for ceremonial and geographical purposes. Texas has twenty Educational Service Center "regions" that serve the local school districts. The resulting administrative area of Staffordshire has a narrow southwards protrusion that runs west of West Midlands to the border of Worcestershire. The sole exception to this rule is Stafford Municipal School District, which serves all of the city of Stafford. The historic county of Staffordshire included Wolverhampton, Walsall, and West Bromwich, these were removed in 1974 to the new county of West Midlands. School districts have the power to tax their residents and to use eminent domain. Main article History of Staffordshire.. School districts may cross city and county boundaries.

. All but one of the school districts in Texas are separate from any form of municipal government, hence they are called "independent school districts," or "ISD" for short. Stoke-on-Trent is administered as a separate unitary authority. The public school systems are administered by the Texas Education Agency. These are Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Stafford, Staffordshire Moorlands and Tamworth. Other large public universities in Texas include Texas State University-San Marcos (formerly Southwest Texas State University) and Texas Tech University in Lubbock, the only institution in Texas with the university, law school, and medical school all residing on the same campus. Staffordshire is divided into a number of districts. Mary's University, University of the Incarnate Word, and Our Lady of the Lake University.

Major towns include Burton-upon-Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Tamworth and Stafford itself. San Antonio is home to many colleges and universities, such as The University of Texas at San Antonio, the second largest institution of the University of Texas System, as well as University of Texas Health Science Center, Trinity University, St. Lichfield is also a city but is considerably smaller. The Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex has the fourth largest university in the state—the University of North Texas—along with two UT System institutions—The University of Texas at Dallas and The University of Texas at Arlington, as well as private universities such as Southern Methodist University, which is the Metroplex's largest law school. The major city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent. Its pioneering spirit continues today. It adjoins the ceremonial counties of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, West Midlands, Worcestershire and Shropshire. Over the years, the University's educational facilities and programs expanded, and many of its graduates began to achieve local, regional, and national recognition for their influence in politics, education, business, technology, medicine, and the arts.

Part of the National Forest lies within its borders. Houston is also home to Texas Southern University, the first historically black college and university (HBCU) to house a law school, and was also the first state-supported institution in the city of Houston. The county town is Stafford. Rice is also associated with the Houston Area Research Center, a consortium supported by Rice, the University of Texas at Austin, Texas A&M University, and the University of Houston. Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. Rice University maintains a variety of research facilities and laboratories. Tipton Harriers. The small undergraduate student body is among the nation's most select and one of the highest percentages of National Merit Scholarship winners.

Lichfield Cricket Club. Houston is the location of a well known prestigious private institution of Rice University, which boasts one of the largest financial endowments of any university in the world. West Midland Bird Club. News & World Report. Long distance footpaths: Heart of England Way, Staffordshire Way. The UH Law Center's Health Law and Policy Institute is ranked number one in the nation while the Intellectual Property Law Program is ranked fifth, according to U.S. Churnet Valley Railway [6]. Amongst the most prestigious of the University of Houston's colleges is the University of Houston Law Center (law school).

Heritage railways: Chasewater Railway, Foxfield Steam Railway, Manifold Valley Railway. UH is also home to over 40 research centers and institutes. Trent and Mersey Canal, Harecastle Tunnel. The interdisciplinary research conducted at UH breaks new ground in such vital areas as superconductivity, space commercialization, biomedical engineering, economics, education, petroleum exploration and management. Shropshire Union Canal. Its flagship institution is the University of Houston, the only doctoral degree granting extensive research institution in Houston and is the third largest in the state of Texas with an enrollment of over 36,000. Coventry Canal. The University of Houston System is the largest urban state system of higher education in the Gulf Coast, which has four universities with three located in Houston.

Caldon Canal. It is the second largest university in the state of Texas and also one of the top 10 largest schools in the nation. Birmingham and Fazeley Canal. Funded research generally exceeds that of all other Texas universities, and Texas A&M ranks among the top ten national universities in research. River Churnet. Its flagship institution is Texas A&M University located in College Station and is the state's oldest public institution of higher education. River Blythe. The Texas A&M University System is the second largest state university system of higher learning in Texas.

River Trent. In 2004, the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas was ranked the 16th highest ranking medical school in the United States, with four of Texas' eleven Nobel laureates.[5]. Chasewater [5]. Four of the seven medical schools of Texas are within the University of Texas System. Tittesworth Reservoir [4]. Seven doctoral programs at UT Austin rank in the top 10 in the nation and 22 degree programs rank in the top 25, according to a comprehensive study of the quality of graduate schools conducted by the United States National Research Council. Rudyard Lake. The University of Texas at Austin was once the largest institution in the United States, but it is now one of the top three largest by population and is the nation's 52nd ranked university[4].

Trentham Gardens. In 2004, The University of Texas at Austin, which is the largest institution in the UT System and in the state of Texas, maintained an enrollment of 50,377 students. National Memorial Arboretum [3]. UT System institutions enrolled a total of 182,752 students in fall 2004 making it one of the largest systems of higher education in the nation. RSPB Coombes Valley. The University of Texas System, established by the Texas Constitution in 1876, consists of nine academic universities and six health institutions. Hazel Slade Reserve. Census estimates.

Cannock Chase. Population figures are as of the 2004 U.S. Weston Park. The following table lists population figures for those metropolitan areas, in rank of population. Izaak Walton Cottage Museum. Texas has two metropolitan divisions within the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington MSA. Watermill housing Brindley Water Museum, Leek. Census introduced "metropolitan divisions" within some metropolitan areas.

Cheddleton Flint Mill, watermill. In 2003, the U.S. Broad Eye Windmill, Stafford. The two largest are ranked among the top 10 United States metropolitan areas. Croxden Abbey. Texas has 25 metropolitan areas (MSAs) defined by the United States Census Bureau. Tutbury Castle.
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Tamworth Castle. cities.[3]. Stafford Castle. Austin and Fort Worth are in the top 20 largest U.S. Mow Cop Castle. to have three cities with populations exceeding one million (California has two; no other state has more than one) — Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas, which are also among the 10 largest cities of the United States. Eccleshall Castle. Texas is the only state in the U.S.

Biddulph Grange. Census estimates within city limits. Whitmore Hall. Photographs of the downtowns of those six cities are displayed to the right, in order of each city's population according to 2004 U.S. Sandon Hall. Ranked by population of cities (incorporated municipalities), the six major cities in Texas are Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso. Moseley Old Hall, Featherstone,_Staffordshire. global cities as Houston and Dallas ranked "Gamma World City" by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network (GaWC).

Madeley Old Hall. Texas has two out of eleven U.S. Ford Green Hall, Smallthorne.
. Festival Park. Females made up 50.4% of the population. Dovecliff Hall. Census data reports 7.8% of Texas's population as under 5, 28.2% under 18, and 9.9% over 64 years.

Blithfield Hall. African Americans, who historically made up one-third of the state population, are concentrated in those parts of East Texas where the ante-bellum cotton plantation culture was most prominent. Shugborough Hall [2]. Much of east, central, and north Texas is inhabited primarily by Texans of White Anglo Saxon Protestant heritage, primarily descended from the British Isles. Lichfield Cathedral [1]. The largest reported ancestry groups in Texas include: Mexican (24.3%), African American (11.5%), German (9.9%), American (7.2%), and Irish (7.2%). Alton Towers. All data comes from the United States Census state population estimates.[2].

Kingsley and Frognal goods depot - Closed by 1970. In August 2005, it was announced by the United States Census that Texas has become the fourth minority-majority state in the nation (after Hawaii, New Mexico, and California).[1] According to the Texas state Data Center, if current trends continue, Hispanics will become a majority in the state by 2030. Stafford common- The station had closed by 1946 and the goods department closed by 2000. People from mainland China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, India, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Pakistan and other countries have settled in Texas. Florence colliery - Opened by 1970 and closed by 2000. In recent years, the Asian population in Texas has grown, especially in Houston and in Dallas. Trentham colliery - Closed by 2000. Texans of German descent dominate much of central and southeast-central Texas and one county in the area, Lavaca, is predominantly Czech.

A quarry-worker's halt was opened by 1970, but – like the quarry itself – closed by 2000. The influence of the diverse immigrants from Europe survives in the names of towns, styles of architecture, genres of music, and varieties of cuisine. Caldon Lowe - Station closed by 1946. After the European revolutions of 1848, German, Polish, Swedish, Norwegian, Czech and French immigration grew, and continued until World War I. Leek, Chedale, Trentham guardens and Brownhills - All went freight-only by 1970 and closed by 2000. In fact, the largest family in Texas today is of German descent, along with the majority of the white population in Texas. Consall - Closed by 1970, but was saved by a local steam preservation movement. Frontier Texas saw settlements of Germans, particularly in Fredericksburg and New Braunfels.

It may be reopened by the preservationists that now run Consall and some nearby stations on that line. Other population groups in Texas also exhibit great diversity. Oakmoor - Freight-only by 1970 and closed by 2000. Perhaps numerically Mexican-Texans dominate south, south-central, and west Texas and are a significant part of the work force of cities of Dallas and Houston. Madeley - Freight-only by 1955 and closed by 2000. Tejanos are the largest ancestral group in southern Duval County. Littelton colliery and Hume end - Closed by 1946. Some are recent arrivals from Mexico, Central America, or South America, while others, known as Tejanos (though interestingly everyone in Texas is known as a Tejano in Spanish), have ancestors who have lived in Texas since before Texan independence, or at least for several generations.

Great Bridgeford, Whitmore and Standon moor - Both freight-only by 1955 and closed by 1970. More than one-third of Texas residents are of Hispanic origin and may be of any racial groups. It may be reopened by the Alton Towers amusment park. As of 2004, the state has 3,450,500 foreign-born residents (15.6% of the state population), of which an estimated 1.2 million are illegal aliens (illegal aliens account for more than one-third of the foreign-born population in Texas and 5.4% of the total state population). Alton (Alton towers) - Closed by 1970. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 663,161 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 218,722 people. Coald meace works - Closed by 1900. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 1,155,182 people (that is 1,948,398 births minus 793,216 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 881,883 people into the state.

As of 2005, the state has an estimated population of 22,859,968, which is an increase of 388,419, or 1.7%, from the prior year and an increase of 2,008,176, or 9.6%, since the year 2000. The people of Texas, historically often known as Texians, are now generally referred to as Texans. The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), in Galveston, also contains the only non-governmental Biosafety Level 4 laboratory in the United States. Other healthcare and medical research centers in the state are the South Texas Medical Center in San Antonio and the UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas.

Anderson Cancer Center is widely considered one of the world’s most productive and highly-regarded academic institutions devoted to cancer patient care, research, education and prevention. D. The M. Anderson Cancer Center.

D. Some of the academic and research health institutions are Baylor College of Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, and The University of Texas M. It is where one of the first, and still the largest, air emergency service was created—a very successful inter-institutional transplant program was developed—and more heart surgeries are performed than anywhere else in the world. These institutions include 13 renowned hospitals and two specialty institutions, two medical schools, four nursing schools, and schools of dentistry, public health, pharmacy, and virtually all health-related careers.

There are 42 member institutions in the Texas Medical Center—all are not-for-profit, and are dedicated to the highest standards of patient and preventive care, research, education, and local, national, and international community well-being. Houston is the seat of the internationally-renowned Texas Medical Center, which contains the world's largest concentration of research and healthcare institutions. The Texas Film Commission was founded for free services to filmmakers, from location research to traveling. In the past 10 years alone (1995-2004), more than $2.89 billion has been spent in Texas for film and television production.

Texas is one of the top filmmaking states in the United States, just after California and New York. Texas's growth is often attributed to the availability of jobs, the low cost of housing (housing values in the Dallas and Houston areas, while generally rising, have not risen at the astronomical rates of other areas such as San Francisco), the lack of a personal state income tax, low taxation and limited regulation of business, limited government (the state legislature of Texas meets only once every two years), and favorable climate. Texas had a gross state product of $764 billion, the third highest in America after California and New York respectively. state in population (after California).

The state passed New York in the 1990s to become the second-largest U.S. Other important cities include Killeen (home to Fort Hood, the largest military post in the U.S.) and the cities of El Paso, Eagle Pass, and Laredo (these have particular significance due to their location on the border with Mexico, making them important trade points). Other major cities include San Antonio, Austin, Brownsville, Lubbock, Amarillo, Abilene, Beaumont, McAllen, Tyler, Odessa and Midland. Houston stands at the center of the petrochemical and biomedical research trades while Dallas functions as the center of the agricultural and information technology labor market in Texas.

The state has two major economic centers: the Greater Houston area and the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. Its economy (circa 2000) relies largely on information technology, oil and natural gas, energy exploration and energy trading, agriculture, and manufacturing. After World War II, Texas became increasingly industralized. In 1926 San Antonio had over 120,000 people, the largest population of any city in Texas.

Before the oil boom, back to the period of the first anglo settlers, this was cotton farming (as in most of the South). Contrary to popular mythology, cattle ranching was never Texas's chief industry. Texas remained largely rural until World War II, with cattle ranching, oil, and agriculture as its main industries.
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The shift from Democrat to GOP control is due to the GOP's perceived more conservative stance on fiscal and social issues; Texas has historically considered itself a politically conservative state. Another famous Texas Democrat was longtime speaker of the House, Sam Rayburn. Senate, and as vice-president and president of the United States. House of Representatives, the U.S.

One of the most famous Texans was a Democrat: Lyndon Baines Johnson served in the U.S. The Democrats controlled a majority in the Texas House and in the state's Congressional delegation until the 2002 and 2004 elections, respectively. Like other Southern states, Texas historically was a one-party state of the Democratic Party. A court challenge to the legality of the non-Census-timed redistricting was upheld by the Republican-dominated Texas Supreme Court; the United States Supreme Court has agreed to review the case.

Congressman Tom DeLay, redrew the districts after the Republicans gained a larger share of the legislature. The legislature, with controversial help from U.S. Districts are usually drawn after the national census every 10 years, but an impasse in the Texas Legislature resulted in the districts being drawn by the courts in 2001. Note: The congressional districts in Texas were redrawn in 2003 by the Republican-dominated legislature.

The position of Travis County DA is uniquely so-empowered by the Texas Constitution; most states grant this authority to the more broadly elected position of Attorney General. Ronnie Earle is nationally known for leveling charges against Senator Kay Bailey Hutchinson, which were dismissed in court, and against Representative Tom DeLay, which have not yet been resolved. A notable exception to this trend is the Travis County District Attorney, Ronnie Earle, a Democrat elected by the people of Austin who has served since 1978 with state-wide authority and responsibility for legally prosecuting political mischief. Senators.

House of Representatives is Republican, as are both U.S. The majority of the state's delegation to the U.S. Every executive branch official elected statewide is Republican, as is every member of Texas's two courts of last resort; no Democrat has won a statewide election since 1994. Texas politics are currently dominated by the Republican Party, which has strong majorities in the Texas Senate and House of Representatives.

Other special districts include water supply, public hospitals, and community colleges. School district boundaries are not coaligned with city or county boundaries; it is not uncommon for a school district to cover one or more counties or for a large city to be served by several school districts. In addition to cities and counties, Texas has numerous "special districts." The most common is the independent school district, which (with one exception) has a board of trustees that is independent of any other governing authority. Municipal elections in Texas are nonpartisan, in the sense that candidates do not appear on the ballot on party "lines," and do not run as party "tickets.".

General law cities cannot annex adjacent unincorporated areas without the property owner's consent; home rule cities may annex without consent, but must provide essential services within a specified period of time or the property owner may file suit to be deannexed. One example of the difference in the two structures regards annexation. Otherwise, it is classified as "general law" and has very limited powers. A city may elect "home rule" status (i.e., draft an independent city charter) once it exceeds 5,000 population and the voters agree to home rule.

Cities are classified as either "general law" or "home rule". Texas does not have townships; areas within a county are either "incorporated" (i.e., part of a city, though the city may contract with the county for needed services) or "unincorporated" (i.e., not part of a city, in these areas the county has authority for law enforcement and road maintenance). Counties also have much less legal power than municipalities, for instance, counties in Texas do not have zoning power or eminent domain power (except in very rare circumstances). Certain officials such as the sheriff and tax collector are elected separately by the voters and state law specifies their salaries, but the commissioners court determines their office budgets.

In smaller counties, the county judge actually does perform judicial duties, but in larger counties the judge's role is limited to serving on the commissioners court. The county judge does not have authority to veto a decision of the commissioners court, s/he votes along with the commissioners. Each county is run by a "commissioners court" consisting of four elected commissioners (one from each of four precincts drawn based on population) and a "county judge" elected from all the voters of the county. Texas has a total of 254 counties, by far the most counties of any state.

Except in the case of some municipal benches, partisan elections choose all of the judges at all levels of the judiciary; the Governor fills vacancies by appointment. Texas has two courts of last resort: the Texas Supreme Court, which hears civil cases, and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals. The judicial system of Texas has a reputation as one of the most complex in the United States, with many layers and many overlapping jurisdictions. The Legislature meets in regular session only once every two years.

The speaker of the house, currently Tom Craddick (R-Midland) leads the House, and the Lieutenant Governor (currently Republican David Dewhurst) leads the State Senate. The House of Representatives has 150 members, while the Senate has 31. The Legislature of Texas, like the legislature of every other state except Nebraska, is bicameral (that is, has two chambers). He or she also appoints members of various executive boards and fills judicial vacancies between elections.

The Governor commands the state militia and can veto bills passed by the Legislature and call special sessions of the Legislature. In popular lore and belief the Lieutenant Governor, who heads the Senate and appoints its committees, has more power than the Governor. President. Partly because of the large number of elected officials, the Governor's powers are quite limited in comparison to other state governors or the U.S.

There are also a large number of state agencies and numerous boards and commissions. Except for the Secretary of State—who is appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Senate—each of these officials is elected. The Comptroller decides if expected state income is sufficient to cover the proposed state budget. The executive branch consists of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Comptroller of Public Accounts, Land Commissioner, Attorney General, Agriculture Commissioner, the three-member Railroad Commission, the State Board of Education, and the Secretary of State.

The bill of rights is considerably lengthier and more detailed than the federal Bill of Rights, and includes some provisions unique to Texas. As with many state constitutions, it explicitly provides for the separation of powers and incorporates its bill of rights directly into the text of the constitution (as Article I). The Texas Constitution, adopted in 1876, is the second longest in the nation. House of Representatives: 21 Republicans and 11 Democrats.

Texas has 32 representatives in the U.S. Senate: Kay Bailey Hutchison (since 1993) and John Cornyn (since 2002). Two Republicans represent Texas in the U.S. Bush vacated the office to assume the Presidency.

Republican Rick Perry has served as Governor of Texas since December 2000 when George W. national capitol, but it is less massive. The capitol building is seven feet taller than the U.S. Like several other southern state capitols, it faces south instead of north.

The State Capitol resembles the federal Capitol Building in Washington, DC, but is faced in pink granite and is topped by a statue of the "Goddess of Liberty" holding aloft a five-point Texas star. Austin is the capital of Texas. Texas has no active or dormant volcanoes and few earthquakes, being situated far from an active plate tectonic boundary. A blanket of Miocene sediments known as the Ogallala formation in the western high plains region is an important aquifer.

A few exposures of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks are found in the central and western parts of the state, and Oligocene volcanic rocks are found in far west Texas, in the Big Bend area. Oil is found in the Cretaceous sediments in the east, the Permian sediments in the west, and along the Gulf coast and out on the Texas continental shelf. West from this orogenic crest, which is buried beneath the Dallas–Waco–Austin–San Antonio trend, the sediments are Permian and Triassic in age. This sequence is built atop the subsided crest of the Appalachian Mountains–Ouachita Mountains–Marathon Mountains zone of Pennsylvanian continental collision, which collapsed when rifting in Jurassic time opened the Gulf.

It is mostly sedimentary rocks, with east Texas underlain by a Cretaceous and younger sequence of sediments, the trace of ancient shorelines east and south until the active continental margin of the Gulf of Mexico is met. Texas is the southernmost part of the Great Plains, which ends in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Texas has five major topographic regions:. The north-south extent is similarly impressive; Dalhart, in the nortwestern corner of the state, is closer to the state capitals of Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Wyoming than it is to the Texas state capital (Austin).

Texas is so large in its east-west expanse that El Paso, in the western corner of the state, is closer to San Diego, California than to Beaumont, near the Louisiana state line; Beaumont, in turn is closer to Jacksonville, Florida than it is to El Paso. Texas shares some cultural elements with both regions, with more similarities with the South, especially Arkansas and Louisiana, in East Texas, and more similarities with the Southwest, especially Mexico and New Mexico, in West Texas and South Texas. Some regions of Texas are associated with the Southwest more than the South, while other regions are associated with the South more than the Southwest. Southwest.

Texas is considered to form part of the US South and part of the U.S. Texas lies in the south-central part of the United States of America. To the southeast of Texas lies the Gulf of Mexico. To the southwest, across the Rio Grande, Texas borders the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas.

Texas borders New Mexico on the west, Oklahoma on the north (across the Red River), and Louisiana (across the Sabine River) and Arkansas on the east. The state tourism slogan is "Texas: It's like a whole other country.". Austin is the headquarters of Dell and known as "Silicon Hills", Dallas is a famously cosmopolitan metropolis, Houston is a leader in the oil industry, and cultures of San Antonio and El Paso retain their Mexican heritage. Texans pride themselves in a history of tradition, yet there are still new social and technological developments.

In 1870, the United States Congress readmitted Texas into the Union. During the Civil War, Texas seceded from the Union and joined the Confederate States of America. President John Tyler suggested that annexation be accomplished by the 'Joint Resolution for Annexing Texas to the United States' as it required only a simple majority of members from each chamber of the US Congress for passage. Due to the requirement of the US Constitution (Article II, Section 2) that all treaties be approved by 2/3rds of the Senate, a formal treaty was thus blocked.

These efforts failed due to the ongoing struggle between 'slave', and 'free' states. Prior to the resolution there were several efforts to arrive at a formal annexation treaty. Texas was admited to the Union via a 'Joint Resolution for Annexing Texas to the United States' on March 1, 1845. Some confusion has arisen over the annexation of Texas.

A compromise was reached in that if Texas were divided, any states north of the Missouri Compromise would be free states. Some southerners were pushing for the ability to divide Texas into multiple states, thereby increasing the number of slave states even more. The major stumbling block of annexation, besides the potential for war with Mexico, was the fact that Texas was a slave state and potentially would tip the balance between free and slave states due to its huge size. expansion to the Pacific, and its "Manifest Destiny".

Texas also lay partially in the way of the U.S. could not allow such a tenuous nation to sit right on its border. The U.S. Texas was in a very susceptible position following independence, with a weak government, little industry, and minimal infrastructure.

Annexation was mutually beneficial to Texas and the United States. In 1845, Texas was admitted to the United States as a constituent state of the Union. The Republic of Texas included all the area now included in the state of Texas, although its self-proclaimed western and northwestern borders extended as far west as Santa Fe and as far northwest as present-day Wyoming, respectively. Later in 1836, the Texians adopted a constitution that formally legalized slavery in Texas.

Santa Anna himself passed into captivity, and on May 14, Republic of Texas officials and General Santa Anna signed the treaty of Velasco. A factor in the defeat of Santa Anna's army at San Jacinto was the time the Texas Army got to gather itself, thanks to a small group of brave men at The Alamo. On April 21, 1836 the Texans won their independence when they defeated the Mexican forces of Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto. On March 2, 1836, the "Convention of 1836" signed the Texas "Declaration of Independence," declaring Texas an independent nation.

The example of the Centralista forces' suppression of dissidents in Zacatecas also inspired fear of the Mexican government. Other policies that irritated the Texians included the forcible disarmament of Texian settlers, and the expulsion of illegal immigrants from the United States of America. North American settlers in Texas announced they intended to secede from Mexico rather than give up their "right" to slavery, which Mexico had abolished. In 1835, Santa Anna, President of Mexico, proclaimed a unified constitution for all Mexican territories, including Texas.

This group became known as the "Old Three Hundred." The "Conventions" of 1832 and 1833 responded to rising unrest at the policies of the ruling Mexican government. Austin began a colony of 300 American families along the Brazos River in present-day Fort Bend County and Brazoria County, centered primarily in the area of what is now Sugar Land. On 3 January 1823, Stephen F. After Mexican independence in 1821, Texas became part of Mexico and in 1824 became the northern section of Coahuila y Tejas.

Moses was granted 200,000 acres (800 km²) of land of his choice. The governor passed along the favorable idea to his superior Commandant General of the Eastern Interior Province Joaquin de Arredondo. Moses purchased it with the help of Baron Felipe de Bastrop who presented the land scheme to the royal governor of Texas Antonio de Martinez. Moses Austin managed to buy land from the Spanish government in Texas.

Prior to 1821, Texas was part of the Spanish colony of New Spain. He returned to Europe in 1537, where he wrote about his experiences in a work called La relación ("The Tale"). states of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona on foot from coastal Louisiana to Sinaloa, Mexico, over a period of roughly six years. A member of the Narváez expedition, he was later enslaved by a Native American tribe of the upper Gulf coast, and explored what are now the U.S.

On November 6, 1528 shipwrecked Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca became the first known European to set foot on Texas. Currently, there are three federally recognized Native American tribes which reside in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas, and the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo of Texas. Native American tribes who once lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Comanche, Cherokee, Kiowa, Tonkawa, and Wichita. Texas can claim that "Six Flags" have flown over its soil: the Fleur-de-lis of France, and the national flags of Spain, Mexico, the Republic of Texas, the United States of America and the Confederate States of America.

. state in area and California is the most populous.) Texas has historically had a "larger than life" reputation, especially in cowboy films. (Alaska is the largest U.S. state in both area and population, and the largest state in the contiguous 48 states in area.

With an area of 268,820 square miles (696,241 km2) and a population of 22.5 million, Texas is the second largest U.S. Spanish explorers mistakenly applied the word to the people and their location. The state name derives from a word in a Caddoan language of the Hasinai, táyshaʔ (or tejas, as the Spaniards spelled it), meaning friends or allies. It joined the United States in 1845 as the 28th state, after nine years of self governing.

Texas is a state in the South and Southwest regions of the United States. John Cornyn (R). state vegetable — Texas sweet onion. state tartan — Texas Bluebonnet Tartan.

state stone — petrified palmwood. state sport — rodeo. state snack — tortilla chips and salsa. state slogan — "It's like a whole other country".

state native shrub — Texas purple sage (Leucophyllum frutescens)). state shrub — crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica). state ship — the Battleship USS Texas (BB-35). state shell — lightning whelk (Busycon perversum pulleyi).

state reptile — Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum), commonly called the "horny toad". state plant — prickly pear cactus. other — jalapeño. native — chiltepin.

state peppers (two)

    . musical instrument — guitar. state insect — monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). state grass — Sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula).

    state gemstone cut — The Lone Star Cut[7]. state gem — Texas blue topaz. state fruit — Texas red grapefruit. state folk dance — square dance.

    state fish — Guadalupe bass. state fiber and fabric — cotton. state dish — chili con carne. state dinosaur — the Brachiosaur Sauropod, Pleurocoelus.

    Air Force — Commemorative Air Force (formerly known as the Confederate Air Force), based in Midland. flying — Mexican free-tailed bat. large — Texas longhorn (cattle). small — armadillo.

    state mammals (three)

      . official state song — Texas Our Texas. state bird — the mockingbird. state tree — the pecan.

      state nickname — The Lone Star State (after the single star on several historical flags of Texas, including the current Texas flag[6]). state motto — "Friendship". state flower — the bluebonnet (Lupinus texensis). At 311 feet, Texas's capitol building in Austin is taller than the capitol building in Washington, D.C.

      One state holiday, Juneteenth (from "June" + "Nineteenth," its date), commemorates the day in 1865 that the slaves in Texas learned of the Emancipation Proclamation. Famous for their role in the history of Texas law enforcement, the Texas Rangers continue today to provide special law enforcement services to the state. Four ships of the United States Navy have borne the name USS Texas in honor of the state. The Trans-Pecos Desert, a subdivision of the Chihuahuan Desert, in extreme western Texas, west of the Pecos River.

      The North Central Plains. The Great Plains region extends into northern Texas, including the Llano Estacado and the Panhandle High Plains. The Hill Country and Edwards Plateau, a hilly rocky area in central Texas bordered on the east by the Balcones Fault zone and Blackland Prairie. The Coastal Plain, from the Gulf of Mexico inland to about San Antonio and just southeast of Austin.

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