Staffordshire

Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. The county town is Stafford. Part of the National Forest lies within its borders. It adjoins the ceremonial counties of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, West Midlands, Worcestershire and Shropshire.

The major city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent. Lichfield is also a city but is considerably smaller. Major towns include Burton-upon-Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Tamworth and Stafford itself.

Staffordshire is divided into a number of districts. These are Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Stafford, Staffordshire Moorlands and Tamworth. Stoke-on-Trent is administered as a separate unitary authority.

History

Main article History of Staffordshire.

The historic county of Staffordshire included Wolverhampton, Walsall, and West Bromwich, these were removed in 1974 to the new county of West Midlands. The resulting administrative area of Staffordshire has a narrow southwards protrusion that runs west of West Midlands to the border of Worcestershire. Further, Stoke-on-Trent was removed in the 1990s to form a unitary authority, but is still considered part of Staffordshire for ceremonial and geographical purposes.

Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Offlow, Pirehill, Seisdon and Totmonslow.

Dogs

A type of bull terrier called the Staffordshire Bull Terrier was bred for hunting purposes in this county. Later, a fighting dog was created called the Staffordshire pit bull. They are known affectionately as "Staffies".

Railways

Due to Wedgewood's pottery being moved increasingly by road transport, and both the decline in mining, qarrying and farming in general, several once-busy stations were shut down. Staffordshire's railways were reduced by the Beeching report in the 1960s, and several stations, like Uttoxeter and Norton Bridge, only narrowly missed closure. Both Stone, Barlaston and Titensor, Wedgewood and Norton Bridge all closed in 2003, but may re-open due to heavy local campaigning around the town of Stone. Eturia, Longport and Kidsgrove closed in 2005, but only services to Eturia had any popular support.

  • Coald meace works - Closed by 1900.
  • Alton (Alton towers) - Closed by 1970. It may be reopened by the Alton Towers amusment park.
  • Great Bridgeford, Whitmore and Standon moor - Both freight-only by 1955 and closed by 1970.
  • Littelton colliery and Hume end - Closed by 1946.
  • Madeley - Freight-only by 1955 and closed by 2000.
  • Oakmoor - Freight-only by 1970 and closed by 2000. It may be reopened by the preservationists that now run Consall and some nearby stations on that line.
  • Consall - Closed by 1970, but was saved by a local steam preservation movement.
  • Leek, Chedale, Trentham guardens and Brownhills - All went freight-only by 1970 and closed by 2000.
  • Caldon Lowe - Station closed by 1946. A quarry-worker's halt was opened by 1970, but – like the quarry itself – closed by 2000.
  • Trentham colliery - Closed by 2000.
  • Florence colliery - Opened by 1970 and closed by 2000.
  • Stafford common- The station had closed by 1946 and the goods department closed by 2000.
  • Kingsley and Frognal goods depot - Closed by 1970.

The collieries handle mostly freight along with a few workers trains. Stoke-on-Trent's goods yard had closed by 2000 due to increased competition from road haulage.

Note: at both Brownhills, Oakmoor, Chedale, Caldon Lowe and Whitmore the lines are over-grown and/or the stations neglected; but they may re-open for freight trains or for use by railway enthusiasts.

References

Ian alan books - British railways atlas 1947, Complete atlas of railway station names (U.K., 2002 edition), Rail Atlas 1970, British railway atlas 1955. A few recent newspaper articles.

Geography

In the north and in the south the county is hilly, with wild moorlands in the far north and Cannock Chase an area of natural beauty in the south. In the middle regions the surface is low and undulating. Throughout the entire county there are vast and important coal fields. In the southern part there are also rich iron ore deposits. The largest river is the Trent. The soil is chiefly clay and agriculture was not highly developed until the mechanisation of farms.

Towns and villages

See the list of places in Staffordshire and the List of civil parishes in Staffordshire

Places of interest

  • Alton Towers
  • Lichfield Cathedral [1]
  • Shugborough Hall [2]
  • Blithfield Hall
  • Dovecliff Hall
  • Festival Park
  • Ford Green Hall, Smallthorne
  • Madeley Old Hall
  • Moseley Old Hall, Featherstone,_Staffordshire
  • Sandon Hall
  • Whitmore Hall
  • Biddulph Grange
  • Eccleshall Castle
  • Mow Cop Castle
  • Stafford Castle
  • Tamworth Castle
  • Tutbury Castle
  • Croxden Abbey
  • Broad Eye Windmill, Stafford
  • Cheddleton Flint Mill, watermill
  • Watermill housing Brindley Water Museum, Leek
  • Izaak Walton Cottage Museum
  • Weston Park
  • Cannock Chase
  • Hazel Slade Reserve
  • RSPB Coombes Valley
  • National Memorial Arboretum [3]
  • Trentham Gardens
  • Rudyard Lake
  • Tittesworth Reservoir [4]
  • Chasewater [5]
  • River Trent
  • River Blythe
  • River Churnet
  • Birmingham and Fazeley Canal
  • Caldon Canal
  • Coventry Canal
  • Shropshire Union Canal
  • Trent and Mersey Canal, Harecastle Tunnel
  • Heritage railways: Chasewater Railway, Foxfield Steam Railway, Manifold Valley Railway
  • Churnet Valley Railway [6]
  • Long distance footpaths: Heart of England Way, Staffordshire Way

Local Groups

  • West Midland Bird Club
  • Lichfield Cricket Club
  • Tipton Harriers

This page about Staffordshire includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Staffordshire
News stories about Staffordshire
External links for Staffordshire
Videos for Staffordshire
Wikis about Staffordshire
Discussion Groups about Staffordshire
Blogs about Staffordshire
Images of Staffordshire

See the list of places in Staffordshire and the List of civil parishes in Staffordshire. See also: List of telephone operating companies. The soil is chiefly clay and agriculture was not highly developed until the mechanisation of farms. However, the list only includes providers of copper wires from the exchange to the user, not those who only supply "Voice over IP" or only transport voice signals between exchanges. The largest river is the Trent. Some of them include those in the following list. In the southern part there are also rich iron ore deposits. In some countries, many telephone operating companies (commonly abbreviated to telco) are in competition to provide telephone services.

Throughout the entire county there are vast and important coal fields. Bell Labs is a noted telephone equipment research laboratory, amongst its other research fields. In the middle regions the surface is low and undulating. As mentioned above VoIP is also used on private wireless networks which may or may not have a connection to the outside telephone network. In the north and in the south the county is hilly, with wild moorlands in the far north and Cannock Chase an area of natural beauty in the south. In addition to replacing the PSTN, digital telephony is also competing with mobile phone networks by offering free or lower cost connections via WiFi hotspots. A few recent newspaper articles. Digital telephones use a broadband Internet connection to transmit conversations as data packets.

Ian alan books - British railways atlas 1947, Complete atlas of railway station names (U.K., 2002 edition), Rail Atlas 1970, British railway atlas 1955. A recent Newsweek article suggested that Internet telephony may be "the next big thing." [2]. Note: at both Brownhills, Oakmoor, Chedale, Caldon Lowe and Whitmore the lines are over-grown and/or the stations neglected; but they may re-open for freight trains or for use by railway enthusiasts. In Japan and Korea up to 10% of subscribers, as of January 2005, have switched from analog to digital telephone service. Stoke-on-Trent's goods yard had closed by 2000 due to increased competition from road haulage. Also known as Internet telephony or Voice over IP (VoIP), digital telephony is a disruptive technology that is rapidly replacing traditional telephone networks. The collieries handle mostly freight along with a few workers trains. These kinds of systems using VoIP are popular in hospitals and factories where the same wireless network can be used for both data and voice.

Eturia, Longport and Kidsgrove closed in 2005, but only services to Eturia had any popular support. Some kinds of cordless phones work like cellular phones but only within a small private network covering a building or group of buildings. Both Stone, Barlaston and Titensor, Wedgewood and Norton Bridge all closed in 2003, but may re-open due to heavy local campaigning around the town of Stone. There are phones that work as a cordless phone when near their corresponding base station (and sometimes other base stations) and work as a wireless phone when in other locations but for a variety of reasons did not become popular. Staffordshire's railways were reduced by the Beeching report in the 1960s, and several stations, like Uttoxeter and Norton Bridge, only narrowly missed closure. Such devices tend to be bulkier than cell-based mobile phones, as they require a large antenna or dish for communicating with the satellite, but do not require ground based transmitters, making them useful for communicating from remote areas and disaster zones. Due to Wedgewood's pottery being moved increasingly by road transport, and both the decline in mining, qarrying and farming in general, several once-busy stations were shut down. Some mobile telephones, especially those used in remote locations, where constructing a cell network would be too unprofitable or difficult, instead communicate directly with an orbiting satellite.

They are known affectionately as "Staffies". The higher frequencies also work well with various forms of multiplexing which allows more than one phone to connect to the same tower with the same set of frequencies. Later, a fighting dog was created called the Staffordshire pit bull. By only using enough power to connect to the "nearest" cell site phones using one cell site will cause almost no interference with phones using the same frequencies on another cell site. A type of bull terrier called the Staffordshire Bull Terrier was bred for hunting purposes in this county. Connection distance is somewhat predictable and can be controlled by adjusting the power level. Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Offlow, Pirehill, Seisdon and Totmonslow. The higher frequencies used by cell phones have advantages over short distances.

Further, Stoke-on-Trent was removed in the 1990s to form a unitary authority, but is still considered part of Staffordshire for ceremonial and geographical purposes. Radio frequencies are a limited, shared resource. The resulting administrative area of Staffordshire has a narrow southwards protrusion that runs west of West Midlands to the border of Worcestershire. When a handset gets too far from a cell site, a computer system commands the handset and a closer cell site to take up the communications on a different channel without interrupting the call. The historic county of Staffordshire included Wolverhampton, Walsall, and West Bromwich, these were removed in 1974 to the new county of West Midlands. Radio is used to communicate between a handset and nearby cell sites. Main article History of Staffordshire.. Most modern mobile phone systems are cell-structured.

. The range of modern cordless phones is normally on the order of a few hundred meters. Stoke-on-Trent is administered as a separate unitary authority. On the 2.4 GHz band, several "channels" are utilized in an attempt to guard against degradation in the quality of the voice signal due to crowding. These are Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Stafford, Staffordshire Moorlands and Tamworth. The 2.4 GHz cordless phones can interfere with certain wireless LAN protocols (802.11b/g) due to the usage of the same frequencies. Staffordshire is divided into a number of districts. Because of quality and range problems, these units were soon superseded by systems that used frequency modulation (FM) at higher frequency ranges (49 MHz, 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz).

Major towns include Burton-upon-Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Tamworth and Stafford itself. Initially, cordless phones used the 1.7 MHz frequency range to communicate between base and handset. Lichfield is also a city but is considerably smaller. Thus, cordless phones typically do not function during power outages. The major city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent. Because of the power required to transmit to the handset, the base station is powered with an electronic power supply. It adjoins the ceremonial counties of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, West Midlands, Worcestershire and Shropshire. This permits use of the handset from any location within range of the base.

Part of the National Forest lies within its borders. Cordless telephones, first invented by Teri Pall in 1965, consist of a base unit that connects to the land-line system and also communicates with remote handsets by low power radio. The county town is Stafford. The changes in terminology is partially due to providers using different terms in marketing to differentiate newer digital services from older analog systems and services of one company from another. Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. In the United States wireless companies tend to use the term wireless to refer to a wide range of services while the cell phone itself is called a mobile phone, mobile, PCS phone, cell phone or simply cell with the trend now moving towards mobile. Tipton Harriers. While the term "wireless" means radio and can refer to any telephone that uses radio waves it is primarily used for cell phones.

Lichfield Cricket Club. Digital loop carriers (DLC) are often used, placing the digital network ever closer to the customer premises, relegating the analog local loop to legacy status. West Midland Bird Club. While today the end instrument remains analog, the analog signals reaching the aggregation point (Serving Area Interface (SAI) or the central office (CO) ) are typically converted to digital signals. Long distance footpaths: Heart of England Way, Staffordshire Way. Digital transmission made it possible to carry multiple digitized switched circuits on a single transmission medium (known as multiplexing). Churnet Valley Railway [6]. End-to-end analog telephone networks were first modified in the 1970s by upgrading long-haul transmission networks with SONET technology and fiber optic transmission methods.

Heritage railways: Chasewater Railway, Foxfield Steam Railway, Manifold Valley Railway. The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) has gradually evolved towards digital telephony which has improved the capacity and quality of the network. Trent and Mersey Canal, Harecastle Tunnel. The first commercial transatlantic telephone call was between New York City and London and occurred on January 7, 1927. Shropshire Union Canal. In 1926 Bell Labs and the British Post Office engineered the first two-way conversation across the Atlantic. Coventry Canal. The Bell System divested itself of the local telephone companies in 1984 in order to settle an antitrust suit brought against it by the United States Department of Justice.

Caldon Canal. It fully or partially owned the telephone companies that provided service to about 80% of the telephones in the country and also owned Western Electric, which manufactured or purchased virtually all the equipment and supplies used by the local telephone companies. Birmingham and Fazeley Canal. In the United States, the Bell System was vertically integrated. River Churnet. Operating companies often hold a national monopoly. River Blythe. The industry has divided into telephone equipment manufacturers and telephone network operators (telcos).

River Trent. Newer systems include IP telephony, ISDN, DSL, mobile cellular phone systems, cordless telephones, and the third generation cell phone systems that promise to include high-speed packet data transfer. Chasewater [5]. The history of additional inventions and improvements of the electrical telephone includes the carbon microphone (later replaced by the electret microphone now used in almost all telephone transmitters), the manual switchboard, the rotary dial, the automatic telephone exchange, the computerized telephone switch, Touch Tone® dialing (DTMF), and the digitization of sound using different coding techniques including pulse code modulation or PCM (which is also used for .WAV, .AIF files and compact discs). Tittesworth Reservoir [4]. The following is a brief summary of the history of the invention of the telephone:. Rudyard Lake. The modern telephone is the result of work done by many hands, all worthy of recognition of their addition to the field.

Trentham Gardens. It is important to note that there is probably no single "inventor of the telephone". National Memorial Arboretum [3]. Additionally, the earliest investigators preferred publication in the popular press and demonstration to investors instead of scientific publication and demonstration to fellow scientists. RSPB Coombes Valley. There was a lot of money involved, particularly in the Bell Telephone companies, and the aggressive defense of the Bell patents resulted in much confusion. Hazel Slade Reserve. The very early history of the telephone is a confusing morass of claim and counterclaim, which was not clarified by the huge mass of lawsuits which hoped to resolve the patent claims of individuals.

Cannock Chase. Antonio Meucci, Johann Philipp Reis, and Alexander Graham Bell, amongst others, have all been credited with the invention. Weston Park. The identity of the inventor of the electric telephone remains in dispute. Izaak Walton Cottage Museum. Unlike a mobile phone, a cordless telephone is considered to be landline because it is only useable within a short distance of a small personal or domestic base station connected to a fixed phone line. Watermill housing Brindley Water Museum, Leek. Cordless and mobile phones are now common in many places around the world, with mobile phones expected to gradually displace the conventional landline telephone.

Cheddleton Flint Mill, watermill. Until relatively recently, a "telephone" generally referred only to landlines. Broad Eye Windmill, Stafford. Between end users, transmissions across a network may be carried by fiber optic cable, point to point microwave or satellite relay. Croxden Abbey. There are four principal means by which an end user using a telephone handset may connect to a telephone network: a traditional fixed phone "landline", which uses dedicated physical wire connections connected to a single location; wireless and radio telephones, which use either analog or digital radio signals; satellite telephones, which utilize telecommunications satellites; and voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telephones, which use broadband internet connections. Tutbury Castle. .

Tamworth Castle. Most telephones operate through transmission of electric signals over a complex telephone network which allows almost any phone user to communicate with almost any other. Stafford Castle. The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device which is used to transmit and receive sound (most commonly voice and speech) across distance. Mow Cop Castle. In Unicode, telephones are depicted with the characters whose hexadecimal codes are 260E (☎), 260F (☏) and 2706 (✆), (but may not display properly in some browsers). Eccleshall Castle. The folding portable phone was an intentional copy of the fictional futuristic communicators (which in use actually more closely resembled walkie-talkies, Nextel-style) used in the television show Star Trek.

Biddulph Grange. The modern handset came into existence when a Swedish lineman tied a microphone and earphone to a stick so he could keep a hand free. Whitmore Hall. 30 January 1877 Bell patents the electro-dynamic transmitter, receiver telephone. Sandon Hall. Two hours later Gray files his patent caveat. Moseley Old Hall, Featherstone,_Staffordshire. 14 February 1876 Bell files his first patent on the telephone.

    .

    Madeley Old Hall. 1 July 1875 Bell first uses a bi-directional capable telephone (Both the transmitter and the receiver were identical membrane instruments.). Ford Green Hall, Smallthorne. 2 June 1875 Alexander Graham Bell first transmits voice. Festival Park. 1874 Gray demonstrates his liquid transmitter telephone at the Highland Park Presbyterian Church. Dovecliff Hall. July 1873 Thomas Alva Edison notes variable resistance in carbon grains due to pressure, but shelves the discovery.

    Blithfield Hall. 1872 Elisha Gray founds Western Electric Manufacturing Company. Shugborough Hall [2]. 1871 Meucci files a patent caveat (a statement of intention to patent). Lichfield Cathedral [1]. 1861 Reis manages to transfer voice electrically over a distance of 340 feet, see Reis' telephone. Alton Towers. 1860 Meucci supposedly demonstrates his telephone on Staten Island.

    Kingsley and Frognal goods depot - Closed by 1970. 1860 Johann Philipp Reis demonstrates a make-break transmitter after the design of Bourseul. Stafford common- The station had closed by 1946 and the goods department closed by 2000. [1]. Florence colliery - Opened by 1970 and closed by 2000. 1854 Meucci demonstrates an electric telephone in New York. Trentham colliery - Closed by 2000. 1854 Charles Bourseul publishes a description of a make-break telephone transmitter and receiver but does not construct a working instrument.

    A quarry-worker's halt was opened by 1970, but – like the quarry itself – closed by 2000. (The demonstration involves direct electrical connections to people.). Caldon Lowe - Station closed by 1946. 1849 Antonio Meucci, an Italian living in Havana, demonstrates a device later called a telephone. Leek, Chedale, Trentham guardens and Brownhills - All went freight-only by 1970 and closed by 2000. Consall - Closed by 1970, but was saved by a local steam preservation movement.

    It may be reopened by the preservationists that now run Consall and some nearby stations on that line. Oakmoor - Freight-only by 1970 and closed by 2000. Madeley - Freight-only by 1955 and closed by 2000. Littelton colliery and Hume end - Closed by 1946.

    Great Bridgeford, Whitmore and Standon moor - Both freight-only by 1955 and closed by 1970. It may be reopened by the Alton Towers amusment park. Alton (Alton towers) - Closed by 1970. Coald meace works - Closed by 1900.

11-24-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory Move your favorite Unsigned Artist to the Top of the List