Staffordshire

Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. The county town is Stafford. Part of the National Forest lies within its borders. It adjoins the ceremonial counties of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, West Midlands, Worcestershire and Shropshire.

The major city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent. Lichfield is also a city but is considerably smaller. Major towns include Burton-upon-Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Tamworth and Stafford itself.

Staffordshire is divided into a number of districts. These are Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Stafford, Staffordshire Moorlands and Tamworth. Stoke-on-Trent is administered as a separate unitary authority.

History

Main article History of Staffordshire.

The historic county of Staffordshire included Wolverhampton, Walsall, and West Bromwich, these were removed in 1974 to the new county of West Midlands. The resulting administrative area of Staffordshire has a narrow southwards protrusion that runs west of West Midlands to the border of Worcestershire. Further, Stoke-on-Trent was removed in the 1990s to form a unitary authority, but is still considered part of Staffordshire for ceremonial and geographical purposes.

Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Offlow, Pirehill, Seisdon and Totmonslow.

Dogs

A type of bull terrier called the Staffordshire Bull Terrier was bred for hunting purposes in this county. Later, a fighting dog was created called the Staffordshire pit bull. They are known affectionately as "Staffies".

Railways

Due to Wedgewood's pottery being moved increasingly by road transport, and both the decline in mining, qarrying and farming in general, several once-busy stations were shut down. Staffordshire's railways were reduced by the Beeching report in the 1960s, and several stations, like Uttoxeter and Norton Bridge, only narrowly missed closure. Both Stone, Barlaston and Titensor, Wedgewood and Norton Bridge all closed in 2003, but may re-open due to heavy local campaigning around the town of Stone. Eturia, Longport and Kidsgrove closed in 2005, but only services to Eturia had any popular support.

  • Coald meace works - Closed by 1900.
  • Alton (Alton towers) - Closed by 1970. It may be reopened by the Alton Towers amusment park.
  • Great Bridgeford, Whitmore and Standon moor - Both freight-only by 1955 and closed by 1970.
  • Littelton colliery and Hume end - Closed by 1946.
  • Madeley - Freight-only by 1955 and closed by 2000.
  • Oakmoor - Freight-only by 1970 and closed by 2000. It may be reopened by the preservationists that now run Consall and some nearby stations on that line.
  • Consall - Closed by 1970, but was saved by a local steam preservation movement.
  • Leek, Chedale, Trentham guardens and Brownhills - All went freight-only by 1970 and closed by 2000.
  • Caldon Lowe - Station closed by 1946. A quarry-worker's halt was opened by 1970, but – like the quarry itself – closed by 2000.
  • Trentham colliery - Closed by 2000.
  • Florence colliery - Opened by 1970 and closed by 2000.
  • Stafford common- The station had closed by 1946 and the goods department closed by 2000.
  • Kingsley and Frognal goods depot - Closed by 1970.

The collieries handle mostly freight along with a few workers trains. Stoke-on-Trent's goods yard had closed by 2000 due to increased competition from road haulage.

Note: at both Brownhills, Oakmoor, Chedale, Caldon Lowe and Whitmore the lines are over-grown and/or the stations neglected; but they may re-open for freight trains or for use by railway enthusiasts.

References

Ian alan books - British railways atlas 1947, Complete atlas of railway station names (U.K., 2002 edition), Rail Atlas 1970, British railway atlas 1955. A few recent newspaper articles.

Geography

In the north and in the south the county is hilly, with wild moorlands in the far north and Cannock Chase an area of natural beauty in the south. In the middle regions the surface is low and undulating. Throughout the entire county there are vast and important coal fields. In the southern part there are also rich iron ore deposits. The largest river is the Trent. The soil is chiefly clay and agriculture was not highly developed until the mechanisation of farms.

Towns and villages

See the list of places in Staffordshire and the List of civil parishes in Staffordshire

Places of interest

  • Alton Towers
  • Lichfield Cathedral [1]
  • Shugborough Hall [2]
  • Blithfield Hall
  • Dovecliff Hall
  • Festival Park
  • Ford Green Hall, Smallthorne
  • Madeley Old Hall
  • Moseley Old Hall, Featherstone,_Staffordshire
  • Sandon Hall
  • Whitmore Hall
  • Biddulph Grange
  • Eccleshall Castle
  • Mow Cop Castle
  • Stafford Castle
  • Tamworth Castle
  • Tutbury Castle
  • Croxden Abbey
  • Broad Eye Windmill, Stafford
  • Cheddleton Flint Mill, watermill
  • Watermill housing Brindley Water Museum, Leek
  • Izaak Walton Cottage Museum
  • Weston Park
  • Cannock Chase
  • Hazel Slade Reserve
  • RSPB Coombes Valley
  • National Memorial Arboretum [3]
  • Trentham Gardens
  • Rudyard Lake
  • Tittesworth Reservoir [4]
  • Chasewater [5]
  • River Trent
  • River Blythe
  • River Churnet
  • Birmingham and Fazeley Canal
  • Caldon Canal
  • Coventry Canal
  • Shropshire Union Canal
  • Trent and Mersey Canal, Harecastle Tunnel
  • Heritage railways: Chasewater Railway, Foxfield Steam Railway, Manifold Valley Railway
  • Churnet Valley Railway [6]
  • Long distance footpaths: Heart of England Way, Staffordshire Way

Local Groups

  • West Midland Bird Club
  • Lichfield Cricket Club
  • Tipton Harriers

This page about Staffordshire includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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See the list of places in Staffordshire and the List of civil parishes in Staffordshire. Perhaps due to the greater weight of these suits when wet, or perhaps from sheer daring, they were often worn lower on the hips than regular shorts. The soil is chiefly clay and agriculture was not highly developed until the mechanisation of farms. But in the 1990s, longer and baggier shorts became popular, with the hems often reaching to the knees. The largest river is the Trent. Thongs were often seen among the more daring and provocative crowds. In the southern part there are also rich iron ore deposits. Eventually racing-style "speedo" suits became popular—and not just for their speed advantages.

Throughout the entire county there are vast and important coal fields. Men's swimsuits developed roughly in parallel to women's during this period, with the shorts covering progressively less. In the middle regions the surface is low and undulating. However, the one-piece suit continued to be popular for its more modest approach. In the north and in the south the county is hilly, with wild moorlands in the far north and Cannock Chase an area of natural beauty in the south. In the 1980s the thong or "tanga" came out of Brazil, said to have been inspired by traditional garments of native tribes in the Amazon. A few recent newspaper articles. Although not a commercial success, the suit opened eyes to new design possibilities.

Ian alan books - British railways atlas 1947, Complete atlas of railway station names (U.K., 2002 edition), Rail Atlas 1970, British railway atlas 1955. At the same time, Fashion designer Rudi Gernreich introduced the monokini, a topless suit for women consisting of a modest bottom supported by two thin straps. Note: at both Brownhills, Oakmoor, Chedale, Caldon Lowe and Whitmore the lines are over-grown and/or the stations neglected; but they may re-open for freight trains or for use by railway enthusiasts. From the 1960s on, the bikini shrank in all directions until it sometimes covered little more than the nipples and genitalia, although less revealing models giving more support to the breasts remained popular. Stoke-on-Trent's goods yard had closed by 2000 due to increased competition from road haulage. Through the 1950s, it was thought proper for the lower part of the bikini to come up high enough to cover the navel. The collieries handle mostly freight along with a few workers trains. They were named after Bikini Atoll, the site of several nuclear weapons tests, for their supposed explosive effect on the viewer.

Eturia, Longport and Kidsgrove closed in 2005, but only services to Eturia had any popular support. Early examples were not very different from the women's two pieces common since the 1920s, except that they had a gap below the breast line allowing for a section of bare midriff. Both Stone, Barlaston and Titensor, Wedgewood and Norton Bridge all closed in 2003, but may re-open due to heavy local campaigning around the town of Stone. The first bikinis were introduced just after World War II. Staffordshire's railways were reduced by the Beeching report in the 1960s, and several stations, like Uttoxeter and Norton Bridge, only narrowly missed closure. This subset of glamour photography eventually evolved into swimsuit photography with the help of Sports Illustrated and swimsuit photographers around the world. Due to Wedgewood's pottery being moved increasingly by road transport, and both the decline in mining, qarrying and farming in general, several once-busy stations were shut down. Due to the figure-hugging nature of these garments, glamour photography of the 1940s and 1950s often featured people wearing swimsuits.

They are known affectionately as "Staffies". The development of new fabrics allowed for new varieties of more comfortable and practical swim wear. Later, a fighting dog was created called the Staffordshire pit bull. Collars receded from up around the neck down to about mid-way between the neck and nipples. A type of bull terrier called the Staffordshire Bull Terrier was bred for hunting purposes in this county. After this, bathing wear slowly became less conservative, first uncovering the arms and then the legs up to mid-thigh. Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Offlow, Pirehill, Seisdon and Totmonslow. She later starred in several movies, including one about her life.

Further, Stoke-on-Trent was removed in the 1990s to form a unitary authority, but is still considered part of Staffordshire for ceremonial and geographical purposes. Kellerman changed the suit to have long arms and legs and a collar, still keeping the close fit that revealed the shapes underneath. The resulting administrative area of Staffordshire has a narrow southwards protrusion that runs west of West Midlands to the border of Worcestershire. She was arrested for indecent exposure because her swimsuit showed arms, legs and the neck. The historic county of Staffordshire included Wolverhampton, Walsall, and West Bromwich, these were removed in 1974 to the new county of West Midlands. In 1907 the swimmer Annette Kellerman from Australia visited the United States as an "underwater ballerina", a version of synchronized swimming involving diving into glass tanks. Main article History of Staffordshire.. In the Victorian era, popular beach resorts were commonly equipped with bathing machines designed to avoid the exposure of people in swimsuits, especially to people of the opposite sex.

. In the 19th century, the woman's two piece suit became common—the two pieces being a gown from shoulder to knees plus a set of trousers with leggings going down to the ankles. Stoke-on-Trent is administered as a separate unitary authority. The men's swim suit, a rather form-fitting wool garment with long sleeves and legs similar to long underwear, was developed and would change little for a century. These are Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Stafford, Staffordshire Moorlands and Tamworth. In the 18th century women wore "bathing gowns" in the water; these were long dresses of fabrics that would not become transparent when wet, with weights sewed into the hems so that they would not rise up in the water. Staffordshire is divided into a number of districts. After this, the notion of special water apparel seems to have been lost for centuries.

Major towns include Burton-upon-Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Tamworth and Stafford itself. 1960. Lichfield is also a city but is considerably smaller. Murals at Pompeii show women wearing two-piece suits covering the areas around their breasts and hips in a fashion remarkably similar to a bikini of c. The major city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent. In some settings coverings were used. It adjoins the ceremonial counties of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, West Midlands, Worcestershire and Shropshire. In Classical antiquity swimming and bathing was most often done nude.

Part of the National Forest lies within its borders. The magazine Sports Illustrated has an annual "swimsuit issue" that features models and sports personalities in swimsuits. The county town is Stafford. Swimsuits are also worn for the purpose of body display in beauty pageants. Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. At beaches norms for this tend to be more relaxed than at swimming pools, which tend not to permit this because underwear is unlined, may become translucent, and may be unclean. Tipton Harriers. As an alternative to a bathing suit some people use their trousers, underpants, or T-shirt as a make-shift swimsuit.

Lichfield Cricket Club. Swimming in the nude is also known by the slang term skinny-dipping. West Midland Bird Club. Special nude beaches may be reserved for nude sunbathing and swimming. Long distance footpaths: Heart of England Way, Staffordshire Way. Swimming without a bathing suit is a form of nudism. Churnet Valley Railway [6]. Most competitive swimmers also wear special swimsuits including partial and full bodysuits, racerback styles, jammers, and racing briefs to assist their glide through the water and gain speed advantages (see competitive swimwear).

Heritage railways: Chasewater Railway, Foxfield Steam Railway, Manifold Valley Railway. These suits are made from spandex and provide little thermal protection, but they do protect the skin from stings and abrasion. Trent and Mersey Canal, Harecastle Tunnel. For some kinds of swimming and diving, special bodysuits called diveskins are worn. Shropshire Union Canal. Special swimsuits for competitive swimming, designed to reduce skin drag, can resemble unitards. Coventry Canal. Many authorities believe that children of both sexes should also wear T-shirts outdoors on sunny days to protect from sunburn.

Caldon Canal. Swimsuits are also seen on beaches and around swimming pools even if no swimming is involved. Birmingham and Fazeley Canal. For pre-pubescent girls leaving the chest uncovered is sometimes considered more acceptable. River Churnet. Monokinis are quite common in many places throughout South America and Europe, though due to particularly stringent taboos they are almost never seen in the United States, except in places with a strong European tourist influence. River Blythe. The monokini, a style of swimsuit that most often takes the form of a bikini bottom without the corresponding top, leaves a woman's breasts uncovered.

River Trent. Women's swimsuits are generally either one-piece swimsuits, bikinis, or thongs. Chasewater [5]. Men's swimsuit styles tend to be shorts, trunks, boardshorts, jammers, speedo-style briefs, thongs, or cut-off jeans. Tittesworth Reservoir [4]. Swimsuits are generally designed to cover at least the genitalia. Rudyard Lake. .

Trentham Gardens. They are often lined with a fabric that prevents them from becoming transparent when wet. National Memorial Arboretum [3]. Swimsuits can be skin-tight or loosely fitting and range from garments designed to preserve as much modesty as possible to garments designed to reveal as much of the body as possible without actual nudity. RSPB Coombes Valley. This terms is less common in other parts of the Commonweath where it can also refer to clothes in general. Hazel Slade Reserve. In New Zealand English swimsuits are usually called togs.

Cannock Chase. A swimsuit (also swimmers), bathing suit (also bathers) or swimming costume (sometimes shortened to cozzie) is an item of clothing designed to be worn for swimming. Weston Park. Tangas, Thongs or T-backs and G-strings. Izaak Walton Cottage Museum. The shape is similar, but the side is an inch thicker: it’s a cross between a bikini and a square cut. Watermill housing Brindley Water Museum, Leek. In the US, a bikini is typically a small bikini, but in Brazil — and especially Rio—you’ll see this modern and updated men’s bikini.

Cheddleton Flint Mill, watermill. sunga - a Brazilian term for a men’s swimsuit. Broad Eye Windmill, Stafford. speedo (suit style). Croxden Abbey. They provide greater leg coverage than speedos or competative briefs, although they also have slightly more water resistance. Tutbury Castle. They provide moderate coverage from the mid-waist to the area above the knee, somewhat resembling compression shorts worn by many athletes.

Tamworth Castle. They are made of nylon and lycra/spandex material and have a form fitting design to reduce water resistance. Stafford Castle. jammers - a type of men's swimwear worn primarily by competitive athletes to obtain speed advantages. Mow Cop Castle. briefs. Eccleshall Castle. boardshorts.

Biddulph Grange. tankini (A tank top combined with a bikini bottom.). Whitmore Hall. Thong, T-back, or G-string. Sandon Hall. bikini

    . Moseley Old Hall, Featherstone,_Staffordshire. other types include stringbodys, halter-necks, maillots, plunge fronts and pretzel suits.

    Madeley Old Hall. The name "tank suit" is derived from the term swimming tank, an obsolete term for what is now called a swimming pool. Ford Green Hall, Smallthorne. tank suit - probably the most common form of one-piece swimsuit, the tank suit form is inspiration for the subsequent creation of the tank top as a mainstream article of clothing. Festival Park. The straps reach down the back of the sling bikini to become a thong. Dovecliff Hall. Usually, it is worn like a bikini bottom with the side straps extending upwards to cover the breasts and go over the shoulders instead of going around the hips or waist, leaving the entire sides of the torso uncovered, but the torso and lower half covered.

    Blithfield Hall. sling bikinis provide as little coverage (or as much exposure) as a bikini. Shugborough Hall [2]. Sling bikinis are sometimes, though not often, referred to as monokinis. Lichfield Cathedral [1]. Most commonly, a monokini is a bikini bottom without the corresponding top, worn by women, that leaves the breasts bare. Alton Towers. monokini- a term used for different styles of one-piece swimsuits inspired by the bikini style.

    Kingsley and Frognal goods depot - Closed by 1970. Stafford common- The station had closed by 1946 and the goods department closed by 2000. Florence colliery - Opened by 1970 and closed by 2000. Trentham colliery - Closed by 2000.

    A quarry-worker's halt was opened by 1970, but – like the quarry itself – closed by 2000. Caldon Lowe - Station closed by 1946. Leek, Chedale, Trentham guardens and Brownhills - All went freight-only by 1970 and closed by 2000. Consall - Closed by 1970, but was saved by a local steam preservation movement.

    It may be reopened by the preservationists that now run Consall and some nearby stations on that line. Oakmoor - Freight-only by 1970 and closed by 2000. Madeley - Freight-only by 1955 and closed by 2000. Littelton colliery and Hume end - Closed by 1946.

    Great Bridgeford, Whitmore and Standon moor - Both freight-only by 1955 and closed by 1970. It may be reopened by the Alton Towers amusment park. Alton (Alton towers) - Closed by 1970. Coald meace works - Closed by 1900.

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