Saint John commonly refers to two (perhaps three) founding Saints of Christian religious doctrine:
Saint John or St. John may also refer to the following people, places, institutions or organizations:
Place names (including the spellings "Saint Johns" and "Saint John's")
Antigua and Barbuda
St. John School
Organizations and institutions
Church of England Schools
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. Similar dependencies affect the remaining aberrations in the list. John may also refer to the following people, places, institutions or organizations:. The second, coma is changes as a function of pupil distance and spherical aberration, hence the well known result that it is impossible to correct the coma in a lens free of spherical aberration by simply moving the pupil. Saint John or St. The first Seidel aberration, Spherical Aberration is independent of the position of the exit pupil (as it is the same for axial and extra-axial pencils). Saint John commonly refers to two (perhaps three) founding Saints of Christian religious doctrine:. They are always listed in the above order since this expresses their interdependence as first order aberrations via moves of the exit/entrance pupils.
Johann (disambiguation) (German). They are now commonly referred to as the five Seidel Aberrations. St. In 1857, Philipp Ludwig von Seidel (1821-1896) decomposed the first order monochromatic aberrations into five constituent aberrations. São João (disambiguation) (Portuguese). Image aberrations can be broken down into two main classes, monochromatic, and polychromatic. San Juan (disambiguation) (Spanish). In reality, perfect mirrors and perfect lenses do not exist, so image aberrations in addition to aperture diffraction must be taken into account.
San Giovanni (disambiguation) (Italian). Even if a reflecting telescope could have a perfect mirror, or a refracting telescope could have a perfect lens, the effects of aperture diffraction could still not be escaped. Saint-Jean (disambiguation) (French). No telescope can form a perfect image. Saint John's University (disambiguation). If greater resolution is needed at that wavelength, a wider mirror has to be built or aperture synthesis performed using an array of nearby telescopes. Saint John Parish (disambiguation). This means that a telescope with a certain mirror diameter can resolve up to a certain limit at a certain wavelength.
Saint John's College (disambiguation). This limit depends on the wavelength of the studied light (so that the limit for red light comes much earlier than the limit for blue light) and on the diameter of the telescope mirror. Saint John's Church (disambiguation). This absolute limit is called the diffraction limit (or sometimes the Rayleigh criterion, Dawes limit or Sparrow's resolution limit). John's Cathedral (disambiguation). The phenomenon of optical diffraction sets a limit to the resolution and image quality that a telescope can achieve, which is the effective area of the Airy disc, which limits how close two such discs can be placed. St. See adaptive optics, speckle imaging and optical interferometry.
John (comic book publisher). In recent years, some technologies to overcome the distortions caused by atmosphere on ground-based telescopes were developed, with good results. St. Current research telescopes have several instruments to choose from such as:. Saint John's Arms, a symbol. After the photographic plate, successive generations of electronic detectors, such as the charge-coupled device (CCDs), have been perfected, each with more sensitivity and resolution, and often with a wider wavelength coverage. St John's School, Billericay. Later, the sensitized photographic plate took its place, and the spectrograph was introduced, allowing the gathering of spectral information.
St John's Church of England School, London. Initially the detector used in telescopes was the human eye. John. the Liverpool Telescope and the Faulkes Telescope North and South), allowing automated follow-up of astronomical events. St John Ambulance, charitable organization dedicated to medical first aid, under the direction of the Order of St. Many are robotic telescopes, computer controlled over the internet (see e.g. John, a 19th century revival of the Knights Hospitaller. These allow many astronomical targets to be monitored continuously, and for large areas of sky to be surveyed.
Order of St. Relatively cheap, mass-produced ~2 meter telescopes have recently been developed and have made a significant impact on astronomy research. John of Jerusalem or Knights Hospitaller, named after Saint John of Jerusalem aka John the Baptist. This technology has driven new designs for future telescopes with diameters of 30, 50 and even 100 meters. Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. In this generation of telescopes, the mirror is usually very thin, and is kept in an optimal shape by an array of actuators (see active optics). Svatý Jan pod Skalou (Saint John Under the Rock), a village in central Bohemia, Czech Republic. The largest current ground-based telescopes have primary mirrors of between 6 and 11 meters in diameter.
Saint John's Island, Singapore. Its example was followed by the Keck telescopes with 10 m segmented mirrors. Saint John, United States Virgin Islands. This has now been replaced by a single 6.5m mirror. Johns, Illinois. A new era of telescope making was inaugurated by the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), with a mirror composed of six segments synthesizing a mirror of 4.5 meters diameter. St. They have a pierced primary mirror, a Newtonian focus, and a spider to mount a variety of replaceable secondary mirrors.
Johns, Michigan. Most large research telescopes can operate as either a Cassegrain telescope (longer focal length, and a narrower field with higher magnification) or a Newtonian telescope (brighter field). St. For example:. Johns River, Florida. There are mountings even simpler than altazimuth, typically used for specialized instruments. St. Modern large telescopes use computer-controlled altazimuth mounts, and for long exposures they rotate the instruments or have variable-rate image rotators in an image of the telescope pupil.
Johns County, Florida. This is known as an equatorial mount. St. The preferred solution for small astronomical telescopes is to tip the altazimuth mount so that the azimuth axis is parallel with the axis of the Earth's rotation. Johns, Arizona. The last effect makes an altazimuth mount especially impractical for long-exposure photography with small telescopes. St. Even if this is done by computer control, the image rotates at a rate that varies depending on the angle of the target from the celestial pole.
John, Washington. When using an altazimuth for astronomy, both axes must be continuously adjusted to compensate for the Earth's rotation. St. A Dobsonian mount is a type of altazimuth mount which has proven to be very popular as it is simple and inexpensive. John, North Dakota. A fork rotates in azimuth (in the horizontal plane), and bearings on the tips of the fork allow the telescope to vary in altitude (in a vertical plane). St. It is similar to that of a surveying transit.
John, Missouri. A simple telescope mount is an altitude-azimuth or altazimuth mount. St. These are more useful for astronomical viewing. John, Maine. Newtonian or reflecting telescopes employ the reflective properties of light, and use mirrors and lenses. St. These can be used for both terrestrial and astronomical viewing.
John, Kansas. Galilean or refracting telescopes employ the refractive properties of light, and are constructed of lenses. St. Optical telescopes are also divided into two types. John, Indiana. Telescopes are broadly classified into two main types. St. Optical interferometer arrays and arrays of radio telescopes were developed much more recently.
John's, Isle of Man. Later, Johannes Kepler described the optics of lenses (see his books Astronomiae Pars Optica and Dioptrice), including a new kind of astronomical telescope with two convex lenses (a principle often called Kepler telescope). St. Galileo's telescope consisted of a convex object lens and a concave eye lens, which is universally called a Galilean Telescope (used as a viewfinder in many simple cameras). St John's Wood, London, England. Galileo is generally credited with being the first to use a telescope for astronomical purposes. John's, London, England. Galileo Galilei made his own telescope in 1609, calling it at first a perspicillum, and then using the terms telescopium in Latin and telescopio in Italian (from which the English word derives).
St. Even if Lippershey did not make the first one, he publicized it. John's, South Yorkshire, England. Some name that person as Hans Lippershey (c1570-c1619), but Jacob Metius and Zacharias Jansen also claimed to have invented a telescope during the same time period. St. Leonard Digges is sometimes credited with the invention in England in the 1570s, but usually credit for assembling the first telescope is usually given to an unknown Dutch spectacle maker in about 1608. John River, eastern North America. The Visby lenses tentatively suggest that the technology was known to the Arabs and Persians then to the Vikings in the 10th century.
St. Article. Johns riding, a riding in North Winnipeg. The first telescopes may have been Assyrian crystal lenses. St. . Johns and Fort St-Jean, former name of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec. The mirrors are usually a section of a rotated parabola.
St. They use ring-shaped "glancing" mirrors, made of heavy metals, that reflect the rays just a few degrees. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador. X-ray and gamma-ray telescopes have a problem because these rays go through most metals and glasses. St. Aperture synthesis is now also being applied to optical telescopes using optical interferometers (arrays of optical telescopes) and Aperture Masking Interferometry at single telescopes. Saint John (electoral district) federal electoral district in Canada. As of 2005, the current record is many times the width of the Earth, utilizing space-based Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) telescopes such as the Japanese HALCA (Highly Advanced Laboratory for Communications and Astronomy) [VSOP (VLBI Space Observatory Program) satellite].
Saint John in Saint John County, New Brunswick. Radio telescopes are often operated in pairs, or larger groups to synthesize large "virtual" apertures that are similar in size to the separation between the telescopes: see aperture synthesis. John's, Antigua and Barbuda. The dish is sometimes constructed of a conductive wire mesh whose openings are smaller than a wavelength. St. Radio telescopes are focused radio antennas, usually shaped like large dishes. Orthopaedic Surgeon. The word "telescope" usually refers to optical telescopes, but there are telescopes for most of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.
John, U.S. Telescopes are used for astronomy and in many non-astronomical instruments including theodolites, transits, spotting scopes, monoculars, binoculars, camera lenses and spyglasses. Thomas St. Telescopes work by employing one or more curved optical elements - lenses or mirrors - to gather light or other electromagnetic radiation and bring that light or radiation to a focus, where the image can be observed, photographed or studied. John, British Consul in Brunei (19th century). Telescopes increase the apparent angular size of distant objects, as well as their apparent brightness. Spencer St. A telescope (from the Greek tele = 'far' and skopein = 'to look or see'; teleskopos = 'far-seeing') is an optical tool that gathers and focuses electromagnetic radiation.
John, British musician and composer. The 1-meter refracting Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) on La Palma, is currently the highest-resolution solar telescope in the world. Kate St. It was a failure. John, British singer. The horizontal tube was 60 m long and the objective had 1.25 m in diameter. Bridget St. The telescope was aimed by the aid of a Foucault sidérostat, which is a movable plane mirror with a 2 m diameter, mounted in a large cast-iron frame.
Austin St John, American actor. Its lens was stationary, prefigured so as to sag into the correct shape. John, former footballer and now pundit. It was on display at the 1900 Paris Exposition. Ian St. The largest refractor ever constructed was French. politician. It was exceeded in size one year later by the 0.91 m refractor at the Lick Observatory.
John (1833-1916), U.S. This was the last time the most powerful operational telescope in the world was located in Europe. John St. The 0.76 m Nice refractor (in France) that became operational in 1888 was at that time the world's largest telescope. Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke (1678–1751), English statesman and philosopher. The 1.02 m Yerkes Telescope (in Wisconsin) is the largest aimable refracting telescope in use. 1598-1673), English statesman and judge. The telescope now has an adaptive optics system, and is still useful for advanced research.
John (c. In 1919, the telescope was used for the first stellar diameter measurements using interferometry. Oliver St. The mirror was made of green glass by Saint-Gobain. Saint John Bosco (1815-1888), also known as Giovanni Melchior Bosco. The 100 inch (2.54 m) Hooker Telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory was used by Edwin Hubble to discover galaxies, and the redshift. Saint John Neumann (1811-1860), Bishop of Philadelphia. The mounting is a special design of equatorial mount called a yoke mount, which permits the telescope to be pointed at and near the north celestial pole.
Saint John Baptist de la Salle (1651-1719), the patron saint of teachers (also known by his French name, Jean-Baptiste de la Salle). It has a single borosilicate (Pyrex™) mirror that was famously difficult to construct. Saint John Sarkander (1576-1620), Moravian priest. The 200 inch (5.08 m) Hale telescope on Palomar Mountain was the largest conventional research telescope for many years. Saint John of the Cross (1542-1591), Spanish mystic. One of them is the Overwhelmingly Large Telescope (OWL), which is intended to have a single aperture of 100 meters in diameter. Saint John of Avila (1500-1569). There are many plans for even larger telescopes.
Saint John of God (1495-1550). The CHARA (Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy) array is the telescope array that can currently (2005) produce the highest resolution images at near-infrared wavelengths. Saint John Fisher (1469-1535), Bishop of Rochester, professor at Cambridge. The Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer is the optical telescope (array) that can currently (2005) produce the highest resolution images at visible wavelengths. Saint John of Capistrano (1386-1456), also known as Giovanni da Capistrano. The four telescopes, belonging to the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and located in the Atacama desert in Chile, are usually operated independently for faint astronomical observations, but up to three telescopes can be operated together for aperture synthesis observations of bright objects. 1340-1396). The Very Large Telescope array (VLT) is currently (2002) the record holder for total collecting area in an array of telescopes, with four telescopes each 8 meters in diameter.
Saint John of Nepomuk (c. The Keck telescopes are currently (2005) the largest, but will soon be superseded by the Gran Telescopio Canarias and Southern African Large Telescope. Saint John of Matha (1169-1218), French founder of the Trinitarian Order. In this way the images can be diffraction limited, and used for coverage in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared. 946), also known as Ivan Rilski, Bulgarian hermit. The Hubble Space Telescope is in orbit beyond Earth's atmosphere to allow for observations not distorted by astronomical seeing. Saint John of Rila (876 - c. polarimeters, that detect light polarization.
721) in Beverley, England. spectrographs, useful in different regions of the spectrum. Saint John of Beverley (d. imagers, of different spectral responses. 676-749), revered Father of the Church. ball-and-socket (ancient and useless for astronomy). Saint John of Damascus (c. fixed with movable plane mirror for solar observing.
579-649), also known as John of the Ladder, John Scholasticus and John Sinaites. meridian transit (altitude only). Saint John Climacus (c. Newtonian reflecting telescopes. 585). Galilean refracting telescopes. 505 - c. Radio telescopes.
Saint John of Ephesus (c. Optical telescopes. Saint John I, Pope John I (523-526). 360-433). Saint John Cassian (c.
Saint John Chrysostom (347-407), Archbishop of Constantinople. Another name given to the author of the Book of Revelation is John of Patmos. John the Evangelist, to whom the Gospel of John is attributed, often along with 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, and Revelation. John the Apostle, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus, who is traditionally (but controversially) identified with the Evangelist, below (see Authorship of the Johannine works).
John the Baptist, also known as John of Jerusalem, who baptised Jesus at the start of Jesus' ministry.