Speedo is a swimsuit manufacturer that began on Bondi Beach near Sydney Australia. Speedo is currently the world's largest selling swimwear brand and manufactures products for both recreational and competitive swimming. Its trademark is a red boomerang-shaped logo.
The company was founded in 1914 by hosiery manufacturer Alexander MacRae as MacRae Knitting Mills in an effort to expand his company into swimwear. In 1928 the name Speedo was first adopted after the firm developed its racerback design of swimwear making it one of the first manufacturers to specifically produce athletic designs. The name was made up by a Captain Jim Parsons who won a company competition with the slogan "Speed on in your Speedos."
During World War II the manufacturer shifted nearly all of its production to war materials such as mosquito nets. Speedo resumed production after the war and became a publicly traded corporation in 1951. In 1955 Speedo introduced nylon into its fabric for competitive swimwear. The 1956 Olympics in Melbourne saw the widespread debut of the new fabric and the introduction of the style of men's briefs that has become associated with the brand. The company quickly expanded into the international arena from there until the present, boasting that 70 percent of swimming medals were won by athletes wearing its products in the Olympic Games of 1968, 1972, and 1976.
During the 1970's and 80's new fabrics such as lycra were incorporated into the company's swimwear design. During the late 1990's the company turned its attention to its aquablade and fastskin product lines of competitive swimwear. The designs employ new fabrics that the company claims will reduce resistance in the water by replicating biological skin characteristics of various marine animals such as sharks.Male competitive swimsuit.
Though it still manufactures the traditional briefs and racerback designs that made the company famous, Speedo's latest competitive swimwear designs incorporate suits that provide greater coverage to the arms, legs, and even full body for their top end lineup. Their high-end suits often sell for in excess of $300 American for the Fastskin 2 series. The company also continues to manufacture recreational swimwear, goggles, earplugs, swim caps, towels, robes, sportswear and other logo clothing, watches, sandals, beach volleyball and triathlon products, lifeguard gear, and training supplies for competitive and recreational swimmers.
Due to its apparent utilitarian value for both swimming and sunbathing, the bikini-type competitive swimsuits colloquially known as 'budgie smugglers' became popular among non-professional swimmers and beach-goers in many parts of the world. Men of all ages wear speedos at beaches and pools in Europe, Asia, and South America.
In the United States of America, however, the opposite trend has developed since the 1980s. While women's swimwear remains scanty, men's swimwear has evolved into boardshorts that are baggy and long enough to reach the knees, or below.
Analysts attribute this phenomenon to the unique and intriguing interplay of religion, conservatism and human sexuality in the US, as in an essayby Kevin Esser.
Some athletes who have been sponsored by the Speedo brand include Greg Louganis, Janet Evans, Michael Phelps, Amanda Beard, Dawn Fraser, and Kosuke Kitajima.
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Some athletes who have been sponsored by the Speedo brand include Greg Louganis, Janet Evans, Michael Phelps, Amanda Beard, Dawn Fraser, and Kosuke Kitajima. Icing of wings, downbursts and low visibility are often major contributors to weather related crashes. Analysts attribute this phenomenon to the unique and intriguing interplay of religion, conservatism and human sexuality in the US, as in an essayby Kevin Esser. Adverse weather is the third largest cause of accidents. While women's swimwear remains scanty, men's swimwear has evolved into boardshorts that are baggy and long enough to reach the knees, or below. After human error, mechanical failure is the biggest cause of air accidents, which sometimes also can involve a human component (ie: negligence of the airline in carrying out proper maintenance). In the United States of America, however, the opposite trend has developed since the 1980s. The majority of aircraft accidents occur due to human error, that is, an error of the pilot(s) or control tower.
Men of all ages wear speedos at beaches and pools in Europe, Asia, and South America. Furthermore, car crashes rarely feature outside local news whereas air crashes are reported internationally, making the risk seem greater. Due to its apparent utilitarian value for both swimming and sunbathing, the bikini-type competitive swimsuits colloquially known as 'budgie smugglers' became popular among non-professional swimmers and beach-goers in many parts of the world. Many people have a fear of flying because the risk of death in an aircraft accident, if there is one, is extremely high. The company also continues to manufacture recreational swimwear, goggles, earplugs, swim caps, towels, robes, sportswear and other logo clothing, watches, sandals, beach volleyball and triathlon products, lifeguard gear, and training supplies for competitive and recreational swimmers. An accident while driving to the airport in a car is more likely than an accident during the flight. Their high-end suits often sell for in excess of $300 American for the Fastskin 2 series. Statistics show that the risk of an air accident is very small.
Though it still manufactures the traditional briefs and racerback designs that made the company famous, Speedo's latest competitive swimwear designs incorporate suits that provide greater coverage to the arms, legs, and even full body for their top end lineup. With this final test, the aircraft is ready to receive the "final touchups" (internal configuration, painting, etc), and is then ready to be sent to the customer. The designs employ new fabrics that the company claims will reduce resistance in the water by replicating biological skin characteristics of various marine animals such as sharks. When complete, an aircraft goes through a set of rigorous inspection, to search for imperfections and defects, and after being approved by the inspectors, the aircraft is tested by a pilot, in a flight test, in order to assure that the controls of the aircraft are working properly. During the late 1990's the company turned its attention to its aquablade and fastskin product lines of competitive swimwear. In the case of large aircraft, production lines dedicated to the assembly of certain parts of the aircraft can exist, especially the wings and the fuselage. During the 1970's and 80's new fabrics such as lycra were incorporated into the company's swimwear design. The parts are sent to the main plant of the aircraft company, where the production line is located.
The company quickly expanded into the international arena from there until the present, boasting that 70 percent of swimming medals were won by athletes wearing its products in the Olympic Games of 1968, 1972, and 1976. The production of such parts is not limited to the same city or country; in the case of large aircraft manufacturing companies, such parts can come from all over of the world. The 1956 Olympics in Melbourne saw the widespread debut of the new fabric and the introduction of the style of men's briefs that has become associated with the brand. For example, one company can be responsible for the production of the landing gear, while another one is responsible for the radar. In 1955 Speedo introduced nylon into its fabric for competitive swimwear. However, the production of an aircraft for one company is a process that actually involves dozens, or even hundreds, of other companies and plants, that produce the parts that go into the aircraft. Speedo resumed production after the war and became a publicly traded corporation in 1951. There are few companies that produce aircraft on a large scale.
During World War II the manufacturer shifted nearly all of its production to war materials such as mosquito nets. For example, aircraft from Airbus need to be certified by the FAA to be flown in the United States and vice versa, aircraft of Boeing need to be approved by the JAA to be flown in the European Union. The name was made up by a Captain Jim Parsons who won a company competition with the slogan "Speed on in your Speedos.". In the case of the international sales of aircraft, a license from the public agency of aviation or transports of the country where the aircraft is also to be used is necessary. In 1928 the name Speedo was first adopted after the firm developed its racerback design of swimwear making it one of the first manufacturers to specifically produce athletic designs. In Canada, the public agency in charge and authorizing the mass production of aircraft is the Department of Transport. The company was founded in 1914 by hosiery manufacturer Alexander MacRae as MacRae Knitting Mills in an effort to expand his company into swimwear. In the United States, this agency is the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and in the European Union, Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA).
. Then, the governing public agency of aviation of the country authorizes the company to begin production of the aircraft. Its trademark is a red boomerang-shaped logo. The flight-tests continue until the aircraft has fulfilled all the necessary requirements. Speedo is currently the world's largest selling swimwear brand and manufactures products for both recreational and competitive swimming. Representatives from an aviation governing agency often make a first flight. Speedo is a swimsuit manufacturer that began on Bondi Beach near Sydney Australia. When the design has passed through these processes, the company constructs a limited number of these aircraft for testing on the ground.
Small models and mockups of all or certain parts of the aircraft are then tested in wind tunnels to verify the aerodynamics of the aircraft. Computers are used by companies to draw, plan and do initial simulations of the aircraft. First the construction company uses a great number of drawings and equations, simulations, wind tunnel tests and experience to predict the behavior of the aircraft. During this process, the objectives and design specifications of the aircraft are established.
The design and planning process, including safety tests, can last up to four years for small turboprops, and up to 12 years for aircraft with the capacity of the A380. Most aircraft are constructed by companies with the objective of producing them in quantity for customers. Other aviators with less knowledge make their aircraft using complete kits, with pre-manufactured parts, and assemble the aircraft themselves. Small aircraft can be designed and constructed at home.
The Boeing 727 was another widely used passenger aircraft, and the Boeing 747, was the biggest commercial aircraft in the world up to 2005, when it was surpassed by the Airbus A380. Boeing 707 would develop into the later in Boeing 737. The first commercial jet, the de Havilland Comet, was introduced in 1952, and the first successful commercial jet, the Boeing 707, is still in use 50 years later. Aircraft, in a civil military role, continued to feed and supply Berlin in 1948, when access to railroads and roads to the city, completely surrounded by Eastern Germany, were blocked, by order of the Soviet Union.
The Boeing X-43 is an experimental scramjet with a world speed record for a jet-powered aircraft - Mach 9.6, or nearly 7,000 mph. In October 1947, Chuck Yeager, in the Bell X-1, was the first person to exceed the speed of sound. They were also an essential part of several of the military strategies of the period, such as the German Blitzkrieg or the American and Japanese Aircraft carriers. Aircraft played a primary role in the Second World War, having a presence in all the major battles of the war, especially in the Attack on Pearl Harbor, the battles of the Pacific and D-Day.
The turbine or the jet engine was in development in the 1930's, military jet aircraft began operating in the 1940's. The first commercial flights took place between the United States and Canada, in 1919. Charles Lindbergh became the first person to cross the Atlantic Ocean in solo flight nonstop, on 20 May 1927. After the First World War, aircraft continued to advance their technology.
On the side of the allies, the ace with the highest number of downed aircraft was René Fonck, of France. In the first war, great aces appeared, of which the greatest was the German Red Baron. First seen by generals and commanders as a "toy", the aircraft proved to be a machine of war capable of causing serious casualties to enemy lines. Wars in Europe, in particular World War I, served as initial tests for the use of the aircraft as a weapon.
Most Brazilians, as well as admirers of Santos-Dumont, consider him to be the true inventor of the aircraft, although the very concept of the invention of the first flying machine has substantial ambiguity. Though launched after the Wright Brothers' attempts, his 14-bis was the first to take off, fly, and land without the use of catapults, high winds, or other external assistance. However, in some countries today, particularly Brazil, Alberto Santos-Dumont is considered to be the "Father of Aviation". This was later superseded by the development of ailerons, devices which performed a similar function but were attached to an otherwise rigid wing.
Strictly speaking, the Flyer's wings were not completely fixed, as it depended for stability on a flexing mechanism named wing warping. They made their first successful test flights on December 17, 1903 and by 1904 Flyer III was capable of fully controllable, stable flight for substantial periods. The Wright Brothers are commonly credited with the invention of the aircraft, but like Alexander Graham Bell's telephone, theirs was rather the first sustainable and well documented attempt. On August 28, 1903 in Hanover, the German Karl Jatho made his first flight.
In August 1892 the Avion II flew for a distance of 200 metres, and on October 14, 1897, Avion III flew a distance of more than 300 metres. On October 9, 1890, Ader attempted to fly the Éole, which succeeded in taking off and flying a distance of approximately 50 meters before witnesses. Sir George Cayley, the inventor of the science of aerodynamics, was building and flying models of fixed wing aircraft as early as 1803, and he built a successful passenger-carrying glider in 1853, but it is known the first practical self-powered aeroplanes were designed and constructed by Clément Ader. Other aviators who had made similar flights at that time were Otto Lilienthal, Percy Pilcher and Octave Chanute.
Montgomery made a controlled flight in a glider. On 28 August 1883, the American John J. In 1856, Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Bris made the first powered flight, by having his glider "L'Albatros artificiel" pulled by a horse on a beach. In 1853, Englishman George Cayley made the first manned glider flight.
With the first flight made by man (Francois Pilatre de Rozier and Francois d'Arlandes) in an aircraft lighter than air, a balloon, the biggest challenge became to create other craft, capable of controlled flight. Leonardo da Vinci drew an aircraft in the 15th century. Many stories from antiquity involve flight, such as the legend of Icarus. The dream of flight goes back to the days of pre-history.
The X-43A set the record on 16 November 2004. The Boeing X-43 is an experimental scramjet with a world speed record for a jet-powered aircraft - Mach 9.6, or nearly 7,000 mph. The last SR-71 flight was in October 2001. The SR-71's Pratt & Whitney J58 engines acted as ramjets at high-speeds (Mach 3.2).
The D-21 Tagboard was an unmanned Mach 3+ reconnaissance drone that was put into production in 1969 for spying, but due to the poor level of success and the development of better spy satellites, it was cancelled in 1971. Ramjet (and the Scramjet variant) aircraft are mostly in the experimental stage. SpaceShipOne is the most famous current rocket aircraft that is the testbed for developing a commercial sub-orbital passenger service. Rocket aircraft are not in common usage today, although rocket-assisted takeoffs are somewhat common for military aircraft.
The later North American X-15 was another important rocket plane, that broke many speed and altitude records and laid much of the groundwork for later aircraft and spacecraft design. The first fixed wing aircraft to break the sound barrier was the rocket powered Bell X-1. Experimental rocket powered aircraft were developed by the Germans as early as World War II, although they were never mass produced by any power during that war. It appears that supersonic aircraft will remain in use almost exclusively by militaries around the world for the foreseeable future.
Due to the high costs, limited areas of use and low demand there are no longer any supersonic aircraft in use by any major airline, and the last Concorde flight was on 26 November 2003. When approaching an area of heavier population density, supersonic aircraft are obliged to fly at subsonic speed. This limits supersonic flights to areas of minimal population density or open ocean. Flight at supersonic speed creates more sound pollution than flight at subsonic speeds, due to the phenomenon of sonic booms.
Moreover, the design of the supersonic aircraft is substantially different to the design of sub-sonic aircraft, in order to make the transition to supersonic flight smoother and to make supersonic flight more efficient. Supersonic aircraft, such as military fighters and bombers, Concorde, and others, make use of special turbines (often utilizing afterburners), that generate the huge amounts of power for flight faster than the speed of the sound. Due to the high speeds needed for takeoff and landing, the jet aircraft makes use of flaps and leading edge devices for the control of lift and speed, and has engine reversers (or thrust reversers) (to direct the airflow forward) to slow down the aircraft upon landing, as well as the wheel brakes. Jet aircraft possess high cruising speeds (700 to 900 km/h) and high speeds for take-off and landing (150 to 250 km/h).
Wide-body aircraft, such as the Airbus A340 and Boeing 777, can carry hundreds of passengers and several tons of cargo, and are able to travel for distances of up to 13 thousand kilometers. In the early 1950's,only a few years after the first jet to be produced in large numbers arrived, the De Havilland Comet became the world's first jet airliner. In 1943 the Messerschmitt Me 262, the first jet fighter aircraft, went into service in the German Luftwaffe. The first jet was the Heinkel He 178, which was tested at Germany's Marienehe Airfield in 1939.
The jet aircraft was developed in England and Germany in 1931. One drawback, however, is that they are noisy; this makes jet aircraft a source of noise pollution. As a consequence, they have greater weight capacity and fly faster than propeller driven aircraft. These engines are much more powerful than a reciprocating engine.
Jet aircraft make use of turbines for the creation of thrust. These aircraft are popular with commuter and regional airlines, as they tend to be more economical on shorter journeys. Turboprop aircraft are a sort of halfway house between propeller and jet: they use a turbine engine similar to a jet to turn propellers. They are also the aircraft of choice for pilots who wish to own their own aircraft.
However, they are significantly cheaper and much more economic than jets, and are generally the best option for people who need to transport a few passengers and/or small amounts of cargo. They are quiet, but they fly at lower speeds, and have lower load capacity compared to similar sized jet powered aircraft. Smaller and older propeller aircraft make use of reciprocating internal combustion engines that turn a propeller to create thrust. Any textbook claiming to be a serious work on the topic will never promote the Equal Transit-time fallacy.
The explanation also fails to account for aerofoils which are fully symmetrical yet still develop significant lift. Such an explanation would predict that an aircraft could not fly inverted, which is demonstrably not the case. It has recently been dubbed the "Equal transit-time fallacy." There is no requirement that divided parcels of air rejoin again, and in fact they do not do so. Despite the fact that this "explanation" is probably the most common of all, it is false.
Therefore, because of its higher speed the pressure of the air above the airfoil must be lower. Known as the "equal transit-time" explanation, it states that the parcels of air which are divided by an airfoil must rejoin again; because of the greater curvature (and hence longer path) of the upper surface of an aerofoil, the air going over the top must go faster in order to "catch up" with the air flowing around the bottom. A false explanation for lift has been put forward in mainstream books, and even in scientific exhibitions. One of the primary goals of wing design is to devise a shape that produces the most lift while producing the least lift-induced drag.
However, most shapes will be very inefficient and create a great deal of drag. Nearly any shape will produce lift if curved or tilted with respect to the air flow direction. The deflection of airflow downward during the creation of lift is known as downwash. The force created by this deflection of the air creates an equal and opposite force upward on the wing according to Newton's third law of motion.
Lift is created as an airstream passes by something which deflects it downward. This shape, called an airfoil or aerofoil, creates lift when a wing travels through the air. If a cross-section of an aircraft wing is viewed, the top of the wing can be seen to be curved, while the bottom of the wing is less curved or straight. An aircraft flies due to the aerodynamic reactions that happen when air passes over the wing.
For example: lifting body, canard, V-tail and flying wing. Unconventional aircraft have been built in a variety of forms. Other common parts of aircraft include trim tabs, air brakes, spoilers, winglets and canards. Conventional aircraft -- from small planes such as the Bumble Bee II and Cessna 140 to a gigantic Antonov 225 -- consist of a fuselage, one or more wings to provide the majority of lift, a tailplane for stability, and a one or more vertical surfaces at the tail for stability.
. Supersonic aircraft, currently only military, research and a few private aircraft, can reach speeds faster than sound. Single-engined aircraft are capable of reaching 175 km/h or more at cruise speed. Commercial jet aircraft can reach up to 875 km/h, and cover one fourth of the earth's circumference in a matter of hours.
The aircraft is the fastest method of transport. While the vast majority of aircraft land and take off on land, some are capable of take off and landing on ice, snow and calm water. The majority of aircraft, however, also need an airport with the infrastructure to receive maintenance, restocking, refueling and for the loading and unloading of crew, cargo and/or passengers. Two necessities for all aircraft are air flow over the wings for lifting of the aircraft, and an open area for landing.
There are also rare examples of aircraft which can vary the angle of incidence of their wings in flight, such the F-8 Crusader, which are also considered to be "fixed-wing". When the wings of these aircraft are fully swept, usually for high speed cruise, the trailing edges of their wings abut the leading edges of their tailplanes, giving an impression of a single delta wing if viewed from above or below. In the early days of their development, these were termed "variable geometry" aircraft. It also embraces an even smaller number of aircraft, such as the General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark, Grumman F-14 Tomcat and the Panavia Tornado, which can vary the sweep angle of their wings during flight.
This is usually to ease stowage or facilitate transport on, for example, a vehicle trailer or the powered lift connecting the hangar deck of an aircraft carrier to its flight deck. The term also embraces a minority of aircraft with folding wings that are intended to fold when on the ground. Some aircraft use fixed wings to provide lift only part of the time and may or may not be referred to as fixed-wing. Fixed-wing aircraft include a large range of craft from small trainers and recreational aircraft to large airliners and military cargo aircraft.
All aircraft wings flex, and some aircraft have wings that can tilt, sweep back, or fold, but if none of these movements are used to generate lift, the wing is considered to be a "fixed-wing". An aircraft is a heavier-than-air craft where movement of the wings in relation to the aircraft is not used to generate lift. Fixed-wing aircraft is a generic term used to refer to what are more commonly known as airplanes in North American English and aeroplanes in Commonwealth English. The flaps change the profile of the wing of the aircraft, maximizing lift and control of the speed of the aircraft in air, particularly in operations of low speed - especially important in landing and take-off.
Some aircraft are equipped with special landing gear, such as pontoons or skis, to allow them to land on water, snow or ice. They usually retract during flight to reduce drag; however, on smaller aircraft the gear are often fixed. The landing gear allow the aircraft to take off and land. The rudder is located on the vertical stabilizer and controls movement around the vertical axis called yaw.
On delta-wing aircraft the ailerons and elevators are combined together to perform the same actions and are called elevons. The elevator and horizontal stabilizer may be combined into a stabilator. The elevators are located on the horizontal stabilizer to control the rotation around the lateral axis called pitch. Many larger aircraft use spoilers to achieve the same effect.
Because roll changes the direction of lift of the wings, it is the primary method of changing the direction of travel. This movement is called roll. They always act at the same time, but in inverse directions, so that the aircraft can be turned along its longitudinal axis. Ailerons are movable surfaces on the wings of the aircraft.
A rudder is attached to the vertical stabilizer. Some aircraft have two vertical stabilizers attached to the horizontal stabilizer or boom structures. The vertical stabilizer is a small vertical wing that is usually attached to the rear of the fuselage. It may be a fixed horizontal stabilizer with a movable elevator or a stabilator that rotates on a shaft to change the angle of incidence.
Most often it is configured to provide negative lift. The tailplane is a small wing that provides positive or negative lift to stabilize the aircraft in flight. A few aircraft have engines attached to the vertical or horizontal stabilizer. The engines are usually located under or on the wings or attached to the fuselage.
Aircraft use a variety of engines, including turbine, reciprocating, and radial engines. An engine (or engines): Also known as powerplants, engines serve to propel the aircraft on the ground and the air. In smaller aircraft, fuel is sometimes stored in the fuselage (or main body). Fuel is often stored in tanks in the wing.
Biplanes (two wings) or triplanes (three wings) were popular in the past, and some are still made for special purposes like aerobatics. Most aircraft are monoplanes having one wing structure for providing lift. left wing and right wing. Sometimes, the half of a wing on either side of the fuselage is referred to as a wing, e.g.
Each wing is a single structure integrated into the fuselage of the aircraft.