Soloflex refers to an exercise machine and the company created in 1978 by Jerry Wilson which makes the machine. The machine was the first of its kind.
Soloflex also makes the Rockit and adjustable dumbbells.
Soloflex, the company has been involved in a major lawsuit over the similarly named Bowflex exercise machine which they have claimed damaged their marketing both through "copycat" advertising and later through a major product recall. The case was settled out of court with an 8 million dollar cash payment to Soloflex .
Soloflex machines use an elastic element to provide resistance which means that force increases further into the exercise. This has been considered to be a disadvantage by serious weight trainers who have stated that it reduces the efficiency of the exercise provided.
This page about Soloflex includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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This has been considered to be a disadvantage by serious weight trainers who have stated that it reduces the efficiency of the exercise provided. Teas that have little or no oxidation period, such as a green or white tea, are best brewed at lower temperatures around 80 °C, while teas with longer oxidation peroids should be brewed at higher temperatures around 100 °C. Soloflex machines use an elastic element to provide resistance which means that force increases further into the exercise. Typically, the best temperature for brewing tea can be determined by its type. The case was settled out of court with an 8 million dollar cash payment to Soloflex . The third through fifth are nearly always considered the best infusions of tea, although different teas open up differently and may require more infusions of boiling water to bring them to life. Soloflex, the company has been involved in a major lawsuit over the similarly named Bowflex exercise machine which they have claimed damaged their marketing both through "copycat" advertising and later through a major product recall. The first infusion is immediately poured out to wash the tea, and then the second and further infusions are had.
Soloflex also makes the Rockit and adjustable dumbbells. Historically in China, tea is divided into a number of infusions. The machine was the first of its kind. Some circumvent the teapot stage altogether and brew the tea directly in a cup or mug. Soloflex refers to an exercise machine and the company created in 1978 by Jerry Wilson which makes the machine. However, perfectly acceptable tea can be made with teabags. The best way to prepare tea is usually thought to be with loose tea placed either directly in a teapot or contained in a tea infuser, rather than a teabag.
Completely different methods are used in North Africa, Tibet and perhaps in other places.. This section describes the most widespread method of making tea. (see recipe). Using a generic black tea, milk and butter, and shaking or blending work well too.
Traditionally it is made with a domestic brick tea and yak's milk, then mixed in a churn for several minutes. Butter, milk, salt, and sugar are added to brewed tea and churned to form a hot drink called Po cha in Tibet. See Perennial Tea Ceremony.
Although Thai tea is not the same as bubble tea, a Southeast and East Asian beverage that contains large black pearls of tapioca starch, Thai tea with pearls is a popular flavor of bubble tea. It is popular in Southeast Asia and in many American restaurants that serve Thai or Vietnamese food, especially on the West Coast. It can also be made into a frappé at more westernised vendors. Locally, it is served in a traditional tall glass and when ordered take-out, it is poured over the crushed ice in a clear (or translucent) plastic bag.
Evaporated or whole milk is generally poured over the tea and ice before serving--it is never mixed prior to serving--to add taste and creamy appearance. This tea is sweetened with sugar and condensed milk and served chilled. Thai tea (also known as Thai iced tea) or "cha-yen" (Thai: ชาเย็น) when ordered in Thailand, is a drink made from strongly-brewed red tea that usually contains added anise, red and yellow food coloring, and sometimes other spices as well. Grand Master Tsai, Rong Tsang the director of Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute and the founder of the Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony has been an active part in the growth of this once small group from Taiwan (almost twenty years ago) to what is now an international organisation.
The Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony began as a Taiwanese tradition, which emphasizes that individuals make and serve tea to one another in a polite manner without regards to their social positions, wealth, and other hierarchical divisions. It is also known as black pearl tea or tapioca tea. Originating in Taiwan, it is especially popular in Asia (Taiwan, People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, South Korea, the Philippines, and Singapore) as well as Europe, Canada, and the United States. Bubble tea, pearl milk tea (Chinese: 珍珠奶茶; pinyin: zhēnzhū nǎichá), or boba milk tea (波霸奶茶; bōbà nǎichá) is a tea beverage mixture with milk which includes balls of tapioca.
It is also famous as country of origin for Bubble tea and the Wu-Wo tea ceremony. Taiwan is the producer of some of the world's high-end green and oolong teas. Other infusions bearing the name cha are barley tea (mugi-cha) which is popular as a cold drink in the summer, buckwheat tea (soba-cha), and hydrangea tea (ama-cha). Major tea-producing areas in Japan include Shizuoka Prefecture and the city of Uji in Kyoto Prefecture.
Oolong tea enjoys considerable popularity. Most of the ubiquitous vending machines also carry a wide selection of both hot and cold bottled teas. Black tea, often with milk or lemon, is served in Western style restaurants. Today, hand pressing -- a method demonstrated to tourists -- is taught only as a technique preserved as a part of the Japanese cultural tradition.
Still, the Japanese now enjoy green tea processed using state of the art technology that accentuates both its health benefits and its taste. Many Japanese are still taught the proper art of the centuries-old Tea Ceremony as well. The strong cultural association the Japanese have with green tea has made it the most popular beverage to drink with traditional Japanese cuisine, such as sushi, sashimi and tempura. Families oftentimes bring along proper Japanese teacups, to enhance the enjoyment of the traditional drink.
A thermos full of green tea is also a staple on family or school outings as an accompaniment to bento (box lunches). When guests arrive, Japanese brew a pot of green tea. The best traditional Japanese restaurants take as much care in choosing the tea they serve as in preparing the food itself. At a restaurant, a cup of green tea is often served with meals at no extra charge, with as many refills as desired.
If you visit a Japanese company on business, you are likely to be offered a cup of tea to sip during your meeting. These snacks are usually opened and enjoyed with green tea. The Japanese have a custom of buying confectioneries for their colleagues when on vacations or business trips. Green tea is served in many companies during afternoon breaks.
Green tea's traditional role in Japanese society is as a drink for special guests and special occasions. Bubble tea from Taiwan has also become popular in the United States in recent years. Recently, many coffee houses have begun to serve a milky, sweet, spiced tea called "chai", based on Indian "masala chai". This blend is often referred to as American blend by tea companies to differentiate it from other blends sometimes refered to as fine teas.
Most ice tea blends are derived from Argentina tea plantations, which has a discernible different taste than black teas blended from Indian and Chinese stocks. Prior to this time most tea available in the US was blended specifically for iced tea with the quality of not discoloring when iced and cost as the primary desired qualities, even over taste. In the 1980's a revival of fine hot teas occurred in the United States. Instant teas are typically purchased because of their costs and convenience.
Low temperatures tend to be used to minimize loss of flavor. The extract is concentrated under low pressure, and drying the concentrate to a powder by freeze-drying, spray-drying, or vacuum-drying. Instant teas are produced from black tea by extracting the liquor from processed portion of tea typically from tea wastes or undried fermented leaves. In 1946, Nestle USA introduced the first instant tea, Nestea.
This caused many establishments to sell tea through the same method as fountain drinks, pumped from a Bag-In-Box. Prior to 1996 many restaurants dispensed iced tea brewed through the day in large urns, however an FDA survey revealed high levels of coliform bacteria (from fecal matter)in the tubing that goes from the reservoir to the spigot  in many of these urns. Iced tea can be purchased like soda, in canned or bottled form at vending machines and convenience stores; usually, this pre-made tea is sweetened, and sometimes some other flavorings, such as lemon or raspberry, are added. In the US, Sweet Tea is typically available in the South where as in the north and west, tea is typically served unsweetened, although sweetener is available to stir into the already cold tea, with poor results as the cold tea will not dissolve sugar properly.
Iced tea's popularity in the United States has led to an addition to standard flatware sets; the iced tea spoon is a standard flatware teaspoon, but with a long handle, suitable for stirring sugar into the taller glasses commonly used for iced tea. Iced tea was popularized at the 1904 World's Fair. The oldest printed recipe of sweet tea dates back to a community cookbook "Housekeeping in Old Virginia", by Marion Cabell Tyree, published in 1879 . Sometimes the diluted mixture is allowed to cool to room temperature other times the sugar and tea mixture is not diluted at all but rather poured hot over a full tumbler of ice to cool and dilute it.
The mixture of sugar and tea is then diluted with water and served over ice and garnished with lemon. Sweet Tea, sometimes known as Southern Table Wine, is tea brewed very strong with a large amount of sugar, typically 1.5 - 2.5 cups, added while the tea is still hot. These punches had names such as Regent's Punch, Charleston's Saint Cecilia Punch, and Chatham Artillery Punch. Prior to the mid 1800's, tea when served cold, was referred to as tea punch and was typically spiked with alcohol.
Most tea sold in the United States is sold in bags. Silk was too expensive for bagging, therefore, he invented tea bags made of gauze. Sullivan did not realize this until they all started to complain that the orders they received were not in the bags the samples had been in. The customers were interested in the silk bags instead of the tea.
Sullivan, a New York tea importer, inadvertently invented tea bags when he sent tea to clients in small silk bags to cut costs, and they mistakenly steeped the bags whole. Thomas Sullivan is credited with inventing tea bags in 1908. In the United States, about 80% of the tea consumed is served cold, or iced. Decaffeinated tea is widely available in the United States, for those who wish to reduce the physiological effects of caffeine.
Green, oolong, and white teas have recently become more popular again. After the war, nearly 99 percent of tea consumed was black tea. The war cut off the United States from its primary sources of green tea, China and Japan, leaving it with tea almost exclusively from British-controlled India, which produces black tea. Prior to World War II, the US preference for tea was equally split between green tea and black tea, 40% and 40%, with the remaining 20% preferring oolong tea.
Afternoon tea, the meal, is rarely served in the United States except in ritualized special occasions such as the tea party or an afternoon out at a high-end hotel or restaurant, which may also have cream teas on the menu. Tea is also consumed throughout the day as a beverage. In the United States, tea typically is served at all meals as an alternative to coffee, when served hot, or soda, when served iced. To this day, coffee remains more popular than tea in the United States however the average US citizen consumes roughly 7.8 gallons of tea a year as of 2000 .
Boycotts of tea by the colonists during this period led to an increase in consumption of other beverages, such as coffee or herbal tea. This led to the Boston Tea Party, a precipitating event of the American Revolution, where angry Colonists destroyed the tea cargo of three British ships by dumping them into Boston Harbor. During the colonial period, tea and tea taxes were a bone of contention between the American Colonies and England. In 2004, the Hawaii Tea Society  was formed from about 40 members, many of who had started backyard tea farms, to promote Tea grown in Hawaii.
Tea production in Hawaii is expected to triple by 2008. In 2003 Hawaii had an estimated 5 acres of land producing tea but by 2005 that number jumped to roughly 80 acres. With the decline of the Hawaii's sugar industry Tea Cultivation is seen as a possible replacement crop. Department of Agriculture .
A joint study of commercially growing tea in Hawaii was started by Manoa’s College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources and Hilo’s College of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resource Management with the U.S. In 2000 horticulturist, Francis Zee found that Camellia sinensis tea plants flourish in the tropical climate and volcanic soil of Hawaii. Both companies decided not to open plantations on the Island, but rather to open plantations in Latin and South America. In the 1960's Lipton and A&B formed a joint venture to investigate the possibility of growing tea commercially in Hawaii.
Lower production costs of tea's main rival, coffee, also helped prevent it from establishing a foothold . While it is not clear why the tea was eventually discontinued, historians believe higher wages compared to other prime tea growing areas in Asia and Africa were among the deciding factors. Tea was introduced in Hawaii in 1887 and was commercially grown until 1892. In 2003, Bigelow Tea Corporation purchased the Charleston Tea Plantation and temporarily closed the plantation in order to renovate it, the plantation reopened in January of 2006 .
American Classic Tea has been the official tea of the White House since 1987 . The Charleston Tea Plantation sold tea mail order known as American Classic Tea and also they produced Sam's Choice Instant Tea, sold through Sam's Clubs. The Charleston Tea Plantation utilized a converted Tobacco harvester to mechanically harvest the tea . Lipton operated an experimental tea farm until it was sold to Mack Fleming and Bill Hall in 1987 who converted the experimental farm into a working tea plantation.
In 1963, The Lipton Tea Company, worried about the instability of the third world countries that produce tea, paid to have the surviving tea plants at Pinehurst moved to a former potato farm on Wadmalaw Island . The Pinehurst plantation lay unattended until 1963. Shepard's death in 1915. Pinehurst produced award winning teas until Dr.
Shepard secured laborers for the fields by opening a school and making tea-picking part of its curriculum, essentially ensuring a force of child labor while providing them with an education they might not otherwise obtain. Dr. Charles Shepard established the Pinehurst Tea Plantation close to the government's farm. In 1888 Dr.
The Department of Agriculture issued a report in 1897 that "estimates the minimum cost about eight times as much to pick one pound of tea in South Carolina as that paid for the same service in Asia.". They concluded that South Carolina climate was too unstable to sustain the tea crop. They ran the program from 1884 until 1888. The US Government planted an experimental farm outside Summerville, South Carolina.
In 1863, the New York Times reported the discovery of tea plants growing natively in Western Maryland and Pennsylvania . Alexis Forster oversaw the next short-lived attempt in Georgetown, South Carolina, from 1874 until his death in 1879. Dr. In 1848, Junius Smith succeeded in growing tea commercially in Greenville, South Carolina, until his death in 1853.
The first recorded successful cultivation of the tea plant in the United States is recorded as growing on Skidaway Island near Savannah in 1772. Commercial tea cultivation in the United States has been attempted since 1744 when the Trust Garden in Savannah was sent Tea Seeds. As of 2006, both South Carolina and Hawaii Teas are available through mail order and online purchases. Although Camellia sinensis can grow along the eastern coast of the United States, where it is typically grown as an ornamental plant and for personal use, and other areas like Hawaii, currently the US only has one commercial tea plantation, in Charleston South Carolina, and a collective of roughly 40 small growers in Hawaii .
Main article: US tea culture. Bubble Tea has also become common in Australia. Due to the diverse mix of races and cultures in Australia since the 1950's, most cultural variations of tea are available these days. The slang term "cuppa" (as in a "cup of tea"), is used in Australia and New Zealand possibly to counteract this confusion, but is more likely just an abbreviation.
This could lead to confusion over the meaning of an invitation to "tea". Note that "tea" may also refer to a meal, or dinner, in Commonwealth nations, regardless of the beverage served with the meal. Afternoon tea and the variant cream tea (called Devonshire Tea in Australia) is the staple "tea ceremony" of the English speaking Commonwealth countries, available in homes and tea rooms throughout the United Kingdom, Australia, India, Africa and New Zealand, although in most of these places it is an antiquated, and no longer daily routine. More importantly, they are usually non-smoking, unlike most pubs and cafés.
These tea rooms are appreciated for offering quiet environments with pleasant music. Although considered an underground environment by many, tea rooms continue to pop up almost in every middle-sized town. Less visible than in the Czech Republic, tea culture also exists in Slovakia. Different tea rooms have also created various blends and methods of preparation and serving.
Pure teas are usually prepared with respect to their country of origin and good tea palaces may offer 80 teas from almost all tea-producing countries. Despite having the same name, they are mostly different from the British style tea rooms. Specific tea culture developed in the Czech Republic in recent years, including many styles of tearooms. Tea is a family event, and is usually served with sugar (one to three teaspoonfuls per cup) and lemon (but without milk), and an assortment of jams, pastries and confections.
The podstakannik, or tea glass holder (literally "thing under the glass"), is also a part of Russian tea tradition, used nowadays primarily on trains and in inexpensive hotels, because broken glasses are cheaper to replace. The traditional implement for boiling water for tea used to be the samovar (and sometimes it still is, though usually electric). In Russia, it is customary to drink tea brewed separately in a teapot and diluted with freshly boiled water ('pair-of-teapots tea', 'чай парой чайников'). To a lesser extent than in other Muslim countries, tea replaces alcohol as the social beverage.
It is drunk from small glasses in order to show the colour of the tea, with lumps of beetroot sugar. Turkish tea is prepared by special method and can be served strong ("koyu"/dark) or weak ("açık"/light). As pictured, Turkish tea or Çay is produced on the eastern Black Sea coast, which has a mild climate with high precipitation and fertile soil. Drinking tea has become part of the culture of Sri Lanka.
Tea is a hugely popular beverage among the Sri-Lankan people, and part of its land is surrounded by the many hills of tea plantations that spread for miles and miles round. In Sri Lanka, tea is served in the English style, with milk and sugar, but the milk is always warmed. Most of the tea consumed in Pakistan is imported from Kenya. During British Rule tea became so popular in the subcontinent that it is now a common breakfast and all-day drink.
As in India, tea is popular all over Pakistan. Darjeeling tea is known for its delicate aroma and light colour and is aptly termed as "the champagne of teas", Assam tea is known for its robust taste and dark colour, and Nilgiri tea is dark, intensely aromatic and flavoured. Tea has also entered the common idiom so much so that the term "Chai-Pani" ( Tea/Tea and water ) usually refers to salary or wages. Offering tea to visitors is a cultural norm in India.
Usually tea leaves are boiled in water while making tea, and milk is added. Almost all the tea consumed is black Indian tea. It is often served as masala chai with milk and sugar, and sometimes scented. One of the world's largest producers, India is a country where tea is popular all over as a breakfast and evening drink.
The Peruvian Government authorizes farmers to legally cultivate about 14,000 kilograms for the consumption of coca-leaf tea. Guides on the Inca Trail serve the tea with every meal to help hikers acclimate to the high elevation. Today the consumption of coca tea is a common occurrence in Cuzco and many other Peruvian highland cities. Native Peruvians have used Coca tea as a remedy for thousands of years.
As with Britain tea in Ireland is usually taken with milk and/or sugar. The national average is four cups per person per day, with many people drinking six cups or more. Ireland has, for a long time, been one of the biggest per-capita consumers of tea in the world. This is seen nowhere else in the world.
Iranians traditionally drink tea by pouring it into the saucer and putting a lump of sugar in the mouth before drinking the tea. Châikhâne's are still an important social place. Iranians have one of the highest per capita rate of tea consumption in the world and from old times every street has had a Châikhâne (Tea House). That region covers a large part of Iran's need for tea.
Especially in the Gilan province on the slopes of Alborz large areas are under tea cultivation and millions of people work in the tea industry for their livelihood. The whole part of northern Iran along the shores of the Caspian Sea is suitable for the cultivation of tea. Tea found its way to Persia (Iran) from India and soon became the national drink. The word for tea in Indonesian is teh..
Nearly 60% of Indonesian tea is green tea; black tea is mostly exported for blending. Although tea is picked year round, usually by hand, the best comes during the dry season of August and September. Dutch settlers established tea plantations on the island of Java in the early 18th century and later on Sumatra and Sulawesi. Traditional Chinese tea, including green tea, flower tea, jasmine tea and Pu-erh tea, are also common, and are served at dim sum restaurant during yum cha.
It is popular at cha chaan tengs and fast food shops such as Café de Coral and Maxims Express. The English-style tea has evolved into a new local style of drink, the Hong Kong-style milk tea, more often simply "milk tea", in Hong Kong. The tea is rumored to cure headaches, stomach problems, and stress, among many other ailments. The tea is generally served with small cookies during the week and cakes during special occasions or on weekends as a special treat.
Heavy cream is also used to flavor the tea. Tea is sweetened with kluntjes, a rock candy sugar that melts slowly, allowing multiple cups to be sweetened. Strong black tea is served whenever there are visitors to an East Frisian home or other gathering, as well as with breakfast, mid-afternoon, and mid-evening. In an otherwise coffee drinking country, the German region of East Friesland is noted for its consumption of tea and its tea culture.
Many of these card collections are now valuable collectors' items. Some renowned artists were used to illustrate the cards including Charles Tunnicliffe. Perhaps the best known were Typhoo tea and Brooke Bond PG Tips the latter of whom also provided albums for collectors to keep their cards in. These were illustrated cards roughly the same size as cigarette cards and intended to be collected by children.
In the United Kingdom a number of varieties of loose tea sold in packets from the 1940s to the 1980s contained tea cards. Further, tea helped alleviate some of the consequences of the urbanisation that accompanied the industrial revolution: drinking tea required boiling one's water, thereby killing water-borne diseases like dysentery, cholera, and typhoid . Afternoon tea possibly became a way to increase the number of hours labourers could work in factories; the stimulants in the tea, accompanied by sugary snacks would give workers energy to finish out the days work. Some scholars suggest the tea played a role in British industrial revolution.
These are informal and selfless affairs which help to maintain a good working relationship by boosting team morale. Even today many British workplaces have and maintain 'Tea Clubs'. Lyons Corner Houses were a successful chain of such establishments. In Devon and Cornwall particularly, cream teas are a speciality.
There is a tradition of tea rooms in the UK which usually provide the traditional fare of cream and jam on scones, but these have declined in popularity since World War II. Tea served with milk and two teaspoons of sugar usually in a mug is commonly referred to as "builder's tea". Tea is usually served with milk (not cream) and sugar. The term evidently comes from the meal being eaten at the "high" (main) table, rather than the smaller table common in living rooms.
Frequently (outside the UK) this is referred to as "high tea", however in the UK high tea is an evening meal. "Tea" is not only the name of the beverage, but of a late afternoon light meal, irrespective of the beverage drunk (especially in The North, where the evening meal usually referred to as "dinner" is called "tea", and "lunch" is "dinner"). For most people in Britain tea drinking is not the delicate, refined cultural expression that much of the world imagines -- a cup (or more often a mug) of tea is something drunk several times a day quite unceremoniously. Tea initially was such a luxury that the teapoy, a dedicated piece of furniture, was developed for storing it.
The popularity of tea dates back to the 19th Century when India was part of the British Empire, and British interests controlled tea production in the subcontinent. The British are one of the largest per capita tea consumers in the world - second only to Ireland, with each person consuming on average 2.5 kg per year. The word in the Vietnamese language is tra (pronounced cha/ja) or che. The tea is normally drunk green, and strongly brewed.
Tea is cultivated extensively in the north of the country, making Vietnam one of the world's largest exporters. This is the current and preferred method of preparing tea in Chinese culture. The arrival of the new method for preparing tea also required the creation or use of new vessels. The imperial decree quickly transformed the tea drinking habits of the people, changing from whisked teas to steeped teas.
After 1391, Emperor Hung-wu, the first Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, decreed that tributes of tea to the court were to be changed from brick to loose-leaf form. The practice of using powdered tea can still be seen in the Japanese Tea ceremony or Chado. Tea in this period was enjoyed more for its patterns and less for its flavour. The patterened holding bowl and tea mixture were often lauded in the period's poetry with phrases such as "partridge in swirling clouds" or "snow on hare's fur".
The best of these bowls, glazed in patterns with names like oil spot, partridge-feather, hare's fur, and tortoise shell, are highly valued today. The ground and whisked teas used at that time called for dark and patterned bowls in which the texture of the tea powder suspension could be enjoyed. Serving the tea from tea bricks required multiple steps:. To improve its resiliency as currency, some tea bricks were mixed with binding agents such as blood.
Tea bricks were also sometimes used as currency. The pressing of Pu-erh is likely a vestige of this process. Upon harvesting, the tea leaves were either partially dried or were thoroughly dried and ground before being pressed into bricks. Tea served prior to the Ming Dynasty was typically made from tea bricks.
Historically there were two phases of tea drinking in China based on the form of tea that was produced and consumed, namely: Tea bricks versus Loose Leaf Tea. As much as in modern wine tastings, the proper vessel was important and much attention was paid to matching the tea to an esthetically appealing serving vessel. In China, at least as early as the Tang Dynasty, tea was an object of connoisseurship; in the Song Dynasty formal tea-tasting parties were held, comparable to modern wine tastings. Finally there are the tea vendors, who specialise in the sale of tea leaves, pots, and other related paraphernalia.
They provide a range of Chinese and Japanese tea leaves, as well as tea making accoutrements and a better class of snack food. Formal tea houses also exist. Beginning in the late afternoon, the typical Chinese tea house quickly becomes packed with students and business people, and later at night plays host to insomniacs and night owls simply looking for a place to relax. They also serve a variety of tea-friendly and/or tea-related snacks.
Chinese-style tea houses offer dozens of varieties of hot and cold tea concoctions. Due to the importance of tea in Chinese society and culture, tea houses can be found in most Chinese neighbourhoods and business districts. See also Fujian tea ceremony.. Main article: Chinese tea culture.
Other examples are the Korean tea ceremony or some traditional ways of brewing tea in Chinese tea culture. There are tea ceremonies which have arisen in different cultures, Japan's complex, formal and serene one being the most known. It may be drunk early in the day to heighten alertness; it contains theophylline and bound caffeine (sometimes called "theine"), although there are also decaffeinated teas. Tea is often drunk at social events, such as afternoon tea and the tea party.
In various places of South America, any tea is referred to as mate. Perhaps the only place in which a word unrelated to tea is used to describe the beverage is South America (particularly Andean countries), because a similar stimulant beverage, hierba mate, was consumed there long before tea arrived. In North America, the word "chai" is used to refer almost exclusively to the Indian "chai" (or "masala chai") beverage. In Ireland, or at least in Dublin, the term "cha" is sometimes used for tea, with "tay" as a common pronunciation throughout the land, and "char" was a common slang term for tea throughout British Empire and Commonwealth military forces in the 19th and 20th centuries, crossing over into civilian usage.
For example, most British trade went through Canton, which uses cha.. It is tempting to correlate these names with the route that was used to deliver tea to these cultures, but this correspondence does not follow. Those that use Cha or Chai derivatives include Albanian, Arabic, Bulgarian, Bangla, Croatian, Czech ('čaj'), Greek, Hindi, Japanese ('茶', 'ちゃ', 'cha'), Korean, Malayalam, Nepali ('chia'), Persian, Portuguese ('chá'), Romanian ('ceai'), Russian, ('чай', 'chai'), Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, ('čaj'), Swahili, Tagalog, Thai, Tibetan, Turkish ('çay'), Ukrainian, and Vietnamese ('trà' and 'chè' are both direct derivatives of the Chinese 茶; the latter term is used mainly in the north). Languages that have Te derivatives include Afrikaans ('tee'), Armenian, Catalan ('te'), Danish ('te'), Dutch ('thee'), English ('tea'), Esperanto ('teo'), Estonian ('tee'), Faroese, Finnish ('tee'), French ('thé'), Galician ('té'), German ('Tee'), Hebrew ('תה', /te/ or /tei/), Hungarian ('tea'), Icelandic, Indonesian ('teh'), Italian ('tè'), Latvian, Malay, Norwegian ('te'), Polish ('herbata' from Latin 'herba the'), Singhalese, Spanish ('té'), Swedish ('te'), Tamil ('thè'), Yiddish ( 'טיי', /tei/), and scientific Latin.
Yet another different pronunciation is 'zoo', used in the Wu dialect spoken around Shanghai. The other is 'cha', used by the Cantonese dialect spoken around the ports of Guangzhou (Canton) and Hong Kong, as well as in the Mandarin dialect of northern China. One is 'te' (POJ: tê) which comes from the Min Nan dialect spoken around the port of Xiamen (Amoy). Two pronunciations have made their way into other languages around the world.
The Chinese character for tea is 茶, but it is pronounced very differently in the various Chinese dialects. Tea farmers in the Republic of Korea, Japan, Taiwan and China often enjoy better incomes compared to farmers in black tea producing countries. These days, contradicting tea economies do exist. Similarly, Britons slowed their consumption of coffee.
After the protests against the various taxes, Americans stopped drinking tea as an act of patriotism. In Britain, coffee was more popular. Prior to the Boston Tea Party, residents of Britain's North American 13 colonies drank far more tea than coffee. The Boston Tea Party was an act of uprising in which Boston residents destroyed crates of British tea in 1773, in protest against British tea and taxation policy.
They also tried to balance the trade deficit by selling opium to the Chinese, which later led to the First Opium War in 1838–1842. The British set up tea plantations in colonial India to provide their own supply. The high demand for tea in Britain caused a huge trade deficit with China. English use of tea dates from about 1650 and is attributed to Catherine of Braganza (Portuguese princess and queen consort of Charles II of England).
Soon imported tea was introduced to Europe, where it quickly became popular among the wealthy in France and the Netherlands. Russia discovered tea in 1618 after a Ming Emperor of China offered it as a gift to Czar Michael I. As the Venetian explorer Marco Polo failed to mention tea in his travel records, it is conjectured that the first Europeans to encounter tea were either Jesuits living in Beijing who attended the court of the last Ming Emperors; or Portuguese explorers visiting Japan in 1560. Today, roasted green tea is not as common in Japan and powdered tea is used in ceremonial fashion.
This combination of Nature's bounty and manmade technical breakthroughs combine to produce the most exceptional green tea products sold on the market today. Certain regions in Japan are known for special types of green tea, as well as for teas of exceptional quality, making the leaves themselves a highly valued commodity. Sensor and computer controls were introduced to machine automation so that unskilled workers can produce superior tea without compromising in quality. Automation contributed to improved quality control and reduced labour.
Machines took over the processes of primary drying, tea rolling, secondary drying, final rolling, and steaming. At the end of the Meiji period (1868-1912), machine manufacturing of green tea was introduced and began replacing handmade tea. Sencha is now one of Japan's mainstay teas. The dried leaves are then ground and mixed with hot water to yield the final drink.
To prepare sencha, tea leaves are first steam-pressed, then rolled and dried into a loose tea. In 1740, Soen Nagatani developed Japanese sencha (Japanese: 煎茶), which is an unfermented form of green tea. Eventually, green tea became available to the masses, making it the nation's most popular beverage. By the end of the sixteenth century, the current "Way of Tea" was established.
Many of the most important negotiations among feudal clan leaders were carried out in the austere and serene setting of the tea ceremony. In fact, both the beverage and the ceremony surrounding it played a prominent role in feudal diplomacy. The modern tea ceremony developed over several centuries by Zen Buddhist monks under the original guidance of the monk Sen-no Rikyu (1522-1591). The pastime made popular in China in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries -- reading poetry, writing calligraphy, painting, and discussing philosophy while enjoying tea – eventually became popular in Japan and with Samurai society.
Since the steaming (9th century) and the roasting (13th century) method were brought to Japan during two different periods, these teas are completely distinct from each another. Significant merchandise was traded and the roasting method of processing tea became common in Kyushu, Japan. In the 13th century Ming dynasty, southern China and Japan enjoyed much cultural exchange. Production grew and tea became increasingly accessible, though still a privilege enjoyed mostly by the upper classes.
Very soon, green tea became a staple among cultured people in Japan -- a brew for the gentry and the Buddhist priesthood alike. After that, the custom of tea drinking became popular among the Samurai. In 1214, Eisai presented a book he had written to the general, lauding the health benefits of tea drinking. Eisai learned that the general Samurai (Shogun) Sanetomo Minamoto had a habit of drinking too much every night.
Eisai was also instrumental in introducing tea consumption to the warrior class, which rose to political prominence after the Heian Period. In Part Two, the book discusses the specific dosage and method required for individual physical ailments. Part One also explains the shapes of tea plants, tea flowers and tea leaves and covers how to grow tea plants and process tea leaves. It discusses tea's medicinal qualities which include easing the effects of alcohol, acting as a stimulant, curing blotchiness, quenching thirst, eliminating indigestion, curing beriberi disease, preventing fatigue, and improving urinary and brain function.
The preface describes how drinking tea can have a positive effect on the five vital organs, especially the heart. The first sentence states, "Tea is the ultimate mental and medical remedy and has the ability to make one's life more full and complete". The two-volume book was written in 1211 after his second and last visit to China. The oldest tea specialty book in Japan, Kissa Yojoki (how to stay healthy by drinking tea) was written by Eisai.
Some of the tea seeds were given to the priest Myoe Shonin, and became the basis for Uji tea. In 1191, the famous Zen priest Eisai (1141-1215) brought back tea seeds to Kyoto. Seeds were imported from China, and cultivation in Japan began. It became a drink of the royal classes when Emperor Saga, the Japanese emperor, encouraged the growth of tea plants.
Ancient recordings indicate the first batch of tea seeds were brought by a priest named Saicho in 805 and then by another named Kukai in 806. The first form of tea brought from China was probably in a teacake. Tea became a drink of the religious classes in Japan when Japanese priests and envoys sent to China to learn about its culture brought tea to Japan. The earliest known references to green tea in Japan is in a text written by a Buddhist monk in the 9th century.
So-called black teas were for "barbarians". Chinese would rather drink green teas. However, this method was not common in the rest of China. In the southern part of China, tea leaves were sun dried then half fermented, producing Black Dragon teas or Oolongs.
In 17th century China numerous advances were made in tea production. Soon, most tea was distributed in full-leaf, loose form and steeped in earthenware vessels. As a result, loose tea production increased and processing techniques advanced. In 1391, the Ming court issued a decree that only loose tea would be accepted as a "tribute".
This is the origin of today's loose teas and the practice of brewed tea. Tea leaves were roasted and then crumbled rather than steamed. The Chinese learned to process tea in a different way in the mid-13th century. After the transition from compressed tea to the powdered form, the production of tea for trade and distribution changed once again.
Steaming tea leaves was the primary process used for centuries in the preparation of tea. These white powder teas were also used in the famous whisked tea competitions of that era. It was then ground to a fine, silvery-white powder that was whisked in the wide ceramic bowls used in the Song tea ceremony. Once processed, the finished tea was distributed and often given as a tribute to the Song court in loose form.
This process produced white teas that were paper thin and small. Only the delicate interior of the bud was reserved to be rinsed with spring water and dried. The tea was immediately steamed, and the buds were then selected and stripped of their outer, unopened leaf. First, tea was picked from selected varietals of cultivated bushes or wild tea trees in early spring.
Producing white teas was extremely labour-intensive. Hui Zhong, who ruled China from 1101-1125, referred to white tea as the best type of tea, and he has been credited with the development of many white teas in the Song Dynasty, including "Palace Jade Sprout" and "Silver Silk Water Sprout". Many forms of white tea were made in the Song Dynasty due to the discerning tastes of the court society. Although it later became extinct in China, this Song style of tea evolved into the Japanese tea ceremony, which endures today.
Japanese monks traveling to China at this time had learned the Song preparation and brought it home with them. This Song style of tea preparation incorporated powdered tea and ceramic ware in a ceremonial aesthetic known as the Song tea ceremony. When Song Dynasty emperor Hui Zhong proclaimed white tea to be the culmination of all that is elegant, he set in motion the evolution of an enchanting variety. Sometimes they would hold tea competitions where teas and tea instruments were judged.
They would read poetry, write calligraphy, paint, and discuss philosophy while enjoying tea. Drinking tea was considered stylish among government officers and intellectuals during the Southern Song period in China (12th to 13th centuries). The resulting beverage was highly regarded for its deep emerald or iridescent white appearance and its rejuvenating and healthy energy. The finished tea was then ground into fine powders that were whisked in wide bowls.
After steaming, the leaves were dried. Tea leaves were picked and quickly steamed to preserve their colour and fresh character. The tea of Song included many loose-leaf styles (to preserve the delicate character favoured by the court society), but a new powdered form of tea emerged. During the Song Dynasty (960-1279), production and preparation of all tea changed.
These "first flushes" were used as the raw material to make the compressed tea. This special white tea of Tang was picked in early spring when the new growths of tea bushes that resemble silver needles were abundant. A form of compressed tea referred to as white tea was being produced as far back as the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.). Hot water was added to the powdered teacake, or the powdered teacake was boiled in earthenware kettles then consumed as a hot beverage.
The dried teacake, generally called brick tea was ground in a stone mortar. Tea leaves were processed into cakes. At this time in tea's history, the nature of the beverage and style of tea preparation were quite different from the way we experience tea today. The book even discusses where the best tea leaves were produced.
It also describes how tea was evaluated. The book describes how tea plants were grown, the leaves processed, and tea prepared as a beverage. (See also Tea Classics) According to Cha Jing written around 760, tea drinking was widespread. The Tang dynasty writer Lu Yu's 陆羽 (729-804) Cha Jing 茶经 is an early work on the subject.
The use of tea as a beverage drunk for pleasure on social occasions dates from the Tang Dynasty or earlier. The Han Dynasty used tea as medicine. While historically the origin of tea as a medicinal herb useful for staying awake is unclear, China is considered the birthplace of tea drinking with recorded tea use in its history to at least 1000 B.C. The fact is that the Chinese have enjoyed tea for centuries: Scholars hailed the brew as a cure for a variety of ailments, the nobility considered the consumption of good tea as a mark of their status and the common people simply enjoyed its flavour.
It is not surprising its discovery is ascribed to religious or royal origins. Whether or not these legends have any basis in fact, tea has played a significant role in Asian culture for centuries as a staple beverage, a curative and a symbol of status. See also: History of tea in China.  Sometimes, the second story is is retold with Gautama Buddha in place of Bodhidharma) In another variant of the first mentioned myth, Gautama Buddha discovered tea when some leaves had fallen into boiling water..
Tea bushes sprung from the spot where his eyelids hit the ground. He became angered because he was falling asleep during meditation, so he cut off his eyelids. Bodhidharma, a semi-legendary Buddhist monk, founder of the Chan school of buddihism, journeyed to China. In other story, which spread along with buddhism, Bodhidharma is credited with discovery of tea.
Variant of the legend tells that the emperor tried medical properties of various herbs on himself, some of them poisonous, and found tea works as an antidote. Shennong is also mentioned in Lu Yu's Cha Jing, famous early work on the subject.. The ever inquisitive and curious monarch took a sip of the brew and was pleasantly surprised by its flavour and its restorative properties. One day he noticed some leaves had fallen into his boiling water. The emperor, known for his wisdom in the ways of science, believed that the safest way to drink water was by first boiling it.
In one popular Chinese story, Shennong, the legendary Emperor of China, inventor of agriculture and Chinese medicine, was on a journey about five thousand years ago. Origins of human use of tea are described in several myths.  Recent studies and occurrence of hybrids of the two types in wider area extending over mentioned regions suggest the place of origin of tea is in an area consisting of the northern part of Myanmar and the Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China.. The variant sinensis grows naturally in eastern and southeastern regions of China.
Spontaneous growth of assamica variant is observed in area ranging from Chinese province Yunnan to the northern part of Myanmar and Assam region of India. The cradle of the tea plant is in Southeast Asia and Southern China. Tea is able to easily receive any aroma, which may cause problems in processing, transportation or storage of tea, but can be also advantageously used to prepare scented teas. There are various teas which have additives and/or different processing than "pure" varieties.
More expensive, more tasty tea may cover the inferior taste of cheaper tea. The aim of blending is a stable taste over different years, and a better price. Blending may occur at the level of tea-planting area (e.g., Assam), or teas from many areas may be blended. Almost all teas in tea-bags and most other teas sold in western countries are blends.
Main article: Tea blending and additives. Tea is traditionally classified based on the degree or period of fermentation (oxidation) the leaves have undergone:. In fact, when real fermentation happens, the tea must be discarded. The fungi will cause fermentation which will contaminate the tea with toxic and carcinogenic substances.
Without careful moisture and temperature control, fungi will grow on tea. the process is not driven by microbes and produces no ethanol). The term fermentation was used (probably by wine fanciers) to describe this process, and has stuck, even though no true fermentation happens (i.e. The next step in processing is to stop the oxidation process at a predetermined stage by removing the water from the leaves via heating.
This process resembles the malting of barley, in that starch is converted into sugars; the leaves turn progressively darker, as chlorophyll breaks down and tannins are released. Leaves of Camellia sinensis, if not dried quickly after picking, soon begin to wilt and oxidise. The main types of tea are distinguished by their processing. (In the tea trade, Sri Lanka and Taiwan are still referred to by their former names of Ceylon and Formosa, respectively.).
Important tea producing countries are China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Japan, Indonesia, Nepal, Australia, Argentina, and Kenya. In tropical regions, the best conditions are at higher altitudes. Naturally, tea has grown in subtropical monsoon climates with wet and hot summers and relatively cold and dry winters. Today, it is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. Many infectious insects, including the green leafhopper, mites, caterpillars, and termites, are natural enemies to tea plants.
While in nature the tea tree may grow to 5 to 15 meters, and sometimes even to 30 meters, planted tea shrubs are usually trimmed to below two metres (six feet), to stimulate the growth of leaves and to ease plucking. All tea varieties, such as green, oolong, and black tea, are harvested from this species, but differ by processing. Tea is produced from leaves and leaf buds of Camellia sinensis, the tea plant. .
About 3,000,000 tonnes of tea are produced worldwide annually. This article is concerned exclusively with preparations and uses of the tea plant. Alternative terms for this are tisane or herbal infusion, which lack the word tea. The term herbal tea usually refers to infusions of fruit or herbs containing no actual tea, such as rosehip tea or chamomile tea.
Tea is also diuretic. Tea is a natural source of caffeine. The flavour of the raw tea is developed by processes including oxidation, heating, drying and the addition of other herbs, spices, or fruit. The English word tea derives from the Chinese 茶, pronounced tê in the Min Nan dialect.
It is commonly consumed in the form of a beverage made by steeping it in hot water for a few minutes. Tea is a product made from the leaves or buds of the tea bush Camellia sinensis. Tea drinking in small bowls and cups was likely adopted since it gathers and directs the fragrant steam from the tea to the nose and allows for better appreciation of the tea's flavour. Smaller bowls with plain or simple designs on the interior surfaces were favoured over the larger patterned bowls used for enjoying the patterns created by powdered teas.
A change in Chinese tea drinking vessels was also evident at this point. Furthermore, the natural aroma of tea became the focus of the tea drinking due to the new preparation method. This due to the fact that tea leaves do not preseve as well as tea bricks. Tea caddies and containers also became necessary in order to keep the tea and conserve its flavour.
The tea also needs to be kept warm and the tea leaves must be separated from the resulting infusion when required. The tea pot was needed such that the tea leaves can be steeped separately from the drinking vessel for an infusion of proper concentration. The colour and patterns formed by the powdered tea were enjoyed while the mixture was imbibed. Whisking: The powdered tea was mixed into hot water and frothed with a whisk before serving.
Grinding: The tea brick was broken up and ground to a fine powder resembling Japanese powdered tea (Matcha). Toasting also likely imparted a pleasant flavour to the resulting tea. Such infestation sometimes occurred since the bricks were stored openly in warehouses and storerooms. Toasting: Tea bricks are usually first toasted over a fire to destroy any mold or insects that may have burrowed into the tea bricks.
Essential oils. Polyphenols. One of the more confusing aspects of caffeine content is the fact that coffee contains less caffeine (1.5%) than tea (2.5% - 4.5%) when measured in its dry form. . Caffeine: An average serving of tea contains only 1/2 to 1/3 of caffeine of the same serving size of coffee.