Soloflex

Soloflex refers to an exercise machine and the company created in 1978 by Jerry Wilson which makes the machine. The machine was the first of its kind.

Soloflex also makes the Rockit and adjustable dumbbells.

Soloflex, the company has been involved in a major lawsuit over the similarly named Bowflex exercise machine which they have claimed damaged their marketing both through "copycat" advertising and later through a major product recall[1]. The case was settled out of court with an 8 million dollar cash payment to Soloflex [2].

Soloflex machines use an elastic element to provide resistance which means that force increases further into the exercise. This has been considered to be a disadvantage by serious weight trainers who have stated that it reduces the efficiency of the exercise provided.


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This has been considered to be a disadvantage by serious weight trainers who have stated that it reduces the efficiency of the exercise provided. Moreover, the "hybrid" moniker gives the SUVs it's applied to an environmentally friendly image to counter the gas-guzzling reputation of SUVs in general. Soloflex machines use an elastic element to provide resistance which means that force increases further into the exercise. While some manufacturers (most notably Toyota in the Lexus RX400h) are using added power generated from the hybrid systems primarily to give vehicles added performance, these hybrid SUVs still offer equal or better fuel efficiency than their conventionally-powered counterparts. The case was settled out of court with an 8 million dollar cash payment to Soloflex [2]. A hybrid version of the Toyota Highlander is available, and a hybrid Mazda Tribute is in the pipeline. Soloflex, the company has been involved in a major lawsuit over the similarly named Bowflex exercise machine which they have claimed damaged their marketing both through "copycat" advertising and later through a major product recall[1]. Shortly after the Escape Hybrid's introduction, Mercury introduced a hybrid version of its Mariner, which is a lightly restyled Ford Escape.

Soloflex also makes the Rockit and adjustable dumbbells. The 2005 Ford Escape Hybrid is the first hybrid SUV, with a hybrid version of the Lexus RX 400h also available. The machine was the first of its kind. For example the Hummer H1 is derived from the HMMWV developed for the US Armed Forces. Soloflex refers to an exercise machine and the company created in 1978 by Jerry Wilson which makes the machine. SUVs targeted for use in civilization have traditionally originated from their more rugged all terrain counterparts. Typical examples are the Land Rover, the Toyota Land Cruiser and the Lada Niva.

Availablity of spare parts and the need to carry out repairs on the move dictate that established generic model vehicles with the bare minimum of electric and hydraulic systems predominate. It should be noted that use of SUVs is much rarer outside the USA, with people in these tending to use all terrain utility vehicles without the suburban refinements common to SUVs. Areas such as the Australian Outback, Africa, the Middle East and most of Asia can have limited blacktop roads and require the vehicle to have increased range, storage capacity, and all terrain handling. There are a number of places where an SUV can be of benefit to its occupants.

However they are still referred to in the UK as "roll-overs" due to their propensity to roll over. Manufacturers have added car-level bumpers to reduce "submarining" in collisions- SUVs have therefore become somewhat safer for other road users in recent years. [5]. In April 2005, William Cottrell, a 24-year-old American postgraduate student at Caltech was sentenced to more than eight years in federal prison and $3.5 million in fines for firebombing or vandalizing 125 SUVs at dealerships and a few homes in 2003.[4] Two of his associates fled the country to avoid prosecution.

Other points of criticism: the gadgets may become troublesome (adding to repair bills), they add to the overall weight of the vehicle, the luxury features are simply toys for the rich and provide additional opportunities for the owner to flaunt himself/herself, and – in some instances – serve as distractions to drivers and causing an accident risk. Many critics see these features as simply unnecessary for normal commuting. In addition, some have criticized SUVs – particularly luxury-minded top-line models – because they come with electronic gadgets such as automotive navigation systems; power seats with memory settings; in-seat heaters and massage-type seat lumbar control; in-vehicle DVD players with flatscreen monitors; and vehicle stability control. Some have gone as far as to connect recent oil crisis woes with widespread use of these vehicles.

Others criticize SUVs for environmental reasons, pointing out that low fuel efficiency and high emissions make SUVs far less environmentally friendly than smaller cars. Some criticism of SUVs is based purely on their image as expensive, upscale status symbols for the (relatively) wealthy; and their stereotypically yuppie owners/drivers as arrogant, rude, and wasteful show-offs. For example, in braking, the high center of mass would direct an excessive weight shift to the front tyres, leading to an inefficiency of traction during braking. Due to the SUV's usually high weight and high center of mass, SUVs generally perform poorly in emergency manoeuvres.

For instance, a 1999 Jeep Cherokee has a curb (empty) weight of 3300 lb (1500  kg), while a smaller car like the Volkswagen Golf diesel has a curb weight of 3100 lb (1400 kg). However sometimes, SUVs may look heavier than they actually are. These weights are all for vehicles fully loaded to GVWR, and most owners rarely reach full capacity. For comparison, a midsize sedan such as the Honda Accord weighs 4080 lb (1851 kg) fully loaded.

Other vehicles can weigh as much as an SUV: the Dodge Grand Caravan exceeds the 6000 lb mark by 650 lb (295 kg), and the Honda Odyssey, at 5952 lb (2700 kg), and Kia Sedona, at 5959 lb (2703 kg), are close. These laws are rarely enforced for SUVs, however, since these vehicles are seen as passenger vehicles instead of commercial trucks. Rural bridges often have a 6000 lb (2700 kg) weight limit, and some large SUVs surpass this limit when loaded. The high gross vehicle weight rating of some larger SUVs (including the Ford Excursion or Hummer H2) technically limits their use on certain roads.

Most gasoline luxury cars, limousines, SUV's, sport editions and tuned cars vary from 1L / 6KM to 1L / 12KM (±15-30 mpg). Average gasoline cars average from 1L / 8KM up to 1L /15KM (±20-35 mpg). The smallest consumer gasoline cars average from 1 liter per 16KM up to 1 liter per 20KM (±40-50 mpg). Luxury cars and limousines often have larger engines than SUV's.

Sport editions of cars and tuned cars can have really bad fuel economics. Standard cars with a diesel engine can weigh more than a regular SUV. Luxury cars and mini vans can have the same or even more weight than a SUV. Although SUV's have the image of being fuel hogs, compared to sport editions of standard cars, luxury cars and mini vans the SUV's don't come out so bad.

Also, bear in mind that diesel is a more polluting fuel than gasoline, so a direct comparison of gallons/liters per mile/kilometer can be misleading. Note though that gasoline contains about 15% less energy than diesel fuel per unit of volume, so direct comparison of fuel economy numbers can be misleading. Diesel-engined versions tend to show better fuel economy figures than gasoline-burning versions - checking a few offical figures shows that a small diesel 4x4 has better touring economy than the supercharged Mini Cooper S or many large saloon cars. The low fuel economy is caused by.

The more car-like SUVs tend to have a somewhat lower profile and better road performance tires, but often still have large, fuel-inefficient engines. SUVs also often come with tires designed for off-road traction rather than low rolling resistance. The heavy suspension and large engines increases vehicle weight. The high profile of SUVs increases wind resistance.

As there is little incentive to change the design, SUVs have numerous fuel-inefficient features. The CAFE requirement for light trucks is an average of 20.7 mpg (US), versus 27.5 mpg (US) for passenger cars (11.4 and 8.6 L/100 km, respectively). government as light trucks, and thus are subject to the less strict light truck standard under the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations. The main reason is that SUVs are classified by the U.S.

SUVs are as a class much less fuel efficient than comparable passenger vehicles. population consumes more gasoline than in previous years. The recent popularity of SUVs is one reason the U.S. In Europe, from 2006 the fitting of bull bars, also known as grill guards or in Australia, roo bars, to vehicles such as 4x4s and SUVs will be illegal.

This is one of the chief motivations for the development of side-curtain airbags in standard autos. The most notable statistic in SUV design crash incompatibility is an increase in fatalities when an SUV strikes the head of a passenger or driver in a side-impact collision. These mass and design dangers are known as crash incompatibility issues in the crash testing industry, and are a topic of active research. The higher ride and other design characteristics of many SUVs may also lead to greater damage to smaller crash partner cars.

The considerable weight of the larger SUVs (such as the Chevrolet Suburban and the Ford Excursion) makes collisions with other, smaller cars much less dangerous for the SUV and much more dangerous for the car. Also, the height of SUV headlights has been cause for complaint and distraction by drivers who find themselves dazzled at night by oncoming SUVs even when their lights are on low-beam settings. Of course SUV's are not alone in posing this danger, as other vehicles such as vans and minivans similarly block drivers vision. This hazard is made worse by the nearly opaque window tinting which is found on the majority of SUVs currently sold.

SUVs are often taller than other passenger vehicles, thus limiting another driver's vision of traffic in front of an SUV, and contributing to possible accidents involving sudden stops. The size and design of SUVs can often be a hazard to other drivers. Aftermarket offerings also exist for interested buyers. Unfortunately, those tend to be pricey options and only a fraction of SUVs have them installed.

This is still rather new technology and is not fool-proof. Quite a few manufacturers try to remedy the problem by offering rear-view cameras or simple sensors that sound the alarm if the car is about to hit something. There are numerous cases where SUV owners have accidentally backed over their children and pets, or hit cars going down the parking aisle. While it's a non-issue on the road, this makes backing out of a stall or a driveway more difficult and dangerous.

Young children and cars behind the SUV may be completely invisible. The back view is particularly restricted. Also the size and design of SUVs leads to a restricted driver's view of the area immediately surrounding the vehicle. This is in part because the collision of an SUV with a pedestrian tends to impact the chest, while the collision of a car with a pedestrian tends to impact the knees.

An SUV hitting a pedestrian is about twice as likely to kill as a car at equal speed. However it is obvious that this advantage is only relative to other vehicles, and that one higher vehicle, while affording a better view for its own driver, will tend to obscure the view for all other road users, thus decreasing general road safety, and leading to frustration in other drivers. A perceived benefit for SUV drivers is their higher seating: they have a better overview on the road, and therefore can react sooner to crossing children or incidents ahead. [3].

SUV drivers are also statistically less likely to wear their seatbelts. [1] These figures may be confounded by variables other than the vehicles' inherent safety, for example the documented tendency for SUVs to be driven more recklessly (most sensationally perhaps, the 1996 finding that SUV drivers are more likely to drive drunk [2]). In 2004, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration released figures showing that drivers of SUVs were 11 percent more likely to die in an accident than people in cars. It is clear, for example, that a tank, while "safer" for its own driver, would not contribute to public safety if driven on the highway.

It is also documented that many SUVs, while slightly reducing risk for people inside the SUV, substantially increase risk for the people outside the SUV (in other vehicles or on foot). Big and Bad, Gladwell.com. This and the massive size and weight of SUVs may lead to consumers' false perception of safety (Gladwell, 2004). That you can look down is psychologically a very powerful notion".

Rapaille, a psychological consultant to automakers (as cited in Gladwell, 2004), many consumers feel safer in SUVs simply because their ride height makes "[their passengers] higher and dominate and look down (sic). C. According to G. SUV safety concerns are compounded by a perception among some consumers that SUVs are safer for their drivers than standard autos; this perception is generally incorrect, although SUVs might provide more safety in a few situations.

Modern SUVs are usually designed to prevent rollovers on flat surfaces. This was also dramatically demonstrated in one Fifth Gear show using a Range Rover. In recent years, Consumer Reports has found a few unacceptable SUVs due to their rollover risk. The high center of gravity of SUVs makes them more prone to rollover accidents (especially if the vehicle leaves the road or in emergency manoeuvres) than lower vehicles.

In fact, the Jeep Cherokee/Liberty (1984+) and Grand Cherokee (1993+) have used unibody construction from the start, and have hardly sacrificed ruggedness or offroad prowess in the process. However, some SUVs have designs based on unibody construction: the Ford Escape/Mazda Tribute, Lexus RX 330 (Motor Trend), RX 400h, Hyundai Santa Fe, and Acura MDX are some examples. Many SUVs, on the other hand, are constructed in the traditional manner of light trucks: body-on-frame, which when negligently designed can provide a comparatively lower level of safety. The majority of modern automobiles are constructed by a method called unibody or monocoque construction, whereby a steel body shell absorbs the impacts of collisions in crumple zones.

Safety is one common point of criticism. In previous years, this deduction reached $102,000 and was the subject of much criticism. However, the cost of both SUVs and automobiles is fully deductible over future years using normal depreciation. This provides a slight tax incentive for businesses to purchase an SUV.

Small-business owners may deduct $10,610 of the cost of a passenger automobile. In the United States, the so-called "SUV subsidy" (Section 179 depreciation deduction) allows small-business owners to deduct up to $25,000 of the cost of a vehicle with a Gross vehicle weight rating of over 6000 lb (2722 kg) from their income tax calculation. The explosive growth in SUV ownership has attracted a large amount of criticism, mainly of the risks to other road users and the environment, but also on the basis that the perceived benefits to the vehicle owner are illusory or exaggerated. Therefore, most SUV's have electronics to prevent a roll over.

One reason for this was that SUVs are more than 16 times more likely to "roll over" in an accident, and this has become more publicized in recent years. In fact, SUV drivers were more likely to perish in an accident with a smaller car than is the driver of the other vehicle. The most common reason for SUV popularity cited by owners was once the incorrect assertion that they confer a major advantage in a collision with regular cars. "Betting the farm" on SUV popularity has caused General Motors to consider bankruptcy as SUVs are no longer popular vehicles to buy new.

Gas prices have now increased, leading to lower resale values for SUVs and far lower numbers of SUVs being purchased in the mid 2000s. After accounting for inflation, gas prices in the 1990s were cheaper on average than in any decade since the invention of the automobile. One argument for SUV popularity in past years was cheap gasoline. As such, newer SUVs have lower ground clearance and more comfortable suspensions.

Newer SUVs take into account the prevailing usage patterns where the SUV is not expected to ever see any significant offroad usage. In time, the public's dislike of truck-like characteristics in SUVs brought about a more-refined current crop of SUVs. Still, SUVs are, in general, more expensive than sedans. Historically, their simple designs and often outdated technology (by passenger car standards) often made the vehicles cheaper to make than comparably-priced cars.

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, vehicle manufacturers sold the image of SUVs very effectively, with per-vehicle profits substantially higher than other automobiles. Undoubtedly, though, some of their success is due to their supposed "powerful image", a substantial factor for many people who might more logically choose a more economical and cheaper car, van, station wagon, or hatchback. Critics argue that only a fraction of SUVs will be used for heavy duty work (and many SUVs have surprisingly low load capacities) that can't be done with a regular car. Additionally, most large SUVs have far greater towing capacities than conventional cars, and in the case of trailerable boats have superior abilities to launch and retrieve those boats from slippery boat ramps (and, indeed, from many places where no made ramp exists).

Owners pointed to their large, comfortable cabins (which approach the passenger and equipment-carrying capabilities of minivans), safety, and the recreational possibilities of the vehicles. SUVs became popular in US for a variety of reasons. In the mid 2000s, their popularity has waned considerably. SUVs were immensely popular in the late 1990s and early 2000s.

Modified SUVs also take part in races, most famously in the Paris-Dakar Rally, and the Australian Safari. at least, many 4WD clubs have been formed for this purpose. In Australia, China, Europe, South Africa and the U.S. Some private SUV owners do indeed take their vehicles off the road to explore places otherwise unreachable by vehicle or for the sheer enjoyment of the driving.

These newer SUVs have more in common with modern mini-vans than older SUVs, as such the term SUV now follows more closely with Sport Utility Van than Sport Utility Vehicle. Consequently, more modern SUVs often come laden with luxury features and some crossover SUVs, such as the BMW X5, the Acura MDX, and the Toyota RAV4, have adopted lower ride heights and car chassis to better reflect their typical use (overwhelmingly, for normal on-road driving). However, in the last 25 years, and even more in the last decade, they have become popular with urban buyers. Descended from commercial and military vehicles such as the Jeep and Land Rover, they have been popular for many years with rural buyers due to their off-road abilities.

SUVs do look large, and their height inconveniences other drivers, and even though many SUVs are wider or longer than most other cars, they are not necessarily so. SUV's are criticized in the Netherlands for being too large as well and some environmentalists are pushing local governments to deny SUV users parking spaces. In The Netherlands they are often called "PC Hooft-tractoren" after Amsterdam's most exclusive shopping street. In Australia, particularly Victoria, they are referred to as "Toorak Tractors".

In New Zealand they are occasionally called "Fendalton tractors" or "Remuera tractors" after the higher priced suburbs in Christchurch and Auckland respectively. In the UK they are occasionally known as jeeps or Land Rovers no matter what make they actually are, although the increasing prevalence of these vehicles in recent years has decreased this colloquial usage. In southern England, SUVs, excluding farm vehicles such as Land Rovers, are often referred to in derogatory terms as "Soft-Roaders" or "Chelsea tractors", coined by London Mayor, Ken Livingstone. "Utility", or "Ute", refers to an automobile with a flatbed rear or pick-up, typically seating two passengers and is often used by tradesmen, and is typically not a 4WD vehicle.

In Australia, the automotive industry and press have recently adopted the term SUV in place of four wheel drive in the description of vehicles and market segments. distinction between cars and "light trucks" is not used. They are classified as cars in countries such as the UK where the U.S. Outside of North America and India these vehicles are known simply as four-wheel-drives often abbreviated to "4WD" or "4x4".

In countries where fuel is more expensive, buyers often opt for diesel engines, which have better fuel efficiency (and diesel fuel itself is often much cheaper). The design also allows for a large engine compartment, and many SUVs have large V-6 or V-8 engines. In higher-end models, all four wheels can provide motion ("drive"), unlike the majority of automobiles in which only the front or rear wheels provide drive. Typical to a light truck platform, SUVs have higher seating than a station wagon and a suspension designed for giving ground clearance for off-road driving.

In contrast, station wagons are typically wider than they are tall, and minivans are taller than they are wide. SUVs are typically taller, though, with a roughly square cross section. SUVs were traditionally derived from light truck platforms, but have developed to have the general shape of a station wagon. .

A new category, the crossover SUV uses car components for lighter weight and better economy. In more recent years, the term has also grown to encompass vehicles with similar size and style that are marketed as sport utility vehicles, but which do not actually incorporate substantial off-road features. A sport utility vehicle (SUV) or off-roader, known in some countries as a four wheel drive, (often abbreviated to 4WD or 4x4 - pronounced "four-by-four") or soft roaders, is a type of passenger vehicle which combines the load-hauling and passenger-carrying capacity of a large station wagon or minivan with features designed for off-road driving. high rolling resistance due to all terrain tires (even worse if low pressure is needed offroad) and high vehicle mass driving the rolling resistance where μroll stands for the rolling resistance factor and mvehicle for the vehicle mass.

wind). high crossectional area causing very high drag losses especially when driven at high speed where F stands for the force, Across for the crossectional area of the vehicle, ρair for the density of the air and vair for the relative velocity of the air (incl. high parasitic masses (compared to the average load) causing high energy demand in transitional operation (in the cities) where P stands for power, mvehicle for the vehicle mass, a for acceleration and v for the vehicle velocity.

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