Snow White

Snow White (or Snow-White, and in German, Schneewittchen) is the title character of a well known fairy tale known from many places in Europe, the most known version being the one collected by the Brothers Grimm. The German version features elements such as the mirror and the seven dwarfs. In non-German versions the dwarfs are generally robbers, while the talking mirror is a dialog with the sun or moon. In a version from Albania, collected by Johann Georg von Hahn and published in Griechische und albanesische Märchen. Gesammelt, übersetz und erläutert (1864), the main character lives with 40 dragons. The sleep is caused by a ring. The start of the story also has an interesting twist in that a teacher urges the heroine to kill her own mother so that the teacher can take her place. The origin of the tale is debated; it is likely no older than the Middle Ages. Many scholars think it originated somewhere in Asia.

Story

In the traditional Brothers Grimm version of this tale, Snow White is born to a queen, who dies shortly after giving birth. The king takes a new wife who is beautiful but very proud. She possesses a magic mirror, to whom she would often ask "Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of them all?", and to which the mirror would always reply, "You are". But one day when she asks her mirror, it responds, "Queen, you're the fairest where you are, but Snow White is more beautiful by far".

The Queen is jealous, and orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the woods to be killed. She demands that the huntsman return with Snow White's lungs and liver as proof. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but finds himself unable to kill the girl. Instead, he lets her go, and brings the queen the lungs and liver of a wild boar. (In the Disney movie, these are replaced by a heart.)

Snow White discovers a tiny cottage in the forest, belonging to seven dwarfs, where she rests. Meanwhile, the Queen asks her mirror once again, "Who's the fairest of them all?", and is horrified when the mirror tells her that Snow White, who is alive and well and living with the dwarfs, is still the fairest of them all.

Three times the Queen disguises herself and visits the dwarves' cottage where Snow White is staying to try to kill her. First, disguised as a peddler, the Queen offers colorful stay-laces and laces Snow White up so tight she faints and the Queen takes her for dead. Snow White is revived by the dwarves when they loosen the laces. Next the Queen dressed as a different old woman combs her hair with a poisoned comb. Snow White again collapses, and again the dwarves save her. Lastly the Queen makes a poison apple, and in the guise of a country woman offers it to Snow White. She is hesitant, so the Queen cuts the apple in half, eats the white part -- which has no poison -- and gives the poisoned red part to Snow White. She eats the apple eagerly and immediately falls into a deep, magical sleep. When the dwarfs find her, they cannot revive her; and so they mourn and place her in a glass coffin, thinking that she has died. (The Disney version only adopts the poison apple plot, and the queen meets her demise as she is chased by the dwarves.)

Snow White in her coffin

Time passes, and a prince travels through the land and sees Snow White in her coffin. The prince is enchanted by her beauty and instantly falls in love with her. He begs the dwarfs to let him have the coffin. The prince and his men carry the coffin away, but as they go they stumble, the coffin jerks and the piece of poison apple flies out of Snow White's mouth, awakening her. The prince then declares his love and soon a wedding is planned. (In the Disney version, the cure for this deep sleep was love's first kiss. The Prince takes a revived Snow White away, and the film ends.)

The vain Queen, still believing that Snow White is dead, again asks her mirror who is fairest in the land and yet again the mirror disappoints by responding that "You, my queen, are fair; it is true. But the young queen is a thousand times fairer than you."

Not knowing that this new queen is indeed her stepdaughter, she arrives at the wedding, and her heart fills with the deepest of dread when she realizes the truth.

As punishment for her wicked ways, a pair of heated iron shoes are brought forth with tongs and placed before the Queen. She is then forced to step into the red-hot shoes and dance until she falls down dead.

Other Versions

The story in Russian writer Alexander Pushkin's 1833 poem The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights is similar to that of Snow White, with knights replacing dwarves.

A 1916 silent film with the title Snow White was made by Famous Players-Lasky Corporation and produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman. Directed by J. Searle Dawley, it was adapted to the screen by Jessie Graham White from his play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film starred Marguerite Clark as Snow White, Creighton Hale as Prince Florimond and Dorothy Cumming as Queen Brangomar/Mary Jane.

Snow White in the Disney Cartoon.

A 1933 Betty Boop cartoon, Snow-White, was adapted from this story, as was the famous 1937 Disney animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. In the Disney version, Snow White wakes from her enchanted sleep as soon as the Prince kisses her, similar to Sleeping Beauty. That version is distinctly parodied in Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs.

Snow White is an important character in the Fables comic book. As presented there, she is an amalgam of the two characters that share this name---she is very touchy about her adventures with the dwarfs, is the first ex-wife of Prince Charming, and has a sister named Rose Red from whom she was estranged for some time. She was assistant mayor of Fabletown for many years, succeeding to the post after Ichabod Crane was fired for sexually harassing her. Due to Prince Charming replacing Old King Cole as mayor, as well as her giving birth to the (mostly) non-human-appearing children of Bigby (the Big Bad Wolf), she moved from the New York City Fabletown to the "Farm" upstate, where non-human-appearing Fables must live.

The story was very loosely adapted by Mercedes Lackey into her Elemental Masters novel The Serpent's Shadow, turning the main character into the Eurasian Doctor Maya Witherspoon, who must suffer the multiple stigmas of being a medically-qualified half-caste female (in other words, most of her problems stem from being not white) in turn-of-the-century London; the seven dwarves are transformed into animal avatars of various benign Hindu deities.

In 1961 the story was paradied in the film "Snow White and The Three Stooges", starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine and Joe "Curly-Joe" DeRita. This film is widely regarded by fans of the Three Stooges as their worst feature film. In the film, the dwarfs had gone on vacation and lent Moe, Larry and Curly Joe the use their cottage. The 3 are traveling entertainers, along with a young man who was born a prince, but lost his memory in a kidnapping attempt that was thwarted by the Stooges. The boy suffers amnesia and the Stooges "adopt" him and raise him to manhood. He is only shown as a boy in a flasback segment. This man ends up marrying Snow White, played by real life figure skating champion, Carol Heiss. The film is a musical and features many ice skating scenes. There are few other things that differ from the original story, such as Count Oga (villainous henchman of the evil queen), magic sword that transports the Stooges to various places and a carriage chase scene.

Snow White And Rose Red

There is another Brothers Grimm tale called Snow-White and Rose-Red which also includes a character called Snow White. However this Snow White is a completely separate character from the one found in this tale. For more information about the other Snow White, see the Snow-White and Rose-Red article. The original German names are different: Schneewittchen (the Princess) and Schneeweißchen (together with Rosenrot). There is actually no difference in the meaning, but the first name is more influenced by the dialects of Lower Germany while the second one is the Higher German version.


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There is actually no difference in the meaning, but the first name is more influenced by the dialects of Lower Germany while the second one is the Higher German version. Their names were assigned by later astronomers.). The original German names are different: Schneewittchen (the Princess) and Schneeweißchen (together with Rosenrot). (Uranus and Neptune were also Roman gods, but neither planet was known to the Romans as they are not visible with the naked eye from Earth. For more information about the other Snow White, see the Snow-White and Rose-Red article. In Greco-Roman pantheism, some "stars", later identified as planets, represented various important deities, from which the names of the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were taken. However this Snow White is a completely separate character from the one found in this tale. They were thought to be the souls of the dead or gods and goddesses.

There is another Brothers Grimm tale called Snow-White and Rose-Red which also includes a character called Snow White. As well as certain constellations and the Sun itself, stars as a whole have their own mythology. There are few other things that differ from the original story, such as Count Oga (villainous henchman of the evil queen), magic sword that transports the Stooges to various places and a carriage chase scene. For an overall reaction of:. The film is a musical and features many ice skating scenes. In stars with cores at 108 K and masses between 0.5 and 10 solar masses, helium can be transformed into carbon in the triple-alpha process:. This man ends up marrying Snow White, played by real life figure skating champion, Carol Heiss. In more massive stars, helium is produced in a cycle of reactions catalyzed by carbon, the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle.

He is only shown as a boy in a flasback segment. These reactions result in the overall reaction:. The boy suffers amnesia and the Stooges "adopt" him and raise him to manhood. In the Sun, with a 107 K core, hydrogen fuses to form helium in the proton-proton chain:. The 3 are traveling entertainers, along with a young man who was born a prince, but lost his memory in a kidnapping attempt that was thwarted by the Stooges. Stars begin as a cloud of mostly hydrogen with about 23–28% helium and a few percent heavier elements. In the film, the dwarfs had gone on vacation and lent Moe, Larry and Curly Joe the use their cottage. A variety of different nuclear fusion reactions take place inside the cores of stars, depending upon their mass and composition (see Stellar nucleosynthesis).

This film is widely regarded by fans of the Three Stooges as their worst feature film. The apparent brightness of a star is measured by its apparent magnitude. In 1961 the story was paradied in the film "Snow White and The Three Stooges", starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine and Joe "Curly-Joe" DeRita. Besides the emitted visible light, the ultraviolet and infrared components are typically significant. The story was very loosely adapted by Mercedes Lackey into her Elemental Masters novel The Serpent's Shadow, turning the main character into the Eurasian Doctor Maya Witherspoon, who must suffer the multiple stigmas of being a medically-qualified half-caste female (in other words, most of her problems stem from being not white) in turn-of-the-century London; the seven dwarves are transformed into animal avatars of various benign Hindu deities. The peak frequency of the light depends on the temperature of the outer layers of the star. Due to Prince Charming replacing Old King Cole as mayor, as well as her giving birth to the (mostly) non-human-appearing children of Bigby (the Big Bad Wolf), she moved from the New York City Fabletown to the "Farm" upstate, where non-human-appearing Fables must live. The energy produced by stars radiates into space as electromagnetic radiation, as a stream of neutrinos from the star's core, and as a stream of particles from the star's outer layers (its stellar wind).

She was assistant mayor of Fabletown for many years, succeeding to the post after Ichabod Crane was fired for sexually harassing her. For a list of traditional names, see the list of stars by constellation. As presented there, she is an amalgam of the two characters that share this name---she is very touchy about her adventures with the dwarfs, is the first ex-wife of Prince Charming, and has a sister named Rose Red from whom she was estranged for some time. See star designations for more information on how stars are named. Snow White is an important character in the Fables comic book. the "International Star Registry") purport to sell names to stars; however, these names are not recognized by the scientific community, nor used by them, and many in the astronomy community view these organizations as frauds preying on people ignorant of how stars are in fact named. That version is distinctly parodied in Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs. A number of private companies (e.g.

In the Disney version, Snow White wakes from her enchanted sleep as soon as the Prince kisses her, similar to Sleeping Beauty. The only body which has been recognized by the scientific community as having competence to name stars or other celestial bodies is the International Astronomical Union (IAU). A 1933 Betty Boop cartoon, Snow-White, was adapted from this story, as was the famous 1937 Disney animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The names are either traditional names (mostly from Arabic), Flamsteed designations, or Bayer designations. The film starred Marguerite Clark as Snow White, Creighton Hale as Prince Florimond and Dorothy Cumming as Queen Brangomar/Mary Jane. Most stars are identified only by catalogue numbers; only a few have names as such. Searle Dawley, it was adapted to the screen by Jessie Graham White from his play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The Sun is taken as the prototypical star (not because it is special in any way, but because it is the closest and most studied star), and most characteristics of other stars are usually given in solar units.

Directed by J. Our Sun is a G2V (yellow dwarf), being of intermediate temperature and ordinary size. A 1916 silent film with the title Snow White was made by Famous Players-Lasky Corporation and produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman. These fall along a narrow band when graphed according to their absolute magnitude and spectral type. The story in Russian writer Alexander Pushkin's 1833 poem The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights is similar to that of Snow White, with knights replacing dwarves. Most stars fall into the main sequence which consists of ordinary hydrogen-burning stars. She is then forced to step into the red-hot shoes and dance until she falls down dead. These range from 0 (hypergiants) through III (giants) to V (main sequence dwarfs) and VII (white dwarfs).

As punishment for her wicked ways, a pair of heated iron shoes are brought forth with tongs and placed before the Queen. In addition, stars may be classified by their "luminosity effects", which correspond to their spatial size. Not knowing that this new queen is indeed her stepdaughter, she arrives at the wedding, and her heart fills with the deepest of dread when she realizes the truth. This system matches closely with temperature, but breaks down at the extreme hottest end; class O0 and O1 stars may not exist. But the young queen is a thousand times fairer than you.". Each letter has 10 subclassifications numbered (hottest to coldest) from 0 to 9. The vain Queen, still believing that Snow White is dead, again asks her mirror who is fairest in the land and yet again the mirror disappoints by responding that "You, my queen, are fair; it is true. The most common of these are types L and T, which classify the coldest low-mass stars and brown dwarfs.

The Prince takes a revived Snow White away, and the film ends.). A variety of rare spectral types have special classifications. (In the Disney version, the cure for this deep sleep was love's first kiss. There are many other mnemonics for star classification. The prince then declares his love and soon a wedding is planned. The main classifications can be easily remembered using the mnemonic "Oh, Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me" (variant: change "girl" to "guy"), invented by Annie Jump Cannon. The prince and his men carry the coffin away, but as they go they stumble, the coffin jerks and the piece of poison apple flies out of Snow White's mouth, awakening her. There are different classifications of stars according to their spectra ranging from type O, which are very hot, to M, which are so cool that molecules may form in their atmospheres.

He begs the dwarfs to let him have the coffin. The minimum mass a star can have is estimated to be in the vicinity of 75 Jupiters. The prince is enchanted by her beauty and instantly falls in love with her. Smaller bodies are brown dwarfs, which occupy a poorly-defined grey area between stars and gas giants. Time passes, and a prince travels through the land and sees Snow White in her coffin. With a mass only 93 times that of Jupiter, AB Doradus C, a companion to AB Doradus A, is the smallest known star undergoing nuclear fusion in its core. (The Disney version only adopts the poison apple plot, and the queen meets her demise as she is chased by the dwarves.). This generation of supermassive stars is long extinct, however, and currently only theoretical.

When the dwarfs find her, they cannot revive her; and so they mourn and place her in a glass coffin, thinking that she has died. The very first stars to form after the Big Bang may have been larger, up to 300 solar masses or more, due to the complete absence of elements heavier than lithium in their composition. She eats the apple eagerly and immediately falls into a deep, magical sleep. The reason for this limit is not precisely known, but the Eddington limit is part of the answer. She is hesitant, so the Queen cuts the apple in half, eats the white part -- which has no poison -- and gives the poisoned red part to Snow White. He used the Hubble Space Telescope to observe about a thousand stars in the Arches cluster, a massive young star cluster near the core of the Milky Way, and found no stars over that limit despite a statistical expectation that there should be several. Lastly the Queen makes a poison apple, and in the guise of a country woman offers it to Snow White. Recent work by Donald Figer, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, suggests that 150 solar masses is the upper limit of stars in the current era of the universe.

Snow White again collapses, and again the dwarves save her. One of the most massive stars known is Eta Carinae, with 100–150 times as much mass as the Sun. Next the Queen dressed as a different old woman combs her hair with a poisoned comb. However, these have a much lower density than the Sun. Snow White is revived by the dwarves when they loosen the laces. (See Big Bang theory and stellar evolution.) They range in size from the tiny neutron stars (which are actually dead stars) no bigger than a city, to supergiants like the North Star (Polaris) and Betelgeuse, in the Orion constellation, which have a diameter about 1,000 times larger than the Sun—about 1.6 billion kilometers. First, disguised as a peddler, the Queen offers colorful stay-laces and laces Snow White up so tight she faints and the Queen takes her for dead. Some stars may even be close to 13.7 billion years old, which is the observed age of the universe.

Three times the Queen disguises herself and visits the dwarves' cottage where Snow White is staying to try to kill her. Many stars are between 1 billion and 10 billion years old. Meanwhile, the Queen asks her mirror once again, "Who's the fairest of them all?", and is horrified when the mirror tells her that Snow White, who is alive and well and living with the dwarfs, is still the fairest of them all. Larger (giant) stars have much bigger, much more obvious starspots, and also exhibit strong stellar limb-darkening (the brightness decreases towards the edge of the stellar disk). Snow White discovers a tiny cottage in the forest, belonging to seven dwarfs, where she rests. Small (dwarf) stars such as the Sun generally have essentially featureless disks with only small starspots. (In the Disney movie, these are replaced by a heart.). Stars can be much closer to each other in the centres of galaxies and globular clusters, or much further apart in galactic halos.

Instead, he lets her go, and brings the queen the lungs and liver of a wild boar. Distances like this are typical inside galactic discs, where the Sun and Earth are located. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but finds himself unable to kill the girl. Travelling at the orbit speed of the Space Shuttle (5 miles per second -- almost 30,000 kilometers per hour), it would take about 150,000 years to get there. She demands that the huntsman return with Snow White's lungs and liver as proof. The nearest star to the Earth, apart from the Sun, is Proxima Centauri, which is 39.9 trillion kilometers, or 4.2 light years away (light from Proxima Centauri takes 4.2 years to reach Earth). The Queen is jealous, and orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the woods to be killed. That is 70 000 000 000 000 000 000 000, or 230 billion times as many as the 300 billion in our own Milky Way.

But one day when she asks her mirror, it responds, "Queen, you're the fairest where you are, but Snow White is more beautiful by far". Astronomers estimate that there are at least 70 sextillion (7×1022) stars in the known universe [1]. She possesses a magic mirror, to whom she would often ask "Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of them all?", and to which the mirror would always reply, "You are". Larger groups called star clusters also exist. The king takes a new wife who is beautiful but very proud. The majority of stars are gravitationally bound to other stars, forming binary stars. In the traditional Brothers Grimm version of this tale, Snow White is born to a queen, who dies shortly after giving birth. A typical galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars.

. Stars are not spread uniformly across the universe, but are typically grouped into galaxies. Many scholars think it originated somewhere in Asia. The Sun is also a star, but it is close enough to Earth to appear as a disk instead, and to provide daylight. The origin of the tale is debated; it is likely no older than the Middle Ages. Interferometer telescopes are required in order to produce images of these objects. The start of the story also has an interesting twist in that a teacher urges the heroine to kill her own mother so that the teacher can take her place. All stars except the Sun appear to the human eye as shining points in the nighttime sky that twinkle because of the effect of the Earth's atmosphere.

The sleep is caused by a ring. The outflow from supernovae and the stellar wind of large stars play an important part in shaping the interstellar medium. Gesammelt, übersetz und erläutert (1864), the main character lives with 40 dragons. These heavy elements allow the formation of rocky planets. In a version from Albania, collected by Johann Georg von Hahn and published in Griechische und albanesische Märchen. The blown-off outer layers of dying stars include heavy elements which may be recycled during new star formation. In non-German versions the dwarfs are generally robbers, while the talking mirror is a dialog with the sun or moon. Eventually, most of the matter in a star is blown away by the explosion (forming nebulae such as the Crab Nebula) and what remains will be a neutron star (sometimes a pulsar or X-ray burster) or, in the case of the largest stars, a black hole.

The German version features elements such as the mirror and the seven dwarfs. When they occur within the Milky Way, supernovae have historically been observed by naked-eye observers as "new stars" where none existed before. Snow White (or Snow-White, and in German, Schneewittchen) is the title character of a well known fairy tale known from many places in Europe, the most known version being the one collected by the Brothers Grimm. Supernovae are so bright that they may briefly outshine the star's entire home galaxy. The shockwave formed by this sudden collapse causes the rest of the star to explode in a supernova. This core will suddenly collapse as its electrons are driven into its protons, forming neutrons and neutrinos in a burst of inverse beta decay.

In larger stars, fusion continues until an iron core accumulates that is too large to be supported by electron degeneracy pressure. These too will fade into black dwarfs over very long stretches of time. The core that remains will be a tiny ball of degenerate matter not massive enough for further fusion to take place, supported only by degeneracy pressure, called a white dwarf. An average-size star will then shed its outer layers as a planetary nebula.

In old, very massive stars, a large core of inert iron will accumulate in the center of the star. Likewise, since they are more tightly bound than all lighter nuclei, energy cannot be released by fission. Since iron nuclei are more tightly bound than any heavier nuclei, they cannot be fused to release energy. Larger stars will also fuse heavier elements, all the way to iron, which is the end point of the process.

Eventually the core is compressed enough to start helium fusion, and the star heats up and contracts. In about 5 billion years, when the Sun is a red giant, it will be so large that it will consume both Mercury and Venus. As most stars exhaust their supply of hydrogen, their outer layers expand and cool to form a red giant. However, since the lifespan of such stars is greater than the current age of the universe (13.6 billion years), no black dwarfs exist yet.

At the end of their lives, they simply become dimmer and dimmer, fading into black dwarfs. Small stars (called red dwarfs) burn their fuel very slowly and last tens to hundreds of billions of years. Such stars are said to be on the main sequence. Stars spend about 90% of their lifetime fusing hydrogen to produce helium in high-temperature and high-pressure reactions near the core.

One example of such a nebula is the Orion Nebula. High mass stars powerfully illuminate the clouds from which they formed. Star formation begins with gravitational instability inside those clouds, often triggered by shockwaves from supernovae or collision of two galaxies (as in a starburst galaxy). Star formation occurs in molecular clouds, large regions of high density in the interstellar medium (though still less dense than the inside of an earthly vacuum chamber).

. Stellar astronomy is the study of stars. Scientifically, stars are defined as self-gravitating spheres of plasma in hydrostatic equilibrium, which generate their own energy through the process of nuclear fusion. Unlike a planet, from which most light is reflected, a star emits light because of its intense heat.

A star is a massive body of plasma in outer space that is currently producing or has produced energy through nuclear fusion. John Gribbin, Mary Gribbin (2001) "Stardust: Supernovae and Life — The Cosmic Connection", Yale University Press. Cliff Pickover (2001) "The Stars of Heaven", Oxford University Press.

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