Snow White

Snow White (or Snow-White, and in German, Schneewittchen) is the title character of a well known fairy tale known from many places in Europe, the most known version being the one collected by the Brothers Grimm. The German version features elements such as the mirror and the seven dwarfs. In non-German versions the dwarfs are generally robbers, while the talking mirror is a dialog with the sun or moon. In a version from Albania, collected by Johann Georg von Hahn and published in Griechische und albanesische Märchen. Gesammelt, übersetz und erläutert (1864), the main character lives with 40 dragons. The sleep is caused by a ring. The start of the story also has an interesting twist in that a teacher urges the heroine to kill her own mother so that the teacher can take her place. The origin of the tale is debated; it is likely no older than the Middle Ages. Many scholars think it originated somewhere in Asia.

Story

In the traditional Brothers Grimm version of this tale, Snow White is born to a queen, who dies shortly after giving birth. The king takes a new wife who is beautiful but very proud. She possesses a magic mirror, to whom she would often ask "Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of them all?", and to which the mirror would always reply, "You are". But one day when she asks her mirror, it responds, "Queen, you're the fairest where you are, but Snow White is more beautiful by far".

The Queen is jealous, and orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the woods to be killed. She demands that the huntsman return with Snow White's lungs and liver as proof. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but finds himself unable to kill the girl. Instead, he lets her go, and brings the queen the lungs and liver of a wild boar. (In the Disney movie, these are replaced by a heart.)

Snow White discovers a tiny cottage in the forest, belonging to seven dwarfs, where she rests. Meanwhile, the Queen asks her mirror once again, "Who's the fairest of them all?", and is horrified when the mirror tells her that Snow White, who is alive and well and living with the dwarfs, is still the fairest of them all.

Three times the Queen disguises herself and visits the dwarves' cottage where Snow White is staying to try to kill her. First, disguised as a peddler, the Queen offers colorful stay-laces and laces Snow White up so tight she faints and the Queen takes her for dead. Snow White is revived by the dwarves when they loosen the laces. Next the Queen dressed as a different old woman combs her hair with a poisoned comb. Snow White again collapses, and again the dwarves save her. Lastly the Queen makes a poison apple, and in the guise of a country woman offers it to Snow White. She is hesitant, so the Queen cuts the apple in half, eats the white part -- which has no poison -- and gives the poisoned red part to Snow White. She eats the apple eagerly and immediately falls into a deep, magical sleep. When the dwarfs find her, they cannot revive her; and so they mourn and place her in a glass coffin, thinking that she has died. (The Disney version only adopts the poison apple plot, and the queen meets her demise as she is chased by the dwarves.)

Snow White in her coffin

Time passes, and a prince travels through the land and sees Snow White in her coffin. The prince is enchanted by her beauty and instantly falls in love with her. He begs the dwarfs to let him have the coffin. The prince and his men carry the coffin away, but as they go they stumble, the coffin jerks and the piece of poison apple flies out of Snow White's mouth, awakening her. The prince then declares his love and soon a wedding is planned. (In the Disney version, the cure for this deep sleep was love's first kiss. The Prince takes a revived Snow White away, and the film ends.)

The vain Queen, still believing that Snow White is dead, again asks her mirror who is fairest in the land and yet again the mirror disappoints by responding that "You, my queen, are fair; it is true. But the young queen is a thousand times fairer than you."

Not knowing that this new queen is indeed her stepdaughter, she arrives at the wedding, and her heart fills with the deepest of dread when she realizes the truth.

As punishment for her wicked ways, a pair of heated iron shoes are brought forth with tongs and placed before the Queen. She is then forced to step into the red-hot shoes and dance until she falls down dead.

Other Versions

The story in Russian writer Alexander Pushkin's 1833 poem The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights is similar to that of Snow White, with knights replacing dwarves.

A 1916 silent film with the title Snow White was made by Famous Players-Lasky Corporation and produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman. Directed by J. Searle Dawley, it was adapted to the screen by Jessie Graham White from his play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film starred Marguerite Clark as Snow White, Creighton Hale as Prince Florimond and Dorothy Cumming as Queen Brangomar/Mary Jane.

Snow White in the Disney Cartoon.

A 1933 Betty Boop cartoon, Snow-White, was adapted from this story, as was the famous 1937 Disney animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. In the Disney version, Snow White wakes from her enchanted sleep as soon as the Prince kisses her, similar to Sleeping Beauty. That version is distinctly parodied in Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs.

Snow White is an important character in the Fables comic book. As presented there, she is an amalgam of the two characters that share this name---she is very touchy about her adventures with the dwarfs, is the first ex-wife of Prince Charming, and has a sister named Rose Red from whom she was estranged for some time. She was assistant mayor of Fabletown for many years, succeeding to the post after Ichabod Crane was fired for sexually harassing her. Due to Prince Charming replacing Old King Cole as mayor, as well as her giving birth to the (mostly) non-human-appearing children of Bigby (the Big Bad Wolf), she moved from the New York City Fabletown to the "Farm" upstate, where non-human-appearing Fables must live.

The story was very loosely adapted by Mercedes Lackey into her Elemental Masters novel The Serpent's Shadow, turning the main character into the Eurasian Doctor Maya Witherspoon, who must suffer the multiple stigmas of being a medically-qualified half-caste female (in other words, most of her problems stem from being not white) in turn-of-the-century London; the seven dwarves are transformed into animal avatars of various benign Hindu deities.

In 1961 the story was paradied in the film "Snow White and The Three Stooges", starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine and Joe "Curly-Joe" DeRita. This film is widely regarded by fans of the Three Stooges as their worst feature film. In the film, the dwarfs had gone on vacation and lent Moe, Larry and Curly Joe the use their cottage. The 3 are traveling entertainers, along with a young man who was born a prince, but lost his memory in a kidnapping attempt that was thwarted by the Stooges. The boy suffers amnesia and the Stooges "adopt" him and raise him to manhood. He is only shown as a boy in a flasback segment. This man ends up marrying Snow White, played by real life figure skating champion, Carol Heiss. The film is a musical and features many ice skating scenes. There are few other things that differ from the original story, such as Count Oga (villainous henchman of the evil queen), magic sword that transports the Stooges to various places and a carriage chase scene.

Snow White And Rose Red

There is another Brothers Grimm tale called Snow-White and Rose-Red which also includes a character called Snow White. However this Snow White is a completely separate character from the one found in this tale. For more information about the other Snow White, see the Snow-White and Rose-Red article. The original German names are different: Schneewittchen (the Princess) and Schneeweißchen (together with Rosenrot). There is actually no difference in the meaning, but the first name is more influenced by the dialects of Lower Germany while the second one is the Higher German version.


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There is actually no difference in the meaning, but the first name is more influenced by the dialects of Lower Germany while the second one is the Higher German version. The rotation speed of the feeder and the fan speeds can be varied to modulate the heat output. The original German names are different: Schneewittchen (the Princess) and Schneeweißchen (together with Rosenrot). The ignition is automatic, using a stream of air heated by an electrical element. For more information about the other Snow White, see the Snow-White and Rose-Red article. Air is provided for the combustion by an electric blower. However this Snow White is a completely separate character from the one found in this tale. The pellet stove typically uses a feed screw to transfer pellets from a storage hopper to a combustion chamber.

There is another Brothers Grimm tale called Snow-White and Rose-Red which also includes a character called Snow White. There are currently more than half a million homes in North America using pellet stoves for heat, and probably a similar number in Europe. There are few other things that differ from the original story, such as Count Oga (villainous henchman of the evil queen), magic sword that transports the Stooges to various places and a carriage chase scene. The pellets are made of renewable material –- typically wood sawdust or off-cuts. The film is a musical and features many ice skating scenes. Home heating using a pellet stove is an alternative currently used throughout the world, with radid growth in Europe. This man ends up marrying Snow White, played by real life figure skating champion, Carol Heiss. A pellet stove uses small, biological fuel pellets which are renewable and very clean-burning.

He is only shown as a boy in a flasback segment. Since they are highly efficient, they don't need a chimney; instead they can be vented outdoors by a four-inch pipe through an outside wall and so can be located in any room in the home." Encyclopedia of Alternative Energy. The boy suffers amnesia and the Stooges "adopt" him and raise him to manhood. "Corn pellet stoves and wood pellet stoves look the same from the outside. The 3 are traveling entertainers, along with a young man who was born a prince, but lost his memory in a kidnapping attempt that was thwarted by the Stooges. The shelled dry kernel of corn, also called a corn pellet, creates as much heat as a wood pellet but generates more ash. In the film, the dwarfs had gone on vacation and lent Moe, Larry and Curly Joe the use their cottage. A corn stove is a type of pellet stove which is a type of biofuel stove.

This film is widely regarded by fans of the Three Stooges as their worst feature film. See independent sources [1] [2]. In 1961 the story was paradied in the film "Snow White and The Three Stooges", starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine and Joe "Curly-Joe" DeRita. - These material properties reduce the heat transferred to the skin, during the "touch', so no burn results. The story was very loosely adapted by Mercedes Lackey into her Elemental Masters novel The Serpent's Shadow, turning the main character into the Eurasian Doctor Maya Witherspoon, who must suffer the multiple stigmas of being a medically-qualified half-caste female (in other words, most of her problems stem from being not white) in turn-of-the-century London; the seven dwarves are transformed into animal avatars of various benign Hindu deities. temperatures and has both low thermal conductivity and thermal mass. Due to Prince Charming replacing Old King Cole as mayor, as well as her giving birth to the (mostly) non-human-appearing children of Bigby (the Big Bad Wolf), she moved from the New York City Fabletown to the "Farm" upstate, where non-human-appearing Fables must live. F.

She was assistant mayor of Fabletown for many years, succeeding to the post after Ichabod Crane was fired for sexually harassing her. - The fabric is made from a modern synthetic fiber called Nomex - which can withstand 500 deg. As presented there, she is an amalgam of the two characters that share this name---she is very touchy about her adventures with the dwarfs, is the first ex-wife of Prince Charming, and has a sister named Rose Red from whom she was estranged for some time. F., they will not be burned. Snow White is an important character in the Fables comic book. If a person touches it, even at 500 deg. That version is distinctly parodied in Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs. Recently, a device has been invented by Burt Shulman of Wappingers Falls, NY, called the Cool Touch Oven Rack Guard, which is a fabric strip that attaches along the front edge of the oven rack and stays in the oven.

In the Disney version, Snow White wakes from her enchanted sleep as soon as the Prince kisses her, similar to Sleeping Beauty. Devices to protect the hands, such as oven gloves, have been developed, but need to be used consistently, to be effective; so people still get burned. A 1933 Betty Boop cartoon, Snow-White, was adapted from this story, as was the famous 1937 Disney animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Ovens and stoves, throughout history, have one thing in common, they will burn the person who comes in contact with their hot metal surfaces, for instance, the oven rack's front edge. The film starred Marguerite Clark as Snow White, Creighton Hale as Prince Florimond and Dorothy Cumming as Queen Brangomar/Mary Jane. Today's major brands offer both gas and electric stoves, and many also offer dual-fuel stoves combining gas cooktops and electric ovens. Searle Dawley, it was adapted to the screen by Jessie Graham White from his play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. On the other hand, chefs often prefer electric ovens because they tend to heat food more evenly.

Directed by J. In particular, professional chefs often prefer gas cooktops, for they allow them to control the heat more finely and more quickly. A 1916 silent film with the title Snow White was made by Famous Players-Lasky Corporation and produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman. Both are equally mature and safe, and the choice between the two is largely a matter of personal preference and preexisting utility outlets: if a house has no gas supply, adding one just to be able to run a gas stove is an expensive endeavour. The story in Russian writer Alexander Pushkin's 1833 poem The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights is similar to that of Snow White, with knights replacing dwarves. Gas and electric stoves are the most common today in western countries. She is then forced to step into the red-hot shoes and dance until she falls down dead. Electrical oven technology has also advanced: in the convection oven, a stream of hot air is used for heating food instead of the heat produced by coils directly as in a conventional electrical oven.

As punishment for her wicked ways, a pair of heated iron shoes are brought forth with tongs and placed before the Queen. The iron hotplate technology is still in widespread use, although newly equipped kitchens nowadays usually get a stove using one of the later technologies. Not knowing that this new queen is indeed her stepdaughter, she arrives at the wedding, and her heart fills with the deepest of dread when she realizes the truth. The electrical stove technology has developed in several successive generations:. But the young queen is a thousand times fairer than you.". By the 1930s, the technology had matured and the electrical stove started to slowly replace the gas stove, especially in domestic kitchens. The vain Queen, still believing that Snow White is dead, again asks her mirror who is fairest in the land and yet again the mirror disappoints by responding that "You, my queen, are fair; it is true. But like the gas stove, the electrical stove had a slow start, partly due to the unstable technology, and partly because first cities and town needed to be electrified.

The Prince takes a revived Snow White away, and the film ends.). First attempts at building electrical stoves were made in the 1880s, but its real debut was at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893, where an electrified model kitchen was shown. (In the Disney version, the cure for this deep sleep was love's first kiss. Stoves (or ranges as they are also known) such as these are often used instead of boilers or furnaces to supply hot water and central heating to the rest of the house. The prince then declares his love and soon a wedding is planned. The AGA, and similar products such as the Rayburn Range are examples of always-on stoves which continue to burn fuel even when cooking is not being performed. The prince and his men carry the coffin away, but as they go they stumble, the coffin jerks and the piece of poison apple flies out of Snow White's mouth, awakening her. It is considered to be the most efficient design and is a much sought after kitchen "must have" in certain circles—despite the hefty price tag.

He begs the dwarfs to let him have the coffin. A high-end gas stove called the AGA cooker was invented in 1922 by Swedish Nobel prize winner Gustaf Dalén. The prince is enchanted by her beauty and instantly falls in love with her. In the 1910s, producers started to enamel their gas stoves for easier cleaning. Time passes, and a prince travels through the land and sees Snow White in her coffin. The first gas stoves were rather unwieldy, but soon the oven was integrated into the base and the size reduced to fit in better with the rest of the kitchen furniture. (The Disney version only adopts the poison apple plot, and the queen meets her demise as she is chased by the dwarves.). The main factor for this delay was the slow growth of the gas pipe network.

When the dwarfs find her, they cannot revive her; and so they mourn and place her in a glass coffin, thinking that she has died. (James Sharp in Northampton, England, patented a gas stove in 1826 and opened a gas stove factory in 1836.) At the world fair in London in 1851, a gas stove was shown, but only in the 1880s did this technology start to become a commercial success. She eats the apple eagerly and immediately falls into a deep, magical sleep. The first gas stoves were developed already in the 1820s, but these remained isolated experiments. She is hesitant, so the Queen cuts the apple in half, eats the white part -- which has no poison -- and gives the poisoned red part to Snow White. All previous stoves were fueld by wood (or other biofuel), charcoal, or coal. Lastly the Queen makes a poison apple, and in the guise of a country woman offers it to Snow White. (net efficiency is the amount of heat energy transferred to the room compared to the amount contained in the wood, minus any amount central heating must work to compensate for the airflow problems described elsewhere in this article.).

Snow White again collapses, and again the dwarves save her. This is largely achieved through causing the most possible material to combust, which results in a net efficiency of 60 to 70% as contrasted to zero to 30% for a fireplace. Next the Queen dressed as a different old woman combs her hair with a poisoned comb. Put differently, this is roughly 90% less smoke than older stoves, which equates to nearly zero visible smoke from the chimney. Snow White is revived by the dwarves when they loosen the laces. Maximum smoke output is limited to 7.5 grams per hour and some stoves achieve as little as 1 to 4 grams per hour. First, disguised as a peddler, the Queen offers colorful stay-laces and laces Snow White up so tight she faints and the Queen takes her for dead. In the US, the EPA created stricter emissions standards in the late 1980s.

Three times the Queen disguises herself and visits the dwarves' cottage where Snow White is staying to try to kill her. Other models use a design that includes firebox insulation, a large baffle to produce a longer, hotter gas flow path and pre-heating the air prior to its entering the combustion chamber. Meanwhile, the Queen asks her mirror once again, "Who's the fairest of them all?", and is horrified when the mirror tells her that Snow White, who is alive and well and living with the dwarfs, is still the fairest of them all. More expensive stoves use a catalytic converter which causes the gas and smoke particles not actually burned to combust. Snow White discovers a tiny cottage in the forest, belonging to seven dwarfs, where she rests. Modern wood stoves also increase the completeness of combustion. (In the Disney movie, these are replaced by a heart.). All wood stoves operate on the principle of controlled air flow but their consumption will vary).

Instead, he lets her go, and brings the queen the lungs and liver of a wild boar. By controlling the inflow of air to allow only what a fire needs to burn, iron stoves reduce the consumption of air to a mere 15-30 cubic feet per minute (this figure is for a modern stoves. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but finds himself unable to kill the girl. Depending on the size of the pot or the heat needed, one could remove the inner rings. She demands that the huntsman return with Snow White's lungs and liver as proof. The originally open holes into which the pots were hung were now covered with concentric iron rings on which the pots were placed. The Queen is jealous, and orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the woods to be killed. In the following years, these iron stoves evolved into veritable cooking machines with flue pipes connected to the chimney, oven holes, and installations for heating water.

But one day when she asks her mirror, it responds, "Queen, you're the fairest where you are, but Snow White is more beautiful by far". In Europe, similar designs also appeared in the 1830s. She possesses a magic mirror, to whom she would often ask "Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of them all?", and to which the mirror would always reply, "You are". It became a huge commercial success with some 90,000 units sold in the next 30 years. The king takes a new wife who is beautiful but very proud. in 1834. In the traditional Brothers Grimm version of this tale, Snow White is born to a queen, who dies shortly after giving birth. Stewart's Oberlin stove was a much more compact iron stove, patented in the U.S.

. It would take another 30 years until the technology had been refined and the size of the iron stove been reduced enough for domestic use. Many scholars think it originated somewhere in Asia. His stove was designed for large canteen or castle kitchens, though. The origin of the tale is debated; it is likely no older than the Middle Ages. It was even possible to regulate the heat individually for each hole. The start of the story also has an interesting twist in that a teacher urges the heroine to kill her own mother so that the teacher can take her place. His Rumford stove used one fire to heat several pots that were also hung into holes so that they could be heated from the sides, too.

The sleep is caused by a ring. Benjamin Thompson at the turn to the 19th century was among the first to present a working iron kitchen stove. Gesammelt, übersetz und erläutert (1864), the main character lives with 40 dragons. The Franklin stove, however, was designed for heating, not for cooking. In a version from Albania, collected by Johann Georg von Hahn and published in Griechische und albanesische Märchen. It had a labyrinthine path for hot exhaust gases to escape, thus allowing heat to enter the room instead of going up the chimney. In non-German versions the dwarfs are generally robbers, while the talking mirror is a dialog with the sun or moon. An early, and famous, example of an iron stove is the Franklin stove, a wood burning stove said to have been invented by Benjamin Franklin in 1742.

The German version features elements such as the mirror and the seven dwarfs. To resolve these problems iron stoves came into use in the 18th century. Snow White (or Snow-White, and in German, Schneewittchen) is the title character of a well known fairy tale known from many places in Europe, the most known version being the one collected by the Brothers Grimm. Second, in an open fire some of the combustible gas coming off the wood escapes does not ignite and is lost. High airflow creates a draft which pulls heated air out of the house to be replaced with cold air leaking in from the outside. A mostly closed off fireplace, for example a modern fireplace with glass doors closed will use 50-150 cubic feet per minute.

A fireplace consumes 200 to 600 cubic feet of air per minute, more for a very large fire. This both pulls heat away and pulls air from the rest of the house into the fire and then up the chimney. First, in order to prevent air, and therefore smoke, from spilling back into the room you need a large updraft pulling air (and therefore heat) out the chimney. An open fireplace is a very inefficient form of heat for two reasons.

Raised kamados were developed in Japan during the Edo period (1603 - 1867). In both designs, pots were placed over or hung into holes at the top of the knee-high construction. These stoves were fired by wood or charcoal through a hole in the front. Already from the Chinese Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206/207 BC), clay stoves that enclosed the fire completely are known, and a similar design known as kamado (かまど) appeared in the Kofun period (3rd - 6th century) in Japan.

Chinese and Japanese civilisations had discovered the principle of the closed stove much earlier. Near the end of the 18th century, the design was refined by hanging the pots in holes through the top iron plate, thus improving heat efficiency even more. It is also known as a stew stove. Only in 1735 did the first design that completely enclosed the fire appear: the Castrol stove of the French architect François Cuvilliés was a masonry construction with several fireholes covered by perforated iron plates.

This technique also caused a change in the kitchenware used for cooking, for it required flat-bottomed pots instead of cauldrons. A first step was the fire chamber: the fire was enclosed on three sides by brick-and-mortar walls and covered by an iron plate. Attempts were made to enclose the fire to make better use of the heat that it generated and thus reduce the wood consumption. Open fire has three major disadvantages that prompted inventors even in the 16th century to devise improvements: it is dangerous, it produces much smoke, and the heat efficiency is poor.

The heat was regulated by placing the cauldron higher or lower above the fire. Cooking was done mainly in cauldrons hung above the fire or placed on trivets. The fire was built on top of the construction; the space underneath was used to store and dry wood. In the Middle Ages, waist-high brick-and-mortar hearths and the first chimneys appeared, so that cooks no longer had to kneel or sit to tend to foods on the fire.

Before that time, people cooked over open fires fuelled by wood, which first were on the floor or on low masonry constructions. In Europe, the history of the kitchen stove begins in earnest in the 18th century. Many can even accommodate automatically raising and lowering the oven temperature to preset levels at preset times. Middle- to high-end models also may feature locking mechanisms for the oven door; convection cooking; automatic cleaning mechanisms, which raise the oven temperature to more than 260 degrees Celsius (500 degrees Fahrenheit) and reduce accumulated food spills to ash or a catalytic oven lining which aids in burning off spills; one or more timers; and a digital display.

The control knobs may be located on the backsplash, on the cooktop, or on the upper part of the front of the stove. Many modern stoves typically have from three to eight burners or plates of various sizes and power levels; an oven; and knobs, for controlling the heat of the burners and the oven. Along with the refrigerator, a stove is usually found in the kitchen. Modern stoves are typically considered a basic appliance in homes in developed nations.

A stove generates heat by one or more of the following means:. . In industrial usage, stove may refer to the place where fuel is combusted before being fed to a large heat consumer (such as an open hearth furnace. A drop-in range has both burners on the top and an oven and hangs from a cutout in the countertop (that is, it cannot be installed free-standing on its own).

A cooktop just has burners on the top and is usually installed into a countertop. A kitchen stove is used to cook food, and refers to a device that has both burners on the top (also known as the cooktop or range or, in British English, the hob) and, often, an oven. There are many types of stoves. Another American English word for a cooking stove is range.

In British English, however, the term cooker is normally used for the cooking appliance, and stove for a wood- or coal-burning room-heating appliance. The word typically describes an appliance used either for generating warmth or for cooking. A stove is a heat-producing device. Induction stoves also often have a glass-ceramic surface.

These heat the cookware directly through electromagnetic induction and thus require pots and pans with ferromagnetic bottoms. A third technology, developed first for professional kitchens, but today also entering the domestic market are induction stoves. Also, these cooktops have a smooth surface and are thus easier to clean, but they only work with flat-bottomed cookware and are markedly more expensive. Because of its physical characteristics, the cooktop heats quicker, there is less afterheat, and only the plate heats up while the adjacent surface remains cool.

Electrical heating coils or infrared halogen lamps are used as heating elements. Glass-ceramic has a very low heat conduction coefficient, but lets infrared radiation pass very well. In the 1970s, glass-ceramic cooktops started to appear. Though the technology is slowly fading into obsolecence, coil ranges still provide the best durability out of all electric cooktop implementations.

The first technology used resistor heating coils which heated iron hotplates, on top of which the pots were placed. induction. electrical resistance (by way of a heating element). electrically, by either

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    biofuel such as wood, coal, corn, or synthetic heating pellets. heating oil. liquefied gases (e.g., butane, propane). natural gas.

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