Snow White

Snow White (or Snow-White, and in German, Schneewittchen) is the title character of a well known fairy tale known from many places in Europe, the most known version being the one collected by the Brothers Grimm. The German version features elements such as the mirror and the seven dwarfs. In non-German versions the dwarfs are generally robbers, while the talking mirror is a dialog with the sun or moon. In a version from Albania, collected by Johann Georg von Hahn and published in Griechische und albanesische Märchen. Gesammelt, übersetz und erläutert (1864), the main character lives with 40 dragons. The sleep is caused by a ring. The start of the story also has an interesting twist in that a teacher urges the heroine to kill her own mother so that the teacher can take her place. The origin of the tale is debated; it is likely no older than the Middle Ages. Many scholars think it originated somewhere in Asia.

Story

In the traditional Brothers Grimm version of this tale, Snow White is born to a queen, who dies shortly after giving birth. The king takes a new wife who is beautiful but very proud. She possesses a magic mirror, to whom she would often ask "Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of them all?", and to which the mirror would always reply, "You are". But one day when she asks her mirror, it responds, "Queen, you're the fairest where you are, but Snow White is more beautiful by far".

The Queen is jealous, and orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the woods to be killed. She demands that the huntsman return with Snow White's lungs and liver as proof. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but finds himself unable to kill the girl. Instead, he lets her go, and brings the queen the lungs and liver of a wild boar. (In the Disney movie, these are replaced by a heart.)

Snow White discovers a tiny cottage in the forest, belonging to seven dwarfs, where she rests. Meanwhile, the Queen asks her mirror once again, "Who's the fairest of them all?", and is horrified when the mirror tells her that Snow White, who is alive and well and living with the dwarfs, is still the fairest of them all.

Three times the Queen disguises herself and visits the dwarves' cottage where Snow White is staying to try to kill her. First, disguised as a peddler, the Queen offers colorful stay-laces and laces Snow White up so tight she faints and the Queen takes her for dead. Snow White is revived by the dwarves when they loosen the laces. Next the Queen dressed as a different old woman combs her hair with a poisoned comb. Snow White again collapses, and again the dwarves save her. Lastly the Queen makes a poison apple, and in the guise of a country woman offers it to Snow White. She is hesitant, so the Queen cuts the apple in half, eats the white part -- which has no poison -- and gives the poisoned red part to Snow White. She eats the apple eagerly and immediately falls into a deep, magical sleep. When the dwarfs find her, they cannot revive her; and so they mourn and place her in a glass coffin, thinking that she has died. (The Disney version only adopts the poison apple plot, and the queen meets her demise as she is chased by the dwarves.)

Snow White in her coffin

Time passes, and a prince travels through the land and sees Snow White in her coffin. The prince is enchanted by her beauty and instantly falls in love with her. He begs the dwarfs to let him have the coffin. The prince and his men carry the coffin away, but as they go they stumble, the coffin jerks and the piece of poison apple flies out of Snow White's mouth, awakening her. The prince then declares his love and soon a wedding is planned. (In the Disney version, the cure for this deep sleep was love's first kiss. The Prince takes a revived Snow White away, and the film ends.)

The vain Queen, still believing that Snow White is dead, again asks her mirror who is fairest in the land and yet again the mirror disappoints by responding that "You, my queen, are fair; it is true. But the young queen is a thousand times fairer than you."

Not knowing that this new queen is indeed her stepdaughter, she arrives at the wedding, and her heart fills with the deepest of dread when she realizes the truth.

As punishment for her wicked ways, a pair of heated iron shoes are brought forth with tongs and placed before the Queen. She is then forced to step into the red-hot shoes and dance until she falls down dead.

Other Versions

The story in Russian writer Alexander Pushkin's 1833 poem The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights is similar to that of Snow White, with knights replacing dwarves.

A 1916 silent film with the title Snow White was made by Famous Players-Lasky Corporation and produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman. Directed by J. Searle Dawley, it was adapted to the screen by Jessie Graham White from his play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film starred Marguerite Clark as Snow White, Creighton Hale as Prince Florimond and Dorothy Cumming as Queen Brangomar/Mary Jane.

Snow White in the Disney Cartoon.

A 1933 Betty Boop cartoon, Snow-White, was adapted from this story, as was the famous 1937 Disney animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. In the Disney version, Snow White wakes from her enchanted sleep as soon as the Prince kisses her, similar to Sleeping Beauty. That version is distinctly parodied in Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs.

Snow White is an important character in the Fables comic book. As presented there, she is an amalgam of the two characters that share this name---she is very touchy about her adventures with the dwarfs, is the first ex-wife of Prince Charming, and has a sister named Rose Red from whom she was estranged for some time. She was assistant mayor of Fabletown for many years, succeeding to the post after Ichabod Crane was fired for sexually harassing her. Due to Prince Charming replacing Old King Cole as mayor, as well as her giving birth to the (mostly) non-human-appearing children of Bigby (the Big Bad Wolf), she moved from the New York City Fabletown to the "Farm" upstate, where non-human-appearing Fables must live.

The story was very loosely adapted by Mercedes Lackey into her Elemental Masters novel The Serpent's Shadow, turning the main character into the Eurasian Doctor Maya Witherspoon, who must suffer the multiple stigmas of being a medically-qualified half-caste female (in other words, most of her problems stem from being not white) in turn-of-the-century London; the seven dwarves are transformed into animal avatars of various benign Hindu deities.

In 1961 the story was paradied in the film "Snow White and The Three Stooges", starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine and Joe "Curly-Joe" DeRita. This film is widely regarded by fans of the Three Stooges as their worst feature film. In the film, the dwarfs had gone on vacation and lent Moe, Larry and Curly Joe the use their cottage. The 3 are traveling entertainers, along with a young man who was born a prince, but lost his memory in a kidnapping attempt that was thwarted by the Stooges. The boy suffers amnesia and the Stooges "adopt" him and raise him to manhood. He is only shown as a boy in a flasback segment. This man ends up marrying Snow White, played by real life figure skating champion, Carol Heiss. The film is a musical and features many ice skating scenes. There are few other things that differ from the original story, such as Count Oga (villainous henchman of the evil queen), magic sword that transports the Stooges to various places and a carriage chase scene.

Snow White And Rose Red

There is another Brothers Grimm tale called Snow-White and Rose-Red which also includes a character called Snow White. However this Snow White is a completely separate character from the one found in this tale. For more information about the other Snow White, see the Snow-White and Rose-Red article. The original German names are different: Schneewittchen (the Princess) and Schneeweißchen (together with Rosenrot). There is actually no difference in the meaning, but the first name is more influenced by the dialects of Lower Germany while the second one is the Higher German version.


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There is actually no difference in the meaning, but the first name is more influenced by the dialects of Lower Germany while the second one is the Higher German version. These claims are scientifically disputed and unresolved as of yet. The original German names are different: Schneewittchen (the Princess) and Schneeweißchen (together with Rosenrot). They further claim that Kicker's square design puts too much stress on the corners of the cones. For more information about the other Snow White, see the Snow-White and Rose-Red article. Sony claims that its pentagon shape reduces standing waves on the surface of the cone as well as improves the overall strength of the cone structure, reducing "cone flex". However this Snow White is a completely separate character from the one found in this tale. The intent of the triangular design does not seem to be motivated by sound quality or intensity, but rather to encourage creativity in installation and provide flexibility for otherwise awkward positions.

There is another Brothers Grimm tale called Snow-White and Rose-Red which also includes a character called Snow White. However, a triangular design decreases the surface area of the woofer cone relative to a circular or square design in an enclosure of the same size. There are few other things that differ from the original story, such as Count Oga (villainous henchman of the evil queen), magic sword that transports the Stooges to various places and a carriage chase scene. The increased surface area translates into moving more air and higher sound pressure levels. The film is a musical and features many ice skating scenes. In enclosures of the same size, it is possible to achieve more subwoofer cone surface area with a square design than a circular design. This man ends up marrying Snow White, played by real life figure skating champion, Carol Heiss. The intent of a square subwoofer is to increase the surface area of the woofer's cone.

He is only shown as a boy in a flasback segment. However, they can be useful in creating unique 'looks' in a car audio system that is meant to be seen as much as heard, and to create brand distinction and recognition. The boy suffers amnesia and the Stooges "adopt" him and raise him to manhood. There is no known auditory advantage to these shapes. The 3 are traveling entertainers, along with a young man who was born a prince, but lost his memory in a kidnapping attempt that was thwarted by the Stooges. Other companies, such as Sony, have jumped on the bandwagon, producing non-round subwoofers of their own. In the film, the dwarfs had gone on vacation and lent Moe, Larry and Curly Joe the use their cottage. Xtant has introduced a hexagonal subwoofer.

This film is widely regarded by fans of the Three Stooges as their worst feature film. Bazooka has introduced a triangular subwoofer. In 1961 the story was paradied in the film "Snow White and The Three Stooges", starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine and Joe "Curly-Joe" DeRita. Stillwater Designs, nicknamed Kicker, released a square subwoofer several years ago, the Solo-Baric series, and recently, the Solo X. The story was very loosely adapted by Mercedes Lackey into her Elemental Masters novel The Serpent's Shadow, turning the main character into the Eurasian Doctor Maya Witherspoon, who must suffer the multiple stigmas of being a medically-qualified half-caste female (in other words, most of her problems stem from being not white) in turn-of-the-century London; the seven dwarves are transformed into animal avatars of various benign Hindu deities. Within the last few years, the car audio field has seen a variety of subwoofers utilizing non-round shapes. Due to Prince Charming replacing Old King Cole as mayor, as well as her giving birth to the (mostly) non-human-appearing children of Bigby (the Big Bad Wolf), she moved from the New York City Fabletown to the "Farm" upstate, where non-human-appearing Fables must live. Some waterproof models work underwater, or placed on the underside of a deck, to create sound.

She was assistant mayor of Fabletown for many years, succeeding to the post after Ichabod Crane was fired for sexually harassing her. They can be placed on a large flat surface create a large, though poor, loudspeaker. As presented there, she is an amalgam of the two characters that share this name---she is very touchy about her adventures with the dwarfs, is the first ex-wife of Prince Charming, and has a sister named Rose Red from whom she was estranged for some time. These devices typically don't provide as much vibration per dollar as simply placing a reasonably priced subwoofer against the back of the furniture, so at their current prices are most useful for not disturbing anyone than vibrating to audio. Snow White is an important character in the Fables comic book. However, some feel that the vibrations are a little disembodied from the rest of the auditory experience. That version is distinctly parodied in Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs. These have recently emerged as a device, called a tactile transducer by at least one brand, that attaches to furniture, such as one's seat, via which vibrations are transmitted to the body; they can be connected to an amplifier as per a normal loudspeaker.

In the Disney version, Snow White wakes from her enchanted sleep as soon as the Prince kisses her, similar to Sleeping Beauty. Since much bass is felt, sub-bass can be augmented using tactile transducers. A 1933 Betty Boop cartoon, Snow-White, was adapted from this story, as was the famous 1937 Disney animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Indeed, hearing loss is one concern, alongside space considerations and neighbour relations. The film starred Marguerite Clark as Snow White, Creighton Hale as Prince Florimond and Dorothy Cumming as Queen Brangomar/Mary Jane. Such "SPL wars" have drawn much attention to subwoofers in general, but subjective competitions of sound quality ("SQ") has not gained similar popularity. Searle Dawley, it was adapted to the screen by Jessie Graham White from his play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Naturally, these sound levels are not safe for humans.

Directed by J. In international car stereo competitions, over 100 subwoofers driven by some 100,000 watts have been used to generate over 180 decibels. A 1916 silent film with the title Snow White was made by Famous Players-Lasky Corporation and produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman. Curiously, some car stereo enthusiasts seem intent on producing ultra-high sound pressure levels in the confines of their vehicle's cabin. The story in Russian writer Alexander Pushkin's 1833 poem The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights is similar to that of Snow White, with knights replacing dwarves. Typically, subwoofers are installed in the trunk. She is then forced to step into the red-hot shoes and dance until she falls down dead. The automobile is ideal for the "hidden" subwoofer approach due to space limitations of locations such as doors (ignoring the acoustic problems of a car interior).

As punishment for her wicked ways, a pair of heated iron shoes are brought forth with tongs and placed before the Queen. All of these subwoofers tend to have in-built amplification. Not knowing that this new queen is indeed her stepdaughter, she arrives at the wedding, and her heart fills with the deepest of dread when she realizes the truth. These can be purchased separately, to be added to an existent system or when considering a set of speakers; or as part of a high-end speaker package. But the young queen is a thousand times fairer than you.". On the other hand, high-end domestic subwoofers are manufactured by companies such as M&K, HSU, Velodyne, SVS, and REL. The vain Queen, still believing that Snow White is dead, again asks her mirror who is fairest in the land and yet again the mirror disappoints by responding that "You, my queen, are fair; it is true. Further, small satellites systems typically cross over the bass above 90 Hz, introducing the subwoofer "localization effect".

The Prince takes a revived Snow White away, and the film ends.). They are too weak to play any real deep bass. (In the Disney version, the cure for this deep sleep was love's first kiss. Most multimedia "subwoofers" should probably have been called "woofers". The prince then declares his love and soon a wedding is planned. Particularly among low cost systems, however, it may be little more than a marketing device: it's not likely that a small woofer in a compact cabinet will have better bass performance than good speakers; as mentioned, the term "subwoofer" is no guarantee of particular bass performance. The prince and his men carry the coffin away, but as they go they stumble, the coffin jerks and the piece of poison apple flies out of Snow White's mouth, awakening her. The physically separate subwoofer/satellite arrangement has been popularised by lifestyle systems, such as those manufactured by Bose, and multimedia speakers, examples of which include the Klipsch ProMedia.

He begs the dwarfs to let him have the coffin. ("Bass management" or "Small" mode for the satellite speakers is common among equipment such as Dolby Digital surround processors/receivers.). The prince is enchanted by her beauty and instantly falls in love with her. All low frequency information is sent to the subwoofer. Time passes, and a prince travels through the land and sees Snow White in her coffin. Note that only one subwoofer need be used, even when using 5 or more satellite speakers—e.g., for surround sound. (The Disney version only adopts the poison apple plot, and the queen meets her demise as she is chased by the dwarves.). Harmonics at higher frequencies (from the satellites) can then be used, by the auditory system, to calculate the directional information.

When the dwarfs find her, they cannot revive her; and so they mourn and place her in a glass coffin, thinking that she has died. (e.g., it has been suggested subwoofer(s) be placed in the corner of the room, far from large room openings, and closer to the listener.) This is possible since low bass frequencies have a long wavelength; hence there is little difference between the information reaching our left and right ears, and we are unable to easily locate their direction below 90 Hz. She eats the apple eagerly and immediately falls into a deep, magical sleep. Physical separation of subwoofer and "satellite" speakers not only enables placement in an inconspicuous location, but since sub-bass frequencies are particularly sensitive to location (e.g., due to room resonance and 'modes'), the best position of the subwoofer may not be where the "satellite" speakers are located. She is hesitant, so the Queen cuts the apple in half, eats the white part -- which has no poison -- and gives the poisoned red part to Snow White. (e.g., some speakers include a subwoofer in the lower portion of the cabinet.). Lastly the Queen makes a poison apple, and in the guise of a country woman offers it to Snow White. Thus, subwoofers may be part of a package that includes satellite speakers, purchased separately, or built into the cabinet of a conventional loudspeaker.

Snow White again collapses, and again the dwarves save her. Rather, the intention may be to use small main ("satellite") speakers (of which there are 2 for stereo, and 5 or more for surround sound) and locate ("hide") the subwoofer elsewhere; to augment an existent speaker to relieve it of reproducing bass and gain output level and/or quality; or because high levels of low bass are required and using a dedicated amplifier and speaker provides the output level and quality required. Next the Queen dressed as a different old woman combs her hair with a poisoned comb. A conventional woofer may reproduce frequencies up to 200, 300, or in a two-way speaker a mid-woofer (paired with a tweeter) also handles midrange, up to 3,000 hertz or more. Snow White is revived by the dwarves when they loosen the laces. It should be noted that a subwoofer does not necessarily provide superior bass performance to large conventional loudspeakers; they are merely subwoofers because they ought to reproduce only the lowest frequencies. First, disguised as a peddler, the Queen offers colorful stay-laces and laces Snow White up so tight she faints and the Queen takes her for dead. Considering they operate outdoors and the average listener is hundreds or even thousands of feet away from the devices, they are impressive.

Three times the Queen disguises herself and visits the dwarves' cottage where Snow White is staying to try to kill her. People who are accustomed to bass in home audio systems and car audio many times think that the subs in a concert PA system aren't putting out that much. Meanwhile, the Queen asks her mirror once again, "Who's the fairest of them all?", and is horrified when the mirror tells her that Snow White, who is alive and well and living with the dwarfs, is still the fairest of them all. On average, music applications generally require less capability than movie soundtracks in the very lowest octave, but modern popular music is changing this preconception and this is reflected in the design attention given to the subwoofer section of the PA system nowadays compared to a couple of decades ago. Snow White discovers a tiny cottage in the forest, belonging to seven dwarfs, where she rests. Pro Audio subs have to be capable of very high output levels – after all, concert venues may seat 10,000s of individuals outdoors. (In the Disney movie, these are replaced by a heart.). A large horn-loaded version called the BassTech-7 can be found in venues such as theme park rides.

Instead, he lets her go, and brings the queen the lungs and liver of a wild boar. Another extreme pro audio device is the ServoDrive ContraBass, where the driver's cone is moved using a belt-drive coupled servo motor. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but finds himself unable to kill the girl. Intended for applications such as night club installations and concert sound reinforcement this cabinet is still popular with PA system equipment rental companies. She demands that the huntsman return with Snow White's lungs and liver as proof. A now-discontinued but popular Electro-Voice subwoofer employs a "Manifold Technology" configuration to fit four 18-inch drivers into a relatively compact enclosure. The Queen is jealous, and orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the woods to be killed. One of the most powerful subs manufactured can play as low as 25 Hz and can cover thousands of feet and uses two 12-inch woofers on a 13-foot (4 m) long folded horn (the EAW bh822e or KF940).

But one day when she asks her mirror, it responds, "Queen, you're the fairest where you are, but Snow White is more beautiful by far". 12-inch drivers in very large folded horns are also becoming popular now. She possesses a magic mirror, to whom she would often ask "Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of them all?", and to which the mirror would always reply, "You are". For electronic music events with at least a thousand audience members there are often more than 20 double-18-inch cabinets on either side of the stage. The king takes a new wife who is beautiful but very proud. They are usually direct radiating in a ported enclosure built of 13-ply birch. In the traditional Brothers Grimm version of this tale, Snow White is born to a queen, who dies shortly after giving birth. The 18-inch woofer driver is the primary majority device for pro audio applications.

. Similar popular PA systems are made by JBL, Electro-Voice, EAW and Meyer Sound. Many scholars think it originated somewhere in Asia. Popular sub systems in use currently are made by companies such as EAW but usually the subs will be made by the manufacturer of the rest of the PA system such as L-Acoustics and their V-Dosc Line Array with its matching dual 18-inch sub cabinets. The origin of the tale is debated; it is likely no older than the Middle Ages. Many times the subs are not part of the entire sound mix but are specifically fed just kick drum, bass guitar and other low-frequency content from a separate output on the main mixing console. The start of the story also has an interesting twist in that a teacher urges the heroine to kill her own mother so that the teacher can take her place. Similar systems are used in theme park rides, such as "Days of Thunder," which uses sound to simulate a physical impact.

The sleep is caused by a ring. This was simply a set of large sub-woofers designed to create infra-bass (felt but not heard). Gesammelt, übersetz und erläutert (1864), the main character lives with 40 dragons. An unusual example of the use of sub-woofers came with the release of Earthquake in 1974 where they used a system called Sensurround to create a feeling of an earthquake. In a version from Albania, collected by Johann Georg von Hahn and published in Griechische und albanesische Märchen. The bulk of the sound system is usually "flown" (suspended from the ceiling by chain hoists) and the subs are usually stacked on the stage or the ground in front of the stage to the left and right of the performance space. In non-German versions the dwarfs are generally robbers, while the talking mirror is a dialog with the sun or moon. Large concert sound systems always use subwoofers (referred to as "subs" by the engineers and crew).

The German version features elements such as the mirror and the seven dwarfs. Note that movie theatre speakers (situated behind a perforated screen) typically use 15" drivers (woofers), so the use here is only to reproduce the lowest frequencies at high sound pressure levels. Snow White (or Snow-White, and in German, Schneewittchen) is the title character of a well known fairy tale known from many places in Europe, the most known version being the one collected by the Brothers Grimm. Some of these applications require subwoofers designed for very high sound levels, such as the JBL 4645 – certified for THX movie theatres – which uses an 18" driver (woofer). Subwoofers are found in professional applications such as live concerts, movie theatres, various other sound reinforcement applications (ranging from nightclubs to theme restaurants) and studios. This track is often used aggressively by mixing artists.

The .1 channel is usually dedicated to extended bass frequencies, for example, the low frequencies of a gunshot, string bass, or thunder. The need to reproduce these frequencies has increased since older formats, such as vinyl records, have been displaced by digital formats, such as CD, and particularly 5.1 formats such as Dolby Digital, in which the ".1" channel is dedicated solely to the subwoofer. Subwoofers are usually powered by a high power amplifier, and often an electronic crossover ensures that higher frequencies will not be directed to the subwoofer. Diameter tends to be advantageous because low frequencies involve shifting a great deal of air; a recent trend has been for high excursion, i.e., how far the cone can linearly travel from its resting position; for example, some can move as much as 2.5" in or out, yielding an overall displacement of 5" (this is controlled movement range).

Subwoofers use drivers (woofer) with cones typically coming in 10" or 12" sizes, but can be as large as 34", and as small as 4". . It is difficult for small loudspeakers to reproduce frequencies below 40 Hz, especially above 100 dB, and so it is often advantageous to use a loudspeaker dedicated to this task. So-called subwoofers which reproduce frequencies from about 35 Hz to about 150 Hz are more properly described as bass modules than true subwoofers.

Frequencies 16 Hz or lower are more felt than heard. A subwoofer is a loudspeaker which reproduces bass frequencies from about 5 Hz to about 90 Hz.

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