Snow White

Snow White (or Snow-White, and in German, Schneewittchen) is the title character of a well known fairy tale known from many places in Europe, the most known version being the one collected by the Brothers Grimm. The German version features elements such as the mirror and the seven dwarfs. In non-German versions the dwarfs are generally robbers, while the talking mirror is a dialog with the sun or moon. In a version from Albania, collected by Johann Georg von Hahn and published in Griechische und albanesische Märchen. Gesammelt, übersetz und erläutert (1864), the main character lives with 40 dragons. The sleep is caused by a ring. The start of the story also has an interesting twist in that a teacher urges the heroine to kill her own mother so that the teacher can take her place. The origin of the tale is debated; it is likely no older than the Middle Ages. Many scholars think it originated somewhere in Asia.

Story

In the traditional Brothers Grimm version of this tale, Snow White is born to a queen, who dies shortly after giving birth. The king takes a new wife who is beautiful but very proud. She possesses a magic mirror, to whom she would often ask "Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of them all?", and to which the mirror would always reply, "You are". But one day when she asks her mirror, it responds, "Queen, you're the fairest where you are, but Snow White is more beautiful by far".

The Queen is jealous, and orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the woods to be killed. She demands that the huntsman return with Snow White's lungs and liver as proof. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but finds himself unable to kill the girl. Instead, he lets her go, and brings the queen the lungs and liver of a wild boar. (In the Disney movie, these are replaced by a heart.)

Snow White discovers a tiny cottage in the forest, belonging to seven dwarfs, where she rests. Meanwhile, the Queen asks her mirror once again, "Who's the fairest of them all?", and is horrified when the mirror tells her that Snow White, who is alive and well and living with the dwarfs, is still the fairest of them all.

Three times the Queen disguises herself and visits the dwarves' cottage where Snow White is staying to try to kill her. First, disguised as a peddler, the Queen offers colorful stay-laces and laces Snow White up so tight she faints and the Queen takes her for dead. Snow White is revived by the dwarves when they loosen the laces. Next the Queen dressed as a different old woman combs her hair with a poisoned comb. Snow White again collapses, and again the dwarves save her. Lastly the Queen makes a poison apple, and in the guise of a country woman offers it to Snow White. She is hesitant, so the Queen cuts the apple in half, eats the white part -- which has no poison -- and gives the poisoned red part to Snow White. She eats the apple eagerly and immediately falls into a deep, magical sleep. When the dwarfs find her, they cannot revive her; and so they mourn and place her in a glass coffin, thinking that she has died. (The Disney version only adopts the poison apple plot, and the queen meets her demise as she is chased by the dwarves.)

Snow White in her coffin

Time passes, and a prince travels through the land and sees Snow White in her coffin. The prince is enchanted by her beauty and instantly falls in love with her. He begs the dwarfs to let him have the coffin. The prince and his men carry the coffin away, but as they go they stumble, the coffin jerks and the piece of poison apple flies out of Snow White's mouth, awakening her. The prince then declares his love and soon a wedding is planned. (In the Disney version, the cure for this deep sleep was love's first kiss. The Prince takes a revived Snow White away, and the film ends.)

The vain Queen, still believing that Snow White is dead, again asks her mirror who is fairest in the land and yet again the mirror disappoints by responding that "You, my queen, are fair; it is true. But the young queen is a thousand times fairer than you."

Not knowing that this new queen is indeed her stepdaughter, she arrives at the wedding, and her heart fills with the deepest of dread when she realizes the truth.

As punishment for her wicked ways, a pair of heated iron shoes are brought forth with tongs and placed before the Queen. She is then forced to step into the red-hot shoes and dance until she falls down dead.

Other Versions

The story in Russian writer Alexander Pushkin's 1833 poem The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights is similar to that of Snow White, with knights replacing dwarves.

A 1916 silent film with the title Snow White was made by Famous Players-Lasky Corporation and produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman. Directed by J. Searle Dawley, it was adapted to the screen by Jessie Graham White from his play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film starred Marguerite Clark as Snow White, Creighton Hale as Prince Florimond and Dorothy Cumming as Queen Brangomar/Mary Jane.

Snow White in the Disney Cartoon.

A 1933 Betty Boop cartoon, Snow-White, was adapted from this story, as was the famous 1937 Disney animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. In the Disney version, Snow White wakes from her enchanted sleep as soon as the Prince kisses her, similar to Sleeping Beauty. That version is distinctly parodied in Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs.

Snow White is an important character in the Fables comic book. As presented there, she is an amalgam of the two characters that share this name---she is very touchy about her adventures with the dwarfs, is the first ex-wife of Prince Charming, and has a sister named Rose Red from whom she was estranged for some time. She was assistant mayor of Fabletown for many years, succeeding to the post after Ichabod Crane was fired for sexually harassing her. Due to Prince Charming replacing Old King Cole as mayor, as well as her giving birth to the (mostly) non-human-appearing children of Bigby (the Big Bad Wolf), she moved from the New York City Fabletown to the "Farm" upstate, where non-human-appearing Fables must live.

The story was very loosely adapted by Mercedes Lackey into her Elemental Masters novel The Serpent's Shadow, turning the main character into the Eurasian Doctor Maya Witherspoon, who must suffer the multiple stigmas of being a medically-qualified half-caste female (in other words, most of her problems stem from being not white) in turn-of-the-century London; the seven dwarves are transformed into animal avatars of various benign Hindu deities.

In 1961 the story was paradied in the film "Snow White and The Three Stooges", starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine and Joe "Curly-Joe" DeRita. This film is widely regarded by fans of the Three Stooges as their worst feature film. In the film, the dwarfs had gone on vacation and lent Moe, Larry and Curly Joe the use their cottage. The 3 are traveling entertainers, along with a young man who was born a prince, but lost his memory in a kidnapping attempt that was thwarted by the Stooges. The boy suffers amnesia and the Stooges "adopt" him and raise him to manhood. He is only shown as a boy in a flasback segment. This man ends up marrying Snow White, played by real life figure skating champion, Carol Heiss. The film is a musical and features many ice skating scenes. There are few other things that differ from the original story, such as Count Oga (villainous henchman of the evil queen), magic sword that transports the Stooges to various places and a carriage chase scene.

Snow White And Rose Red

There is another Brothers Grimm tale called Snow-White and Rose-Red which also includes a character called Snow White. However this Snow White is a completely separate character from the one found in this tale. For more information about the other Snow White, see the Snow-White and Rose-Red article. The original German names are different: Schneewittchen (the Princess) and Schneeweißchen (together with Rosenrot). There is actually no difference in the meaning, but the first name is more influenced by the dialects of Lower Germany while the second one is the Higher German version.


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There is actually no difference in the meaning, but the first name is more influenced by the dialects of Lower Germany while the second one is the Higher German version. fuel efficiency). The original German names are different: Schneewittchen (the Princess) and Schneeweißchen (together with Rosenrot). Raising overall pressure ratio tends to improve specific fuel consumption (i.e. For more information about the other Snow White, see the Snow-White and Rose-Red article. Either way, raising core flow increases core power and, thereby, the net thrust or shaftpower of the engine. However this Snow White is a completely separate character from the one found in this tale. Core flow will increase if the original compressor outlet (corrected) flow size is maintained.

There is another Brothers Grimm tale called Snow-White and Rose-Red which also includes a character called Snow White. Supercharging can also be achieved by improving the aerodynamics of the existing blading. There are few other things that differ from the original story, such as Count Oga (villainous henchman of the evil queen), magic sword that transports the Stooges to various places and a carriage chase scene. If the fan flow is not increased, the bypass ratio will decrease. The film is a musical and features many ice skating scenes. Pratt & Whitney PW4000) have gained core flow by adding one or more stages to the front of the gas generator, usually in the LP (or IP) compressor. This man ends up marrying Snow White, played by real life figure skating champion, Carol Heiss. Many of the large turbofan engine series (e.g.

He is only shown as a boy in a flasback segment. Converting a turbojet into a turbofan, by adding a fan spool, also supercharges the compression system, thereby raising core flow. The boy suffers amnesia and the Stooges "adopt" him and raise him to manhood. If stress considerations prevent any shaft speed increase, there is only a modest increase in airflow. The 3 are traveling entertainers, along with a young man who was born a prince, but lost his memory in a kidnapping attempt that was thwarted by the Stooges. non-dimensional) speed of original compressor should be maintained, by raising the mechanical shaft speed by a factor √(Tstage1new/Tstage1old). In the film, the dwarfs had gone on vacation and lent Moe, Larry and Curly Joe the use their cottage. Ideally, the corrected (i.e.

This film is widely regarded by fans of the Three Stooges as their worst feature film. zero) stage to a compressor will not only increase the overall pressure ratio of the cycle, but induce more airflow into the unit, by supercharging the entry plane of the original compressor. In 1961 the story was paradied in the film "Snow White and The Three Stooges", starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine and Joe "Curly-Joe" DeRita. For example, adding an additional (i.e. The story was very loosely adapted by Mercedes Lackey into her Elemental Masters novel The Serpent's Shadow, turning the main character into the Eurasian Doctor Maya Witherspoon, who must suffer the multiple stigmas of being a medically-qualified half-caste female (in other words, most of her problems stem from being not white) in turn-of-the-century London; the seven dwarves are transformed into animal avatars of various benign Hindu deities. Supercharging is not confined to superchargers - jet engines rely on supercharging as one of the main routes to thrust growth and improved fuel efficiency. Due to Prince Charming replacing Old King Cole as mayor, as well as her giving birth to the (mostly) non-human-appearing children of Bigby (the Big Bad Wolf), she moved from the New York City Fabletown to the "Farm" upstate, where non-human-appearing Fables must live. It is also possible to drive the blower from the crank shaft and use an exhaust turbine for output power.

She was assistant mayor of Fabletown for many years, succeeding to the post after Ichabod Crane was fired for sexually harassing her. It also tends to run less hot. As presented there, she is an amalgam of the two characters that share this name---she is very touchy about her adventures with the dwarfs, is the first ex-wife of Prince Charming, and has a sister named Rose Red from whom she was estranged for some time. This is important in dragsters and small sports cars. Snow White is an important character in the Fables comic book. The main advantage of an engine with a mechanically driven supercharger is better throttle response. That version is distinctly parodied in Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs. For this reason, both the economy and the power of a turbocharged engine are usually better.

In the Disney version, Snow White wakes from her enchanted sleep as soon as the Prince kisses her, similar to Sleeping Beauty. The thermal efficiency, or fraction of the fuel/air energy that is converted to output power, is less with a mechanically driven supercharger than with a turbocharger, because the energy of the exhaust pressure is lost. A 1933 Betty Boop cartoon, Snow-White, was adapted from this story, as was the famous 1937 Disney animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. This lag can be addressed by reducing the size of each individual unit such that the combined output is still as great as a single large turbocharger without having to suffer the lag-time required to reach operating speed. The film starred Marguerite Clark as Snow White, Creighton Hale as Prince Florimond and Dorothy Cumming as Queen Brangomar/Mary Jane. This gives a large power increase for a given engine speed at the cost of increasing the lag-time for the exhaust to heat up sufficiently to drive the turbochargers. Searle Dawley, it was adapted to the screen by Jessie Graham White from his play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. An alternative arrangement utilizes two turbochargers of the same type, known as a "twin turbo".

Directed by J. This gives the opportunity of fitting multiple turbochargers to a single engine, such as in a "sequential turbo", where one turbo is tuned to give increased performance at low engine speed and another turbo is tuned to increase the high-speed engine performance. A 1916 silent film with the title Snow White was made by Famous Players-Lasky Corporation and produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman. The physical space occupied by a turbocharger is significantly less than its direct-drive counterpart. The story in Russian writer Alexander Pushkin's 1833 poem The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights is similar to that of Snow White, with knights replacing dwarves. The size of the piping alone is a serious issue; consider that the Vought F4U and Republic P-47 used the same engine but the huge barrel-like fuselage of the latter was, in part, needed to hold the piping to and from the turbocharger in the rear of the plane. She is then forced to step into the red-hot shoes and dance until she falls down dead. Yet the vast majority of WWII engines used superchargers, because they maintained three significant manufacturing advantages over turbochargers, which were larger, involved extra piping, and required exotic high-temperature materials in the turbine.

As punishment for her wicked ways, a pair of heated iron shoes are brought forth with tongs and placed before the Queen. Better yet the amount of power in the gas is the difference between the exhaust pressure and air pressure, which increases with altitude, so turbochargers generally have much better altitude performance. Not knowing that this new queen is indeed her stepdaughter, she arrives at the wedding, and her heart fills with the deepest of dread when she realizes the truth. Thus at low altitudes the turbo robs nothing and, as the altitude increases, it can use just as much power as it needs and no more. But the young queen is a thousand times fairer than you.". In addition the power in the exhaust would otherwise be wasted (except to the extent that the exhaust itself provided thrust) whereas in the supercharger that power is being taken directly from the engine. The vain Queen, still believing that Snow White is dead, again asks her mirror who is fairest in the land and yet again the mirror disappoints by responding that "You, my queen, are fair; it is true. Since the turbo is driven off the exhaust gases, simply dumping some of the exhaust pressure is sufficient to drive the compressor at almost any desired speed.

The Prince takes a revived Snow White away, and the film ends.). It is interesting to compare all of this complexity to the same system implemented with a turbocharger. (In the Disney version, the cure for this deep sleep was love's first kiss. The two-stage Merlin was losing 400 hp (300 kW) to turn the supercharger but developing between 1500 and 1700 hp (1125 to 1275 kW) at the propeller shaft, depending on model. The prince then declares his love and soon a wedding is planned. At low altitudes one stage could be turned off completely. The prince and his men carry the coffin away, but as they go they stumble, the coffin jerks and the piece of poison apple flies out of Snow White's mouth, awakening her. After being compressed "half-way" in the low pressure stage the air flowed through an intercooler radiator where it was partially cooled down before being compressed the rest of the way in the high pressure stage and then aftercooled in another air/air or coolant/air radiator (heat exchanger).

He begs the dwarfs to let him have the coffin. In order to avoid pre-ignition the "two stage" design was used. The prince is enchanted by her beauty and instantly falls in love with her. Compressing a gas always causes its temperature to rise, and an overcompressed fuel-air mixture may therefore prematurely ignite. Time passes, and a prince travels through the land and sees Snow White in her coffin. A final improvement was the use of two compressors in series, which were introduced to solve the pre-ignition problem. (The Disney version only adopts the poison apple plot, and the queen meets her demise as she is chased by the dwarves.). Ultimately it was found that for most engines (excepting those in high-performance fighters) a single-stage two-speed setup was most suitable.

When the dwarfs find her, they cannot revive her; and so they mourn and place her in a glass coffin, thinking that she has died. These provided more flexibility for the operation of the aircraft although they also entailed more complexity of manufacturing and maintenance. She eats the apple eagerly and immediately falls into a deep, magical sleep. In the 1930s two-speed drives were developed for superchargers. She is hesitant, so the Queen cuts the apple in half, eats the white part -- which has no poison -- and gives the poisoned red part to Snow White. Supercharging by itself could not have achieved these improvements; however, when married with fuel improvements, the engine could respond to both. Lastly the Queen makes a poison apple, and in the guise of a country woman offers it to Snow White. By mid-1940 another increased boost yielded 1310 hp (980 kW).

Snow White again collapses, and again the dwarves save her. This allowed the boost on Merlin engines to be increased to 48 inHg (160 kPa) and the power to rise by more than 10% (from 1030 to 1160 hp, or 770 to 870 kW). Next the Queen dressed as a different old woman combs her hair with a poisoned comb. In 1940 a batch of 100 octane fuel was delivered from the USA to the RAF. Snow White is revived by the dwarves when they loosen the laces. This generally "flattened out" the power below the critical altitude. First, disguised as a peddler, the Queen offers colorful stay-laces and laces Snow White up so tight she faints and the Queen takes her for dead. As the war progressed two-speed superchargers were introduced using better controllers and, notably, hydraulic clutches, that allowed the boost to be managed over a wide range of altitudes by operating at low rpm down low and at high rpm at higher altitudes.

Three times the Queen disguises herself and visits the dwarves' cottage where Snow White is staying to try to kill her. For the early years of the war this was simply how it was and this led to the seemingly odd fact that many early-war engines actually delivered less power at lower altitudes, because the supercharger was still using up power to compress air that was not delivering any power back. Meanwhile, the Queen asks her mirror once again, "Who's the fairest of them all?", and is horrified when the mirror tells her that Snow White, who is alive and well and living with the dwarfs, is still the fairest of them all. Also, due to the denser air at lower altitudes, the supercharger is not operating at its best efficiency, and this can cause an additional load on the engine. Snow White discovers a tiny cottage in the forest, belonging to seven dwarfs, where she rests. Unless other measures are taken, this means that at least some of the power driving the supercharger is wasted. (In the Disney movie, these are replaced by a heart.). Below the critical altitude the supercharger is capable of delivering too much boost and must therefore be restricted lest the engine be damaged.

Instead, he lets her go, and brings the queen the lungs and liver of a wild boar. British engines were generally able to outperform German ones. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but finds himself unable to kill the girl. Throughout WWII British superchargers generally had higher critical altitudes than their German counterparts and, when combined with higher octane fuels that the Americans supplied, that allowed for higher boost levels. She demands that the huntsman return with Snow White's lungs and liver as proof. The boost is typically measured as the altitude at which the supercharger can still supply sea level pressure (100 kPa or 1000 mbar) and is referred to as the critical altitude. The Queen is jealous, and orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the woods to be killed. A supercharger is only able to supply so much pressure because the compression increases the air temperature, and the engine is limited in maximum charge-air temperature before pre-ignition occurs.

But one day when she asks her mirror, it responds, "Queen, you're the fairest where you are, but Snow White is more beautiful by far". For this reason supercharged planes fly much faster at higher altitudes. She possesses a magic mirror, to whom she would often ask "Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of them all?", and to which the mirror would always reply, "You are". And while the engine might be fooled into thinking it's at sea level, the airframe is quite aware of the halved air density and the plane thus has half the drag. The king takes a new wife who is beautiful but very proud. Yet the benefits are huge, for that 150 horsepower (110 kW) lost, the engine is delivering 1000 hp (750 kW) when it would otherwise deliver 750 hp (560 kW). In the traditional Brothers Grimm version of this tale, Snow White is born to a queen, who dies shortly after giving birth. On the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls Royce Merlin engine for instance, the supercharger uses up about 150 horsepower (110 kW).

. This can take some effort. Many scholars think it originated somewhere in Asia. A supercharger remedies this problem by compressing the air back to sea-level pressures, or even much higher. The origin of the tale is debated; it is likely no older than the Middle Ages. Since the charge in the cylinders is being pushed in by this air pressure it means that the engine will normally produce half-power at full throttle at this altitude. The start of the story also has an interesting twist in that a teacher urges the heroine to kill her own mother so that the teacher can take her place. As an aircraft climbs to higher altitudes the pressure of the surrounding air quickly falls off—at 6000 m (18,000 ft) the air is at half the pressure of sea level.

The sleep is caused by a ring. A more natural use of the supercharger is with aircraft engines. Gesammelt, übersetz und erläutert (1864), the main character lives with 40 dragons. There are three types commonly used in today's automotive world: Roots type supercharger, twin-screw type supercharger, and Centrifugal type supercharger. In a version from Albania, collected by Johann Georg von Hahn and published in Griechische und albanesische Märchen. Also, improperly installed or excessive boost will greatly reduce life expectancy of the engine as well as the transmission (which may not have been designed to cope with additional torque). In non-German versions the dwarfs are generally robbers, while the talking mirror is a dialog with the sun or moon. Nevertheless, adding boost to a car will often void the drivetrain warranty.

The German version features elements such as the mirror and the seven dwarfs. Gas mileage can also be saved with a turbo because the engine does not have as much displacement, therefore not needing to inject as much petrol in the the cylinders. Snow White (or Snow-White, and in German, Schneewittchen) is the title character of a well known fairy tale known from many places in Europe, the most known version being the one collected by the Brothers Grimm. This also results in better gas mileage, as mileage is often a function of the overall weight of the car and that is based, to some degree, on the weight of the engine. For this reason boosting is commonly used in smaller cars, where the added weight of the supercharger is smaller than the weight of a larger engine delivering the same amount of power. Boosting used to be an effective way to dramatically shorten an engine's life but, today, there is considerable overdesign possible with modern materials and boosting is no longer a serious reliability concern.

Boosting has made something of a comeback in recent years due largely to the increased quality of the alloys and machining of modern engines. Since then superchargers (as well as turbochargers) have been widely applied to racing and production cars, although their complexity and cost has largely relegated the supercharger to the world of pricey performance cars. It wasn't long after its invention before the supercharger was applied to custom racing cars, with the first supercharged production vehicles being built by Mercedes and Bentley in the 1920s. This design is the basis for the modern Roots type supercharger.

His first superchargers were based on a twin-rotor air-pump design first patented by American Francis Roots in 1860. In 1900 Gottlieb Daimler (of Daimler-Benz / Daimler-Chrysler fame) became the first person to patent a forced-induction system for internal combustion engines. By pushing the air into the cylinders, it is as if the engine had larger valves and cylinders, resulting in a "larger" engine that weighs less. In cars, the device is used to increase the "effective displacement" and volumetric efficiency of an engine, and is often referred to as a blower.

. In applications where a massive amount of power is more important than any other consideration, such as top-fuel dragsters and vehicles used in tractor pulling competitions, superchargers are extremely common. Superchargers may absorb as much as a third of the total crankshaft power of the engine, and in many applications are less efficient than turbochargers. It is similar in purpose to the closely related turbocharger, but a turbocharger is powered by the flow of the engine's exhaust gases driving a turbine.

A supercharger is powered mechanically by belt- or chain-drive from the engine's crankshaft. The additional mass of oxygen that is forced into the cylinders allows the engine to burn more fuel, which improves the volumetric efficiency of the engine and makes it more powerful. A supercharger (also known as a blower, or a centrifugal pump) is a gas compressor used to compress air into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine.

09-02-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.