Snow White

Snow White (or Snow-White, and in German, Schneewittchen) is the title character of a well known fairy tale known from many places in Europe, the most known version being the one collected by the Brothers Grimm. The German version features elements such as the mirror and the seven dwarfs. In non-German versions the dwarfs are generally robbers, while the talking mirror is a dialog with the sun or moon. In a version from Albania, collected by Johann Georg von Hahn and published in Griechische und albanesische Märchen. Gesammelt, übersetz und erläutert (1864), the main character lives with 40 dragons. The sleep is caused by a ring. The start of the story also has an interesting twist in that a teacher urges the heroine to kill her own mother so that the teacher can take her place. The origin of the tale is debated; it is likely no older than the Middle Ages. Many scholars think it originated somewhere in Asia.

Story

In the traditional Brothers Grimm version of this tale, Snow White is born to a queen, who dies shortly after giving birth. The king takes a new wife who is beautiful but very proud. She possesses a magic mirror, to whom she would often ask "Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of them all?", and to which the mirror would always reply, "You are". But one day when she asks her mirror, it responds, "Queen, you're the fairest where you are, but Snow White is more beautiful by far".

The Queen is jealous, and orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the woods to be killed. She demands that the huntsman return with Snow White's lungs and liver as proof. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but finds himself unable to kill the girl. Instead, he lets her go, and brings the queen the lungs and liver of a wild boar. (In the Disney movie, these are replaced by a heart.)

Snow White discovers a tiny cottage in the forest, belonging to seven dwarfs, where she rests. Meanwhile, the Queen asks her mirror once again, "Who's the fairest of them all?", and is horrified when the mirror tells her that Snow White, who is alive and well and living with the dwarfs, is still the fairest of them all.

Three times the Queen disguises herself and visits the dwarves' cottage where Snow White is staying to try to kill her. First, disguised as a peddler, the Queen offers colorful stay-laces and laces Snow White up so tight she faints and the Queen takes her for dead. Snow White is revived by the dwarves when they loosen the laces. Next the Queen dressed as a different old woman combs her hair with a poisoned comb. Snow White again collapses, and again the dwarves save her. Lastly the Queen makes a poison apple, and in the guise of a country woman offers it to Snow White. She is hesitant, so the Queen cuts the apple in half, eats the white part -- which has no poison -- and gives the poisoned red part to Snow White. She eats the apple eagerly and immediately falls into a deep, magical sleep. When the dwarfs find her, they cannot revive her; and so they mourn and place her in a glass coffin, thinking that she has died. (The Disney version only adopts the poison apple plot, and the queen meets her demise as she is chased by the dwarves.)

Snow White in her coffin

Time passes, and a prince travels through the land and sees Snow White in her coffin. The prince is enchanted by her beauty and instantly falls in love with her. He begs the dwarfs to let him have the coffin. The prince and his men carry the coffin away, but as they go they stumble, the coffin jerks and the piece of poison apple flies out of Snow White's mouth, awakening her. The prince then declares his love and soon a wedding is planned. (In the Disney version, the cure for this deep sleep was love's first kiss. The Prince takes a revived Snow White away, and the film ends.)

The vain Queen, still believing that Snow White is dead, again asks her mirror who is fairest in the land and yet again the mirror disappoints by responding that "You, my queen, are fair; it is true. But the young queen is a thousand times fairer than you."

Not knowing that this new queen is indeed her stepdaughter, she arrives at the wedding, and her heart fills with the deepest of dread when she realizes the truth.

As punishment for her wicked ways, a pair of heated iron shoes are brought forth with tongs and placed before the Queen. She is then forced to step into the red-hot shoes and dance until she falls down dead.

Other Versions

The story in Russian writer Alexander Pushkin's 1833 poem The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights is similar to that of Snow White, with knights replacing dwarves.

A 1916 silent film with the title Snow White was made by Famous Players-Lasky Corporation and produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman. Directed by J. Searle Dawley, it was adapted to the screen by Jessie Graham White from his play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film starred Marguerite Clark as Snow White, Creighton Hale as Prince Florimond and Dorothy Cumming as Queen Brangomar/Mary Jane.

Snow White in the Disney Cartoon.

A 1933 Betty Boop cartoon, Snow-White, was adapted from this story, as was the famous 1937 Disney animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. In the Disney version, Snow White wakes from her enchanted sleep as soon as the Prince kisses her, similar to Sleeping Beauty. That version is distinctly parodied in Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs.

Snow White is an important character in the Fables comic book. As presented there, she is an amalgam of the two characters that share this name---she is very touchy about her adventures with the dwarfs, is the first ex-wife of Prince Charming, and has a sister named Rose Red from whom she was estranged for some time. She was assistant mayor of Fabletown for many years, succeeding to the post after Ichabod Crane was fired for sexually harassing her. Due to Prince Charming replacing Old King Cole as mayor, as well as her giving birth to the (mostly) non-human-appearing children of Bigby (the Big Bad Wolf), she moved from the New York City Fabletown to the "Farm" upstate, where non-human-appearing Fables must live.

The story was very loosely adapted by Mercedes Lackey into her Elemental Masters novel The Serpent's Shadow, turning the main character into the Eurasian Doctor Maya Witherspoon, who must suffer the multiple stigmas of being a medically-qualified half-caste female (in other words, most of her problems stem from being not white) in turn-of-the-century London; the seven dwarves are transformed into animal avatars of various benign Hindu deities.

In 1961 the story was paradied in the film "Snow White and The Three Stooges", starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine and Joe "Curly-Joe" DeRita. This film is widely regarded by fans of the Three Stooges as their worst feature film. In the film, the dwarfs had gone on vacation and lent Moe, Larry and Curly Joe the use their cottage. The 3 are traveling entertainers, along with a young man who was born a prince, but lost his memory in a kidnapping attempt that was thwarted by the Stooges. The boy suffers amnesia and the Stooges "adopt" him and raise him to manhood. He is only shown as a boy in a flasback segment. This man ends up marrying Snow White, played by real life figure skating champion, Carol Heiss. The film is a musical and features many ice skating scenes. There are few other things that differ from the original story, such as Count Oga (villainous henchman of the evil queen), magic sword that transports the Stooges to various places and a carriage chase scene.

Snow White And Rose Red

There is another Brothers Grimm tale called Snow-White and Rose-Red which also includes a character called Snow White. However this Snow White is a completely separate character from the one found in this tale. For more information about the other Snow White, see the Snow-White and Rose-Red article. The original German names are different: Schneewittchen (the Princess) and Schneeweißchen (together with Rosenrot). There is actually no difference in the meaning, but the first name is more influenced by the dialects of Lower Germany while the second one is the Higher German version.


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There is actually no difference in the meaning, but the first name is more influenced by the dialects of Lower Germany while the second one is the Higher German version. This may change, as military service has become less popular in the last few years - nowadays, a lot of people consider being an officer more of a liability than an asset. The original German names are different: Schneewittchen (the Princess) and Schneeweißchen (together with Rosenrot). As a rule of thumb, a significant number of senior civil servants and business leaders in Switzerland are general staff officers. For more information about the other Snow White, see the Snow-White and Rose-Red article. The ratio of professional versus militia officers is about 1:1. However this Snow White is a completely separate character from the one found in this tale. Being a general staff officer is a prerequisite for a range of important jobs on Brigade and higher level, such as G2 (chief of intelligence) or G3 (chief of operations).

There is another Brothers Grimm tale called Snow-White and Rose-Red which also includes a character called Snow White. Only 30 new trainees are selected per year and even fewer complete the demanding training. There are few other things that differ from the original story, such as Count Oga (villainous henchman of the evil queen), magic sword that transports the Stooges to various places and a carriage chase scene. Future general staff officers are selected from the best company commanders and undergo battalion commander training before starting general staff training. The film is a musical and features many ice skating scenes. To assure a generally high level of military leadership above the rank of first lieutenant, the Army maintains the HKA (Hoehere Kaderschule der Armee) which is responsible for an array of professionally run schools such as BUSA (Berufsunteroffiziersschule der Armee) which runs a program for professional non-commissioned officers, the MILAK (Militaerakademie) which runs a bachelor degree program for professional officers, programs for company and battalion commanders, a number of staff courses, and the General Staff and Command College (Gst S), an elite training program whose graduates leave their former branches and are inducted into the so-called General Staff Corps. This man ends up marrying Snow White, played by real life figure skating champion, Carol Heiss. Consequently, the new system has already come under pressure and is under review.

He is only shown as a boy in a flasback segment. In the new system, officers-to-be are selected early on from the pool of boots (based on criteria such as leadership potential but also education) and sent to officer training fairly quickly, which reduces the time these "instant officers" take to be fully trained but also means that they neither have the advantage of having been NCOs nor having had time to slowly mature as leaders. The boy suffers amnesia and the Stooges "adopt" him and raise him to manhood. Unfortunately, this advantage (at least from a leadership point of view) was abolished with the Army XXI reform as a concession to the Swiss economy which was increasingly unhappy about having its future leaders away for two years at a time (the time it took to become an officer until 2004). The 3 are traveling entertainers, along with a young man who was born a prince, but lost his memory in a kidnapping attempt that was thwarted by the Stooges. This system ensured that all officers knew what it was like to be a grunt. In the film, the dwarfs had gone on vacation and lent Moe, Larry and Curly Joe the use their cottage. officers who also have a civilian job - and future professional officers), five months of intensive training that emphasised small-unit and platoon-sized unit tactics.

This film is widely regarded by fans of the Three Stooges as their worst feature film. Instead, until 2004 officers were traditionally selected from the pool of NCOs (non-commissioned officers) and then underwent OCS (officer candidate school, which was and is open to both militia - i.e. In 1961 the story was paradied in the film "Snow White and The Three Stooges", starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine and Joe "Curly-Joe" DeRita. In contrast to most other comparable Armies, officer candidates are not necessarily career regulars. The story was very loosely adapted by Mercedes Lackey into her Elemental Masters novel The Serpent's Shadow, turning the main character into the Eurasian Doctor Maya Witherspoon, who must suffer the multiple stigmas of being a medically-qualified half-caste female (in other words, most of her problems stem from being not white) in turn-of-the-century London; the seven dwarves are transformed into animal avatars of various benign Hindu deities. Only recently have allegations been made that certain parts of the Swiss economy worked at the biddings of the Hitler regime (banks, mechanical industry, and transportation services), suggesting that not only the army, but also the economy, prevented an invasion of Switzerland. Due to Prince Charming replacing Old King Cole as mayor, as well as her giving birth to the (mostly) non-human-appearing children of Bigby (the Big Bad Wolf), she moved from the New York City Fabletown to the "Farm" upstate, where non-human-appearing Fables must live. Those who actually served in the Swiss Army during the war never criticised this concept - even if it openly meant that the enemy could take the civilian population in the plains hostage.

She was assistant mayor of Fabletown for many years, succeeding to the post after Ichabod Crane was fired for sexually harassing her. Bernard passes, because Switzerland does not possess any significant natural resources. As presented there, she is an amalgam of the two characters that share this name---she is very touchy about her adventures with the dwarfs, is the first ex-wife of Prince Charming, and has a sister named Rose Red from whom she was estranged for some time. The Swiss government thought that the aim of an invasion of Switzerland would be to control the economically important transport routes through the Swiss Alps, namely the Gotthard, the Simplon and Great St. Snow White is an important character in the Fables comic book. The army would barricade itself in the mountains witihin the fortresses, which would be very difficult to take. That version is distinctly parodied in Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs. It was intended that if the Axis Powers were to invade Switzerland, they would have to do so at a huge price.

In the Disney version, Snow White wakes from her enchanted sleep as soon as the Prince kisses her, similar to Sleeping Beauty. The concept of underground fortifications in the Alps stems from the so-called "Reduit" concept of the World War II. A 1933 Betty Boop cartoon, Snow-White, was adapted from this story, as was the famous 1937 Disney animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. They include underground air bases which are adjacent to normal runways; the aircraft, crew and supporting material are housed in the caverns. The film starred Marguerite Clark as Snow White, Creighton Hale as Prince Florimond and Dorothy Cumming as Queen Brangomar/Mary Jane. Permanent fortifications are established in the Alps, as bases from which to retake the fertile valleys after a potential invasion. Searle Dawley, it was adapted to the screen by Jessie Graham White from his play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Tunnels are also primed with demolition charges to be used against invading forces.

Directed by J. Moreover, tunnels and key bridges are built with tank traps. A 1916 silent film with the title Snow White was made by Famous Players-Lasky Corporation and produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman. There are also hospitals and command centres in such shelters, aimed at keeping the country running in case of emergencies. The story in Russian writer Alexander Pushkin's 1833 poem The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights is similar to that of Snow White, with knights replacing dwarves. There is a bed for every Swiss person in one of the many shelters. She is then forced to step into the red-hot shoes and dance until she falls down dead. Swiss building codes require radiation and blast shelters to protect against bombing.

As punishment for her wicked ways, a pair of heated iron shoes are brought forth with tongs and placed before the Queen. The abuse of military rifles is extremely rare, and when it does occur, it is usually in the form of suicide. Not knowing that this new queen is indeed her stepdaughter, she arrives at the wedding, and her heart fills with the deepest of dread when she realizes the truth. The ammunition is stored in a tamper-evident sealed box that should never be opened unless ordered to do so. But the young queen is a thousand times fairer than you.". 50 rounds of ammunition are issued along with the rifle for use only in wartime. The vain Queen, still believing that Snow White is dead, again asks her mirror who is fairest in the land and yet again the mirror disappoints by responding that "You, my queen, are fair; it is true. The Swiss people are advised to keep the ammunition and the rifle in separate places, both out of reach of unauthorised users.

The Prince takes a revived Snow White away, and the film ends.). However, in January 2006, the defence authorities declared that it would take 8 years to rebuild the army to be ready for a full war against a large enemy. (In the Disney version, the cure for this deep sleep was love's first kiss. In contrast, it can take several weeks to several months for a militarily-active country such as the United States to mobilise its military force. The prince then declares his love and soon a wedding is planned. Switzerland claims to be able to mobilise the entire population for warfare within 12 hours. The prince and his men carry the coffin away, but as they go they stumble, the coffin jerks and the piece of poison apple flies out of Snow White's mouth, awakening her. Swiss military doctrines are arranged in peculiar ways to make this organisation effective.

He begs the dwarfs to let him have the coffin. Famously, members of the armed forces keep their rifles, ammunition, and uniforms in their homes for immediate mobilisation. The prince is enchanted by her beauty and instantly falls in love with her. In 1993, the Swiss government ordered 34 FA-18 fighter jets from the United States of America, which were subsequently re-built in Switzerland, notably for the electronics. Time passes, and a prince travels through the land and sees Snow White in her coffin. For example, Switzerland uses only one rifle model, the FASS 90, and two types of ground-based anti-aircraft systems, including a Swiss-built and improved version of the Stinger (Swiss army knives are also issued, although they are neither red nor considered weapons). (The Disney version only adopts the poison apple plot, and the queen meets her demise as she is chased by the dwarves.). To reduce training and logistics costs, the Swiss military standardises on a few carefully selected types of weapons.

When the dwarfs find her, they cannot revive her; and so they mourn and place her in a glass coffin, thinking that she has died. In this case, the compensation is paid to the employer. She eats the apple eagerly and immediately falls into a deep, magical sleep. Most employers, however, continue to pay the full salary during military service. She is hesitant, so the Queen cuts the apple in half, eats the white part -- which has no poison -- and gives the poisoned red part to Snow White. During military service, the employee is paid a compensation of 70% of his regular salary by the state. Lastly the Queen makes a poison apple, and in the guise of a country woman offers it to Snow White. In general, men interrupt their work during these weeks.

Snow White again collapses, and again the dwarves save her. The successive training weeks can also be postponed, but there is limited scope. Next the Queen dressed as a different old woman combs her hair with a poisoned comb. It is possible to postpone the initial training to finish university. Snow White is revived by the dwarves when they loosen the laces. However, the service period of non-commissioned officers and officers is significantly longer. First, disguised as a peddler, the Queen offers colorful stay-laces and laces Snow White up so tight she faints and the Queen takes her for dead. Thereafter, men remain in the military until the age of 30 (or longer, if the military service is not yet completed), performing three weeks of training every year.

Three times the Queen disguises herself and visits the dwarves' cottage where Snow White is staying to try to kill her. Initial training (following regular boot camp) for members of the AAD, Switzerland's new SAS-type Special Forces unit, which is an all-volunteer professional unit with a rigorous selection process, is 18 months. Meanwhile, the Queen asks her mirror once again, "Who's the fairest of them all?", and is horrified when the mirror tells her that Snow White, who is alive and well and living with the dwarfs, is still the fairest of them all. At the age of 20, about half the service is done during an initial training period of 21 or 18 weeks, depending on the service branch, with the exception of the Grenadiers, an elite infantry unit with a 25-week boot camp. Snow White discovers a tiny cottage in the forest, belonging to seven dwarfs, where she rests. Conscription occurs at the age of 19 years. (In the Disney movie, these are replaced by a heart.). As of January 2004, the income tax was raised to 3% by the Federal Council.

Instead, he lets her go, and brings the queen the lungs and liver of a wild boar. Those who are found unable to serve the military pay an additional 2% income tax. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but finds himself unable to kill the girl. This can be on either physical or mental grounds. She demands that the huntsman return with Snow White's lungs and liver as proof. A significant number of young men choose to avoid military service by visiting a doctor who attests to their incapability to do military service on medical grounds. The Queen is jealous, and orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the woods to be killed. Entry to the civilian service is based on moral grounds and subject to a successful application.

But one day when she asks her mirror, it responds, "Queen, you're the fairest where you are, but Snow White is more beautiful by far". This option is only available to those found to be not physically fit enough to join the armed forces. She possesses a magic mirror, to whom she would often ask "Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of them all?", and to which the mirror would always reply, "You are". Since 1996, Swiss citizens can apply for civilian service instead. The king takes a new wife who is beautiful but very proud. For women the service is voluntary. In the traditional Brothers Grimm version of this tale, Snow White is born to a queen, who dies shortly after giving birth. All able-bodied male Swiss citizens are conscripted to the armed forces.

. The organisation is still active in antimilitaristic work and also in the anti-war movement. Many scholars think it originated somewhere in Asia. The population decided to buy the jets, although 42.9% voted against the project. The origin of the tale is debated; it is likely no older than the Middle Ages. In 1992, after the Swiss government decided to buy FA-18 jets, they collected about half a million signatures within one month for a referendum. The start of the story also has an interesting twist in that a teacher urges the heroine to kill her own mother so that the teacher can take her place. The second vote was in 1999, with 76.8% in favour.

The sleep is caused by a ring. The first time was in 1989, when 64.4% of the voters voted in favour of maintaining the Swiss Army. Gesammelt, übersetz und erläutert (1864), the main character lives with 40 dragons. The Swiss have voted twice on such a referendum. In a version from Albania, collected by Johann Georg von Hahn and published in Griechische und albanesische Märchen. There is an organised movement in Switzerland (Gruppe Schweiz ohne Armee; GSoA / Groupe pour une Suisse sans Armée; GSsA - Group for a Switzerland without an Army, in English) aiming at the abolition of the military. In non-German versions the dwarfs are generally robbers, while the talking mirror is a dialog with the sun or moon. References:.

The German version features elements such as the mirror and the seven dwarfs. Since the responsibilities of the NNSC have been much reduced over the past few years, only 5 people are still part of the Swiss delegation, located near the Korean DMZ. Snow White (or Snow-White, and in German, Schneewittchen) is the title character of a well known fairy tale known from many places in Europe, the most known version being the one collected by the Brothers Grimm. Switzerland is part of the Neutral Nation Supervisory Committee (NNSC) which was created to monitor the armistice between North and South Korea. The swiss soldiers were recognized among the other armies present on the field by their distinctive yellow beret. It is interresting to note that none of the active soldiers were armed during the duration of the mission.

The mission was named SHQSU standing for Swiss Headquarters Support Unit to BiH. It's mission, part of the Swiss Peacekeeping Missions, was to provide logistic and medical support to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, OSCE. From 1999 to 2001, The Swiss Army was present in Bosnia and Herzegovina with headquarters in Sarajevo. However, over the years, the Swiss army has been part of several peacekeeping missions around the world.

Switzerland being a neutral country, its army does not take part in armed conflicts in other countries. The Swiss government did not officially confirm the existence of the report, but started a judiciary procedure for leakage of secret documents against the newspaper on 9 January 2006. The report described a fax sent by the Egyptian department of Foreign Affairs to the Egyptian Embassy in London, and described the existence of secret detention facilities run by the CIA in Eastern Europe. On 8 January 2006, the Swiss newspaper Sonntagsblick (Sunday edition of the Blick newspaper) published a secret report produced by the Swiss government using data intercepted by Onyx.

In a way similar to ECHELON, Onyx uses lists of keywords to filter the intercepted content for information of interest. It was completed in late 2005 and currently consists in three interception sites, all based in Switzerland. The Onyx system was launched in 2000 in order to monitor both civil and military communications, such as telephone, fax or Internet traffic, carried by satellite. The Swiss military department maintains the Onyx intelligence gathering system, similar in concept to the American ECHELON system, but at a much smaller scale.

For example, the head of the Swiss delegation at the NNSC in Korea (see below) had a rank of major general. However, when Swiss Officers are involved in peacekeeping missions abroad, they often receive temporary ranks that do not exist in the Swiss Army, to put them on an equal footing with foreign officers. The distinctive feature of their rank insignia are traditionally stylized edelweiss (image). Officers which would have the title of general in other armies do not bear the title general (OF-8: Commandant de corps, OF-7 Divisionnaire and OF-6 Brigadier), as this title is strictly a wartime designation.

There have been four Generals in Swiss history:. In times of crisis or war, the Federal Assembly elects a General (OF-9) as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces (Oberbefehlshaber der Armee). The current Chief of the Armed Forces is Korpskommandant Christophe Keckeis. In peacetime, the armed forces are led by the Chief of the Armed Forces (Chef der Armee), who reports to the head of the Department of Defence and to the Federal Council as a whole.

Higher staff officers:. Staff officers:. Captain:. Subaltern officers:.

Non-commissioned officers:. Enlisted:. Rank designations in German and French with abbreviations and corresponding NATO codes:. Member of the Federal Council heading the "Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports", (formerly "Federal Military Department"):.

Men who want to apply for service in the Swiss Guard need to have completed their basic military service in Switzerland. Since the reforms, women can take on any position within the armed forces. About 2,000 women already serve in the army but, until the reforms ‘’Army XXI’’, were not allowed to use weapons for purposes other than self-defence. Women may volunteer to serve in the armed forces and may now join all units, including combat troops.

The armed forces have a small nucleus of about 3,600 professional staff, half of whom are either instructors or staff officers. The rest continue to follow the traditional Swiss models of serving about three months at first and then doing three or four weeks per year until the required number of days or the age of 34 has been reached. Recruiting to the single-term conscripts is on a voluntary basis, but it should not exceed 20% of a year's draft. A new category of soldiers called "single-term conscripts" will discharge the total time of service of 300 days of active duty in one go.

For women, military service is voluntary. All able-bodied Swiss males aged between 20 and 30 (in some cases longer) must serve, but about one third of them are excluded for various reasons. The mandatory time of service for normal soldiers is curtailed from 300 to 260 days. The defence budget of currently SFr 4.3 billion ($3.1 billion) will be trimmed by SFr 300 million and some 2,000 jobs are expected to be shed between 2004 and 2011.

Starting in January 2004, the current 524,000-strong militia will be pared down to 220,000 conscripts, including 80,000 reservists. On May 18, 2003, Swiss voters approved the military reform project "Army XXI" that will drastically reduce the size of the Swiss Army. . It is equipped with mostly modern, sophisticated, and well-maintained weapons systems and equipment.

The Armed Forces of Switzerland is a unique institution somewhere between a militia and a regular army. Photographs by a member of the Swiss delegation. Swiss keep watch over fragile peace, on Swissinfo. Swiss participation to the mission NNSC in Korea.

Henri Guisan (1939-1945, WW II). Ulrich Wille (1914-1918, WW I). Hans Herzog (1871-1872, Franco-Prussian War). Henri Dufour (1847-1848, Sonderbundskrieg; and 1856-57, Neuchâtel Crisis).

OF-9 General / général. OF-8 Korpskommandant (KKdt) / commandant de corps. OF-7 Divisionär (Div) / divisionnaire. OF-6 Brigadier (Br) / brigadier.

OF-5 Oberst / colonel (col). OF-4 Oberstleutnant (Oberstlt) / lieutenant-colonel (lt col). OF-3 Major (Maj) / major (maj). OF-2 Hauptmann (Hptm) / capitaine (cap).

OF-1 Oberleutnant (Oblt) / premier-lieutenant (plt). OF-1 Leutnant (Lt) / lieutenant (lt). Chefadjutant (Chefadj) / adjudant-chef (adj chef). Hauptadjutant (Hptadj) / adjudant-major (adj maj).

Stabsadjutant (Stabsadj) / adjudant d’état-major (adj EM). Adjutant Unteroffizier (Adj Uof) / adjudant sous-officier (adj sof). Hauptfeldweibel (Hptfw) / sergent-major chef (sgtm chef). Feldweibel (Fw) / sergent-major (sgtm).

Fourier (Four) / fourrier (four). Oberwachtmeister (Obwm) / sergent-chef (sgt chef). Wachtmeister (Wm) / sergent (sgt). Korporal (Kpl) / caporal (cpl).

Obergefreiter (Obgfr) / appointé-chef (app chef). Gefreiter (Gfr) / appointé (app). Soldat (Sdt) / soldat (sdt). Rekrut (Rekr) / recrue (recr).

Swiss Navy. Swiss Air Force. Army.

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