Snow White

Snow White (or Snow-White, and in German, Schneewittchen) is the title character of a well known fairy tale known from many places in Europe, the most known version being the one collected by the Brothers Grimm. The German version features elements such as the mirror and the seven dwarfs. In non-German versions the dwarfs are generally robbers, while the talking mirror is a dialog with the sun or moon. In a version from Albania, collected by Johann Georg von Hahn and published in Griechische und albanesische Märchen. Gesammelt, übersetz und erläutert (1864), the main character lives with 40 dragons. The sleep is caused by a ring. The start of the story also has an interesting twist in that a teacher urges the heroine to kill her own mother so that the teacher can take her place. The origin of the tale is debated; it is likely no older than the Middle Ages. Many scholars think it originated somewhere in Asia.

Story

In the traditional Brothers Grimm version of this tale, Snow White is born to a queen, who dies shortly after giving birth. The king takes a new wife who is beautiful but very proud. She possesses a magic mirror, to whom she would often ask "Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of them all?", and to which the mirror would always reply, "You are". But one day when she asks her mirror, it responds, "Queen, you're the fairest where you are, but Snow White is more beautiful by far".

The Queen is jealous, and orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the woods to be killed. She demands that the huntsman return with Snow White's lungs and liver as proof. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but finds himself unable to kill the girl. Instead, he lets her go, and brings the queen the lungs and liver of a wild boar. (In the Disney movie, these are replaced by a heart.)

Snow White discovers a tiny cottage in the forest, belonging to seven dwarfs, where she rests. Meanwhile, the Queen asks her mirror once again, "Who's the fairest of them all?", and is horrified when the mirror tells her that Snow White, who is alive and well and living with the dwarfs, is still the fairest of them all.

Three times the Queen disguises herself and visits the dwarves' cottage where Snow White is staying to try to kill her. First, disguised as a peddler, the Queen offers colorful stay-laces and laces Snow White up so tight she faints and the Queen takes her for dead. Snow White is revived by the dwarves when they loosen the laces. Next the Queen dressed as a different old woman combs her hair with a poisoned comb. Snow White again collapses, and again the dwarves save her. Lastly the Queen makes a poison apple, and in the guise of a country woman offers it to Snow White. She is hesitant, so the Queen cuts the apple in half, eats the white part -- which has no poison -- and gives the poisoned red part to Snow White. She eats the apple eagerly and immediately falls into a deep, magical sleep. When the dwarfs find her, they cannot revive her; and so they mourn and place her in a glass coffin, thinking that she has died. (The Disney version only adopts the poison apple plot, and the queen meets her demise as she is chased by the dwarves.)

Snow White in her coffin

Time passes, and a prince travels through the land and sees Snow White in her coffin. The prince is enchanted by her beauty and instantly falls in love with her. He begs the dwarfs to let him have the coffin. The prince and his men carry the coffin away, but as they go they stumble, the coffin jerks and the piece of poison apple flies out of Snow White's mouth, awakening her. The prince then declares his love and soon a wedding is planned. (In the Disney version, the cure for this deep sleep was love's first kiss. The Prince takes a revived Snow White away, and the film ends.)

The vain Queen, still believing that Snow White is dead, again asks her mirror who is fairest in the land and yet again the mirror disappoints by responding that "You, my queen, are fair; it is true. But the young queen is a thousand times fairer than you."

Not knowing that this new queen is indeed her stepdaughter, she arrives at the wedding, and her heart fills with the deepest of dread when she realizes the truth.

As punishment for her wicked ways, a pair of heated iron shoes are brought forth with tongs and placed before the Queen. She is then forced to step into the red-hot shoes and dance until she falls down dead.

Other Versions

The story in Russian writer Alexander Pushkin's 1833 poem The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights is similar to that of Snow White, with knights replacing dwarves.

A 1916 silent film with the title Snow White was made by Famous Players-Lasky Corporation and produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman. Directed by J. Searle Dawley, it was adapted to the screen by Jessie Graham White from his play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film starred Marguerite Clark as Snow White, Creighton Hale as Prince Florimond and Dorothy Cumming as Queen Brangomar/Mary Jane.

Snow White in the Disney Cartoon.

A 1933 Betty Boop cartoon, Snow-White, was adapted from this story, as was the famous 1937 Disney animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. In the Disney version, Snow White wakes from her enchanted sleep as soon as the Prince kisses her, similar to Sleeping Beauty. That version is distinctly parodied in Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs.

Snow White is an important character in the Fables comic book. As presented there, she is an amalgam of the two characters that share this name---she is very touchy about her adventures with the dwarfs, is the first ex-wife of Prince Charming, and has a sister named Rose Red from whom she was estranged for some time. She was assistant mayor of Fabletown for many years, succeeding to the post after Ichabod Crane was fired for sexually harassing her. Due to Prince Charming replacing Old King Cole as mayor, as well as her giving birth to the (mostly) non-human-appearing children of Bigby (the Big Bad Wolf), she moved from the New York City Fabletown to the "Farm" upstate, where non-human-appearing Fables must live.

The story was very loosely adapted by Mercedes Lackey into her Elemental Masters novel The Serpent's Shadow, turning the main character into the Eurasian Doctor Maya Witherspoon, who must suffer the multiple stigmas of being a medically-qualified half-caste female (in other words, most of her problems stem from being not white) in turn-of-the-century London; the seven dwarves are transformed into animal avatars of various benign Hindu deities.

In 1961 the story was paradied in the film "Snow White and The Three Stooges", starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine and Joe "Curly-Joe" DeRita. This film is widely regarded by fans of the Three Stooges as their worst feature film. In the film, the dwarfs had gone on vacation and lent Moe, Larry and Curly Joe the use their cottage. The 3 are traveling entertainers, along with a young man who was born a prince, but lost his memory in a kidnapping attempt that was thwarted by the Stooges. The boy suffers amnesia and the Stooges "adopt" him and raise him to manhood. He is only shown as a boy in a flasback segment. This man ends up marrying Snow White, played by real life figure skating champion, Carol Heiss. The film is a musical and features many ice skating scenes. There are few other things that differ from the original story, such as Count Oga (villainous henchman of the evil queen), magic sword that transports the Stooges to various places and a carriage chase scene.

Snow White And Rose Red

There is another Brothers Grimm tale called Snow-White and Rose-Red which also includes a character called Snow White. However this Snow White is a completely separate character from the one found in this tale. For more information about the other Snow White, see the Snow-White and Rose-Red article. The original German names are different: Schneewittchen (the Princess) and Schneeweißchen (together with Rosenrot). There is actually no difference in the meaning, but the first name is more influenced by the dialects of Lower Germany while the second one is the Higher German version.


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There is actually no difference in the meaning, but the first name is more influenced by the dialects of Lower Germany while the second one is the Higher German version. Stevenson's reported cases of reincarnation originate in Eastern societies, where dominant religions often permit the concept of reincarnation. The original German names are different: Schneewittchen (the Princess) and Schneeweißchen (together with Rosenrot). However, it should be noted that a significant majority of Dr. For more information about the other Snow White, see the Snow-White and Rose-Red article. His strict methods systematically rule out all possible "normal" explanations for the child’s memories. However this Snow White is a completely separate character from the one found in this tale. He even matches birthmarks and birth defects to wounds and scars on the deceased, verified by medical records.

There is another Brothers Grimm tale called Snow-White and Rose-Red which also includes a character called Snow White. Then he identifies the deceased person the child allegedly identifies with, and verifies the facts of the deceased person's life that match the child's memory. There are few other things that differ from the original story, such as Count Oga (villainous henchman of the evil queen), magic sword that transports the Stooges to various places and a carriage chase scene. Stevenson methodically documents the child's statements. The film is a musical and features many ice skating scenes. In each case, Dr. This man ends up marrying Snow White, played by real life figure skating champion, Carol Heiss. Dr Stevenson maintains a thorough scientific method of interview and observation.

He is only shown as a boy in a flasback segment. Ian Stevenson, a prominent member of the scientific community, has spent over 40 years devoted to the study of children who have spoken about concepts seemingly unknown to them. The boy suffers amnesia and the Stooges "adopt" him and raise him to manhood. Dr. The 3 are traveling entertainers, along with a young man who was born a prince, but lost his memory in a kidnapping attempt that was thwarted by the Stooges. Some people believe that a child can express past-life memories in this way. In the film, the dwarfs had gone on vacation and lent Moe, Larry and Curly Joe the use their cottage. Mature listeners often ignore these phrases or even reprimand the child who uttered them.

This film is widely regarded by fans of the Three Stooges as their worst feature film. The parent-controlled flow of information that reaches the child does not account for the phrase. In 1961 the story was paradied in the film "Snow White and The Three Stooges", starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine and Joe "Curly-Joe" DeRita. A frequently documented phenomenon involves very young children (under the age of five) saying seemingly random phrases, spontaneously, with no readily traceable originating source, for example: "I remember when I died before". The story was very loosely adapted by Mercedes Lackey into her Elemental Masters novel The Serpent's Shadow, turning the main character into the Eurasian Doctor Maya Witherspoon, who must suffer the multiple stigmas of being a medically-qualified half-caste female (in other words, most of her problems stem from being not white) in turn-of-the-century London; the seven dwarves are transformed into animal avatars of various benign Hindu deities. A rebuttal to this argument is that since there exists simple computer programs for which humans cannot determine their halting behaviour, some people state that the human mind is no different than computers. Due to Prince Charming replacing Old King Cole as mayor, as well as her giving birth to the (mostly) non-human-appearing children of Bigby (the Big Bad Wolf), she moved from the New York City Fabletown to the "Farm" upstate, where non-human-appearing Fables must live. Some people maintain that humans can, in principle, make such a determination and hence, they say, that the human mind is different than a computer and thus there has to be something about the human mind that contemporary physics does not capture.

She was assistant mayor of Fabletown for many years, succeeding to the post after Ichabod Crane was fired for sexually harassing her. The halting problem states that it is not possible for a computer, no matter how complex, to algorithmically decide whether an arbitrary computer program will ever halt or not. As presented there, she is an amalgam of the two characters that share this name---she is very touchy about her adventures with the dwarfs, is the first ex-wife of Prince Charming, and has a sister named Rose Red from whom she was estranged for some time. The work of Roger Penrose, based on results by Kurt Gödel and Alan Turing, the latter of whom proved that the halting problem is uncomputable, is possible evidence for the existence of a soul, and that it is measurable. Snow White is an important character in the Fables comic book. The intentional stance, Dennett suggests, has proven so successful that people tend to apply it to all aspects of human experience, thus leading to animism and to other conceptualizations of soul. That version is distinctly parodied in Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs. Mirror neurons in brain regions such as Broca's area may facilitate this behavioral strategy.

In the Disney version, Snow White wakes from her enchanted sleep as soon as the Prince kisses her, similar to Sleeping Beauty. Daniel Dennett has championed the idea that the human survival strategy depends heavily on adoption of the intentional stance, a behavioral strategy that predicts the actions of others based on the expectation that they have a mind like one's own (see theory of mind). A 1933 Betty Boop cartoon, Snow-White, was adapted from this story, as was the famous 1937 Disney animated feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Carruthers called this Soul-work. The film starred Marguerite Clark as Snow White, Creighton Hale as Prince Florimond and Dorothy Cumming as Queen Brangomar/Mary Jane. During this experience, people said that Soul has an independent existence; that Soul existed before the person was born; and that Soul will continue after the death of that body. Searle Dawley, it was adapted to the screen by Jessie Graham White from his play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. A person experiencing this integration displays 100% verbal congruence and nonverbal symmetry and can simultaneously focus on abstract concepts and life details.

Directed by J. Martyn Carruthers wrote that systemic coaching can lead to a stable state of integration and connectedness, that some people call Soul. A 1916 silent film with the title Snow White was made by Famous Players-Lasky Corporation and produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman. Wilson suggested that biologists need to investigate how human genes predispose people to believe in a soul. The story in Russian writer Alexander Pushkin's 1833 poem The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights is similar to that of Snow White, with knights replacing dwarves. Wilson took note that sociology has identified belief in a soul as one of the universal human cultural elements. She is then forced to step into the red-hot shoes and dance until she falls down dead. O.

As punishment for her wicked ways, a pair of heated iron shoes are brought forth with tongs and placed before the Queen. In his book Consilience, E. Not knowing that this new queen is indeed her stepdaughter, she arrives at the wedding, and her heart fills with the deepest of dread when she realizes the truth. Crick holds the position that one can learn everything knowable about the human soul by studying the workings of the human brain. But the young queen is a thousand times fairer than you.". Francis Crick's book The Astonishing Hypothesis has the subtitle, "The scientific search for the soul". The vain Queen, still believing that Snow White is dead, again asks her mirror who is fairest in the land and yet again the mirror disappoints by responding that "You, my queen, are fair; it is true. [1].

The Prince takes a revived Snow White away, and the film ends.). The results of these experiments remained equivocal, especially due to conflicting reports on the findings, and are not well regarded by many scientists. (In the Disney version, the cure for this deep sleep was love's first kiss. Some investigators have tried to measure the soul, for example by attempting to measure the weight of a person just before and just after death in hopes of determining the weight of a soul. The prince then declares his love and soon a wedding is planned. Needless to say, both notions have dismissed the concept of soul as a self-sustaining entity. The prince and his men carry the coffin away, but as they go they stumble, the coffin jerks and the piece of poison apple flies out of Snow White's mouth, awakening her. Some, like the famous French neurologist Jean Pierre Changeaux, deny the appropriateness of the computer paradigm and propose an analogy with the anharmonic oscillator from physics.

He begs the dwarfs to let him have the coffin. In that book, Churchland argues that there is no need for the idea of a non-material soul, that we can fully account for the soul in terms of material brain activity, and that the link between the brain and consciousness is primarily a matter of information processing that can be understood in terms of computational models. The prince is enchanted by her beauty and instantly falls in love with her. This eliminative approach to the soul is exemplified by Paul Churchland and his book The Engine of Reason, The Seat of the Soul. Time passes, and a prince travels through the land and sees Snow White in her coffin. The departure of a brain/hardware leaves no place for functioning mind/software. (The Disney version only adopts the poison apple plot, and the queen meets her demise as she is chased by the dwarves.). Popular presentation of the dominant scientific view of the soul often uses the "computer paradigm", which compares the brain to hardware and the mind (mental processes traditionally subsumed under the concept of "soul") to software.

When the dwarfs find her, they cannot revive her; and so they mourn and place her in a glass coffin, thinking that she has died. Working scientists naturally gravitate towards topics of study that offer the likelihood of rapid progress and minimize controversies that taint scientific reputations. She eats the apple eagerly and immediately falls into a deep, magical sleep. A serious constraint on the scientific study of non-material entities is that past attempts to scientifically study many phenomena that seem to involve non-material processes or entities (for example, paranormal phenomena) have not shown a record of scientific progress and have been dominated by pseudoscientific approaches. She is hesitant, so the Queen cuts the apple in half, eats the white part -- which has no poison -- and gives the poisoned red part to Snow White. So far, there has been no way found to objectively link material brain processes to a non-material soul. Lastly the Queen makes a poison apple, and in the guise of a country woman offers it to Snow White. There are only 100 entries in the PubMed database that mention both the brain and the soul.

Snow White again collapses, and again the dwarves save her. These articles represent the output of a newly forming scientific sub discipline attempting to account for consciousness in terms of brain function. Next the Queen dressed as a different old woman combs her hair with a poisoned comb. There are over 6,000 articles in the PubMed database dealing with both consciousness and the soul. Snow White is revived by the dwarves when they loosen the laces. A search of the PubMed research literature database shows the following numbers of articles with the indicated term in the title:. First, disguised as a peddler, the Queen offers colorful stay-laces and laces Snow White up so tight she faints and the Queen takes her for dead. Many scientists are involved in foundation building that will eventually lead to a detailed materialistic account of the soul while few risk even mentioning the word “soul” in their professional work.

Three times the Queen disguises herself and visits the dwarves' cottage where Snow White is staying to try to kill her. No detailed account yet exists of how complex human beliefs arise through brain activity that is shaped by a complex human social environment. Meanwhile, the Queen asks her mirror once again, "Who's the fairest of them all?", and is horrified when the mirror tells her that Snow White, who is alive and well and living with the dwarfs, is still the fairest of them all. A serious technical limitation for materialistic approaches to the soul is that the details of brain function are still being discovered. Snow White discovers a tiny cottage in the forest, belonging to seven dwarfs, where she rests. Scientific study of the soul has been hampered by both technical and sociological constraints. (In the Disney movie, these are replaced by a heart.). Openly discussing both types of hypotheses about the soul (see above) is important for science because many non-scientists feel that Western materialistic science has not given fair attention to the possibility of a non-material soul.

Instead, he lets her go, and brings the queen the lungs and liver of a wild boar. Testing multiple hypotheses is healthy for science because it challenges everyone to keep an open mind and not become overly confident that we know all the answers. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but finds himself unable to kill the girl. Working within the Scientific method, it is a common practice to have several alternative hypotheses. She demands that the huntsman return with Snow White's lungs and liver as proof. The two dominant scientific approaches to study of the soul can be distinguished by the emphasis they place on two alternative hypotheses:. The Queen is jealous, and orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the woods to be killed. In contrast, Traditional Chinese medicine accepts the existence of a soul as more than just an idea (see Shen).

But one day when she asks her mirror, it responds, "Queen, you're the fairest where you are, but Snow White is more beautiful by far". Western science and medicine do recognize the concept of soul or the idea of a soul entity, though many practitioners regard it as an element of Folk psychology. She possesses a magic mirror, to whom she would often ask "Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of them all?", and to which the mirror would always reply, "You are". Without a soul, Gurdjieff taught, man will "die like a dog.". The king takes a new wife who is beautiful but very proud. Rather, man must create a soul while incarnate, whose substance could withstand the shock of death. In the traditional Brothers Grimm version of this tale, Snow White is born to a queen, who dies shortly after giving birth. Gurdjieff taught that man has no soul.

. The purpose of Surat Shabd Yoga is to realize one’s True Self as soul (Self-Realization), True Essence (Spirit-Realization) and True Divinity (God-Realization) while living in the physical body. Many scholars think it originated somewhere in Asia. In Surat Shabda Yoga, the soul is considered to be an exact replica and spark of the Divine. The origin of the tale is debated; it is likely no older than the Middle Ages. Heinlein, for example, has explored such ideas. The start of the story also has an interesting twist in that a teacher urges the heroine to kill her own mother so that the teacher can take her place. The science fiction author Robert A.

The sleep is caused by a ring. Some believe souls in some way "echo" to the edges of this universe, or even to multiple universes with compiled multiple possibilities, each presented with a slightly different energy version of itself. Gesammelt, übersetz und erläutert (1864), the main character lives with 40 dragons. Such a conception of the soul may link with the idea of an existence before and after the present one, and one could consider such a soul as the spark, or the self, the "I" in existence that feels and lives life. In a version from Albania, collected by Johann Georg von Hahn and published in Griechische und albanesische Märchen. Some further believe the entire universe has a cosmic soul as a spirit or unified consciousness. In non-German versions the dwarfs are generally robbers, while the talking mirror is a dialog with the sun or moon. Another fairly large segment of the population, not necessarily favoring organized religion, simply label themselves as "spiritual" and hold that both humans and all other living creatures have souls.

The German version features elements such as the mirror and the seven dwarfs. Otherkin hold similar beliefs: they generally see their souls are entirely non-human, and usually not of this world. Snow White (or Snow-White, and in German, Schneewittchen) is the title character of a well known fairy tale known from many places in Europe, the most known version being the one collected by the Brothers Grimm. Such a belief may manifest itself in many forms, and many explanations for it often draw on a person's religious beliefs. Therianthropy involves the belief that a person or his soul has a spiritual, emotional, or mental connection with an animal. One can perhaps better describe these as phenomena rather than as beliefs, since people of varying religion, ethnicity, or nationality may believe in them.

Crisscrossing specific religions, the phenomenon of therianthropy and belief in the existence of otherkin also occur. Operations of this type (along with teleportation), raise philosophical questions related to the concept of the Soul. Some transhumanists believe that it will become possible to perform mind transfer, either from one human body to another, or from a human body to a computer. Should the hun stay away permanently, death results.

And not only is the body duplicated under these conditions, but also the garments that clothe it. The hun in its wanderings may be either visible or invisible; if the former, it appears in the guise of its original body, which actually may be far away lying in a trance-like state tenanted by the p‘o. The p‘o is the visible personality indissolubly attached to the body, while the hun is its more ethereal complement also interpenetrating the body, but not of necessity always tied to it. These are the two parts which the ancient Chinese believed constitute every person's soul.

See the article Egyptian soul for more details. In Egyptian Mythology, an individual was believed to be made up of various elements, some physical and some spiritual. For more detail on Jewish beliefs about the soul see Jewish eschatology. These extra souls, or extra states of the soul, play no part in any afterlife scheme, but are mentioned for completeness.

Both Rabbinic and kabbalistic works also posit a few additional, non-permanent states to the soul that people can develop on certain occasions. Gershom Scholem wrote that these "were considered to represent the sublimest levels of intuitive cognition, and to be within the grasp of only a few chosen individuals":. The Raaya Meheimna, a Kabbalistic tractate always published with the Zohar, posits two more parts of the human soul, the chayyah and yehidah. They are said to only fully exist in people awakened spiritually:.

The next two parts of the soul are not implanted at birth, but are slowly created over time; their development depends on the actions and beliefs of the individual. A common way of explaining these three parts follows:. The Zohar, a classic work of Jewish mysticism, posits that the human soul has three elements, the nefesh, ru'ah, and neshamah. Kabbalah (esoteric Jewish mysticism) saw the soul as having three elements.

Maimonides, in his The Guide to the Perplexed, explained classical rabbinic teaching about the soul through the lens of neo-Aristotelian philosophy, and viewed the soul as a person's developed intellect, which has no substance. He held that the soul comprises that part of a person's mind which constitutes physical desire, emotion, and thought. Saadia Gaon, in his Emunoth ve-Deoth 6:3, explained classical rabbinic teaching about the soul through the lens of neo-Aristotelian philosophy. The Hebrew Bible offers no systematic definition of a soul; various descriptions of the soul exist in classical rabbinic literature.

He blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living being." (New JPS). Jewish views of the soul begin with the book of Genesis, in which verse 2:7 states, "the LORD God formed man from the dust of the earth. Jainists believe in a jiva, an immortal essence of a living being analogous to a soul, subject to the illusion of maya and evolving through many incarnations from mineral to vegetable to animal, its accumulated karma determining the form of its next birth. "in the name of God" :"They ask you about soul say that soul is secret of God and you are not given of science except too little".

In Sufism, Islamic mysticism, elaborate doctrines on the soul have developed, as explained in the article on Sufi psychology. This transition can be pleasant (Heaven) or unpleasant (Hell) depending on the degree to which a person has developed or destroyed his or her soul during life (Qur’an 91:7-10). At death the person's soul transitions to an eternal afterlife of bliss, peace and unending spiritual growth (Qur’an 66:8, 39:20). This intangible part of an individual's existence is "pure" at birth and has the potential of growing and achieving nearness to God if the person leads a righteous life.

According to the Qur'an of Islam (15:29), the creation of man involves Allah "breathing" a soul into him. (iii) bliss. (ii) knowledge. (i) eternity.

According to the Bhagavad Gita, one of the Vedic literatures of ancient India, the spiritual body, or the soul is part and parcel of God and is made up of three elements:. Dvaita or dualistic concepts reject this, instead identifying the soul as a different and incompatible substance. For example, advaita or non-dualistic conception of the soul accords it union with Brahman, the absolute uncreated (roughly, the Godhead), in eventuality or in pre-existing fact. Hinduism contains many variant beliefs on the origin, purpose, and fate of the soul.

It is seen as the portion of Brahman within us. In Hinduism, the Sanskrit word most closely corresponding to soul is "Atman", which can mean soul or even God. main article: Atman (Hinduism). See also Christian eschatology.

Many non-denominational Christians, and indeed many people who ostensibly subscribe to denominations having clear-cut dogma on the concept of soul, take an "à la carte" approach to the belief, that is, they judge each issue on what they see as its merits and juxtapose different beliefs from different branches of Christianity, from other religions, and from their understanding of science. Valentinus sees this as final salvation. Similarly, according to Valentinus, complete resurrection occurs only after the end of Time (in the Christian worldview), when transfigured souls who have acquired spiritual flesh finally re-unite with the perfect, individual Angel Christ, residing in the Pleroma. This division appears rather puzzling, but not dissimilar to Kabbalah, where neshamah goes to the source and ruach is, undestructed and indestructible, but unredeemed, relegated to a lower world.

a resurrection body. In time, after numerous purifications, the souls receive "spiritual flesh", i.e. The souls stay in "the places that are in the middle", the worlds of Psyche. In Valentinus’ vision of life human bodies go to dust, soul-sparks or spiritual seeds unite (in realised Gnostics) with their Higher Selves/Angel Christ and the soul proper, carrier of psychological functions and personalities (emotions, memory, rational faculties, imagination,...) will survive - but will not go to Pleroma or Fullness (the source of all where resurrected seeds that have realised their beings as Angels Christ return to).

If they do not receive resurrection while they are alive, once they have died they will receive nothing."). This is true resurrection (as Valentinus himself wrote in The Gospel of Truth: "People who say they will first die and then arise are mistaken. In Valentinus’ opinion, spiritual seed, the ray from Angel Christ, returns to its source. Evidently his spiritual seed corresponds precisely to shes-pa in Tibetan Buddhism, jiva in Vedanta, ruh in Hermetic Sufism or soul-spark in other traditions, and Angel Christ to Higher Self in modern transpersonal psychologies, Atman in Vedanta or Buddha nature in Mahayana Buddhism.

Paul’s Epistle to Thessalonians I, but enriched: Valentinus considered that all humans possess semi-dormant "spiritual seed" (sperme pneumatike) which, in spiritually developed Christians, can unite with spirit, equated with Angel Christ. This equates exactly to the division one finds in St. He conceived the human being as a triple entity, consisting of body (soma, hyle), soul (psyche) and spirit (pneuma). In early years of Christianity, the Gnostic Christian Valentinus of Valentinius (circa 100 - circa 153) proposed a version of spiritual psychology that accorded with numerous other "perennial wisdom" doctrines.

These Christians point out:. They interpret this as an intermediate state, before the deceased unite with their Resurrection bodies and restore the psychosomatic unity that existed from conception, and which death disrupts. Some traditional Christians argue that the Bible teaches the survival of a conscious self after death. Thousands of biblical references unquestionably define humans (and some animals) as BEING souls, not having souls and only a handful of verses suggest or can be read to the contrary:.

Other Christian beliefs differ:. The origin of the soul has provided a sometimes vexing question in Christianity; the major theories put forward include creationism, traducianism and pre-existence. Souls are essential parts of human beings...". They have sensations and thoughts, desires and beliefs, and perform intentional actions.

Souls are immaterial subjects of mental properties. Richard Swinburne, a Christian philosopher of religion at Oxford University, wrote that "it is a frequent criticism of substance dualism that dualists cannot say what souls are... The soul, therefore, is not only logically distinct from any particular human body with which it is associated; it is also what a person is". Philosopher Anthony Quinton said the soul is a "series of mental states connected by continuity of character and memory, [and] is the essential constituent of personality.

The apostle Paul said that the "body wars against" the soul, and that "I buffet my body", to keep it under control. Augustine, one of the most influential early Christian thinkers, described the soul as "a special substance, endowed with reason, adapted to rule the body". Many Christian scholars hold, as Aristotle did, that "to attain any assured knowledge of the soul is one of the most difficult things in the world". However, scripture holds that only by grace directly from God the father are we "saved", and to make the robe of the soul clean requires only an acceptance of this grace, which incidentally is a neutral deed, neither good nor evil.

The notion that the salvation of the soul cannot be earned by good deeds can appear to contradict Biblical teaching, when Christians are instructed to "Love your neighbour as yourself" as the second most important command. You can be very wealthy, and still be "poor, and blind and naked" (Revelation). Christian belief also holds that the soul cannot be bought; this is why money is not an accurate measurement of spirituality. The soul is apparently the receptacle for the Holy Spirit; the body, which houses the soul, is the tabernacle, or the "temple of the Holy Spirit".

The lamp represents the eye, and the oil represents the Holy Spirit of Jesus, from God. In the parable of the ten virgins, who are waiting for the return of the master (Jesus) with their lamps lit, Jesus warns them not to be foolish, and let their lamps go out, by pursuing after worldly things at such a critical time. The labour is to remain faithful, and the reward is to keep one's soul. "Be thou faithful unto death, and I shall give you the crown of life" (Revelation).

The reward that the faithful Christian receives at the moment of his death, is the privilege to receive his soul, which was kept safe by Jesus, and to appear before God's feast clothed in one's soul. The soul represents righteousness. The message is: don't show up for the Judgement without your beautiful garments (the soul). Jesus said, "And what will a man give in exchange for his soul?", warning him that he could lose it (Matthew).

And in a parable about the master's feast, Jesus (the master) has a guest thrown out by His servants (the holy angels) for showing up without his feast-garments. Jesus said, "Do not let anyone steal your garments" (Revelation). The imagery that Jesus used to describe the soul includes the "beautiful garments" of Revelation ("they [the saints] will be clothed in white"), which are "more beautiful than Solomon in all his glory" (Matthew). Different Christian groups dispute whether this reward/punishment depends upon doing good deeds, or merely upon believing in God and in Jesus.

Most Christians regard the soul as the immortal essence of a human - the seat or locus of human will, understanding, and personality - and that after death, God either rewards or punishes the soul. If they have done more wrong than right and have not repented for their sins, they will go to "Hell", and burn for all eternity. If they have done good, have been a Faithful Christian and have repent for their sins before they have died, they will gain access to "Heaven" and stay their for all eternity. In Christianity, some believe that as soon as a person dies, their soul will judged upon by a saint, seeing all the wrong and right that they have done during their lives.

Buddha:The Sermon At Rajagaha. This salvation from selfishness is without merit. Good and evil would be indifferent. For if they say the self is perishable, the fruit they strive for will perish too, and at some time there will be no hereafter.

Both are wrong and their error is most grievous. Some say that the self endures after death, some say it perishes. And understand that He taught that both views were erroneous and could not capture the actual truth of the matter and speculations along those lines would only cause suffering rather than its removal and find reincarnation as a necessary part of buddhism. A detailed introduction to this, and to other basic Buddhist teachings, appears in What the Buddha taught by the Buddhist monk Walpola Rahula.

Others see the Buddha's warning that those who believe that a permanent self does not exist are just as gravely mistaken as those who believe that one does.

However, the question arises: if a self does not exist, who thinks/lives now? Some Buddhist sects hold the view that thought itself thinks: if you remove the thought, there's no thinker (self) to be found. Stephen Batchelor, notably, discusses this issue in his book Buddhism Without Beliefs. They take the view that if there is no abiding self, and no soul, then nothing remains to be reborn. Many modern Buddhists, particularly in Western countries, reject the concept of rebirth or reincarnation as incompatible with the concept of anatta.

Any continuity of awareness achieved by tulku is simply a greater continuity than is achieved by/in a normal incarnation, as it continues across several, is only a difference of degree. Since, however, subtle-mind emerges in incarnation, and gross-mind emerges in periods of sufficient awareness within some incarnations, there isn't really any contradiction: very-subtle-mind's original nature, that is irreducible mind / clarity whose function is knowing, doesn't have any "body", and the coarser minds that emerge "on" it while it drifts/wanders/dreams aren't continuous. The compatibility of these concepts with Buddhist orthodoxy remains in dispute. In this new birth, the tulku possesses a continuity of personal identity/commitment, rooted in the fact that the consciousness or shes-pa (which equates to a type of skandha called vijnana) has not dissolved after death, but has sufficient durability to survive in repeated births.

In the case of tulkus, however, they supposedly achieve sufficient "crystallization" of skandhas in such a manner that the skandhas do not entirely "disentangle" upon the tulku's death; rather, a directed reincarnation occurs. So, elements of the transformed personality re-incarnate, but they lose the unity that constitutes personal selfhood for a specific person. For an ordinary person, skandhas cohere in a way that dissolves upon the person's death. The mechanics behind this work as follows: although Buddha-nature does not incarnate, the individual self comprises skandhas, or components, that undergo rebirth.

A tulku has, due to heroic austerities and esoteric training ( or due to innate talent combined with great subtle-mind commitment in the moment of death ), achieved the goal of transferring personal "identity" ( or nature/commitment ) from one rebirth to the next (for instance, Tibetans consider the Dalai Lama a tulku). The concept of a person as a tulku provides even more controversy. One should note the polarity in Tibetan Buddhism between shes-pa (the principle of consciousness) and rig-pa (pure consciousness equal to Buddha-nature). Matsumoto argues that these concepts constitute a non- or trans-personal self, and almost equate in meaning to the Hindu concept of Atman, although they differ in that Buddha-nature does not incarnate.

However, scholars such as Shirō Matsumoto have argued that a curious development occurred in Mahayana Buddhist philosophy, stemming from the Cittamatra and Vijnanavada schools in India: although this school of thought denies the permanent personal selfhood, it affirms concepts such as Buddha-nature, Tathagatagarbha, Rigpa, or "original nature". Very-Subtle-Mind, however, does continue, and when it "catches on" or coincides with phenomena again, a new Subtle-Mind emerges, with its own personality/assumptions/habits and that someone/entity experiences the karma on that continuum that is ripening then. Gross-Mind doesn't exist when one is sleeping, so it is more impermanent even than Subtle-Mind, which doesn't exist in death. It helps if one remembers that buddhism holds that there are 3 minds: Very-Subtle-Mind, which isn't disintegrated in incarnation-death, Subtle-Mind, which is disintegrated in death, and is "dreaming-mind" or "unconscious-mind", and Gross-Mind.

Thus, in some Buddhist sects, a being that is born is neither entirely different, nor exactly the same, as it was prior to rebirth. In death, the body and mind disintegrate; if the disintegrating mind contains any remaining traces of karma, it will cause the continuity of the consciousness to bounce back an arising mind to an awaiting being, that is, a fetus developing the ability to harbor consciousness. Buddhists can speak in conventional terms of the soul or of "self" as a matter of convenience, but only under the conviction that ultimately "we" are changing "entities". Nirvana is solely recognized as being distinct.

They add that understanding of anatta (or "not-self") provides an accurate description of the human condition, and that this understanding allows "us" to go beyond "our" mundane desires. Some Buddhist sects hold that the delusion of a permanent, abiding self is one of the main root causes for human conflict on the emotional, social and political levels. This expresses in essence the Buddhist principle of anatta (Pāli; Sanskrit: anātman). Our sense of "I" or "me" is simply a sense, belonging to the ever-changing entity, that (conventionally speaking) is us, our body, and mind.

This applies to humanity, as much as to anything else in the cosmos; thus, there is no unchanging and abiding self. According to some Buddhist sects, all things are impermanent, in a constant state of flux; all is transient, and no abiding state exists. The crucial difference is that, whereas physical development in the mother's womb is involuntary, spiritual and intellectual development in this world depend strictly on conscious individual effort. Our time here is thus a period of preparation during which we are to acquire the spiritual and intellectual tools necessary for life in the next world.

Similarly, this physical world is like a womb for entry into the spiritual world. During that nine-month period, the fetus acquires the physical tools (e.g., eyes, limbs, and so forth) necessary for existence in this world. A human being spends nine months in the womb in preparation for entry into this physical life. The soul's evolution is always towards God and away from the material world.

Bahá'u'lláh taught that individuals have no existence previous to their life here on earth. Each state follows as a natural consequence of individual efforts, or the lack thereof, to develop spiritually. Heaven can be seen partly as the soul's state of nearness to God; and hell as a state of remoteness from God. It will endure as long as the Kingdom of God, His sovereignty, His dominion and power will endure..

Bahá'u'lláh wrote: Know thou of a truth that the soul, after its separation from the body, will continue to progress until it attaineth the presence of God, in a state and condition which neither the revolution of ages and centuries, nor the changes and chances of this world, can alter. The soul not only continues to live after the physical death of the human body, but is, in fact, immortal. The soul of man is the sun by which his body is illumined, and from which it draweth its sustenance, and should be so regarded.. As soon as, however, a veil interposeth itself between them, the brightness of the light seemeth to lessen...

So long as no external impediment interveneth between them, the body will, in its entirety, continue to reflect the light of the soul, and to be sustained by its power. The soul of man should be likened unto this sun, and all things on earth should be regarded as his body. Observe how its splendor appeareth to have diminished, when in reality the source of that light hath remained unchanged. consider the sun which hath been obscured by the clouds.

When it leaveth the body, however, it will evince such ascendancy, and reveal such influence as no force on earth can equal .. .. That a sick person showeth signs of weakness is due to the hindrances that interpose themselves between his soul and his body, for the soul itself remaineth unaffected by any bodily ailments. The Bahá'í Faith affirm that "the soul is a sign of God, a heavenly gem whose reality the most learned of men hath failed to grasp, and whose mystery no mind, however acute, can ever hope to unravel." Concerning the soul or spirit of human beings and its relationship to the physical body, Bahá'u'lláh explained: Know thou that the soul of man is exalted above, and is independent of all infirmities of body or mind.

They might, perhaps, stress the impermanence of the knife's cutting ability. It may simply become a matter of definition, as most Buddhists would agree, surely, that one can use a knife for cutting. For both, there is certainly no 'separable immortal essence'. Aristotle's view appears to have some similarity to the Buddhist 'no soul' view (see below).

Aristotle used his concept of the soul in many of his works; the Nicomachean Ethics provides a good place to start to gain more understanding of his views. "The axe has an edge for cutting" was, for Aristotle, analogous to "humans have bodies for rational activity," and the potential for rational activity thus constituted the essence of a human soul. This is a state, or a potential for actual, or 'second', activity. More precisely, the soul is the "first activity" of a living body.

As the soul, in Aristotle's view, is an activity of the body, it cannot be immortal (when a knife is destroyed, the cutting stops). Unlike Plato and the religious traditions, Aristotle did not consider the soul as some kind of separate, ghostly occupant of the body (just as we cannot separate the activity of cutting from the knife). For instance, if a knife had a soul, the act of cutting would be that soul, because 'cutting' is the essence of what it is to be a knife. Aristotle, following Plato, defined the soul as the core essence of a being, but argued against its having a separate existence.

If left unchecked, it will lead to hubris -- the most fatal of all flaws in the Greek view. The spirit comprises our emotional motive, that which drives us to acts of bravery and glory. This is the basal and most feral state. Yet when the passion controls us, master passion drives us to hedonism in all forms.

The appetite drives humankind to seek out its basic bodily needs. It allows for logic to prevail, and for the optimisation of balance. It corresponds to the charioteer, directing the balanced horses of appetite and spirit. The reason equates to the mind.

Each of these has a function in a balanced and peaceful soul. The Platonic soul comprises three parts:. He considered this essence as an incorporeal occupant of our being. Plato, drawing on the words of his teacher Socrates, considers the soul as the essence of a person, as that which decides how we act.

So the earliest surviving Western philosophical view might suggest that the soul makes living things alive. The Ancient Greeks used the same word for 'alive' as for 'ensouled'. The various origins and usages demonstrate not only that what people call "soul" today has varied in meaning during history, but that the word and concept themselves have changed in their implications. The Latin root of the related word spirit, like anima, also expresses the idea of "breath".

Also, Jesus said, "He who saves his life will lose it", which means that a faithful believer must be ready to sacrifice his life in order to preserve his soul. If you exchange the word "soul" for "life" in the sentence above, the statement may seem less profound. In the New Testament, the original word may sometimes better translate as "life", as in :. Aristotle's works in Latin translation, used the word anima (as in animated), which also means "breath".

Ancient Greeks sometimes referred to the soul as psyche (as in modern English psychology). The old German word is called 'se(u)la', which means: belonging to the sea (ancient Germanic conceptions involved the souls of the unborn and of the dead "living" being part of a medium, similar to water), or perhaps, "living water". The current English word "soul" may have originated from Old English sawol, documented in 970 AD, which has possible etymological links with a Germanic root from which we also get the word "sea". .

Many within these religions and philosophies see the soul as immaterial, while others consider it possibly material. The concept of the soul has strong links with notions of an afterlife, but opinions may vary wildly, even within a given religion, as to what happens to the soul after death. In distinction to spirit which may or may not be eternal, souls are usually (but not always as explained below) considered to be immortal and to pre-exist their incarnation in flesh. In these traditons the soul is thought to incorporate the inner essence in each living being, and to be the true basis for sentience.

The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is a self aware ethereal substance particular to a unique living being. "Soul nurtured and was nurtured by the Black Man in America." (Mississippi John Hurt). Popular usage often describes experiences that evoke deep emotions as "touching the soul". Many of these articles deal with medical ethics issue such as the implications of religious beliefs on decisions about life support for people in persistent vegetative states).

soul - 552 (40, 7%, of these articles also include “brain” in the database entry. consciousness – 2,918 (842, 29%, of these articles also include “brain” in the database entry). brain – 167,244. Only by taking seriously the idea of non-material entities will science develop the means to objectively study the soul.

Non-material conscious entities exist, but conventional materialistic science does not have the tools needed to study the non-material soul. Materialistic accounts of human brain function and scientific study of cultural belief systems will ultimately tell us everything we need to know about the common human belief in a non-material soul. It exists only when one studies and follows Torah; it can be lost and gained depending on one's study and observance. Neshamah Kedosha - Provided to Jews at the age of majority (13 for boys, 12 for girls), and related to the study and fulfillment of the Torah commandments.

This exists only while one observes Shabbat; it can be lost and gained depending on one's observance. It makes possible an enhanced spiritual enjoyment of the day. Neshamah Yeseira - The supplemental soul that a Jew experiences on Shabbat. Since the age of classical prophecy passed, no one receives the soul of prophecy any longer.

Ruach HaKodesh - a state of the soul that makes prophecy possible. Yehidah - the highest plane of the soul, in which one can achieve as full a union with God as is possible. Chayyah - The part of the soul that allows one to have an awareness of the divine life force itself. Supposedly after resurrection, Ruach and Neshamah, soul and spirit re-unite in a permanently transmuted state of being.

In the Zohar, after death Nefesh disintegrates, Ruach is sent to a sort of intermediate zone where it is submitted to purification and enters in "temporary paradise", while Neshamah returns to the source, the world of Platonic ideas, where it enjoys "the kiss of the beloved". It allows one to have some awareness of the existence and presence of God. This part of the soul is provided both to Jew and non-Jew alike at birth. It relates to the intellect, and allows man to enjoy and benefit from the afterlife.

This distinguishes man from all other life forms. Neshamah - the higher soul, Higher Self or super-soul. In modern parlance, it equates to psyche or ego-personality. It contains the moral virtues and the ability to distinguish between good and evil.

Ruach - the middle soul, or spirit. It is the source of one's physical and psychological nature. It is found in all humans, and enters the physical body at birth. It links to instincts and bodily cravings.

Nefesh - the lower or animal part of the soul. 49And just as we have borne the likeness of the earthly man, so shall we bear the likeness of the man from heaven. 48As was the earthly man, so are those who are of the earth; and as is the man from heaven, so also are those who are of heaven. 47The first man was of the dust of the earth, the second man from heaven.

45(...) 46The spiritual did not come first, but the natural, and after that the spiritual. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. The body that is sown is perishable, it is raised imperishable; 43it is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; 44it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. 42So will it be with the resurrection of the dead.

41The sun has one kind of splendor, the moon another and the stars another; and star differs from star in splendor. 40There are also heavenly bodies and there are earthly bodies; but the splendor of the heavenly bodies is one kind, and the splendor of the earthly bodies is another. 39All flesh is not the same: Men have one kind of flesh, animals have another, birds another and fish another. 38But God gives it a body as he has determined, and to each kind of seed he gives its own body.

37When you sow, you do not plant the body that will be, but just a seed, perhaps of wheat or of something else. 32If I fought wild beasts in Ephesus for merely human reasons, what have I gained? If the dead are not raised, “Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die.”[Isaiah 22:13] (...) 35But someone may ask, “How are the dead raised? With what kind of body will they come?” 36How foolish! What you sow does not come to life unless it dies. (...) 29Now if there is no resurrection, what will those do who are baptized for the dead? If the dead are not raised at all, why are people baptized for them? 30And as for us, why do we endanger ourselves every hour? 31I die every day–I mean that, brothers–just as surely as I glory over you in Christ Jesus our Lord. 19If only for this life we have hope in Christ, we are to be pitied more than all men.

18Then those also who have fallen asleep in Christ are lost. 17And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile; you are still in your sins. 16For if the dead are not raised, then Christ has not been raised either. But he did not raise him if in fact the dead are not raised.

15More than that, we are then found to be false witnesses about God, for we have testified about God that he raised Christ from the dead. 14And if Christ has not been raised, our preaching is useless and so is your faith. 1 Corinthians 15 : 12But if it is preached that Christ has been raised from the dead, how can some of you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? 13If there is no resurrection of the dead, then not even Christ has been raised. 31But about the resurrection of the dead – have you not read what God said to you, 32‘I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’[Exodus 3:6]? He is not the God of the dead but of the living.” 33When the crowds heard this, they were astonished at his teaching.

30At the resurrection people will neither marry nor be given in marriage; they will be like the angels in heaven. 28Now then, at the resurrection, whose wife will she be of the seven, since all of them were married to her?” 29Jesus replied, “You are in error because you do not know the Scriptures or the power of God. 27Finally, the woman died. 26The same thing happened to the second and third brother, right on down to the seventh.

The first one married and died, and since he had no children, he left his wife to his brother. 25Now there were seven brothers among us. 24“Teacher,” they said, “Moses told us that if a man dies without having children, his brother must marry the widow and have children for him. Matthew 22 : 23That same day the Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection, came to him (Jesus) with a question.

Once more, these saints consciously exist with God in heaven, at the same time as evil people exist on the earth. Revelation 6:9-10 portrays the souls (Greek psychas) of martyred saints as conscious, and as asking God how long He will refrain from smiting the wicked on Earth. And, since Christ dwells in Heaven, Paul anticipated going to Heaven at death. This linkage shows that the departure, and being with Christ, occur at the same moment.

1:21-23, depicting the believer to "depart and to be with Christ", where the aorist infinitive (to depart) links via a single article to a present infinitive (to be with Christ). Phil. Matthew 10:28: Jesus says, "And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul; rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell." Here, the soul (Greek psychē) appears as something distinct from the body, and something which survives the death of the body. Jesus said, "Truly, truly, how difficult it is for a rich man to enter into Heaven," (although Lazarus was not there yet).

The patriarch Abraham comforted Lazarus, whereas the rich man remained in torment. The rich man stood in another compartment of Sheol where he could see Lazarus, but could never cross over. This scenario preceded Jesus taking the souls of Paradise with Him to heaven, therefore Lazarus remains in Paradise. Jesus' account of the rich man and Lazarus, who were both still conscious at the same time as the rich man's brothers, who lived on.

Afterwards, in John's vision of Revelation, Jesus appeared to John and claimed that He had "the keys of Hades". According to the apostle Peter, Jesus descended (upon His death) into Hades, which could not hold Him, and led the souls of the righteous dead (including the thief on the cross) which were imprisoned in Paradise (a compartment of Hades, which was reserved for those righteous dead) out of captivity, and "led captivity captive" (thus emptying Paradise, according to the apostle Paul), who also claimed that Jesus was King not only by birth, but "by nature of an indestructible life" (in the letter to the Hebrews, if it was written by Paul). Interpretation: that very day, the thief will in a conscious way have fellowship with Christ in Paradise, despite the apparent destruction of his body. Jesus told the repentant thief on the cross, "I say to you, today you will be with me in paradise" (Luke 23:43).

So death meant that something called nephesh (or "soul") became separated from the body, and life could return when this soul returned. And when Elijah prays in 1 Kings 17:21 for the return of a widow's boy to life, he entreats, "O LORD my God, I pray you, let this child's nephesh come into him again". Rachel's death in Genesis 35:18 equates with her soul (Hebrew nephesh) departing. After the death of the body, the person becomes immediately conscious in the spiritual world.

Swedenborgianism teaches that each person's soul is created by the Lord at the same time as the physical body is developed, that the soul is the person himself or herself, and that the soul is eternal, and has an eternal spiritual body, that is substantial without being material. The present Catechism of the Catholic Church defines the soul as "the innermost aspect of man, that which is of greatest value in him, that by which he is most especially in God's image: 'soul' signifies the spiritual principle in man.". The "purgatory" theory states that the soul, if imperfect, spends a period of time purging or cleansing, before becoming ready for the end of time. The "absent from the body, present with the Lord" theory states that the soul at the point of death, immediately becomes present at the end of time, without experiencing any time passing between.

The soul sleep theory states that the soul goes to "sleep" at the time of death, and stays in this quiescent state until the last judgment. See Strong's Concordance under "soul", with Biblical meaning that animals and people are souls, that souls are not immortal, but die; soul means the person; life as a person, etc. This is in line with their belief that Hell represents the grave and the possibility of eternal death for unbelievers rather than eternal torment. When a person dies his Soul leaves him meaning that he has stopped breathing and his fate for any future existence rests solely with God who they believe has the power to re-create the whole person and restore their existence.

(Gen.2:7; Ezek.18:4, KJV). Thus Soul is used by them to mean a person rather than an invisible core entity associated with a spirit or a force, which leaves the body at or after death. Spirit is seen to be anything powerful and invisible symbolized by the hebrew word RuaCH which has the literal meaning of wind. Jehovah's Witnesses View the Hebrew word NePHeSH in its literal concrete meaning of breath, making a person who is animated by the spirit of God into a living BREATHER, rather than a body containing an invisible entity such as the majority concept of Soul.

Medieval Christian thinkers often assigned to the soul attributes such as thought and imagination, as well as faith and love: this suggests that the boundaries between "soul" and "mind" can vary in different interpretations. This minority also believes the life of Christ brings immortality, but only to believers. Another minority of Christians believe in the soul, but don't regard it as inherently immortal. A few Christian groups do not believe in the soul, and hold that people cease to exist, both mind and body, at death; they claim however, that God will recreate the minds and bodies of believers in Jesus at some future time, the "end of the world.".

spirit (emotion or pathos). the appetite (body or passion). the reason (mind or logos).

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