Skateboarding

A skateboarder in the middle of a trick

Skateboarding is the act of rolling on or interacting with a skateboard. Someone who skateboards is a skater (or skateboarder or most fully skateboard rider), though the shortest term may also refer to someone ice skating or roller skating.

Like roller skating, skateboarding is often done for recreation and as a sport, but, more often than ice skating, it is a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been thought of by many as part of the extreme sports family, which also includes (but not restricted to) snowboarding, BMX, and surfing.

History of the skateboard

The history of skateboarding goes hand in hand with the history of the skateboard. Improvements in skateboarding equipment have spurred advancement in skateboarding techniques and new techniques have required new equipment.

Skateboarding has its origins in surfing, and was originally called "sidewalk surfing". While surfing influenced skateboarding in it's early days, now the reverse is also true. Surfers are adapting skateboarding tricks into surfing, and the result is evolution in both sports.

The first skateboard

The first commercial skateboard was the Roller Derby Skateboard that was introduced in 1959. Before this skateboards were home made pieces of wooden planks with roller skates attached to the bottom. At the time there was a rapidly growing interest in skateboarding (sometimes referred to as sidewalk surfing) and soon many other similar products emerged. The boards were from 6 to 7 inches wide. These boards used wheels made of clay. They had poor traction and would come to a dead stop when rolling over even small pebbles. This made skateboarding inherently a dangerous sport and after a few years many cities banned skateboarding because of liability concerns. This development caused the first skateboarding fad to die completely in the fall of 1965. Many skateboard manufacturers went out of business because of losing money on cancelled orders for the Christmas holiday season.

The second generation

In 1970 Frank Nasworthy started to develop a skateboard wheel made of urethane. The improvement in traction and performance was so immense that popularity of skateboarding started to rise rapidly again. With the growing interest companies started to invest more in product development and many companies started to manufacture trucks especially designed for skateboarding. As the equipment became more maneuverable the decks started to get wider, reaching widths of 10 inches and over in the end, thus giving the skateboarder even more control. Manufacturers started to experiment with more exotic composites, like fiberglass and aluminium but the common skateboards were made of maple plywood. The skateboarders took advantage of the improved handling of their skateboards and started inventing new tricks. Skateboarders, most notably the Z-Boys, started to skate the vertical walls of swimming pools that were left empty in the 1976 California drought. With increased control skateboarders could skate faster and perform more dangerous tricks. This caused liability concerns and increased insurance costs to skatepark owners. Many skateparks went out of business and the parks were torn down or bulldozed. In the end of 1980, skateboarding had died again.

The third generation

The third skateboard generation, from early eighties to early nineties, was started by skateboard companies that actively promoted their sport. The focus was initially on halfpipe and vert ramp skateboarding. The invention of the ollie made it possible for skaters to perform huge airs off vertical ramps. With vert skating being dominant decks were initially very wide with large and wide wheels, though as time progressed and skateparks became fewer in number, street skating was gaining popularity, causing a change in both deck shape and wheel size. Manufacturers preferred maple plywood over more exotic composite materials almost exclusively. The third skateboarding generation was killed by the global economical recession in the early 90's.

The current generation

The size and shape of the fourth and current generation of skateboards is dominated by one trick: the ollie. The boards are all about 7.75" wide and 31.5" long. The wheels have an extremely hard durometer so that they will slide better during grind and slide tricks. The wheel sizes are relatively small so that the boards will rotate more easily during flip tricks. In the early 1990's, the wheels were only marginally larger than the bearings they encased to make complicated flip tricks easier but that fad died in 1994 and wheels currently are around 50 to 58mm in diameter. The decks are still almost always maple plywood but interest in high technology materials has increased slightly after the cost of manufacturing them has dropped.

Trick skating

see: Skateboarding trick for detailed description of trick skating maneuvers

Even young children can have fun at the skatepark.

With the evolution of skateboard parks (or skateparks) and ramp riding, the skateboard began to change. Skating was originally basically two-dimensional tricks (e.g. riding on only the front wheels (nose manual), spinning like an ice skater on the back wheels (a 360), high jumping over a bar, long jumping from one board to another (often over fearless teenagers lying on their backs), slalom, etc.) Around 1978 or so, street riding became transformed by the invention of the ollie or no hands aerial, the first modern skateboarding trick, by Alan "Ollie" Gelfand. To ollie is to fly off the ground (flat or a wall) with the board, but without holding onto the board and then landing back on the board. It involves using your feet to press against the board in various complicated combinations, depending on the trick to be performed. The trick was reinvented by Rodney Mullen in the 80's, being transferred to the horizontal plane and used as a trick for freestyle skating (a style of skating popular in the 70's and 80's based on stationary maneuvers). No longer is the trick to fly from one place to another. On the way the board can twist and flip, as can the rider, then to be united before hitting ground. The development of these complex tricks went from the street to the vertical tops of the half pipes (and other terrains).

Very skillful skateboarders often become famous through sponsorship and endorsements. Examples include Tony Hawk (who has a series of video games in his name), Bob Burnquist, Rodney Mullen, Mike Vallely, Steve Caballero, Bam Margera and Josh Kalis (who has appeared in numerous television advertisements for DC Shoes). Hawk has recently appeared in the MTV music video awards. In the vert world, some are surpassing the skills of Tony Hawk. Recently his signature trick, the "900," was performed by an Italian skater named Georgio Zattoni and a Brazillian skater by the name of Sandro Dias. Also, Danny Way is considered by some to be the most innovative and daring skater, flying across the "DC Megaramps", and planning on jumping both the Great Wall of China and the Grand Canyon. Many styles today are a mimic of Tom Penny, who is a pioneer and in the early 1990s was the first skater to catch his flip tricks in mid air.

All this from an object that was never designed to lock into grinds, flip in the air or do the tricks performed by today's skateboarders. Throwing themselves down large stairs and handrails only ups the ante in the modern skateboarding world. Today's skateboarders not only differ greatly from those only 10 years ago in terms of tricks and consistency, but also style, which is a very important aspect in the way skateboarders are marketed by skateboarding companies.

Famous Skateboarders

  • Jay Adams
  • Tony Alva
  • Mark Appleyard
  • Stephen Berra
  • Bob Burnquist
  • Steve Caballero
  • Kareem Campbell
  • Rune Glifberg
  • Mark Gonzales
  • Tony Hawk
  • Heath Kirchart
  • Eric Koston
  • Bucky Lasek
  • Jason Lee
  • Bam Margera
  • Guy Mariano
  • Rodney Mullen
  • Chad Muska
  • Tom Penny
  • Stacy Peralta
  • Andrew Reynolds
  • Geoff Rowley
  • Kanten Russell
  • Arto Saari
  • Elissa Steamer
  • Aaron Suski
  • Ed Templeton
  • Jamie Thomas
  • Tony Trujillo
  • Mike Vallely
  • Danny Way

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Today's skateboarders not only differ greatly from those only 10 years ago in terms of tricks and consistency, but also style, which is a very important aspect in the way skateboarders are marketed by skateboarding companies. [3] (http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/12/09/opinion/main660178.shtml) Early 2008 Presidential polls show him with one of the highest levels of name recognition and support. Throwing themselves down large stairs and handrails only ups the ante in the modern skateboarding world. Members of the Christian right bloc, which exerts considerable influence in the Republican Party, have already announced their intention to oppose Giuliani or any other pro-choice candidate [2] (http://www.renewamerica.us/news/040830parro.htm), though anecdotal evidence suggests that even among these voters, he enjoys some support. All this from an object that was never designed to lock into grinds, flip in the air or do the tricks performed by today's skateboarders. Wade decision. Many styles today are a mimic of Tom Penny, who is a pioneer and in the early 1990s was the first skater to catch his flip tricks in mid air. The vast majority of Republican voters and officeholders, along with some Democrats, support more restrictions on abortion than are currently permitted under the Roe v.

Recently his signature trick, the "900," was performed by an Italian skater named Georgio Zattoni and a Brazillian skater by the name of Sandro Dias. Also, Danny Way is considered by some to be the most innovative and daring skater, flying across the "DC Megaramps", and planning on jumping both the Great Wall of China and the Grand Canyon. One obstacle to such a national campaign would be his support for reproductive rights. In the vert world, some are surpassing the skills of Tony Hawk. He is also widely reported to be considering a run for the Presidency in 2008. Hawk has recently appeared in the MTV music video awards. Giuliani is often mentioned as a possible candidate for statewide office in 2006, either challenging Clinton in the Senate race, or running for Governor of New York if George Pataki decides not to seek re-election. Examples include Tony Hawk (who has a series of video games in his name), Bob Burnquist, Rodney Mullen, Mike Vallely, Steve Caballero, Bam Margera and Josh Kalis (who has appeared in numerous television advertisements for DC Shoes). He is also rumored to have mob ties, although those are unproven.

Very skillful skateboarders often become famous through sponsorship and endorsements. [1] (http://www.washingtontimes.com/national/20041202-115310-9067r.htm) It was also revealed that Kerik, a married man, had two mistresses, at one point simultaneously. The development of these complex tricks went from the street to the vertical tops of the half pipes (and other terrains). That move backfired after Kerik withdrew his nomination after it was revealed he had hired an illegal immigrant as a nanny and failed to pay the employer's taxes on her wages. On the way the board can twist and flip, as can the rider, then to be united before hitting ground. Giuliani turned down the offer and instead recommended former New York Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik. No longer is the trick to fly from one place to another. Giuliani, who was a vocal supporter of the re-election of George W. Bush in the 2004 election, was reportedly the top choice for Secretary of Homeland Security during Bush's second term.

The trick was reinvented by Rodney Mullen in the 80's, being transferred to the horizontal plane and used as a trick for freestyle skating (a style of skating popular in the 70's and 80's based on stationary maneuvers). Giuliani's Nextel telephone, now housed in a September 11th exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum of American History, continued working on September 11th and is a phone he was rarely without on the days that followed September 11th. It involves using your feet to press against the board in various complicated combinations, depending on the trick to be performed. In addition, Giuliani is a fan of Nextel Communications, a large distributor of two-way walkie-talkie telephones. To ollie is to fly off the ground (flat or a wall) with the board, but without holding onto the board and then landing back on the board. The new investment bank will be known as Giuliani Capital Advisors LLC and will advise companies on acquisitions, restructurings and other strategic issues. riding on only the front wheels (nose manual), spinning like an ice skater on the back wheels (a 360), high jumping over a bar, long jumping from one board to another (often over fearless teenagers lying on their backs), slalom, etc.) Around 1978 or so, street riding became transformed by the invention of the ollie or no hands aerial, the first modern skateboarding trick, by Alan "Ollie" Gelfand. On December 1, 2004 his consulting firm announced it purchased accounting firm Ernst & Young's investment banking unit.

Skating was originally basically two-dimensional tricks (e.g. After leaving the mayor's office, Giuliani built a security consulting business and gave speeches. With the evolution of skateboard parks (or skateparks) and ramp riding, the skateboard began to change. He married Nathan in May 2003. see: Skateboarding trick for detailed description of trick skating maneuvers. He and Hanover have one son and one daughter. The decks are still almost always maple plywood but interest in high technology materials has increased slightly after the cost of manufacturing them has dropped. Before the primary, however, he withdrew because of prostate cancer and the fallout from his relationship with Judith Nathan (he was married at the time to Donna Hanover, but they later divorced, and in late 2002 he became engaged to marry Nathan).

In the early 1990's, the wheels were only marginally larger than the bearings they encased to make complicated flip tricks easier but that fad died in 1994 and wheels currently are around 50 to 58mm in diameter. Senate in 2000, seeking the Republican nominaton to oppose Hillary Rodham Clinton. The wheel sizes are relatively small so that the boards will rotate more easily during flip tricks. Giuliani ran an aborted campaign for U.S. The wheels have an extremely hard durometer so that they will slide better during grind and slide tricks. For this, he was named TIME magazine's Person of the Year for 2001 and was given an honorary knighthood by Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom on February 13, 2002, entitling him to add the post-nominal KBE after his name. The boards are all about 7.75" wide and 31.5" long.
After the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center, Giuliani was widely hailed for his calm and effective leadership in the crisis.

The size and shape of the fourth and current generation of skateboards is dominated by one trick: the ollie. In one highly publicized appearance that took place shortly after his election, Giuliani filled a pothole in the street outside the Ed Sullivan theater. The third skateboarding generation was killed by the global economical recession in the early 90's. Giuliani made frequent visits to The Late Show with David Letterman television show, sometimes appearing as a guest and sometimes participating in comedy segments. Manufacturers preferred maple plywood over more exotic composite materials almost exclusively. Giuliani, after being elected, avoided one-on-one interviews with the press, preferring to only speak to them at press conferences or on the steps of City Hall. With vert skating being dominant decks were initially very wide with large and wide wheels, though as time progressed and skateparks became fewer in number, street skating was gaining popularity, causing a change in both deck shape and wheel size. Throughout his term, Giuliani pursued the construction of new sports stadiums in Manhattan, a goal in which he did not succeed, though new minor league baseball stadiums opened in Brooklyn, for the Brooklyn Cyclones, and in Staten Island, for the Staten Island Yankees.

The invention of the ollie made it possible for skaters to perform huge airs off vertical ramps. The Times Square redevelopment project saw Times Square transformed from a run-down center for businesses ranging from tourist attractions and peep shows to a high-price district filled with family-oriented stores and theaters, including the MTV studios and a massive Disney store and theater. The focus was initially on halfpipe and vert ramp skateboarding. Giuliani pursued similarly aggressive real estate policies. The third skateboard generation, from early eighties to early nineties, was started by skateboard companies that actively promoted their sport. Of numerous instances of unarmed black men killed or brutalized by NYPD under the Giuliani administration, the best-known are the shooting of Amadou Diallo and the assault of Abner Louima. In the end of 1980, skateboarding had died again. Many argue that the NYPD's new policies curtailed the civil liberties of innocent citizens, particularly minorities. (The City was sued over two dozen times on First Amendment issues and lost each case.) Even the Deputy Mayor, Rudy Washington, was subjected to harassment by NYPD.

Many skateparks went out of business and the parks were torn down or bulldozed. However, Giuliani's aggressive tactics, described by former Mayor Dinkins as assuming that the ends justify the means (interview with CourtTV), required vastly more arrests when criminal descriptions were vague. This caused liability concerns and increased insurance costs to skatepark owners. His focus on this issue in press conferences and other public events, combined with the declining crime rate, convinced the media and the public that New York city was no longer a crime-infested metropolis. Skateboarders, most notably the Z-Boys, started to skate the vertical walls of swimming pools that were left empty in the 1976 California drought. With increased control skateboarders could skate faster and perform more dangerous tricks. Although detractors note that the crime rate was already steadily declining when Giuliani entered office, and that the increase in the size of the police force began under the Dinkins administration, Giuliani is often credited with "cleaning up" New York City. The skateboarders took advantage of the improved handling of their skateboards and started inventing new tricks. In his first term as mayor, Giuliani pursued an aggressive and very public policing policy in conjunction with Bill Bratton whom he appointed as NYPD Commissioner in 1994.

Manufacturers started to experiment with more exotic composites, like fiberglass and aluminium but the common skateboards were made of maple plywood. Afterward, he finally decided on being a Republican. As the equipment became more maneuverable the decks started to get wider, reaching widths of 10 inches and over in the end, thus giving the skateboarder even more control. Rudy Giuliani started his political life as a Democrat, before registering as an Independent. With the growing interest companies started to invest more in product development and many companies started to manufacture trucks especially designed for skateboarding. Giuliani first ran as the Republican candidate for mayor in 1989 but he lost the contest to succeed Ed Koch to Democrat David Dinkins. The improvement in traction and performance was so immense that popularity of skateboarding started to rise rapidly again. government, in a high-profile case, that there was "no political repression" in Haiti under President Jean-Claude Duvalier, aka "Baby Doc".

In 1970 Frank Nasworthy started to develop a skateboard wheel made of urethane. He successfully argued on behalf of the U.S. Many skateboard manufacturers went out of business because of losing money on cancelled orders for the Christmas holiday season. Department of Justice. This development caused the first skateboarding fad to die completely in the fall of 1965. Giuliani was subsequently appointed the third-ranking official in the U.S. This made skateboarding inherently a dangerous sport and after a few years many cities banned skateboarding because of liability concerns. Giuliani attracted some criticism for arranging very public arrests of people, then dropping charges for lack of evidence instead of going to trial.

They had poor traction and would come to a dead stop when rolling over even small pebbles. In that position he prosecuted numerous high-profile cases, including indictments of leading Wall Street figures Ivan Boesky and Michael Milken for insider trading. These boards used wheels made of clay. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. The boards were from 6 to 7 inches wide. Giuliani first gained national prominence as the federal U.S. At the time there was a rapidly growing interest in skateboarding (sometimes referred to as sidewalk surfing) and soon many other similar products emerged. Born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, Giuliani attended Manhattan College and graduated from New York University School of Law with honors.

Before this skateboards were home made pieces of wooden planks with roller skates attached to the bottom. He is currently Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Giuliani Partners LLC, which he founded in January 2002. The first commercial skateboard was the Roller Derby Skateboard that was introduced in 1959. Rudolph William Louis "Rudy" Giuliani III (born May 28, 1944) served as the Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2001. Surfers are adapting skateboarding tricks into surfing, and the result is evolution in both sports. While surfing influenced skateboarding in it's early days, now the reverse is also true.

Skateboarding has its origins in surfing, and was originally called "sidewalk surfing". Improvements in skateboarding equipment have spurred advancement in skateboarding techniques and new techniques have required new equipment. The history of skateboarding goes hand in hand with the history of the skateboard. Skateboarding has been thought of by many as part of the extreme sports family, which also includes (but not restricted to) snowboarding, BMX, and surfing.

Like roller skating, skateboarding is often done for recreation and as a sport, but, more often than ice skating, it is a method of transportation. Someone who skateboards is a skater (or skateboarder or most fully skateboard rider), though the shortest term may also refer to someone ice skating or roller skating. Skateboarding is the act of rolling on or interacting with a skateboard. Danny Way.

Mike Vallely. Tony Trujillo. Jamie Thomas. Ed Templeton.

Aaron Suski. Elissa Steamer. Arto Saari. Kanten Russell.

Geoff Rowley. Andrew Reynolds. Stacy Peralta. Tom Penny.

Chad Muska. Rodney Mullen. Guy Mariano. Bam Margera.

Jason Lee. Bucky Lasek. Eric Koston. Heath Kirchart.

Tony Hawk. Mark Gonzales. Rune Glifberg. Kareem Campbell.

Steve Caballero. Bob Burnquist. Stephen Berra. Mark Appleyard.

Tony Alva. Jay Adams.

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