SkateboardingA skateboarder in the middle of a trick
Skateboarding is the act of rolling on or interacting with a skateboard. Someone who skateboards is a skater (or skateboarder or most fully skateboard rider), though the shortest term may also refer to someone ice skating or roller skating.
Like roller skating, skateboarding is often done for recreation and as a sport, but, more often than ice skating, it is a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been thought of by many as part of the extreme sports family, which also includes (but not restricted to) snowboarding, BMX, and surfing.
History of the skateboard
The history of skateboarding goes hand in hand with the history of the skateboard. Improvements in skateboarding equipment have spurred advancement in skateboarding techniques and new techniques have required new equipment.
Skateboarding has its origins in surfing, and was originally called "sidewalk surfing". While surfing influenced skateboarding in it's early days, now the reverse is also true. Surfers are adapting skateboarding tricks into surfing, and the result is evolution in both sports.
The first skateboard
The first commercial skateboard was the Roller Derby Skateboard that was introduced in 1959. Before this skateboards were home made pieces of wooden planks with roller skates attached to the bottom. At the time there was a rapidly growing interest in skateboarding (sometimes referred to as sidewalk surfing) and soon many other similar products emerged. The boards were from 6 to 7 inches wide. These boards used wheels made of clay. They had poor traction and would come to a dead stop when rolling over even small pebbles. This made skateboarding inherently a dangerous sport and after a few years many cities banned skateboarding because of liability concerns. This development caused the first skateboarding fad to die completely in the fall of 1965. Many skateboard manufacturers went out of business because of losing money on cancelled orders for the Christmas holiday season.
The second generation
In 1970 Frank Nasworthy started to develop a skateboard wheel made of urethane. The improvement in traction and performance was so immense that popularity of skateboarding started to rise rapidly again. With the growing interest companies started to invest more in product development and many companies started to manufacture trucks especially designed for skateboarding. As the equipment became more maneuverable the decks started to get wider, reaching widths of 10 inches and over in the end, thus giving the skateboarder even more control. Manufacturers started to experiment with more exotic composites, like fiberglass and aluminium but the common skateboards were made of maple plywood. The skateboarders took advantage of the improved handling of their skateboards and started inventing new tricks. Skateboarders, most notably the Z-Boys, started to skate the vertical walls of swimming pools that were left empty in the 1976 California drought. With increased control skateboarders could skate faster and perform more dangerous tricks. This caused liability concerns and increased insurance costs to skatepark owners. Many skateparks went out of business and the parks were torn down or bulldozed. In the end of 1980, skateboarding had died again.
The third generation
The third skateboard generation, from early eighties to early nineties, was started by skateboard companies that actively promoted their sport. The focus was initially on halfpipe and vert ramp skateboarding. The invention of the ollie made it possible for skaters to perform huge airs off vertical ramps. With vert skating being dominant decks were initially very wide with large and wide wheels, though as time progressed and skateparks became fewer in number, street skating was gaining popularity, causing a change in both deck shape and wheel size. Manufacturers preferred maple plywood over more exotic composite materials almost exclusively. The third skateboarding generation was killed by the global economical recession in the early 90's.
The current generation
The size and shape of the fourth and current generation of skateboards is dominated by one trick: the ollie. The boards are all about 7.75" wide and 31.5" long. The wheels have an extremely hard durometer so that they will slide better during grind and slide tricks. The wheel sizes are relatively small so that the boards will rotate more easily during flip tricks. In the early 1990's, the wheels were only marginally larger than the bearings they encased to make complicated flip tricks easier but that fad died in 1994 and wheels currently are around 50 to 58mm in diameter. The decks are still almost always maple plywood but interest in high technology materials has increased slightly after the cost of manufacturing them has dropped.
see: Skateboarding trick for detailed description of trick skating maneuversEven young children can have fun at the skatepark.
With the evolution of skateboard parks (or skateparks) and ramp riding, the skateboard began to change. Skating was originally basically two-dimensional tricks (e.g. riding on only the front wheels (nose manual), spinning like an ice skater on the back wheels (a 360), high jumping over a bar, long jumping from one board to another (often over fearless teenagers lying on their backs), slalom, etc.) Around 1978 or so, street riding became transformed by the invention of the ollie or no hands aerial, the first modern skateboarding trick, by Alan "Ollie" Gelfand. To ollie is to fly off the ground (flat or a wall) with the board, but without holding onto the board and then landing back on the board. It involves using your feet to press against the board in various complicated combinations, depending on the trick to be performed. The trick was reinvented by Rodney Mullen in the 80's, being transferred to the horizontal plane and used as a trick for freestyle skating (a style of skating popular in the 70's and 80's based on stationary maneuvers). No longer is the trick to fly from one place to another. On the way the board can twist and flip, as can the rider, then to be united before hitting ground. The development of these complex tricks went from the street to the vertical tops of the half pipes (and other terrains).
Very skillful skateboarders often become famous through sponsorship and endorsements. Examples include Tony Hawk (who has a series of video games in his name), Bob Burnquist, Rodney Mullen, Mike Vallely, Steve Caballero, Bam Margera and Josh Kalis (who has appeared in numerous television advertisements for DC Shoes). Hawk has recently appeared in the MTV music video awards. In the vert world, some are surpassing the skills of Tony Hawk. Recently his signature trick, the "900," was performed by an Italian skater named Georgio Zattoni and a Brazillian skater by the name of Sandro Dias. Also, Danny Way is considered by some to be the most innovative and daring skater, flying across the "DC Megaramps", and planning on jumping both the Great Wall of China and the Grand Canyon. Many styles today are a mimic of Tom Penny, who is a pioneer and in the early 1990s was the first skater to catch his flip tricks in mid air.
All this from an object that was never designed to lock into grinds, flip in the air or do the tricks performed by today's skateboarders. Throwing themselves down large stairs and handrails only ups the ante in the modern skateboarding world. Today's skateboarders not only differ greatly from those only 10 years ago in terms of tricks and consistency, but also style, which is a very important aspect in the way skateboarders are marketed by skateboarding companies.
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Today's skateboarders not only differ greatly from those only 10 years ago in terms of tricks and consistency, but also style, which is a very important aspect in the way skateboarders are marketed by skateboarding companies. In his post-presidential years, Clinton also made it known that he would like to serve as Secretary-General of the United Nations. Throwing themselves down large stairs and handrails only ups the ante in the modern skateboarding world. Bush as the first American heads of state to attend a papal funeral. All this from an object that was never designed to lock into grinds, flip in the air or do the tricks performed by today's skateboarders. Bush and former president George H.W. Many styles today are a mimic of Tom Penny, who is a pioneer and in the early 1990s was the first skater to catch his flip tricks in mid air.  (http://apnews.myway.com/article/20050406/D89A4IV80.html) Clinton sat with both President George W.
Recently his signature trick, the "900," was performed by an Italian skater named Georgio Zattoni and a Brazillian skater by the name of Sandro Dias. Also, Danny Way is considered by some to be the most innovative and daring skater, flying across the "DC Megaramps", and planning on jumping both the Great Wall of China and the Grand Canyon. But on balance, he was a man of God, he was a consistent person, he did what he thought was right." He also claimed to have met "two great popes" in his life, when the other he was referring to was John XXIII, who died when Clinton was in high school without ever visiting America. In the vert world, some are surpassing the skills of Tony Hawk. Following the death of Pope John Paul II on April 2, 2005 Clinton stirred up two mini-controversies saying the late pontiff, "may have had a mixed legacy...there will be debates about him. Hawk has recently appeared in the MTV music video awards. Five days later, he and Bush both appeared on the Super Bowl XXXIX pregame show on Fox in support of their bipartisan effort to raise money for relief of the disaster through the USA Freedom Corps, an action which Bush described as "transcending politics." Thirteen days later, they both traveled to the affected areas to see how the relief efforts are going. Examples include Tony Hawk (who has a series of video games in his name), Bob Burnquist, Rodney Mullen, Mike Vallely, Steve Caballero, Bam Margera and Josh Kalis (who has appeared in numerous television advertisements for DC Shoes). On February 1, 2005, he was picked by U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan to head the United Nations earthquake and tsunami relief and reconstruction effort.
Very skillful skateboarders often become famous through sponsorship and endorsements. Bush to lead a nationwide campaign to help the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The development of these complex tricks went from the street to the vertical tops of the half pipes (and other terrains). W. On the way the board can twist and flip, as can the rider, then to be united before hitting ground. Bush named Clinton and George H. No longer is the trick to fly from one place to another. On January 3, 2005, President George W.
The trick was reinvented by Rodney Mullen in the 80's, being transferred to the horizontal plane and used as a trick for freestyle skating (a style of skating popular in the 70's and 80's based on stationary maneuvers). However at the portait unveiling three years later Bush reeled in unusual praise for Clinton as one who "brought energy and joy into this [White] house" and displayed a liking for Clinton's "confidence."  (http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6803476/site/newsweek). It involves using your feet to press against the board in various complicated combinations, depending on the trick to be performed. During the 2000 presidential campaign, Bush deemed Clinton "the shadow" and vowed to "uphold dignity" into the White House once he departed in January of 2001. To ollie is to fly off the ground (flat or a wall) with the board, but without holding onto the board and then landing back on the board. Since the official unveiling of his White House portrait in June 2004, and especially since the 2004 election, Clinton and Bush have met on occasion, although the nature of the friendship does not appear to be a reconciliation of political opinions. riding on only the front wheels (nose manual), spinning like an ice skater on the back wheels (a 360), high jumping over a bar, long jumping from one board to another (often over fearless teenagers lying on their backs), slalom, etc.) Around 1978 or so, street riding became transformed by the invention of the ollie or no hands aerial, the first modern skateboarding trick, by Alan "Ollie" Gelfand. Bush.
Skating was originally basically two-dimensional tricks (e.g. There has been reported signs of a friendship growing between former president Clinton and George W. With the evolution of skateboard parks (or skateparks) and ramp riding, the skateboard began to change. On December 8, 2004, Clinton announced that he was the new spokesperson for Accoona, an internet search engine company. see: Skateboarding trick for detailed description of trick skating maneuvers. Bush) as honorary members of the board rebuilding the World Trade Center. The decks are still almost always maple plywood but interest in high technology materials has increased slightly after the cost of manufacturing them has dropped. W.
In the early 1990's, the wheels were only marginally larger than the bearings they encased to make complicated flip tricks easier but that fad died in 1994 and wheels currently are around 50 to 58mm in diameter. On November 22, 2004, New York Republican Governor George Pataki named Clinton and the other living former presidents (Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, and George H. The wheel sizes are relatively small so that the boards will rotate more easily during flip tricks. Bush. He was also treated to a musical rendition from Bono and The Edge from U2, who expressed their gratitude at Clinton's efforts to resolve the Northern Ireland conflict during his presidency. The wheels have an extremely hard durometer so that they will slide better during grind and slide tricks. Bush, as well as from the current president, George W. The boards are all about 7.75" wide and 31.5" long. W.
The size and shape of the fourth and current generation of skateboards is dominated by one trick: the ollie. Under rainy skies, Clinton received words of praise from former presidents Jimmy Carter and George H. The third skateboarding generation was killed by the global economical recession in the early 90's. Clinton Presidential Center, in Little Rock, Arkansas on November 18, 2004. Manufacturers preferred maple plywood over more exotic composite materials almost exclusively. He dedicated his presidential library, which is the largest in the nation, the William J. With vert skating being dominant decks were initially very wide with large and wide wheels, though as time progressed and skateparks became fewer in number, street skating was gaining popularity, causing a change in both deck shape and wheel size. On March 10, 2005, he underwent a follow-up surgery to remove scar tissue and fluid from his left chest cavity, a result of his open-heart surgery.
The invention of the ollie made it possible for skaters to perform huge airs off vertical ramps. The medical team responsible for Clinton claimed that, had he not had surgery, he would likely have suffered a massive heart attack within a few months. The focus was initially on halfpipe and vert ramp skateboarding. He was transferred to Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City, where he successfully underwent quadruple coronary artery bypass surgery on September 6, 2004. The third skateboard generation, from early eighties to early nineties, was started by skateboard companies that actively promoted their sport. It was determined that he had not suffered a coronary infarction, and he was sent home, returning the following day for angiography, which disclosed multiple vessel coronary artery disease. In the end of 1980, skateboarding had died again. On September 2, 2004, Clinton had an episode of angina and was evaluated at Northern Westchester Hospital.
Many skateparks went out of business and the parks were torn down or bulldozed. Bush, saying that "Strength and wisdom are not opposing values.". This caused liability concerns and increased insurance costs to skatepark owners. In it, Clinton criticized George W. Skateboarders, most notably the Z-Boys, started to skate the vertical walls of swimming pools that were left empty in the 1976 California drought. With increased control skateboarders could skate faster and perform more dangerous tricks. Many critics have argued that Clinton's speech is one of the best in Convention history. The skateboarders took advantage of the improved handling of their skateboards and started inventing new tricks. He used his speech to praise candidate John Kerry.
Manufacturers started to experiment with more exotic composites, like fiberglass and aluminium but the common skateboards were made of maple plywood. On July 26, 2004, Clinton spoke for the fifth time in a row to the Democratic National Convention. As the equipment became more maneuverable the decks started to get wider, reaching widths of 10 inches and over in the end, thus giving the skateboarder even more control. He also talked about repealing the 22nd Amendment in the event of a terrorist attack. With the growing interest companies started to invest more in product development and many companies started to manufacture trucks especially designed for skateboarding. Clinton mostly talked about his book and how he went about writing it, his thoughts on the issues that confronted the Bush administration, and the 2004 presidential election. The improvement in traction and performance was so immense that popularity of skateboarding started to rise rapidly again. Nor was there any mention of Hillary Clinton.
In 1970 Frank Nasworthy started to develop a skateboard wheel made of urethane. On September 11, 2004, CBC Newsworld, which is the CBC's cable news network, began its sixth season of "Mansbridge One on One (http://www.cbc.ca/programs/sites/mansbridge.html)" with an interview Clinton gave with the program's host, the network's chief correspondent, Peter Mansbridge  (http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/clinton/interview.html)  (http://media.cbc.ca:8080/ramgen/newsworld/clips/rm-newsworld/mansbridge_clinton0408051.rm). Unlike Dimbleby, Mansbridge didn't mention the Lewinsky affair. Many skateboard manufacturers went out of business because of losing money on cancelled orders for the Christmas holiday season. One of those was in Canada. This development caused the first skateboarding fad to die completely in the fall of 1965. Clinton has gone to other countries for his book tours and has given media interviews on them. This made skateboarding inherently a dangerous sport and after a few years many cities banned skateboarding because of liability concerns. He also spoke about the prospects of a future Clinton presidency, should his wife Hillary Clinton decide to run for office in 2008.
They had poor traction and would come to a dead stop when rolling over even small pebbles. In an interview with David Dimbleby  (http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/spl/hi/programmes/panorama/transcripts/clintoninterview.txt) which aired on the BBC on June 23, 2004, Clinton was questioned at length about the effects to his presidency of his affair with Monica Lewinsky, conceding that he had made many mistakes while in office. These boards used wheels made of clay. Commenting on memoirs in general, he said "some are dull and self-serving, hopefully mine will be interesting and self-serving." The book made an unprecedented three appearances on the Amazon.com best-seller list, before it was even released. The boards were from 6 to 7 inches wide. Clinton collected his memoirs into a book entitled My Life, which was released on June 22, 2004. At the time there was a rapidly growing interest in skateboarding (sometimes referred to as sidewalk surfing) and soon many other similar products emerged. Clinton won a second Grammy in February 2005, Best Spoken Word Album for My Life.
Before this skateboards were home made pieces of wooden planks with roller skates attached to the bottom. In February 2004, Clinton (along with Mikhail Gorbachev and Sophia Loren) won a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children for narrating the Russian National Orchestra's album Peter and the Wolf/Wolf Tracks. The first commercial skateboard was the Roller Derby Skateboard that was introduced in 1959. He assisted his wife Hillary Clinton in her campaign for office as a senator representing New York. Surfers are adapting skateboarding tricks into surfing, and the result is evolution in both sports. Clinton's close relationship with the African American community has been highlighted in his post-Presidential career with his opening of his personal office in the Harlem section of New York City. While surfing influenced skateboarding in it's early days, now the reverse is also true. One notable theme is his advocacy of multilateral solutions to problems facing the world.
Skateboarding has its origins in surfing, and was originally called "sidewalk surfing". In these, he continues to comment on aspects of contemporary politics. Improvements in skateboarding equipment have spurred advancement in skateboarding techniques and new techniques have required new equipment. Like many former American presidents, Clinton has engaged in a career as a public speaker on a variety of issues. The history of skateboarding goes hand in hand with the history of the skateboard. Roosevelt (elected four times). Skateboarding has been thought of by many as part of the extreme sports family, which also includes (but not restricted to) snowboarding, BMX, and surfing. (The other two, Dwight Eisenhower and Ronald Reagan, were Republicans.) Clinton is also one of only five Democratic party candidates ever to be elected to two full terms as president — the others being Andrew Jackson, Grover Cleveland (non-consecutively), Woodrow Wilson, and Franklin D.
Like roller skating, skateboarding is often done for recreation and as a sport, but, more often than ice skating, it is a method of transportation. As of 2005, of the ten presidents to take office since the 22nd Amendment was ratified in 1951, Clinton is one of only three presidents to serve two full terms, and the only Democrat to do so. Someone who skateboards is a skater (or skateboarder or most fully skateboard rider), though the shortest term may also refer to someone ice skating or roller skating. Bush, whose father he had defeated in 1992. Skateboarding is the act of rolling on or interacting with a skateboard. On January 18, 2001, he addressed the nation one last time on television from the Oval Office of the White House, two days before handing over the presidency to George W. Danny Way. Additionally, there is controversy over his foreign policy actions; while some Americans feel that his foreign policies had resulted in an environment that permitted terrorists like Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda network to strike on September 11th, others feel that his efforts at fighting terrorism were hampered by excessive partisan bickering and were not continued effectively by the succeeding administration.
Mike Vallely. Some of the personal failures and moral lapses of Clinton have tainted his legacy in the eyes of many Americans in spite of the good economic growth of the late 1990's. Tony Trujillo. In a 21 January 2000 speech at the California Institute of Technology, Clinton said, "Some of our research goals may take twenty or more years to achieve, but that is precisely why there is an important role for the federal government.". Jamie Thomas. The Initiative was a federal nanoscale science, engineering, and technology research and development program. Ed Templeton. Howard Lovy, a nanotechnology writer, said the National Nanotechnology Initiative may "turn out to be one of Clinton's most-important legacies".
Aaron Suski. Clinton advocated nanotechnology development. Elissa Steamer. Clinton was able to surmount this problem through sheer personal charisma, but his successors have been less successful. Arto Saari. The current quandary of the Democratic party is felt by many to be primarily due to its inability to define itself vis-à-vis the Republican Party and offer a clear alternative. Kanten Russell. During the 1990s, the Party was accused of abandoning its traditional base of support (unions, the working class, minorities) in pursuit of a center-right position, responding to — and funded by — corporate contributors, with the soccer mom representing his new base.
Geoff Rowley. Clinton is seen as having led — in conjunction with the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC) — the Democratic Party away from the left, towards a more moderate centrist position. Andrew Reynolds. Clinton presided over the period of longest steady growth of the economy in modern American history. Stacy Peralta. He sometimes criticized other political leaders for being "out of touch" with the acceleration of technology. Tom Penny. unlimited applications"  (http://www.rand.org/scitech/stpi/ourfuture/Rosetta/millennium.html).
Chad Muska. Clinton was characterized by good grasp of the scientific issues and strong support of "unlimited scientific discovery, and.. Rodney Mullen. Clinton was seen as an educated and intelligent person. Guy Mariano. Other common nicknames include "Slick Willy" and "Clintoon" (by detractors), and the "Big Dog" (by fans). Bam Margera. One of the earliest was "Bubba", which alludes to his Southern "good ol' boy" background.
Jason Lee. Clinton is often referred to by nickname among both detractors and fans. Bucky Lasek. The deadly Branch Davidian standoff near Waco, Texas in 1993 fomented further far right hostility to the Clinton administration. Eric Koston. Among these were rumors of involvement with drug traffickers, personal cocaine use, and involvement in the death of long-time friend and aide Vince Foster (ruled a suicide). Heath Kirchart. Several lurid accusations were leveled by conservative talk radio.
Tony Hawk. Clinton was viewed with intense personal animosity by some on the far right. Mark Gonzales. After allegations had linked him to Paula Jones, Gennifer Flowers and Katherine Willey, Clinton's sex life would become the focus of his public image when in January 1998 recorded conversations by Linda Tripp contained statements by White House intern Monica Lewinsky about having oral sex. Rune Glifberg. Starting from 1992 Presidential election campaign, rumors about Clinton's adultery were floating about, and these surfaced and increased with Paula Jones' accusations of sexual harassment. Kareem Campbell. Clinton supporters point out that several prominent conservatives, including Newt Gingrich, had very similar charges of draft evasion, womanizing, and corruption in their past as well, and that these allegations are tied less to Clinton's actual "character" as they are to his refusal to conform to the conservatism expected from white Southern politicians.
Steve Caballero. Many white southern conservatives viewed Clinton as a "traitor" to his class, with his Ivy League and Rhodes Scholarship education and liberal world view. Bob Burnquist. Clinton's working-class white Southern background was a complicating factor. Stephen Berra. Intense opposition to the Clintons was perhaps the main factor in the phenomenal growth of conservative talk radio in the 1990s. Mark Appleyard. Although he was actually to the right of previous Democratic candidates for the presidency on many issues — he supported the death penalty, curfews, uniforms in public schools, and other measures opposed by youth rights supporters, and he expanded the War on Drugs greatly while in office — Clinton's actions during the 1960s were never forgotten by his opponents.
Tony Alva. Clinton's marijuana experimentation — clumsily excused by Clinton's statement that he "didn't inhale" — further damaged his image with some voters. Jay Adams. Clinton avoided the draft with a student deferment while studying abroad during the Vietnam War. In the 1960s, however, Clinton might not have been viewed as such by many of those in the hippie subculture. Social conservatives were put off by the impression of Bill Clinton having been a "hippie" during the late 1960s, his coming-of-age era.
Some even suspected that Hillary, and not Bill, was the dominant force behind the team. Many people saw the couple as an unprecedented political partnership. Hillary Clinton's very strong role in the administration led to a degree of criticism toward a First Lady not seen since the days of Eleanor Roosevelt. Toni Morrison dubbed Clinton "the first Black president", saying "Clinton displays almost every trope of blackness: single-parent household, born poor, working-class, saxophone-playing, McDonald's-and-junk-food-loving boy from Arkansas.".
 (http://www.americanprogress.org/site/pp.asp?c=biJRJ8OVF&b=122950). Clinton was very popular overall among African-Americans and made improving race relations a major theme of his presidency. Until his inauguration as president, he had earned substantially less money than his wife, and had the smallest net worth of any president in modern history, according to My Life, Clinton's autobiography. Clinton clearly came across as a man of the people.
Despite criticisms that his appeal to young voters lacked substance, Clinton won among Generation X voters in the 1992 election, with the highest Gen-X turnout ever. With his sound-bite rhetoric and pioneering use of pop culture in his campaigning, Clinton was declared, often negatively, as the "MTV president". Upon his entering the national political horizon, he was commented upon as an remarkably informal person with a "common man" touch – with his frequent patronage of McDonald's becoming a popular symbol of this image. As the first Baby Boomer president, Bill Clinton was seen during his presidency and during his candidacy as a change from the presidents of the World War II Generation.
However, he was disbarred from practicing law for five years by the State of Arkansas and the United States Supreme Court--resulting from an admitted purjury. He was acquitted in his Senate impeachment trial. Bush. No evidence was produced or charges brought; similarly unproven allegations of rape have also been lodged against Republican presidents Reagan and George W.
Also in 1998, Juanita Broaddrick alleged that Clinton had raped her in 1978. In March, 1998 Kathleen Willey, a White House aide, alleged that Clinton had sexually assualted her. Pardongate refers to a grant of clemency to FALN members in 1999 and pardons to Marc Rich and others in 2001. Chinagate involved Democrats accepting improper campaign contributions; allegedly the ultimate source of this money was the Chinese government.
Filegate refers to White House handling of hundreds of personnel files from individuals without asking for their permission. Travelgate refers to the firing of White House travel office staffers. In addition to impeachment, the Clinton White House was the subject of many lesser scandals. Again, the impeachment effort lacked bipartisan support, with no Democratic votes for conviction.
The obstruction of justice charge was defeated with 50 for conviction and 50 against. The perjury charge was defeated with 45 votes for conviction and 55 against. A two-thirds majority, 67 votes, is necessary to convict the President on impeachment charges. No witnesses were called during the trial.
The Senate impeachment trial lasted from January 7, 1999 until February 12. Based on taped phone conversations between Lewinsky and her confidante, Linda Tripp, Starr reached the conclusion that Clinton's statement constituted perjury. In a sworn deposition taken for this case, Clinton denied having sexual relations with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. Originally dealing with the failed land deal years earlier known as Whitewater, Starr, with the approval of Attorney General Janet Reno, expanded his investigation into Clinton's conduct during the sexual harassment lawsuit filed by a former Arkansas government employee, Paula Jones.
The charges arose from an investigation by independent counsel Kenneth Starr. The Senate acquitted Clinton on both counts in a trial concluding on February 12, 1999. The charges were perjury and obstruction of justice. Clinton was impeached as President of the United States on December 19, 1998 by the House of Representatives.
He made the following statement to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on February 17, 1998:. Critics also contend that Bill Clinton misled the public on matters of foreign policy another time when he made the claim that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction. ( (http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/International_War_Crimes/ClintonWarCriminal_Herman.html),  (http://agitprop.org.au/stopnato/19990607clintoncriminal.php),  (http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=14713)). Other critics argue America's contemporary attacks on Somalia, Bosnia, Sudan, and Afghanistan violated international law.
More of this can be found in Legacy by Rich Lowry. Many people, including many Israelis, believe that Clinton's main goal behind his attempts at brokering a peace agreement was to leave behind a good legacy and, potentially, receive a Nobel Peace Prize. Many felt that he elevated the stature of Yasser Arafat (many believed he was a terrorist) to that of a world leader and asked Israel for too many concessions--and not enough from Arafat. Many conservatives also felt that the treated the Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement in the wrong manner.
Reason magazine studied the sanctions and concluded, "It seems awfully hard not to conclude that the embargo on Iraq has been ineffective (especially since 1998) and that it has, at the least, contributed to more than 100,000 deaths since 1990." ( (http://www.reason.com/0203/fe.mw.the.shtml)). Some people believe that Clinton's continuation of economic sanctions against Iraq caused civilian deaths. Critics note that there were more civilian deaths caused by NATO than the amount of deaths Milosevic was charged with. NATO stepped up its claims about Serb 'killing fields.'" The actual number of civilian deaths is debated, with the numbers as high as 5,700 claimed by Yugoslavia, and with NATO acknowledging it killed, at most, 1,500 civilians.
In the aforementioned article, The Wall Street Journal wrote, "As the war dragged on [...] NATO saw a fatigued press corps drifting toward the contrarian story: civilians killed by NATO's bombs. Others have called Clinton a war criminal for the NATO bombing campaign during the Kosovo war. Instead, the pattern is of scattered killings.". The Wall Street Journal wrote, "the [U.N.'s International War Criminal] tribunal has checked the largest reported sites first, and found most to contain no more than five bodies, suggesting intimate acts of barbarity rather than mass murder [...] Kosovo would be easier to investigate if it had the huge killing fields some investigators were led to expect.
The headline of The Wall Street Journal on December 31, 1999 was "War in Kosovo Was Cruel, Bitter, Savage; Genocide It Wasn’t". The official NATO body count of the events in Kosovo was 2,788, with Slobodan Milosevic charged with the "murders of about 600 individually identified ethnic Albanians" ( (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/1402790.stm#kosovo),  (http://www.un.org/icty/indictment/english/mil-ai010629e.htm)). They may have been murdered." ( (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/balkans/stories/cohen051699.htm)) Clinton also claimed that genocide was occurring, and spoke of "at least 100,000 (Kosovar Albanians) missing" ( (http://www.clintonfoundation.org/legacy/051399-speech-by-president-to-veterans-organizations-on-kosovo.htm)). Later, talking about Serbian elections, Clinton said, "They're going to have to decide whether they support his leadership or not; whether they think it's OK that all those tens of thousands of people were killed..." ( (http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1999/06/25/clinton.newser/)). Some critics have accused Clinton of leading the United States to war with Kosovo under the false pretense of genocide. Defense Secretary William Cohen, claiming that genocide had occurred in Kosovo, said, "We've now seen about 100,000 military-aged men missing..
Navy destroyer Cole in Yemen in 2000. by foreign terrorists included the 1993 bombing of New York's World Trade Center, the 1996 bombing of the military quarters at the Khobar Towers, the 1998 bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, and the bombing of the U.S. During Clinton's tenure attacks on the U.S. Along with the United Nations, the Clinton administration initially did not publicly acknowledge that genocide was occurring.
Clinton identified his major foreign policy failure as lack of response to the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Mr. Subsequent events, including the collapse of the 2000 Camp David Summit and the commencement of the al-Aqsa Intifada, resulted in the Oslo Accords being widely discredited within Israel and in various Palestinian factions by 2004. After his presidency, Clinton identified his proudest foreign policy accomplishments as mediating peace talks between Israel and Palestine, resulting in the Oslo Accords.
In December, 2002, North Korea expelled IAEA inspectors from its Yongbyon nuclear facility, and announced (privately in 2003 and publicly in 2005), that they possessed nuclear weapons. However, by the mid 1990s defectors from North Korea, along with reports from the IAEA, indicated that North Korea was violating both the Nuclear Accords and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. In exchange for assistance with energy needs, North Korea agreed to abandon all ambitions for acquiring nuclear weapons. The underlying concern was that North Korea was developing nuclear weapons technology under the guise of a nuclear power plant.
In 1994, Clinton negotiated and signed the Nuclear Accords with North Korea. However, because he was scarred by the US defeat and humiliation in Somalia, he refused to get the US involved in the Rwandan genocide. Bush assassinated. W.
In addition, Clinton launched military strikes on Iraq several times to punish violations of UN sanctions and an attempt to have former President George H. Clinton also committed troops twice in the former-Yugoslavia to stop ethnic violence, most notably in Kosovo. Aristide, who had been elected, had been ousted in a coup just seven months into his term in 1991. troops into Haiti to restore Jean-Bertrand Aristide as president, ending a period of intense violence.
In 1994, Clinton sent U.S. troops fought the Battle of Mogadishu attempting to capture local warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid in Somalia. In 1993, U.S. military several times under hostile circumstances.
Clinton deployed the U.S. Although it is debated to what extent his policies were responsible, upon leaving office, Clinton proudly pointed to a number of economic accomplishments, including:. enjoyed continuous economic expansion, reductions in unemployment, and growing wealth through a massive rise in the stock market. During Clinton's tenure, the U.S.
The combination of Clinton's 1993 tax increase, the Republican Congress' 1995 spending cuts, and Fed chairman Alan Greenspan's masterful interest-rate tinkering finally brought the federal
budget into balance and ignited a boom in the American economy. Clinton appointed the following justices to the Supreme Court:.
By the beginning of 2005, however, the PIRA declared that it was withdrawing from the disarmament process. His involvement set in motion the process that led to the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) commencing disarmament on October 23, 2001. He took a personal interest in The Troubles in Northern Ireland and paid three visits there while he was president in order to encourage peace. In 1999, in conjunction with a U.S. Congress controlled by the Republican Party the United States had a balanced federal budget for the first time since Richard Nixon's presidency in 1969.
Clinton developed a close working relationship with Tony Blair, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, when he was elected in 1997. In the 1996 presidential election, Clinton was re-elected receiving 49.2% of the popular vote over Republican Bob Dole (40.7% of the popular vote) and Reform candidate Ross Perot (8.4% of the popular vote), while the Republicans retained control of the Congress losing but a few seats. The Republican-controlled Congress and Clinton sparred over the budget, Clinton's vetos resulting in a series of government shutdowns at a political penalty to the Republicans. After the 1994 election, the spotlight shifted to the Contract with America spearheaded by Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich.
They lost control of both houses of Congress for the first time in 40 years, in large part due to stalled legislation, including a failed attempt to create a comprehensive health care system under a plan developed by the First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton. After two years of Democratic party control under Clinton's leadership, the mid-term elections in 1994 proved disastrous for the Democrats. The First Lady played an active role in helping the President form policy, and Clinton's two best friends and most loyal supporters, Democratic spin doctors Paul Begala and James Carville, could often be seen defending the President's policies in Washington and the media. This is not to say that Clinton was without political confidants in the White House.
He went through four White House Chiefs of Staff — a record number of men in a position that had once been the epicenter of the Imperial Presidency. As president, Clinton was characterized as being a much more "hands on" president than some of his Republican predecessors. While Bush and Reagan had operated under what some critics dubbed an Imperial Presidency of bureaucratic "courtiers," Clinton had much more fickle relationships with his aides, and did not delegate them significant powers. It was the first major legislative defeat of Clinton's administration. Though initially well-received, it was ultimately doomed by well-organized opposition from conservatives and the health insurance industry, who urged Americans to read the actual details of the plan.
The most important item on Clinton's legislative agenda, however, was a complex health care reform plan, the result of a taskforce headed by Hillary Clinton, aimed at achieving universal coverage. After much debate, Clinton and the Pentagon agreed to a "Don't ask, don't tell" policy, which officially remains in effect. Shortly after taking office, Clinton fulfilled a campaign promise by signing the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, which required large employers to allow their employees to take unpaid leave because of a family or medical emergency. While this action was popular, Clinton's initial reluctance to fulfill another campaign promise relating to the acceptance of openly gay members of the military garnered criticism from both the left (for being too tentative in promoting gay rights) and the right (for being too insensitive to military life). Clinton's first act as president was to sign executive order 12834 (entitled "Ethics Commitments by Executive Branch Appointees"), which placed substantial restrictions upon the ability of his senior political appointees to lobby their colleagues after they leave office. Clinton rescinded the order shortly before he left office in executive order 13184 of December 28, 2000.
Congress as well as the Presidency, for the first time since the administration of Jimmy Carter. That election also brought the Democrats full control of the political branches of the federal government, including both houses of U.S. His election ended an era in which the Republican party had controlled the Presidency for 12 consecutive years, and for 20 of the previous 24 years. Roosevelt, though he is the first President since John Kennedy to have never achieved a majority of the popular vote.
Clinton was the first Democrat to serve two full terms as President since Franklin D. Ross Perot (19.0% of the vote), largely on a platform focusing on domestic issues, notably the economic recession of the pre-election period — using the line "It's the economy, stupid!" For more information about Clinton's campaign, see Bill Clinton presidential campaign, 1992. W. Bush (37.7% of the vote) and independent candidate H. Clinton won the 1992 presidential election (43.3% of the vote) against Republican George H.
While none of these alleged flaws led to Clinton's defeat, they did fuel unusually vehement opposition to Clinton among many conservatives from the very beginning of his presidency. Allegations of womanizing and shady business deals also were raised. Clinton's opponents raised various "character" issues during the campaign, including his avoidance of military service during the Vietnam War, and his glib response to a question about past marijuana use. In retrospect, many now view Gore as a helpful factor in the successful 1992 campaign.
Initially this decision sparked criticism from strategists due to the fact that Gore was from Clinton's neighboring state of Tennessee. (D-Tenn.) to be his running mate on July 9, 1992. Gore Jr. Albert A.
Sen. Clinton chose U.S. Positioning himself as a straight-talking everyman, Clinton handily won the Democratic Party's nomination. In the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War, President Bush seemed undefeatable, and several potential Democratic candidates — notably New York Governor Mario Cuomo — passed on what seemed to be a lost cause.
Bush. W. Despite this setback, Clinton prepared for a run in 1992 against incumbent president George H. Clinton's subsequent appearance on The Tonight Show was seen as a good way to defuse the criticism.
Clinton's address, scheduled to last 15 minutes, became a debacle as Clinton gave a notoriously dull speech that lasted over half an hour (he joked about the length of this speech at the 1992 convention). Clinton's first major foray into national politics occurred when he was enlisted to speak at the 1988 Democratic National Convention, introducing candidate Michael Dukakis. However, several deals the Clintons made during this period led to the Whitewater investigation, which dogged his later presidential administration. Clinton's business-friendly approach mollified conservative criticism during his terms as governor.
Clinton was elected governor again in 1982, re-elected in 1984, succeeded in getting the state constitution amended to allow governors four-year terms, then was re-elected in 1986 and 1990, serving until 1992. Hillary took her husband's surname and adopted a more traditional public role as a political wife, while quietly establishing herself as a political force in her own right through her skills as an attorney. He established new relationships with business interests, and made amends with the political establishment of the state. Out of office, Clinton addressed the concerns that led to his political failure.
As he once joked, he was the youngest ex-governor in the nation's history. White in 1980. After only one term, Clinton was defeated by Republican challenger Frank D. Furthermore, Hillary Rodham's decision to keep her maiden name while Arkansas' First Lady raised many eyebrows in the traditionally conservative state.
His first term was fraught with difficulties, including an unpopular motor vehicle tax and popular anger over the escape of Cuban prisoners (from the Mariel Boat Lift) detained in Fort Chafee in 1980. Bill Clinton was first elected governor of the state of Arkansas in 1978, when at the time he was the youngest state governor in the United States, and the youngest to be elected to a state governorship since 1938. After his teaching stint, Clinton was elected Attorney General of Arkansas in 1976. Clinton lost the election by over 6,000 votes.
During this time, he ran for the House of Representatives in 1974 against Congressman John Paul Hammerschmidt. Clinton taught law at the University of Arkansas for a few years. After Oxford, Clinton attended Yale Law School, where he met his future wife, classmate Hillary Rodham. William Fulbright and won a prestigious Rhodes Scholarship to the University of Oxford in England.
Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University in Washington DC, where he became a brother of Alpha Phi Omega, worked for Senator J. Clinton attended the Edmund A. (born 1956). His stepfather was a gambler and alcoholic who regularly abused his wife, and sometimes Clinton's half brother Roger, Jr.
Clinton grew up in a turbulent family. Billy, as he was called, was raised by his mother and stepfather, using the last name "Clinton" throughout elementary school, but not formally changing it until he was 15. His mother, born Virginia Dell Cassidy, remarried in 1950 to Roger Clinton. He was named after his father, William Jefferson Blythe Jr., a travelling salesman who had been killed in a car accident in Scott County, Missouri between the towns of Sikeston and Morley just three months before his son was born.
Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III in Hope, Arkansas and raised in Hot Springs, Arkansas. Bush and turning it into the largest surplus by the end of his office. W. He was elected twice with the highest percentage of the popular vote among his opponents (but never with a general majority). Characteristics of the period he presided as President included the lengthiest economic boom in American history, (though his opponents claim that this was due to the Republican majority in Congress) the most successful war in terms of American causalities during the Kosovo Conflict, inheriting at-the-time the largest American budget deficit from his predecessor President George H.
history. As such, his assumption of office marked a "generational shift" from the former Presidents who were mostly World War II veterans and had experienced the start of the Cold War in the 1950s. At times his approval rating was very low, setting a record low in his first year, but upon leaving office, it was the highest for a retiring President in modern U.S. He was the third youngest president and the first of the baby boomer generation. He became the second president to be impeached, on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice before a grand jury for his handling of the Monica Lewinsky affair  (http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?c105:3:./temp/~c105UynaA3::), but he was acquitted by the Senate.
He was also the subject of a series of independent counsel investigations by Congress, resulting in the indictment or conviction of many staff members, associates and friends, though never himself. Congress. His tenure was marked by an adversarial relationship with the Republican-controlled U.S. Internationally, his priorities included reducing trade barriers and mediating the Northern Ireland and Israeli-Palestinian conflicts.
During his tenure as President, his domestic priorities included legislation to upgrade education, to restrict handgun sales, to strengthen environmental rules, and to protect the jobs of parents who must care for sick children. A strong supporter of the Democratic Leadership Council, Clinton was generally considered a political moderate. Before his Presidency, Clinton served five terms as the Governor of Arkansas. William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
POTUS Speaks: Finding the Words That Defined the Clinton Presidency Simon & Schuster ISBN 0-74-320020-9. Michael Waldman (2000). ISBN 0-89-526302-5. Henry Holt.
Partners in Power: The Clintons & Their America. Roger Morris (1996). ISBN 0684818906. First In His Class : A Biography Of Bill Clinton, Simon & Schuster.
David Maraniss (1996). ISBN 1-59-129804-0. How To Destroy A Village : What The Clintons Taught A Seventeen Year Old, PublishAmerica. Fodeman (2003).
Jason D. ISBN 0-67-187147-1. Simon & Schuster. On the Edge: The Clinton Presidency.
Elizabeth Drew (1994). ISBN 0-31-227319-3. Martin's Griffin. St.
The Hunting of the President : The Ten-Year Campaign to Destroy Bill and Hillary Clinton. Joe Conason and Gene Lyons (2003). ISBN 0375414576. Knopf.
My Life. Bill Clinton (2004). ISBN 0-37-412502-3. Farrar Straus Giroux.
The Clinton Wars. Sidney Blumenthal (2003). ISBN 0-75-153035-2. William Morrow & Co., Inc.
Bill & Hillary: The Marriage. Christopher Anderson (1999). Bob Barr (2004) The Meaning of Is: The Squandered Impeachment and Wasted Legacy of William Jefferson Clinton Stroud & Hall Publishing ISBN 0-97-453762-4. Rozell (2000) The Clinton Scandal and the Future of American Government Georgetown University Press ISBN 0-87-840777-4.
Mark J. David Maraniss (1998) The Clinton Enigma : A Four and a Half Minute Speech Reveals This President's Entire Life Simon & Schuster ISBN 0-68-486296-4. James Bovard (2000) Feeling Your Pain: The Explosion and Abuse of Government Power in the Clinton-Gore Years St. Martin's Press ISBN 0-31-223082-6. Peter Baker (2000) The Breach : Inside the Impeachment and Trial of William Jefferson Clinton Scribner ISBN 0-68-486813-X.
Michael Isikoff (1999) Uncovering Clinton: A Reporter's Story Crown Publishing Group ISBN 0-60-960393-0. Starr on President Clinton and the Lewinsky Affair PublicAffairs ISBN 1-89-162024-X. Starr (1998) The Starr Report: The Findings of Independent Counsel Kenneth W. Kenneth W.
Dick Morris with Eileen McGann (2004) Because He Could. Rich Lowry (2003)Legacy: Paying the Price for the Clinton Years. "Columbia Nanotechnology: National Nanotechnology Initiative" (http://www.columbia.edu/cu/osi/natnanoin.html). "Clinton makes nanomention of large legacy" (http://nanobot.blogspot.com/2004/09/clinton-makes-nanomention-of-large.html).
Clinton's reputation is such that several film and song parodies have been made about his use of marijuana without inhaling, his womanizing and his dominant wife. Bill Clinton struggles with poor eating habits which led to heart problems, as he explained on Good Morning America, "I'm more sensitive to it because of my recent heart problems and because I had come to terms with the fact that they came about not only because of my predisposition to high cholesterol but because of decades of poor eating habits."  (http://1010wins.com/topstories/local_story_123115121.html). Opposition leader Vojislav Kostunica takes office as the Yugoslavian president the next day. October 5, 2000 - The defeat of Slobodan Milosevic in earlier elections leads to mass demonstrations in Belgrade and the ultimate collapse of the regime's authority.
(See Kosovo War.). June, 1999 - Serbia hands control of Kosovo to the United Nations. (See Kosovo War.). planes accidentally bomb China's embassy in Belgrade.
May 7, 1999 - U.S. (See Kosovo War.). March 24 to June 10, 1999 - NATO bombs Kosovo and Serbia. February 12, 1999 - Clinton is acquitted of all charges by the Senate.
January 7, 1999 - The trial of Clinton in the Senate begins. December 19, 1998 - Clinton is impeached by the House of Representatives on grounds of perjury and obstruction of justice. In the evening, he delivers a nationally televised address (http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/08/17/speech/transcript.html) in which he describes the relationship as "not appropriate" but also "nobody's business". August 17, 1998 - Clinton testifies before a grand jury about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky.
August, 1998 - Clinton orders cruise missile strikes on Afghanistan and a suspected chemical weapons factory in Sudan as Monica Lewinsky testifies before a grand jury about her relationship with Clinton. October, 1997 - Visit by President of the People's Republic of China Jiang Zemin to the White House. November, 1996 - Clinton is reelected, defeating Republican challenger Bob Dole. Mitchell.
December, 1995 - Clinton visits Ireland, leading to the establishment of an International Commission chaired by former U.S. Senator George J. November, 1995 - Clinton organizes peace talks for Bosnia and Herzegovina at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, eventually resulting in the Dayton Agreement. November 14, 1995 - Budget negotiations between Congress and the President break down, resulting in a temporary shutdown of the Federal Government. Shutdowns (partial and full) continue through January, 1996. April 19, 1995 - Oklahoma City bombing - Bombing of federal building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma results in the deaths of 168 people, 19 of whom were children.
January 14, 1994 - Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin sign the Kremlin accords which stop the preprogrammed aiming of nuclear missiles to targets and also provide for the dismantling of the nuclear arsenal in Ukraine. October 3, 1993 - Battle of Mogadishu - Ranger Units receive heavy casualties in Somalia, Blackhawk Down incident. July 20, 1993 - Clinton friend and confidant Vince Foster is found dead of a gunshot wound. Clinton and Attorney General Janet Reno receive criticism for mishandling the stand-off.
April 19, 1993 - A government siege of the Branch Davidian compound at Waco, Texas, results in the deaths of 80 people when a cult leader allegedly sets fire to his own compound. Higher stock ownership by families than ever before. Lowest government spending as a percentage of GDP since 1974  (http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy00/guide04.html). Largest budget deficit in American history converted to the largest surplus.
Higher incomes at all levels. Lowest unemployment in 30 years. Homeownership rate increase from 64.0% to 67.5%. More than 22 million new jobs.
Stephen Breyer - 1994. Ruth Bader Ginsburg - 1993. Initiated the Don't ask, don't tell policy toward gays in the military, 1993. Tried to get Ehud Barak of Israel and Yasser Arafat of the Palestinian National Authority, to agree to a final settlement agreement.
Appointed a committee on Social Security Reform and then dismissed their recommendations without ever proposing legislation. Campaign finance reform (1993). Health care reform. Congress overrode the veto, however, to enact the bill into law.
the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act. Twice vetoed welfare reform before signing. 1833, partial birth abortion ban. H.R.
national budget. October 31, 1998 - Iraq Liberation Act. October 28, 1998 - Digital Millennium Copyright Act. August 5, 1997 - Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997.
September 21, 1996 - Defense of Marriage Act, allowed states the power to refuse to recognize gay marriages granted in other states, among other things. August 20, 1996 - Minimum wage Increase Act. April 24, 1996 - Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act. April 9, 1996 - Line Item Veto Act.
March 14, 1996 - authorized $100 million anti-terrorism agreement with Israel to track down and root out terrorists. February 26, 1996 - Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, a welfare reform bill. February 8, 1996 - Telecom Reform Act: eliminated major ownership restrictions for radio and television groups. February 1, 1996 - Communications Decency Act.
1995 - Executive Order 12958, created tough new standards for the process of classifying documents. September 13, 1994 - Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, part of an omnibus crime bill, the federal death penalty was expanded to some 60 different offenses. January 1, 1994 - NAFTA. November 30, 1993 - Brady Bill.
September 21, 1993 - creation of the AmeriCorps volunteer program. August 10, 1993 - Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 - Adjusted taxes; income tax, top rate: 39.6%; corporate tax: 35%.