Simon and Garfunkel

(Redirected from Simon & Garfunkel) Bridge Over Troubled Water was Simon and Garfunkel's last album; the title track was one of three number one hits in the United States but their only number one hit in the United Kingdom.

Simon and Garfunkel were a popular music duo comprised of Paul Simon and Arthur "Art" Garfunkel. Simon and Garfunkel were among the most popular recording artists of the 1960s, and are best known for their songs, "The Sound of Silence", "Mrs. Robinson" and "Bridge Over Troubled Water". They have received several Grammys and are inductees of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Early history

In 1956, Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel were juniors at Forest Hills High School in New York City who began playing together as a group called Tom and Jerry, with Simon as Jerry Landis and Garfunkel as Tom Graph — so called because he always liked to track "graph" hits on the pop charts. As seniors in 1957, they started writing their own songs in the Everly Brothers' rock and roll style. They managed to record one of their first songs, Hey, Schoolgirl, for Sid Prosen of Big Records. Released on 45 and 78 rpm records, the single — backed with "Dancin' Wild" — sold 100,000 copies, hitting #49 on the Billboard charts.



They later performed their hit on American Bandstand, right after Jerry Lee Lewis' "Great Balls of Fire".

Subsequent efforts in 1958 did not reach near their initial success, and after high school the duo split, with Simon enrolling at Queens College and Garfunkel matriculating into Columbia University.

In 1963 they found prominence as part of the same New York City folk music scene as Bob Dylan, with close harmony singing inspired by the Everly Brothers, combined with Simon's acoustic guitar playing. Simon, who had finished college but dropped out of Brooklyn Law School, had — like Garfunkel — developed an interest in the folk scene. Simon showed Garfunkel a few songs that he had written in the folk style: "Sparrow", "Bleecker Street", and "He Was My Brother" — which was later dedicated to Andrew Goodman, a friend of both Simon and Garfunkel, and a classmate of Simon's at Queen's College, who was one of three civil rights workers murdered in Neshoba County, Mississippi, on June 21, 1964.

These three efforts were among five original songs by Simon included on their first album for Columbia Records, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., which initially flopped upon its release on October 19, 1964.

First breakup

Shortly after finishing recording, the duo effectively split again and Simon moved to England, where he recorded his solo The Paul Simon Song Book in May 1965. Recorded on three different dates in June and July at Levy's Studio, London, and featuring only Simon and his guitar, it is a refreshing souvenir of the early folk work of Paul Simon. The album was supposedly deleted about 1979 at Simon's request, but was re-introduced on CD with bonus tracks in 2004.

While Simon was in England that summer of 1965, radio stations around Cocoa Beach and Gainesville, Florida, began to receive requests for a song from the album Wednesday Morning, 3 A. M. called "The Sound of Silence". The song also began to receive radio airplay in Boston. Seizing the chance, the duo's U.S. producer, Tom Wilson, who had heard The Byrds' early folk records, dubbed an electric guitar and drums into "The Sound of Silence" track, and released it as a single, backed with "We've Got a Groovey Thing Goin'". The dubbing turned folk into folk-rock, the debut of a new genre for the Top 40, much to Simon's surprise.

In September 1965, Simon first learned that it had entered the pop charts while about to go on stage in a Danish folk club. It hit number 1 on the pop charts by December.

Reunification

Simon immediately returned to the United States and the group re-formed for the second time to record more tracks in a similar style, though neither approved of what Wilson had done with "The Sound of Silence."

The result was a sequence of folk-rock records, which have endured as well as any in the genre. Simon's lyrics were often insightful and picturesque, but leavened by a consistent dry humour.

On January 17, 1966, the duo released the album Sounds of Silence, which – helped by the title track's success – hit #21, while Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. was re-released and reached #30.

Among the tracks on The Paul Simon Song Book that were rerecorded with electric backing for "Sounds of Silence" were "I Am A Rock" (which as a single reached US #3 in the summer of 1966), "Leaves That Are Green", "April Come She Will", and "Kathy's Song".

Further hit singles came, including "Scarborough Fair/Canticle", based on a traditional English ballad with an original counter-melody, and "Homeward Bound" (later US #5), about life on the road while Simon was touring in England in 1965.

More tracks from The Paul Simon Song Book were included with recent compositions on their October 10, 1966 album Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme, which refined the folk-rock sound hastily released on Sounds of Silence.

In 1967, Simon and Garfunkel contributed heavily to the soundtrack to Mike Nichols' film The Graduate, which was released on January 21, 1968, and instantly rose to #1 as an album.

As their albums became progressively more adventurous, The Graduate Original Soundtrack was immediately followed in April 1968 at the top of the charts by Bookends, which dealt with increasingly complex themes of old age and loss. It features the top-25 hit singles "A Hazy Shade Of Winter", "Fakin' It", "At The Zoo", "America", and "Mrs. Robinson", the classic from the Graduate soundtrack, which became #1 as a single.

At the March 1969 Grammy Awards, "Mrs. Robinson" was named Record of the Year, while Simon was also honored with the Grammy for Best Original Score for a Motion Picture.

Second breakup

By 1969, the duo's success began to take its toll. Garfunkel had begun to pursue a career in acting, in Nichols' follow-up to The Graduate, starring as Nately in the movie version of Catch-22. This increasingly frustrated Simon when Garfunkel's leave interfered with the recording of the duo's next album, and it didn't help that Simon's part in the film had been cut before filming actually began.

The duo's deteriorating personal relationship continued into their late 1969 tour, which featured performances at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio on November 11 and Carbondale, Illinois on November 8, recordings of which are supposedly widely bootlegged. Video footage of the tour was shown on their controversial November 30 television special Songs Of America, which TV sponsors refused to endorse because of its distinct anti-Vietnam War message.

Their long-delayed final album, Bridge Over Troubled Water, was at last released on January 26, 1970. Its title track, featuring Garfunkel's soaring vocals, was a massive hit and one of the best-selling records of the decade, staying #1 on the charts for six full weeks and on the charts for far longer thereafter. The album includes three other top-twenty hits, including "El Condor Pasa" (US #18), "Cecilia" (US #4), and "The Boxer" – which, finished in 1968, hit #7 on the charts the following year – as well as a live recording of the Everly Brothers' "Bye Bye Love" from Ames, Iowa, on their 1969 tour.

At the subsequent March 1971, Grammy Awards, the album and single were named Album and Record of The Year, respectively, winning Grammys as well for Best Engineered Record, Song of The Year, Best Contemporary Song, and Best Arrangement Accompanying Vocalists. Their 1972 Greatest Hits album peaked at US #5.

After the group split later in 1971, Simon went on to a very successful solo music career, recording several classic albums, including There Goes Rhymin' Simon (1973) and later on Graceland (1986). Garfunkel split his time between acting and musical releases, with various result. His most critical acclaimed album was the 1978 effort Watermark where almost all songs were written by Jimmy Webb.

Subsequent careers

The duo has reunited off and on since then, most notably for a free concert in New York's Central Park on September 19, 1981, which attracted a crowd around 500,000 people and was released on LP, CD, VHS, and DVD. The success of the 1981 concert prompted the duo to go on a world tour in 1982 (Europe & Japan) and 1983 (The U.S.), thought to be their final reunion. Their next public appearance was in 1990, when the two performed at a ceremony for their induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Simon and Garfunkel were seen together in 1993 in a few of Paul Simon's shows in New York, and at charity concerts later that year.

In July 2002, Columbia Legacy released a previously unreleased live recording of a Simon and Garfunkel concert, Live In New York City, 1967. It features an almost-complete recording of a performance given by the duo at Philharmonic Hall, the Lincoln Center in New York City on January 22 1967.

On February 23, 2003, Simon and Garfunkel reunited to perform in public for the first time since 1993, singing "The Sound Of Silence" as the opening act of the Grammy Awards. Before the show, the duo was presented with the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, honoring their musical contributions over the past four and a half decades.

Simon and Garfunkel held a two-month long reunion tour of the U.S. (and Toronto, Canada), running from October 16 to December 21, 2003. Entitled "Old Friends," their first tour in twenty years ran forty shows in twenty-eight cities and included surprise guests The Everly Brothers.

After that, they planned another Old Friends tour for June & July 2004 with over 25 shows, this time also in Europe.

In August 2004, they performed at the Colosseum in Rome to an audience which, according to news media reports, was probably even larger than the audience at the famous Central Park concert.

Discography

  • Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. (1964)
  • Sounds of Silence (1966)
  • Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966)
  • The Graduate Original Soundtrack (1968)
  • Bookends (1968)
  • Bridge Over Troubled Water (1968)
  • Simon and Garfunkel's Greatest Hits (1972)
  • The Concert in Central Park (1982)
  • Live In New York City, 1967 (2002)
  • Old Friends: Live on Stage (2004)
  • And many other anthologies and compilations.

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In August 2004, they performed at the Colosseum in Rome to an audience which, according to news media reports, was probably even larger than the audience at the famous Central Park concert. In January of 2005, it was announced that comic book creator Stan Lee would be working with Starr to produce a new animated musical superhero based on Starr. After that, they planned another Old Friends tour for June & July 2004 with over 25 shows, this time also in Europe. In 1991, he appeared as himself on the cartoon The Simpsons. (and Toronto, Canada), running from October 16 to December 21, 2003. Entitled "Old Friends," their first tour in twenty years ran forty shows in twenty-eight cities and included surprise guests The Everly Brothers. Conductor on that program's American spinoff Shining Time Station, which debuted in 1989. Simon and Garfunkel held a two-month long reunion tour of the U.S. In 1984, he narrated on the children's television series Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends and portrayed the character Mr.

Before the show, the duo was presented with the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, honoring their musical contributions over the past four and a half decades. He was especially well-received in the British film That'll Be the Day (1973) where he co-starred as a Teddy boy. On February 23, 2003, Simon and Garfunkel reunited to perform in public for the first time since 1993, singing "The Sound Of Silence" as the opening act of the Grammy Awards. He starred as Larry the dwarf in Frank Zappa's 200 Motels (1971). It features an almost-complete recording of a performance given by the duo at Philharmonic Hall, the Lincoln Center in New York City on January 22 1967. Starr has acted in several films such as Candy (1968), The Magic Christian (1969) (alongside Peter Sellers), Son of Dracula (1974) and Caveman (1980). In July 2002, Columbia Legacy released a previously unreleased live recording of a Simon and Garfunkel concert, Live In New York City, 1967. The eighth such All-Starr Band tour took place in 2003.

Simon and Garfunkel were seen together in 1993 in a few of Paul Simon's shows in New York, and at charity concerts later that year. The format of the concerts has Ringo singing a couple of his Beatles or solo songs, then each of the other musicians taking a turn to sing one of their songs with Ringo behind the drums, then Ringo singing a couple more, then another go around, and so on. Their next public appearance was in 1990, when the two performed at a ceremony for their induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Beginning in 1989 he became a visible presence on the summer touring scene, organizing a series of concert tours called Ringo Starr and His All-Starr Band, teaming with well-known musicians from various different rock eras. The success of the 1981 concert prompted the duo to go on a world tour in 1982 (Europe & Japan) and 1983 (The U.S.), thought to be their final reunion. Starr's recording career subsequently diminished in impact, although he continued to sporadically release albums. The duo has reunited off and on since then, most notably for a free concert in New York's Central Park on September 19, 1981, which attracted a crowd around 500,000 people and was released on LP, CD, VHS, and DVD. Hits and notable tracks from these two collections included "Photograph" (co-written by Harrison), "You're Sixteen", "I'm the Greatest" (written by Lennon), "Only You", and the "No No Song".

Garfunkel split his time between acting and musical releases, with various result. His most critical acclaimed album was the 1978 effort Watermark where almost all songs were written by Jimmy Webb. The Goodnight Vienna album followed the next year and was also successful. After the group split later in 1971, Simon went on to a very successful solo music career, recording several classic albums, including There Goes Rhymin' Simon (1973) and later on Graceland (1986). It was a major triumph and Starr unexpectedly became the most commercially successful ex-Beatle at that time. Their 1972 Greatest Hits album peaked at US #5. In 1973 the "Ringo" album came out, lushly produced by Richard Perry and with participation by all three former bandmates on different tracks. At the subsequent March 1971, Grammy Awards, the album and single were named Album and Record of The Year, respectively, winning Grammys as well for Best Engineered Record, Song of The Year, Best Contemporary Song, and Best Arrangement Accompanying Vocalists. After the breakup of the Beatles Starr scored hit singles with "It Don't Come Easy" and "Back Off Boogaloo", and participated in Harrison's Concert for Bangladesh.

The album includes three other top-twenty hits, including "El Condor Pasa" (US #18), "Cecilia" (US #4), and "The Boxer" – which, finished in 1968, hit #7 on the charts the following year – as well as a live recording of the Everly Brothers' "Bye Bye Love" from Ames, Iowa, on their 1969 tour. Another example is the title to "Tomorrow Never Knows". Its title track, featuring Garfunkel's soaring vocals, was a massive hit and one of the best-selling records of the decade, staying #1 on the charts for six full weeks and on the charts for far longer thereafter. Lennon and McCartney liked the twisted phrase enough that they decided to use it as the title for the still untitled movie the band had been filming. Their long-delayed final album, Bridge Over Troubled Water, was at last released on January 26, 1970. Starr had emerged from the studio after a long day of work and commented to the others that it had been a "hard day's..." - before he finished his sentence, Starr noticed that it was now night time and added "night". Video footage of the tour was shown on their controversial November 30 television special Songs Of America, which TV sponsors refused to endorse because of its distinct anti-Vietnam War message. One of the most famous examples of this was the title for the band's first motion picture, A Hard Day's Night.

The duo's deteriorating personal relationship continued into their late 1969 tour, which featured performances at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio on November 11 and Carbondale, Illinois on November 8, recordings of which are supposedly widely bootlegged. In addition Ringo contributed a number of lyrical ideas and song titles to Lennon and McCartney, although usually unintentionally. This increasingly frustrated Simon when Garfunkel's leave interfered with the recording of the duo's next album, and it didn't help that Simon's part in the film had been cut before filming actually began. The former continued to show the taste for country music that Ringo had brought into the band on earlier albums, such as on Rubber Soul's co-write "What Goes On.". Garfunkel had begun to pursue a career in acting, in Nichols' follow-up to The Graduate, starring as Nately in the movie version of Catch-22. He did, however, write "Don't Pass Me By" (on The White Album) and "Octopus's Garden" on the album Abbey Road, albeit with quite a bit of help from George Harrison. By 1969, the duo's success began to take its toll. Of all the Beatles, Ringo did the least songwriting.

Robinson" was named Record of the Year, while Simon was also honored with the Grammy for Best Original Score for a Motion Picture. Often these melodies would be deliberately limited to take into account Starr's vocal range—most of "With A Little Help From My Friends" is sung within the space of five notes. At the March 1969 Grammy Awards, "Mrs. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and as McCartney did for "Yellow Submarine" from Revolver. Robinson", the classic from the Graduate soundtrack, which became #1 as a single. In some cases John Lennon or Paul McCartney would write the lyrics and melody especially for him, as Lennon did with "With a Little Help from My Friends", from Sgt. It features the top-25 hit singles "A Hazy Shade Of Winter", "Fakin' It", "At The Zoo", "America", and "Mrs. Ringo generally sang at least one song on each studio album, as part of establishing the vocal personality of all four members.

As their albums became progressively more adventurous, The Graduate Original Soundtrack was immediately followed in April 1968 at the top of the charts by Bookends, which dealt with increasingly complex themes of old age and loss. Ringo's easygoing, everyman personality played a major role in the Beatles' success, combining very effectively with Lennon's wit, McCartney's charm, and Harrison's quiet seriousness. In 1967, Simon and Garfunkel contributed heavily to the soundtrack to Mike Nichols' film The Graduate, which was released on January 21, 1968, and instantly rose to #1 as an album. Paul was also on the drums in "The Ballad of John and Yoko" and "You Know My Name (Look Up the Number)", since only Lennon and McCartney were available. More tracks from The Paul Simon Song Book were included with recent compositions on their October 10, 1966 album Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme, which refined the folk-rock sound hastily released on Sounds of Silence. Lennon, McCartney and Harrison have all said that Ringo was the best rock and roll drummer in the world, although when asked in an interview once "Is Ringo Starr the best drummer in the world?" John Lennon quipped "He's not the best drummer in the Beatles!" This was in reference to the White Album song "Back In The USSR", in which Paul was forced to do the drumming; Ringo had stormed out earlier and didn't return for two weeks. Further hit singles came, including "Scarborough Fair/Canticle", based on a traditional English ballad with an original counter-melody, and "Homeward Bound" (later US #5), about life on the road while Simon was touring in England in 1965. Starr has commented that the most difficult drumming he has ever performed was on the Beatles song "Rain.".

Among the tracks on The Paul Simon Song Book that were rerecorded with electric backing for "Sounds of Silence" were "I Am A Rock" (which as a single reached US #3 in the summer of 1966), "Leaves That Are Green", "April Come She Will", and "Kathy's Song". You could take a great drummer today and say, 'I want it like that.' They wouldn't know what to do." in his extensive survey of The Beatles recording sessions, Mark Lewisohn confirmed that Starr was both proficient and remarkably reliable and consistent -- according to Lewisohn, there were less than a dozen occasions in the Beatles' eight-year recording career where session 'breakdowns' were caused by Starr making a mistake, while the vast majority of takes were stopped due to mistakes by the other three members. On January 17, 1966, the duo released the album Sounds of Silence, which – helped by the title track's success – hit #21, while Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. was re-released and reached #30. The drum fills on "A Day in the Life" are very complex things. Simon's lyrics were often insightful and picturesque, but leavened by a consistent dry humour. According to Collins, Ringo is "vastly underrated. The result was a sequence of folk-rock records, which have endured as well as any in the genre. Many drummers list Starr as a major influence including Max Weinberg of The E Street Band, Liberty DeVitto of Billy Joel's band, Phil Collins, Andy Sturmer of Jellyfish, and others.

Simon immediately returned to the United States and the group re-formed for the second time to record more tracks in a similar style, though neither approved of what Wilson had done with "The Sound of Silence.". Although some have tried to downplay his contributions to the band, Starr's drumming style played a major role in the overall sound of The Beatles. In September 1965, Simon first learned that it had entered the pop charts while about to go on stage in a Danish folk club. It hit number 1 on the pop charts by December. When the Beatles removed Pete Best as their drummer on August 16, 1962, Ringo was their choice to replace him. The dubbing turned folk into folk-rock, the debut of a new genre for the Top 40, much to Simon's surprise. He became the drummer for the Liverpool band Rory Storm and the Hurricanes from 1959 to 1962, playing the same local and Hamburg circuit as the Beatles did. producer, Tom Wilson, who had heard The Byrds' early folk records, dubbed an electric guitar and drums into "The Sound of Silence" track, and released it as a single, backed with "We've Got a Groovey Thing Goin'". He went through two serious illnesses as a child and spent a total of three years in hospital, thereby falling behind badly in school.

Seizing the chance, the duo's U.S. Richard Starkey was raised in the working class Dingle section of Liverpool. The song also began to receive radio airplay in Boston. Starr married Maureen Cox in 1965, divorced in 1975 - children Zak, Jason and Lee. He has been married to actress Barbara Bach (most famous for her role as the "Bond Girl" in The Spy Who Loved Me) since 1981. While Simon was in England that summer of 1965, radio stations around Cocoa Beach and Gainesville, Florida, began to receive requests for a song from the album Wednesday Morning, 3 A. M. called "The Sound of Silence". Ringo is known for his reliable, steady drumming and innovative fills. His everyman personality made him an easy fit with the other Beatles. The album was supposedly deleted about 1979 at Simon's request, but was re-introduced on CD with bonus tracks in 2004. Richard Starkey, MBE (born July 7, 1940) known by his stage name, Ringo Starr, is a popular British musician, best known as drummer for The Beatles.

Shortly after finishing recording, the duo effectively split again and Simon moved to England, where he recorded his solo The Paul Simon Song Book in May 1965. Recorded on three different dates in June and July at Levy's Studio, London, and featuring only Simon and his guitar, it is a refreshing souvenir of the early folk work of Paul Simon. In 1996, Ringo Starr appeared in a Japanese advertisement for apple sauce, which coincidentally is what Ringo means in Japanese. These three efforts were among five original songs by Simon included on their first album for Columbia Records, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., which initially flopped upon its release on October 19, 1964. 2003 "Never Without You" (with electric guitar played by Eric Clapton). Simon showed Garfunkel a few songs that he had written in the folk style: "Sparrow", "Bleecker Street", and "He Was My Brother" — which was later dedicated to Andrew Goodman, a friend of both Simon and Garfunkel, and a classmate of Simon's at Queen's College, who was one of three civil rights workers murdered in Neshoba County, Mississippi, on June 21, 1964. 1998 "La De Da". Simon, who had finished college but dropped out of Brooklyn Law School, had — like Garfunkel — developed an interest in the folk scene. 1993 "Don't Go Where The Road Don't Go".

In 1963 they found prominence as part of the same New York City folk music scene as Bob Dylan, with close harmony singing inspired by the Everly Brothers, combined with Simon's acoustic guitar playing. 1992 "Weight of the World" #72 UK. Subsequent efforts in 1958 did not reach near their initial success, and after high school the duo split, with Simon enrolling at Queens College and Garfunkel matriculating into Columbia University. 1981 "Wrack My Brain" #38 US.
They later performed their hit on American Bandstand, right after Jerry Lee Lewis' "Great Balls of Fire". 1976 "A Dose of Rock 'n' Roll" #26 US.
. 1975 "(It's All Da-Da-Down To) Goodnight Vienna" #31 US.

Released on 45 and 78 rpm records, the single — backed with "Dancin' Wild" — sold 100,000 copies, hitting #49 on the Billboard charts. 1975 "No No Song" b/w "Snookeroo" #3 US. They managed to record one of their first songs, Hey, Schoolgirl, for Sid Prosen of Big Records. 1974 "Only You (And You Alone) " #6 US, #28 UK. As seniors in 1957, they started writing their own songs in the Everly Brothers' rock and roll style. 1974 "Oh My My" #5 US. In 1956, Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel were juniors at Forest Hills High School in New York City who began playing together as a group called Tom and Jerry, with Simon as Jerry Landis and Garfunkel as Tom Graph — so called because he always liked to track "graph" hits on the pop charts. 1974 "You're Sixteen" #1 US, #4 UK.

They have received several Grammys and are inductees of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 1973 "Photograph" #1 US, #8 UK. Robinson" and "Bridge Over Troubled Water". 1972 "Back Off Boogaloo" #2 UK, #9 US. Simon and Garfunkel were among the most popular recording artists of the 1960s, and are best known for their songs, "The Sound of Silence", "Mrs. 1971 "It Don't Come Easy" #4 US, #4 UK. Simon and Garfunkel were a popular music duo comprised of Paul Simon and Arthur "Art" Garfunkel.

And many other anthologies and compilations. Old Friends: Live on Stage (2004). Live In New York City, 1967 (2002). The Concert in Central Park (1982).

Simon and Garfunkel's Greatest Hits (1972). Bridge Over Troubled Water (1968). Bookends (1968). The Graduate Original Soundtrack (1968).

Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966). Sounds of Silence (1966). Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. (1964).

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