Simon and Garfunkel

(Redirected from Simon & Garfunkel) Bridge Over Troubled Water was Simon and Garfunkel's last album; the title track was one of three number one hits in the United States but their only number one hit in the United Kingdom.

Simon and Garfunkel were a popular music duo comprised of Paul Simon and Arthur "Art" Garfunkel. Simon and Garfunkel were among the most popular recording artists of the 1960s, and are best known for their songs, "The Sound of Silence", "Mrs. Robinson" and "Bridge Over Troubled Water". They have received several Grammys and are inductees of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Early history

In 1956, Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel were juniors at Forest Hills High School in New York City who began playing together as a group called Tom and Jerry, with Simon as Jerry Landis and Garfunkel as Tom Graph — so called because he always liked to track "graph" hits on the pop charts. As seniors in 1957, they started writing their own songs in the Everly Brothers' rock and roll style. They managed to record one of their first songs, Hey, Schoolgirl, for Sid Prosen of Big Records. Released on 45 and 78 rpm records, the single — backed with "Dancin' Wild" — sold 100,000 copies, hitting #49 on the Billboard charts.



They later performed their hit on American Bandstand, right after Jerry Lee Lewis' "Great Balls of Fire".

Subsequent efforts in 1958 did not reach near their initial success, and after high school the duo split, with Simon enrolling at Queens College and Garfunkel matriculating into Columbia University.

In 1963 they found prominence as part of the same New York City folk music scene as Bob Dylan, with close harmony singing inspired by the Everly Brothers, combined with Simon's acoustic guitar playing. Simon, who had finished college but dropped out of Brooklyn Law School, had — like Garfunkel — developed an interest in the folk scene. Simon showed Garfunkel a few songs that he had written in the folk style: "Sparrow", "Bleecker Street", and "He Was My Brother" — which was later dedicated to Andrew Goodman, a friend of both Simon and Garfunkel, and a classmate of Simon's at Queen's College, who was one of three civil rights workers murdered in Neshoba County, Mississippi, on June 21, 1964.

These three efforts were among five original songs by Simon included on their first album for Columbia Records, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., which initially flopped upon its release on October 19, 1964.

First breakup

Shortly after finishing recording, the duo effectively split again and Simon moved to England, where he recorded his solo The Paul Simon Song Book in May 1965. Recorded on three different dates in June and July at Levy's Studio, London, and featuring only Simon and his guitar, it is a refreshing souvenir of the early folk work of Paul Simon. The album was supposedly deleted about 1979 at Simon's request, but was re-introduced on CD with bonus tracks in 2004.

While Simon was in England that summer of 1965, radio stations around Cocoa Beach and Gainesville, Florida, began to receive requests for a song from the album Wednesday Morning, 3 A. M. called "The Sound of Silence". The song also began to receive radio airplay in Boston. Seizing the chance, the duo's U.S. producer, Tom Wilson, who had heard The Byrds' early folk records, dubbed an electric guitar and drums into "The Sound of Silence" track, and released it as a single, backed with "We've Got a Groovey Thing Goin'". The dubbing turned folk into folk-rock, the debut of a new genre for the Top 40, much to Simon's surprise.

In September 1965, Simon first learned that it had entered the pop charts while about to go on stage in a Danish folk club. It hit number 1 on the pop charts by December.

Reunification

Simon immediately returned to the United States and the group re-formed for the second time to record more tracks in a similar style, though neither approved of what Wilson had done with "The Sound of Silence."

The result was a sequence of folk-rock records, which have endured as well as any in the genre. Simon's lyrics were often insightful and picturesque, but leavened by a consistent dry humour.

On January 17, 1966, the duo released the album Sounds of Silence, which – helped by the title track's success – hit #21, while Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. was re-released and reached #30.

Among the tracks on The Paul Simon Song Book that were rerecorded with electric backing for "Sounds of Silence" were "I Am A Rock" (which as a single reached US #3 in the summer of 1966), "Leaves That Are Green", "April Come She Will", and "Kathy's Song".

Further hit singles came, including "Scarborough Fair/Canticle", based on a traditional English ballad with an original counter-melody, and "Homeward Bound" (later US #5), about life on the road while Simon was touring in England in 1965.

More tracks from The Paul Simon Song Book were included with recent compositions on their October 10, 1966 album Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme, which refined the folk-rock sound hastily released on Sounds of Silence.

In 1967, Simon and Garfunkel contributed heavily to the soundtrack to Mike Nichols' film The Graduate, which was released on January 21, 1968, and instantly rose to #1 as an album.

As their albums became progressively more adventurous, The Graduate Original Soundtrack was immediately followed in April 1968 at the top of the charts by Bookends, which dealt with increasingly complex themes of old age and loss. It features the top-25 hit singles "A Hazy Shade Of Winter", "Fakin' It", "At The Zoo", "America", and "Mrs. Robinson", the classic from the Graduate soundtrack, which became #1 as a single.

At the March 1969 Grammy Awards, "Mrs. Robinson" was named Record of the Year, while Simon was also honored with the Grammy for Best Original Score for a Motion Picture.

Second breakup

By 1969, the duo's success began to take its toll. Garfunkel had begun to pursue a career in acting, in Nichols' follow-up to The Graduate, starring as Nately in the movie version of Catch-22. This increasingly frustrated Simon when Garfunkel's leave interfered with the recording of the duo's next album, and it didn't help that Simon's part in the film had been cut before filming actually began.

The duo's deteriorating personal relationship continued into their late 1969 tour, which featured performances at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio on November 11 and Carbondale, Illinois on November 8, recordings of which are supposedly widely bootlegged. Video footage of the tour was shown on their controversial November 30 television special Songs Of America, which TV sponsors refused to endorse because of its distinct anti-Vietnam War message.

Their long-delayed final album, Bridge Over Troubled Water, was at last released on January 26, 1970. Its title track, featuring Garfunkel's soaring vocals, was a massive hit and one of the best-selling records of the decade, staying #1 on the charts for six full weeks and on the charts for far longer thereafter. The album includes three other top-twenty hits, including "El Condor Pasa" (US #18), "Cecilia" (US #4), and "The Boxer" – which, finished in 1968, hit #7 on the charts the following year – as well as a live recording of the Everly Brothers' "Bye Bye Love" from Ames, Iowa, on their 1969 tour.

At the subsequent March 1971, Grammy Awards, the album and single were named Album and Record of The Year, respectively, winning Grammys as well for Best Engineered Record, Song of The Year, Best Contemporary Song, and Best Arrangement Accompanying Vocalists. Their 1972 Greatest Hits album peaked at US #5.

After the group split later in 1971, Simon went on to a very successful solo music career, recording several classic albums, including There Goes Rhymin' Simon (1973) and later on Graceland (1986). Garfunkel split his time between acting and musical releases, with various result. His most critical acclaimed album was the 1978 effort Watermark where almost all songs were written by Jimmy Webb.

Subsequent careers

The duo has reunited off and on since then, most notably for a free concert in New York's Central Park on September 19, 1981, which attracted a crowd around 500,000 people and was released on LP, CD, VHS, and DVD. The success of the 1981 concert prompted the duo to go on a world tour in 1982 (Europe & Japan) and 1983 (The U.S.), thought to be their final reunion. Their next public appearance was in 1990, when the two performed at a ceremony for their induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Simon and Garfunkel were seen together in 1993 in a few of Paul Simon's shows in New York, and at charity concerts later that year.

In July 2002, Columbia Legacy released a previously unreleased live recording of a Simon and Garfunkel concert, Live In New York City, 1967. It features an almost-complete recording of a performance given by the duo at Philharmonic Hall, the Lincoln Center in New York City on January 22 1967.

On February 23, 2003, Simon and Garfunkel reunited to perform in public for the first time since 1993, singing "The Sound Of Silence" as the opening act of the Grammy Awards. Before the show, the duo was presented with the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, honoring their musical contributions over the past four and a half decades.

Simon and Garfunkel held a two-month long reunion tour of the U.S. (and Toronto, Canada), running from October 16 to December 21, 2003. Entitled "Old Friends," their first tour in twenty years ran forty shows in twenty-eight cities and included surprise guests The Everly Brothers.

After that, they planned another Old Friends tour for June & July 2004 with over 25 shows, this time also in Europe.

In August 2004, they performed at the Colosseum in Rome to an audience which, according to news media reports, was probably even larger than the audience at the famous Central Park concert.

Discography

  • Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. (1964)
  • Sounds of Silence (1966)
  • Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966)
  • The Graduate Original Soundtrack (1968)
  • Bookends (1968)
  • Bridge Over Troubled Water (1968)
  • Simon and Garfunkel's Greatest Hits (1972)
  • The Concert in Central Park (1982)
  • Live In New York City, 1967 (2002)
  • Old Friends: Live on Stage (2004)
  • And many other anthologies and compilations.

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In August 2004, they performed at the Colosseum in Rome to an audience which, according to news media reports, was probably even larger than the audience at the famous Central Park concert. Around 100 million copies of her records have been sold worldwide. After that, they planned another Old Friends tour for June & July 2004 with over 25 shows, this time also in Europe. As of 2005, Summer has gotten 5 Grammy and 6 American Music awards, as well as 24 gold and platinum certifications from the USA and 19 gold and silver certifications from the UK. (and Toronto, Canada), running from October 16 to December 21, 2003. Entitled "Old Friends," their first tour in twenty years ran forty shows in twenty-eight cities and included surprise guests The Everly Brothers. Summer added to her credits in October 2004, when she performed "God Bless America" during the seventh-inning stretch at Game 2 of the 2004 World Series at Boston's Fenway Park. Simon and Garfunkel held a two-month long reunion tour of the U.S. In 2003, Donna Summer released a greatest hits compilation called "The Journey", which rocketed into the UK top 10 in the following year thanks to her appearance on ITV1 show Discomania.

Before the show, the duo was presented with the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, honoring their musical contributions over the past four and a half decades. A new remix of "I Feel Love" was a big UK hit all over again in 1995. On February 23, 2003, Simon and Garfunkel reunited to perform in public for the first time since 1993, singing "The Sound Of Silence" as the opening act of the Grammy Awards. In the 1990s, Summer has continued to work, producing numerous dance hits such as "Melody Of Love", which became the Billboard number one dance hit of the year, "I Will Go With You", the dance version of the beautiful Andrea Bocelli song "Con Te Partiṛ" and "You're So Beautiful", a club anthem she co-wrote with legendary DJ Tony Moran. It features an almost-complete recording of a performance given by the duo at Philharmonic Hall, the Lincoln Center in New York City on January 22 1967. The first single "This Time I Know It's For Real" became a huge hit, first in Europe and later in the United States, and brought her back to the top of the charts. In July 2002, Columbia Legacy released a previously unreleased live recording of a Simon and Garfunkel concert, Live In New York City, 1967. Summer's career began to slow down drastically in the mid 1980s but was revamped in 1989 with her Stock Aitken Waterman collaboration "Another Place and Time".

Simon and Garfunkel were seen together in 1993 in a few of Paul Simon's shows in New York, and at charity concerts later that year. Summer continued her work with Geffen, later releasing the smash hit She Works Hard For the Money, which included a well-remembered hit in the title track. Their next public appearance was in 1990, when the two performed at a ceremony for their induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. This song was the inspiration for Quincy Jones to later create with Michael Jackson "We are the World". The success of the 1981 concert prompted the duo to go on a world tour in 1982 (Europe & Japan) and 1983 (The U.S.), thought to be their final reunion. Instead, Geffen had Summer drop Moroder and Bellotte, her long-time songwriters, and paired her with music sensation Quincy Jones on the self titled album "Donna Summer", which produced the dance hit "Love is in Control (Finger on the Trigger)", a Top 40 hit "Woman in Me" and the Vangelis penned "State of Independence", which became a huge hit in Europe with its New Age feel and star chorus that included Christopher Cross and Michael Jackson. The duo has reunited off and on since then, most notably for a free concert in New York's Central Park on September 19, 1981, which attracted a crowd around 500,000 people and was released on LP, CD, VHS, and DVD. The follow-up album, I'm a Rainbow, was not released until 1996 because Geffen did not think it was good enough.

Garfunkel split his time between acting and musical releases, with various result. His most critical acclaimed album was the 1978 effort Watermark where almost all songs were written by Jimmy Webb. Her first Geffen album was The Wanderer (1980), which included more rock and roll and R&B influences. After the group split later in 1971, Simon went on to a very successful solo music career, recording several classic albums, including There Goes Rhymin' Simon (1973) and later on Graceland (1986). Summer then decided to leave Casablanca and sign to Geffen Records, then just starting up. Their 1972 Greatest Hits album peaked at US #5. When a greatest hits album, On the Radio, became a #1 hit, Summer was the first artist with three consecutive #1 double albums. At the subsequent March 1971, Grammy Awards, the album and single were named Album and Record of The Year, respectively, winning Grammys as well for Best Engineered Record, Song of The Year, Best Contemporary Song, and Best Arrangement Accompanying Vocalists. Summer's songwriting was showcased on Bad Girls (1979), which included a hit single in the title track, as well as "Hot Stuff", which won Summer the Grammy for Best Female Rock Vocalist.

The album includes three other top-twenty hits, including "El Condor Pasa" (US #18), "Cecilia" (US #4), and "The Boxer" – which, finished in 1968, hit #7 on the charts the following year – as well as a live recording of the Everly Brothers' "Bye Bye Love" from Ames, Iowa, on their 1969 tour. After acting (and releasing a Grammy-winning song on the soundtrack) in the comedy Thank God It's Friday, Summer released a live album Live and More, which became another smash hit album and included a cover of "MacArthur Park". Its title track, featuring Garfunkel's soaring vocals, was a massive hit and one of the best-selling records of the decade, staying #1 on the charts for six full weeks and on the charts for far longer thereafter. Once Upon a Time was released soon after I Remember Yesterday; it was another concept album, concerning the fairy tale of Cinderella. Their long-delayed final album, Bridge Over Troubled Water, was at last released on January 26, 1970. This song, which became a major hit, is enormously influential in the development of disco, electronica and techno music, thanks to Moroder's innovative production. Video footage of the tour was shown on their controversial November 30 television special Songs Of America, which TV sponsors refused to endorse because of its distinct anti-Vietnam War message. I Remember Yesterday (1977) included the memorable hit single "I Feel Love", the first hit song recorded with an entirely synthesized backing track.

The duo's deteriorating personal relationship continued into their late 1969 tour, which featured performances at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio on November 11 and Carbondale, Illinois on November 8, recordings of which are supposedly widely bootlegged. Continuing to work with Moroder and Bellotte, Love Trilogy (1976) and the concept album Seasons of Love (1976) were hits, though not as popular as Love to Love You Baby. This increasingly frustrated Simon when Garfunkel's leave interfered with the recording of the duo's next album, and it didn't help that Simon's part in the film had been cut before filming actually began. This established a pattern that made Summer unusual in the disco world: she focused just as much, if not more, on full-length albums instead of singles. Garfunkel had begun to pursue a career in acting, in Nichols' follow-up to The Graduate, starring as Nately in the movie version of Catch-22. This was followed by an album, Love to Love You Baby, critically acclaimed then and now, notable for including a seventeen minute version of the titular hit. By 1969, the duo's success began to take its toll. Casablanca Records soon began distributing the album in the United States, and it became a sensation there as well.

Robinson" was named Record of the Year, while Simon was also honored with the Grammy for Best Original Score for a Motion Picture. Summer recorded "Love to Love You Baby" which was a huge European hit. At the March 1969 Grammy Awards, "Mrs. Lady of the Night, Summer's first LP, was released in 1975 with moderate success in Europe. Robinson", the classic from the Graduate soundtrack, which became #1 as a single. In that year, she, Giorgio Moroder and Pete Bellotte (who met assisting Three Dog Night in the studio) worked together to produce "The Hostage", a European hit. It features the top-25 hit singles "A Hazy Shade Of Winter", "Fakin' It", "At The Zoo", "America", and "Mrs. The single was unsuccessful, however, and Summer had to wait until 1974 to launch a solo career.

As their albums became progressively more adventurous, The Graduate Original Soundtrack was immediately followed in April 1968 at the top of the charts by Bookends, which dealt with increasingly complex themes of old age and loss. In 1971, Summer released "Sally Go 'Round the Roses", her first solo recording. In 1967, Simon and Garfunkel contributed heavily to the soundtrack to Mike Nichols' film The Graduate, which was released on January 21, 1968, and instantly rose to #1 as an album. After resettling in Munich, Germany, Summer married Helmut Sommer ("Summer" is an anglicization of his last name) and did various musical jobs in studios and theatres for several years. More tracks from The Paul Simon Song Book were included with recent compositions on their October 10, 1966 album Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme, which refined the folk-rock sound hastily released on Sounds of Silence. She eventually settled in Europe, joining the Viennese Folk Opera and participating in numerous musicals. Further hit singles came, including "Scarborough Fair/Canticle", based on a traditional English ballad with an original counter-melody, and "Homeward Bound" (later US #5), about life on the road while Simon was touring in England in 1965. A few months before graduating high school, Summer dropped out and joined the German productions of Hair, Godspell, Jesus Christ Superstar, and Show Boat.

Among the tracks on The Paul Simon Song Book that were rerecorded with electric backing for "Sounds of Silence" were "I Am A Rock" (which as a single reached US #3 in the summer of 1966), "Leaves That Are Green", "April Come She Will", and "Kathy's Song". She later joined a rock group called the Crow. On January 17, 1966, the duo released the album Sounds of Silence, which – helped by the title track's success – hit #21, while Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. was re-released and reached #30. Born Donna Gaines in Boston, Massachusetts, Summer began performing in her church's choir. Simon's lyrics were often insightful and picturesque, but leavened by a consistent dry humour. Her work is still critically acclaimed and remains one of the few disco artists accepted by modern rock critics. The result was a sequence of folk-rock records, which have endured as well as any in the genre. Even though she is one of the best-known artists of the disco era, Summer has covered different genres including R&B, rock and roll and inspirational music, earning her Grammy Awards in those categories.

Simon immediately returned to the United States and the group re-formed for the second time to record more tracks in a similar style, though neither approved of what Wilson had done with "The Sound of Silence.". Summer was a rarity in the 1970s disco scene because her career began before the disco explosion, and continued afterward. In September 1965, Simon first learned that it had entered the pop charts while about to go on stage in a Danish folk club. It hit number 1 on the pop charts by December. Donna Summer (born December 31, 1948) is an American pop music singer best known for a string of disco music hits in the 1970s which earned her the title "Queen of Disco". The dubbing turned folk into folk-rock, the debut of a new genre for the Top 40, much to Simon's surprise. 2003 The Journey: The Very Best of Donna Summer. producer, Tom Wilson, who had heard The Byrds' early folk records, dubbed an electric guitar and drums into "The Sound of Silence" track, and released it as a single, backed with "We've Got a Groovey Thing Goin'". Encore.

Seizing the chance, the duo's U.S. 1999 Live and More.. The song also began to receive radio airplay in Boston. 1998 Greatest Hits. While Simon was in England that summer of 1965, radio stations around Cocoa Beach and Gainesville, Florida, began to receive requests for a song from the album Wednesday Morning, 3 A. M. called "The Sound of Silence". 1994 Endless Summer. The album was supposedly deleted about 1979 at Simon's request, but was re-introduced on CD with bonus tracks in 2004. 1994 Christmas Spirit.

Shortly after finishing recording, the duo effectively split again and Simon moved to England, where he recorded his solo The Paul Simon Song Book in May 1965. Recorded on three different dates in June and July at Levy's Studio, London, and featuring only Simon and his guitar, it is a refreshing souvenir of the early folk work of Paul Simon. 1993 Anthology. These three efforts were among five original songs by Simon included on their first album for Columbia Records, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., which initially flopped upon its release on October 19, 1964. 1991 Mistaken Identity. Simon showed Garfunkel a few songs that he had written in the folk style: "Sparrow", "Bleecker Street", and "He Was My Brother" — which was later dedicated to Andrew Goodman, a friend of both Simon and Garfunkel, and a classmate of Simon's at Queen's College, who was one of three civil rights workers murdered in Neshoba County, Mississippi, on June 21, 1964. 1990 The Best of Donna Summer. Simon, who had finished college but dropped out of Brooklyn Law School, had — like Garfunkel — developed an interest in the folk scene. 1989 Another Place and Time.

In 1963 they found prominence as part of the same New York City folk music scene as Bob Dylan, with close harmony singing inspired by the Everly Brothers, combined with Simon's acoustic guitar playing. 1987 All Systems Go. Subsequent efforts in 1958 did not reach near their initial success, and after high school the duo split, with Simon enrolling at Queens College and Garfunkel matriculating into Columbia University. 1987 The Dance Collection.
They later performed their hit on American Bandstand, right after Jerry Lee Lewis' "Great Balls of Fire". 1985 The Summer Collection.
. 1984 Cats Without Claws.

Released on 45 and 78 rpm records, the single — backed with "Dancin' Wild" — sold 100,000 copies, hitting #49 on the Billboard charts. 1983 She Works Hard for the Money. They managed to record one of their first songs, Hey, Schoolgirl, for Sid Prosen of Big Records. 1982 Donna Summer. As seniors in 1957, they started writing their own songs in the Everly Brothers' rock and roll style. 1981 I'm a Rainbow (originally set for release in 1981, finally released in 1996). In 1956, Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel were juniors at Forest Hills High School in New York City who began playing together as a group called Tom and Jerry, with Simon as Jerry Landis and Garfunkel as Tom Graph — so called because he always liked to track "graph" hits on the pop charts. 1980 The Wanderer.

They have received several Grammys and are inductees of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 1980 Walk Away. Robinson" and "Bridge Over Troubled Water". 1979 On the Radio. Simon and Garfunkel were among the most popular recording artists of the 1960s, and are best known for their songs, "The Sound of Silence", "Mrs. 1979 Bad Girls. Simon and Garfunkel were a popular music duo comprised of Paul Simon and Arthur "Art" Garfunkel. 1978 Live and More.

And many other anthologies and compilations. 1977 Once Upon a Time. Old Friends: Live on Stage (2004). 1977 I Remember Yesterday. Live In New York City, 1967 (2002). 1976 Four Seasons of Love. The Concert in Central Park (1982). 1976 A Love Trilogy.

Simon and Garfunkel's Greatest Hits (1972). 1975 Love to Love You Baby. Bridge Over Troubled Water (1968). 1974 Lady of the Night. Bookends (1968). The Graduate Original Soundtrack (1968).

Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme (1966). Sounds of Silence (1966). Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. (1964).

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