Sewing

Turn of the century sewing in Detroit, Michigan Antique Singer sewing machine

Sewing is an ancient craft involving the stitching of cloth, leather, animal skins, furs, or other materials, using needle and thread. Its use is nearly universal among human populations and dates back to Paleolithic times (30,000 BC). Sewing predates the weaving of cloth.

Sewing is used primarily to produce clothing and household furnishings as curtains, bedclothes, upholstery, and table linens. It is also used for sails, bellows, skin boats, and other items shaped out of flexible materials such as canvas and leather.

Most sewing in the industrial world is done by machines. Pieces of a garment are often firstly tacked together. The machine has a complex set of gears and arms which pierces thread through the layers of the cloth and semi-securely interlocks the thread.

Some people sew clothes for themselves and their families. More often home sewers sew to repair clothes, such as mending a torn seam or replacing a loose button. A person who sews for a living is known as a seamstress, dressmaker, tailor, or garment worker.

"Plain" sewing is done for functional reasons: making or mending clothing or household linens. "Fancy" sewing is primarily decorative, including techniques such as shirring, embroidery, or quilting.

Sewing is the foundation for many needle arts and crafts, such as applique, canvas work, and patchwork.

General sewing methods

Machine sewing is the most popular method. Hand sewing is still done to some extent for finishing and repairing garments. Sergers are becoming more popular for home use, but are not capable of all the functions of a traditional sewing machine. Because of this, people usually purchase a traditional sewing machine first, and purchase a serger at a later date. Sergers prices typically start at two to three times the cost of a traditional sewing machine.

  • Hand-sewing: using a needle and thread with your hands to produce stitches.
  • Machine-sewing: using a machine to produce similar effects to hand-sewing, but at a much quicker speed. Sewing machines can be electrically or mechanically operated. Electric machines are by far more common.
  • Serging: trimming the edge of fabric and overcasting all in one step, sometimes with the option of stitching as well. Also used for creating artistic effects. Serging is ideal for stretchy fabrics or fabrics that should have neat edges. Virutally all commercially-sold clothing is completely made with one or more specialized industrial sergers.

General sewing applications

Almost all of these methods can be done by either hand, sewing machine, or a serger; however, the specific techniques used can be quite different. Some methods are not appropriate for some applications, even though it may be possible to replicate another method. As an extreme, you could technically duplicate serging with hand sewing, but it would take at least several hundred times as long to do the same work. Furthermore, some techniques are not possible with other methods: making an embroidery stitch called a french knot is easy by hand, but impossible by sewing machine or serger.

  • Dressmaking/Tailoring/General: general techniques to create clothing and other textile projects.
  • Mending: using general techniques and specialized methods such as darning to repair textiles.
  • Quilting: sewing together layers of fabric and/or fibrefill to make warm blankets and clothing, or used for effect. Machine quilting is most common, but quilting "purists" and traditionalists do all quilting by hand.
  • Serging: uses multiple threads to produce a stretchy and secure edge finish or seam that keeps raw edges of fabric neat. The term "serging" is commonly used to refer both to the act of sewing with a serger, and the type of effect the serger produces.
  • Embroidery or machine embroidery: artistic embellishment.

Occupations requiring sewing

  • Cobbler
  • Corsetier
  • Draper
  • Dressmaker
  • Glover
  • Hatter
  • Quilting
  • Sailmaker
  • Tailor
  • Upholsterer

Sewing tools and accessories

Sewing box (~1955) with sewing notions
  • awl
  • bobbin
  • bodkin
  • dressmaker's or tailor's shears
  • measuring tape
  • needle
  • pattern
  • pattern weights
  • pin
  • pincushion
  • rotary cutter
  • scissors
  • seam ripper
  • tailor's chalk
  • thimble
  • thread
  • tracing paper
  • tracing wheel
  • wax, often beeswax

Notions (objects sewn into garments or soft goods)

Closures:

  • buckle
  • button (buttons can be sew-through or have shanks.)
    • toggle
  • chinese frog
  • eye
  • hook
  • hook-and-loop tape (often known by brand name Velcro)
  • snap
  • zipper

Finishing and embellishment:

  • bias tape
  • elastic
  • eyelet
  • grommet
  • heading
  • interfacing
  • rivet
  • trims (fringe, beaded fringe, ribbons, lace, sequin tape)

List of stitches

  • back tack
  • backstitch
  • basting stitch (or tacking) - for temporary fixing
  • blanket stitch
  • blind stitch (or hem stitch)
  • buttonhole stitch
  • chain stitch
  • cross-stitch
  • darning stitch
  • feather stitch
  • hemming stitch
  • lockstitch
  • overlock
  • padding stitch
  • running stitch - for seams and gathering
  • sailmakers stitch
  • slip stitch - for fastening a folded edge to a flat piece of fabric, or to another folded edge
  • stretch stitch
  • straight stitch
  • topstitch
  • whipstitch (or oversewing stitch) - for protecting edges
  • zig-zag stitch

References

  • Singer: The New Sewing Essentials by The Editors of Creative Publishing International ISBN 0865733082

This page about Sewing includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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Finishing and embellishment:. Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:. Closures:. Current road bicycle groupsets include:. Furthermore, some techniques are not possible with other methods: making an embroidery stitch called a french knot is easy by hand, but impossible by sewing machine or serger. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles. As an extreme, you could technically duplicate serging with hand sewing, but it would take at least several hundred times as long to do the same work. Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance.

Some methods are not appropriate for some applications, even though it may be possible to replicate another method. Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions. Almost all of these methods can be done by either hand, sewing machine, or a serger; however, the specific techniques used can be quite different. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. Sergers prices typically start at two to three times the cost of a traditional sewing machine. In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. Because of this, people usually purchase a traditional sewing machine first, and purchase a serger at a later date. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment.

Sergers are becoming more popular for home use, but are not capable of all the functions of a traditional sewing machine. In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. Hand sewing is still done to some extent for finishing and repairing garments. Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. Machine sewing is the most popular method. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments. . SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle.

Sewing is the foundation for many needle arts and crafts, such as applique, canvas work, and patchwork. While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. "Fancy" sewing is primarily decorative, including techniques such as shirring, embroidery, or quilting. When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. "Plain" sewing is done for functional reasons: making or mending clothing or household linens. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well. A person who sews for a living is known as a seamstress, dressmaker, tailor, or garment worker. The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets.

More often home sewers sew to repair clothes, such as mending a torn seam or replacing a loose button. Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs. Some people sew clothes for themselves and their families. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts. The machine has a complex set of gears and arms which pierces thread through the layers of the cloth and semi-securely interlocks the thread. Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. Pieces of a garment are often firstly tacked together. .

Most sewing in the industrial world is done by machines. Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components. It is also used for sails, bellows, skin boats, and other items shaped out of flexible materials such as canvas and leather. Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles. Sewing is used primarily to produce clothing and household furnishings as curtains, bedclothes, upholstery, and table linens. Altus. Sewing predates the weaving of cloth. Acera.

Its use is nearly universal among human populations and dates back to Paleolithic times (30,000 BC). Alivio. Sewing is an ancient craft involving the stitching of cloth, leather, animal skins, furs, or other materials, using needle and thread. Deore. Singer: The New Sewing Essentials by The Editors of Creative Publishing International ISBN 0865733082. LX. zig-zag stitch. XT.

whipstitch (or oversewing stitch) - for protecting edges. XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes. topstitch. Hone. straight stitch. Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes. stretch stitch. Sora.

slip stitch - for fastening a folded edge to a flat piece of fabric, or to another folded edge. Tiagra. sailmakers stitch. 105. running stitch - for seams and gathering. Ultegra. padding stitch. Dura-Ace.

overlock. lockstitch. hemming stitch. feather stitch.

darning stitch. cross-stitch. chain stitch. buttonhole stitch.

blind stitch (or hem stitch). blanket stitch. basting stitch (or tacking) - for temporary fixing. backstitch.

back tack. trims (fringe, beaded fringe, ribbons, lace, sequin tape). rivet. interfacing.

heading. grommet. eyelet. elastic.

bias tape. zipper. snap. hook-and-loop tape (often known by brand name Velcro).

hook. eye. chinese frog. toggle.

button (buttons can be sew-through or have shanks.)

    . buckle. wax, often beeswax. tracing wheel.

    tracing paper. thread. thimble. tailor's chalk.

    seam ripper. scissors. rotary cutter. pincushion.

    pin. pattern weights. pattern. needle.

    measuring tape. dressmaker's or tailor's shears. bodkin. bobbin.

    awl. Upholsterer. Tailor. Sailmaker.

    Quilting. Hatter. Glover. Dressmaker.

    Draper. Corsetier. Cobbler. Embroidery or machine embroidery: artistic embellishment.

    The term "serging" is commonly used to refer both to the act of sewing with a serger, and the type of effect the serger produces. Serging: uses multiple threads to produce a stretchy and secure edge finish or seam that keeps raw edges of fabric neat. Machine quilting is most common, but quilting "purists" and traditionalists do all quilting by hand. Quilting: sewing together layers of fabric and/or fibrefill to make warm blankets and clothing, or used for effect.

    Mending: using general techniques and specialized methods such as darning to repair textiles. Dressmaking/Tailoring/General: general techniques to create clothing and other textile projects. Virutally all commercially-sold clothing is completely made with one or more specialized industrial sergers. Serging is ideal for stretchy fabrics or fabrics that should have neat edges.

    Also used for creating artistic effects. Serging: trimming the edge of fabric and overcasting all in one step, sometimes with the option of stitching as well. Electric machines are by far more common. Sewing machines can be electrically or mechanically operated.

    Machine-sewing: using a machine to produce similar effects to hand-sewing, but at a much quicker speed. Hand-sewing: using a needle and thread with your hands to produce stitches.

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