Sculpture

A sculpture is a three-dimensional, man-made object selected for special recognition as art.

Materials of Sculpture

The materials of historical sculpture

Sculpture made for royal courts or large public works were often produced in expensive durable materials, primarily bronze and stone such as marble, limestone, porphyry, and granite. More rarely precious materials such as gold and ivory were used for chryselephantine works. More common and less expensive materials were used for sculpture for wider consumption, including woods such as oak, box and lime; terracotta and other ceramics; spelter; and metals such as pewter.

Sculptors often built small preliminary works called maquettes of ephemeral materials such as plaster of paris, wax, clay and even plasticine, as Alfred Gilberts did for 'Eros' at Piccadilly Circus, London.

Contemporary materials

A tree sculpture at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. This was sculpted with a chain saw from a standing tree, which was diseased and due to be felled

Most traditional sculpture materials are still in wide use today. However, advancements in technology and changes have broadened the range of materials sculptors can choose to use, including glass and sand, aluminum, polymers and many other synthetic materials, and liquid crystals.

It is common for film sculptors to use blocks of polystyrene to carve large statuary from, although not particularly durable it is light and can be cut easily using a hot wire.

Some sculptures are multimedia, for example sound sculptures which, as their name implies, produce sound. Many artists use video and computers in their sculptures as well. Computers and motors can also be used in sculptures, leading to works that may be classified as robotic.

Sculptors are constantly searching for new ways to make art and for new materials to make it with, including blood, feces, dead animals. See also body fluids in art. Andy Goldsworthy is notable as a sculptor for his use of almost entirely natural materials in natural settings.

In his late writings, Joan Miró even proposed that some day sculptures might be made of gases; see gas sculpture.

Sculpture around the world

Asian

Many different forms of sculpture were in use in the many different regions of Asia, often based around the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. A great deal of Cambodian Hindu sculpture is preserved at Angkor, however organized looting has had a heavy impact on many sites around the country. Also see Angkor Wat. In Thailand, sculpture was almost exclusively of Buddha images. Many Thai sculptures or temples tended to be gilded, and on occasion enriched with inlays. See also Thai art

India

The first sculptures in India date back to the Indus Valley civilization, where stone and bronze carvings have been discovered. This is one of the earliest instances of sculpture in the world. Later, as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism developed further, India produced some of the most intricate bronzes in the world, as well as unriveled temple carvings. Some huge shrines, such as the one at Ellora were not actually constructed using blocks, but instead carved out of solid rock, making them perhaps the largest and most intricate sculptures in the world.

During the 2nd to 1st century BCE in far nothern India, in what is now southern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan, sculptures became more explicit, representing episodes of the Buddha’s life and teachings. Although India had a long sculptural tradition and a mastery of rich iconography, the Buddha was never represented in human form before this time, but only through some of his symbols. This may be because Gandharan Buddhist sculpture in modern Afghanistan displays Greek and Persian artistic influence. Artistically, the Gandharan school of sculpture is said to have contributed wavy hair, drapery covering both shoulders, shoes and sandals, acanthus leaf decorations, etc.

The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved during the Gupta period (4th to 6th century) to reach a very high fineness of execution and delicacy in the modeling. Newer sculptures in Afghanistan, in stucco, schist or clay, display very strong blending of Indian post-Gupta mannerism and Classical influence, Hellenistic or possibly even Greco-Roman. Meanwhile, elsewhere in India, less anotomically accurate styles of human representation evolved, leading to the classical art that the world is now familiar with, and contributing to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout asia.

China

Chinese artifacts date back as early as 10,000 BC -- and skilled,Chinese artisans have been active up to the present time -- but the bulk of what is displayed as sculpture in Euro-culture museums come from a few, select, historical periods. The first period of interest has been the Zhou Dynasty (1050-771 BC), from which come a variety of intricate cast bronze vessels. The next period of interest was the Han Dynasty ( 206 BC - 220 AD) -- beginning with the spectacular Terracotta army assembled for the tomb of the first emperor of the very brief Chin dynasty that preceded it. (Qin Shi Huang) in 210–209 BC.) Tombs excavated from the Han period have revealed many figures found to be vigorous, direct, and appealing 2000 years later.

The period now considered to be China's golden age is the Tang Dynasty. (coinciding with what in Europe is sometimes called "The Dark Ages". Decorative figures like those shown below became very popular in 20th Century Euro-American culture, and were made available in bulk as warlords in the Chinese civil wars exported them to raise cash. Considered especially desirable, and even profound, was the Buddhist sculpture, often monumental, begun in the Sui Dynasty, inspired by the Indian art of the Gupta period, and many are considered treasures of world art.

Following the Tang, Western interest in Chinese artifacts drops off dramatically, except for might be considered ornamental furnishings, and especially objects in jade. Pottery from many periods have been collected, and again the Tang period stands out apart for its free, easy feeling. Chinese sculpture has no nudes --other perhaps than figures made for medical training or practice -- and very little portraiture compared with the European tradition. One place where sculptural portraiture was pursued, however, was in the monasteries.

Almost nothing, other than jewelry, jade, or pottery is collected by art museums after the [Ming Dynasty]] ended in the late 17th century -- and absolutely nothing has yet been recognized as sculpture from the tumultuous 20th century, although there was a school of Soviet-influenced social realist sculpture in the early decades of the Communist regime, and as the century turned, Chinese craftsmen began to dominate commerical sculpture genres (the collector plates, figurines, toys, etc) and avant garde Chinese artists began to participate in the Euro-American enterprise of contemporary art.

Japan

Countless paints and sculpture were made, often under governmental sponsorship. Most Japanese sculpture is associated with religion, and the medium's use declined with the lessening importance of traditional Buddhism. During the Kofun period of the third century, clay sculptures called haniwa were erected outside tombs. Inside the Kondo at Horyu-ji is a Shaka Trinity (623), the historical Buddha flanked by two bodhisattvas and also the Guardian Kings of the Four Directions The wooden image ( 9th c.) of Shakyamuni, the "historic" Buddha, enshrined in a secondary building at the Muro-ji, is typical of the early Heian sculpture, with its ponderous body, covered by thick drapery folds carved in the hompa-shiki (rolling-wave) style, and its austere, withdrawn facial expression. The Kei school of sculptors, particularly Unkei, created a new, more realistic style of sculpture. The two Nio guardian images (1203) in the Great South Gate of the Todaiji in Nara illustrate Unkei's dynamic suprarealistic style.

Africa

African art has an emphasis on Sculpture - African artists tend to favor three-dimensional artworks over two-dimensional works. The earliest known sculptures are from the Nok culture of Nigeria, made around 500 BCE.

Egypt

The ancient art of Egyptian sculpture evolved to represent the ancient Egyptian gods, and Pharaohs, the divine kings and queens, in physical form. Very strict conventions were followed while crafting statues: male statues were darker than the female ones; in seated statues, hands were required to be placed on knees and specific rules governed appearance of every Egyptian god. Artistic works were ranked according to exact compliance with all the conventions, and the conventions were followed so strictly that over three thousand years, very little changed in the appearance of statutes.

United States

The history of sculpture in the United States reflects the country's 18th century foundation in Roman republican civic values as well as Protestant Christianity. American sculpture of the mid to late 19th century was often classical, often romantic, but showed a special bent for a dramatic, narrative, almost journalistic realism. Public buildings of the first half of the 20th century often provided an architectural setting for sculpture, especially in relief. In the 1950s traditional sculpture education would almost be completely replaced by a Bauhaus influenced concern for abstract design. Minimalist sculpture (Richard Serra) often replaced the figure in public settings. Modern sculptors use both classical and abstract inspired designs.


Europe

An overview of forms

The Emperor Tiberius enamelled terracotta bust at the Victoria and Albert Museum, 19th century.

Some common forms of sculpture are:

  • The bust, a representation of a person from the chest up.
  • Equestrian (horse) sculpture
  • Free-standing sculpture, not intended to be displayed on a pedestal or shelf
  • Fountain
  • "In the round": designed by the sculptor to be viewed from any angle.
  • Jewellery
  • Mobile (See also Calder's Stabiles.)
  • Relief: sculpture still attached to a background, standing out from that ground in "High Relief" or "Low Relief" (bas relief)
  • Site-Specific Art
  • Statue
Lady with Kittens at Delapré Abbey

Perhaps the majority of public art is sculpture. See also sculpture garden.

Greek-Roman-classical

Features unique to the European Classical tradition:

  1. full figures: using the young, athletic male or full-bodied female nude
  2. portraits: showing signs of age and strong character
  3. use of classical costume and attributes of classical deities
  4. Concern for naturalism based on observation, often from live models.

Features that the European Classical tradition shares with many others:

  1. characters present an attitude of distance and inner contentment
  2. details do not disrupt a sense of rhythm between solid volumes and the spaces that surround them
  3. pieces feel solid and larger than they really are
  4. ambient space feels sacred or timeless
Prometheus, by Nicolas-Sébastien Adam, 1737 (Louvre)

The topic of Nudity

A Nude or 'unadorned' figure in Greek classical sculpture was a reference to the status or role of the depicted person, deity or other being. Athletes, priestesses and gods could be identified by their adornment or lack of it.

The Renaissance preoccupation with Greek classical imagery, such as the 4th century B.C. Doryphoros of Polykleitos, led to nude figurative statues being seen as the 'perfect form' of representation for the human body. Subsequently, nudity in sculpture and painting has represented a form of ideal, be it innocence, openness or purity. Nude sculptures are still common. As in painting, they are often made as exercises in efforts to understand the anatomical structure of the human body and develop skills that will provide a foundation for making clothed figurative work.

Nude statues are usually widely accepted by most societies, largely due to the length of tradition that supports this form. Occasionally, the nude form draws objections, often by fundamentalist moral or religious groups. Classic examples of this are the removal of penises from the Vatican collection of Greek sculpture and the addition of a fig leaf to a plaster cast of Michelangelo's sculpture of David for Queen Victoria's visit to the British Museum.

A Greek sculpture displayed in the British Museum.

The topic of social status

Worldwide, sculptors are usually tradesmen whose work is unsigned. But in the Classical tradition, some sculptors began to receive individual recognition in Periclean Athens and more so in the Renaissance revival 2000 years later, culminating in the career of Michelangelo who entered the circle of princes. Sculpture was still a trade, but exceptional sculptors were recognized on a level with exceptional poets and painters. In the 19th century, sculpture also became a bourgeois/upper class avocation, as poetry and painting had been, and the classical work of women sculptors began to appear.

Gothic

Gothic scutlure, late 15th century.

Gothic sculpture evolved from the early stiff and elongated style, still partly Romanesque, into a spatial and naturalistic feel in the late 12th and early 13th century. The architectural statues at the Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral (ca. 1145) are the earliest Gothic sculptures and were a revolution in style and the model for a generation of sculptors. Prior to this there had been no sculpture tradition in Ile-de-France—so sculptors were brought in from Burgundy. The Bamberg Cathedral had the largest assemblage of 13th century sculpture. In England sculpture was more confined to tombs and non-figurine decorations. In Italy there was still a Classical influence, but Gothic made inroads in the sculptures of pulpits such as the Pisa Baptistery pulpit (1269) and the Siena pulpit. Dutch-Burgundian sculptor Claus Sluter and the taste for naturalism signaled the beginning of the end of Gothic sculpture, evolving into the classicistic Renaissance style by the end of the 15th century.

Renaissance

Donatello's David (replica) Michelangelo's David

Sculpture was also revived, in many cases before the other arts. There was a very obvious naturalism about contemporary sculpture, and highly true to life figures were being sculpted. One of the most important sculptors in the classical revival was Donatello. His greatest achievement of his classic period is the bronze David (not to be confused with Michelangelo's David), which is currently located at the Bargello in Florence. At the time of its creation, it was the first free-standing nude statue since ancient times. Conceived fully in the round and independent of any architectural surroundings, it was the first major work of Renaissance sculpture.

Among the many sculptures of Michelangelo are those of David and the Pietà, as well as the Doni Virgin, Bacchus, Moses, Rachel, Leah, and members of the Medici family. Michelangelo's David is possibly the most famous sculpture in the world, which was unveiled on September 8, 1504. It is an example of the contrapposto style of posing the human figure. Michelangelo's statue of David differs from previous representations of the subject in that David is depicted before his battle with Goliath and not after the giant's defeat. Instead of being shown victorious over a foe much larger than he, David looks tense and ready for combat.

Mannerist

Benvenuto Cellini created a salt cellar of gold and ebony in 1540 featuring Neptune and Amphitrite (earth and water) in elongated form and uncomfortable positions. It is considered a masterpiece of Mannerist sculpture.

Baroque

In Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance, and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms— they spiralled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains. Bernini was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of the Baroque period. His first works were inspired by Hellenistic sculpture of ancient Greece and imperial Rome he could study in the new seat. One of his most famous works is Ecstasy of St Theresa

Neo-Classical

The sculpture examples they actually embraced were more likely to be Roman copies of Hellenistic sculptures. In sculpture, the most familiar representatives are the Italian Antonio Canova, the Englishman John Flaxman and the Dane Bertel Thorvaldsen.

Modernism

Modern Classicism contrasted in many ways with the classical sculpture of the 19th Century which was was characterized by commitments to naturalism (Antoine-Louis Barye) -- the melodramatic (François Rude) sentimentality (Jean Baptiste Carpeaux)-- or a kind of stately grandiosity (Lord Leighton) Several different directions in the classical tradition were taken as the century turned, but the study of the live model and the post-Renaissance tradition was still fundamental to them.

Rodin's The Burghers of Calais in Calais, France.

Auguste Rodin was the most renowned European sculptor of the early 20th century. He might be considered as sui generis -- that is, if anyone successfully composed in his turbulent, virtuosic style, they have yet to be discovered. But he is often considered a sculptural Impressionist, like Medardo Rosso, Count Troubetski, and Rik Wouters, attempting to frame the charm of a fleeting moment of daily life.

Modern Classicism showed a lesser interest in naturalism and a greater interest in formal stylization. Greater attention was paid to the rhythms of volumes and spaces - as well as greater attention to the contrasting qualities of surface (open, closed, planar, broken etc) while less attention was paid to story-telling and convincing details of anatomy or costume. Greater attention was given to psychological realism than to physical realism. Greater attention was given to showing what was eternal and public, rather than what was momentary and private. Greater attention was given to examples of ancient and Medieval sacred arts:Egyptian, Middle Eastern, Asian, African, and Meso-American. Grandiosity was still a concern, but in a broader, more world-wide context.

Early masters of modern classicism included: Aristide Maillol,Alexander Matveev, Joseph Bernard, Antoine Bourdelle, Georg Kolbe, Libero Andreotti, Gustav Vigeland, Jan Stursa

As the century progressed, modern classicism was adopted as the national style of the two great European totalitarian empires: Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia, who co-opted the work of early masters, like Kolbe and Arno Breker in Germany, and Matveev in Russia. Nazi Germany had a 15-year run; but over the 70 years of the USSR, new generations of sculptors were trained and chosen within their system, and a distinct style, socialist realism, developed, that returned to the 19th century's emphasis on melodrama and naturalism.

Henry Moore was famous for his Reclining Figure, and many other sculptures

In the rest of Europe, the modern classical became either more decorative/art deco (Paul Manship,Carl Milles) or more abstractly stylized (Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti,Julio González (sculptor)) or more expressive (and Gothic) (Anton Hanak,Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Ernst Barlach, Arturo Martini) -- or turned more to the Renaissance (Giacomo Manzu, Venanzo Crocetti) or stayed the same (Charles Despiau, Marcel Gimond).

Classical training was rooted out of art education in Western Europe (and the Americas) by 1970 and the classical variants of the 20th Century were marginalized in the history of modernism. But classicism continued as the foundation of art education in the Soviet academies until 1990, providing a foundation for expressive figurative art throughout eastern Europe and parts of the Middle East.

By the year 2000, the European classical tradition maintains a wide appeal to viewers -especially tourists - and especially for the ancient, Renaissance, Baroque, and 19th century periods -- but awaits an educational tradition to revive its contemporary development.

Modernist movements included Cubism, Futurism, Minimalism, Installation art and Pop-Art.

Contemporary Sculpture genres

Some modern sculpture forms are now practiced outdoors, and often in full view of spectators, thus giving them kinship to performance art in the eyes of some. Ice sculpture is a form of sculpture that uses ice as the raw material. Popular in China, Japan, Canada, Sweden and Russia. Ice sculptures feature decoratively in some cuisines, especially in Asia. Kinetic sculptures are sculptures that are designed to move, which include Mobiles. Snow sculptures are usually carved out of a single block of snow about 6 to 15 feet on each side and weighing about 20 - 30 tons. The snow is densely packed into a form after having been produced by artificial means or collected from the ground after a snowfall. Sound sculptures take the form of indoor sound installations, outdoor installations such as aeolian harps, automatons, or be more or less near conventional musical instruments. Sound sculpture is often site-specific. A Sand castle can be regarded as a sand sculpture.

Other arts which can be regarded as sculptures include:

  • Hologram
  • pottery
  • glass blowing
  • costume
  • mask
  • doll

Greenfield Products Pty Ltd v. Rover-Scott Bonnar Ltd

The Australian copyright case of Greenfield Products Pty Ltd v. Rover-Scott Bonnar Ltd (1990) 17 IPR 417 is authority for the proposition that a thing not intended to be a sculpture is not a sculpture. This seems contrary to some famous examples of sculpture, including Marcel Duchamp's 1917 sculpture consisting of a porcelain urinal lying on its back, titled Fountain, and Carl Andre's sculpture Equivalent III exhibited in the Tate Gallery in 1978, consisting of bricks stacked in a rectangle.


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This seems contrary to some famous examples of sculpture, including Marcel Duchamp's 1917 sculpture consisting of a porcelain urinal lying on its back, titled Fountain, and Carl Andre's sculpture Equivalent III exhibited in the Tate Gallery in 1978, consisting of bricks stacked in a rectangle. Even long after it was taken off the market, the Super Nintendo still garners attention, and is sometimes considered by old school gamers as the greatest system of all time. Rover-Scott Bonnar Ltd (1990) 17 IPR 417 is authority for the proposition that a thing not intended to be a sculpture is not a sculpture. Likewise, the Gameboy Advance's library garnered a lot of success off porting games from the Super Nintendo. The Australian copyright case of Greenfield Products Pty Ltd v. Thanks to titles such as Final Fantasy Anthology and the Mega Man X Collection, gamers can experience some old Super Nintendo titles without having to search high and low for them and pay an outrageous price. Other arts which can be regarded as sculptures include:. However, thanks to emulation and porting, many Super Nintendo classics haven't been forgotten.

A Sand castle can be regarded as a sand sculpture. Other titles that easily go for over $100 include Mega Man X2, Mega Man X3, Super Mario RPG, Secret of Mana, Final Fantasy III (VI), and Final Fantasy II (IV) to name a few. Sound sculpture is often site-specific. It was reported by Entertainment Weekly that the most expensive classic bought on ebay was Chrono Trigger when someone spent more than $300. Sound sculptures take the form of indoor sound installations, outdoor installations such as aeolian harps, automatons, or be more or less near conventional musical instruments. Many people are willing to spend the money to buy these games. The snow is densely packed into a form after having been produced by artificial means or collected from the ground after a snowfall. Games that still include the box easily sell for over one-hundred, and those still wrapped sell for more than $200.

Snow sculptures are usually carved out of a single block of snow about 6 to 15 feet on each side and weighing about 20 - 30 tons. On eBay, many classics games sell for more than forty dollars used. Kinetic sculptures are sculptures that are designed to move, which include Mobiles. To this day, people still search for classic titles such as Mega Man X3, Chrono Trigger and Super Mario RPG. Ice sculptures feature decoratively in some cuisines, especially in Asia. However, the Super Nintendo has some of the most widely sought after games of all time. Popular in China, Japan, Canada, Sweden and Russia. Many gamers argue that in today's current gaming generation, graphics are being influenced much more than gameplay.

Ice sculpture is a form of sculpture that uses ice as the raw material. [4]. Some modern sculpture forms are now practiced outdoors, and often in full view of spectators, thus giving them kinship to performance art in the eyes of some. The Super Nintendo is considered by many older gamers (usually those born in the late 80's and before) as the Golden Era of gaming. Modernist movements included Cubism, Futurism, Minimalism, Installation art and Pop-Art. Although 49 million Super NES units were sold worldwide [3], Nintendo was unable to recapture the preceding NES's market share. By the year 2000, the European classical tradition maintains a wide appeal to viewers -especially tourists - and especially for the ancient, Renaissance, Baroque, and 19th century periods -- but awaits an educational tradition to revive its contemporary development. This is most often characterized by an extra set of small leads under the cartridge.

But classicism continued as the foundation of art education in the Soviet academies until 1990, providing a foundation for expressive figurative art throughout eastern Europe and parts of the Middle East. Rather than require a complicated upgrade procedure found in the IBM PC Compatible world of computers, these certain enhancement chips were included inside the plug-in game cartridges themselves if needed for a specific game. Classical training was rooted out of art education in Western Europe (and the Americas) by 1970 and the classical variants of the 20th Century were marginalized in the history of modernism. As part of the overall plan for the SNES/SFC, rather than include an expensive CPU that would still become obsolete in a few years, the hardware designers made it easy to interface special coprocessor chips to the console. In the rest of Europe, the modern classical became either more decorative/art deco (Paul Manship,Carl Milles) or more abstractly stylized (Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti,Julio González (sculptor)) or more expressive (and Gothic) (Anton Hanak,Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Ernst Barlach, Arturo Martini) -- or turned more to the Renaissance (Giacomo Manzu, Venanzo Crocetti) or stayed the same (Charles Despiau, Marcel Gimond). It was the first console capable of applied acoustics in video game audio sold in North America, Europe, and Japan. Nazi Germany had a 15-year run; but over the 70 years of the USSR, new generations of sculptors were trained and chosen within their system, and a distinct style, socialist realism, developed, that returned to the 19th century's emphasis on melodrama and naturalism. Developers later became accustomed to the system, and were able to take advantage of its full potential.

As the century progressed, modern classicism was adopted as the national style of the two great European totalitarian empires: Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia, who co-opted the work of early masters, like Kolbe and Arno Breker in Germany, and Matveev in Russia. As a result early third-party games were of low technical quality. Early masters of modern classicism included: Aristide Maillol,Alexander Matveev, Joseph Bernard, Antoine Bourdelle, Georg Kolbe, Libero Andreotti, Gustav Vigeland, Jan Stursa. This approach would become common in subsequent video game hardware, but at the time it was new to game developers. Grandiosity was still a concern, but in a broader, more world-wide context. It featured a low-performance CPU supported by very powerful custom chips for sound and video processing. Greater attention was given to examples of ancient and Medieval sacred arts:Egyptian, Middle Eastern, Asian, African, and Meso-American. The design of the Super Nintendo/Super Famicom was unusual for its time.

Greater attention was given to showing what was eternal and public, rather than what was momentary and private. The SNES was one of the first systems to attract the attention of amateur fan translators: Final Fantasy V was the first major work of fan translation to be completed, in 1997. Greater attention was given to psychological realism than to physical realism. Most general ROM sites offer files for the SNES. Greater attention was paid to the rhythms of volumes and spaces - as well as greater attention to the contrasting qualities of surface (open, closed, planar, broken etc) while less attention was paid to story-telling and convincing details of anatomy or costume. Since the console's discontinuation, second-hand market decline, and rapid growth of the Internet, finding the files has become less of a challenge than it had been with the NES. Modern Classicism showed a lesser interest in naturalism and a greater interest in formal stylization. Despite Nintendo's attempts to stop the proliferation of such projects, ROM files continue to be available on the Internet.

But he is often considered a sculptural Impressionist, like Medardo Rosso, Count Troubetski, and Rik Wouters, attempting to frame the charm of a fleeting moment of daily life. Starting in the 128-bit era, both Nintendo and emulation proponents began to have a less active stance on this issue. He might be considered as sui generis -- that is, if anyone successfully composed in his turbulent, virtuosic style, they have yet to be discovered. Proponents of SNES emulation cite as arguments for their continued distribution: the discontinued production of the SNES, the right of the owner of the respective game to make a personal backup, the frailty of SNES cartridges (even though cartridges are far more durable than optical discs), and the lack of certain foreign imports. Auguste Rodin was the most renowned European sculptor of the early 20th century. Nintendo took the same stance against the distribution of SNES ROM image files and emulation as it did with the NES, insisting that they represented flagrant software piracy. Modern Classicism contrasted in many ways with the classical sculpture of the 19th Century which was was characterized by commitments to naturalism (Antoine-Louis Barye) -- the melodramatic (François Rude) sentimentality (Jean Baptiste Carpeaux)-- or a kind of stately grandiosity (Lord Leighton) Several different directions in the classical tradition were taken as the century turned, but the study of the live model and the post-Renaissance tradition was still fundamental to them. From then on, these two emulators have continued to offer the most complete emulation of the system and its various add-on chips like the Super FX Chip, although development continues on other emulators as well.

In sculpture, the most familiar representatives are the Italian Antonio Canova, the Englishman John Flaxman and the Dane Bertel Thorvaldsen. In early 1998, SNES enthusiasts began programming a console emulator named ZSNES. The sculpture examples they actually embraced were more likely to be Roman copies of Hellenistic sculptures. During that time, two competing emulation projects--Snes96 and Snes97--merged forming a new initiative entitled Snes9x. One of his most famous works is Ecstasy of St Theresa. Emulation projects began in 1996 with projects such as "VSMC" and "Super Pasofami," which, despite some important initial gains, did not last long past 1998. His first works were inspired by Hellenistic sculpture of ancient Greece and imperial Rome he could study in the new seat. The SNES has taken much the same revival path as the NES.

Bernini was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of the Baroque period. Many gamers discovered the SNES after its decline. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains. It has continued to thrive on the second-hand market and through console emulation. For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles. Like the NES before it, the SNES has retained interest among its fans even following its decline in the marketplace. In Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance, and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms— they spiralled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. Ultimately, negotiations with both Sony and Philips fell through, and the two companies went on to develop their own consoles based on their initial dealings with Nintendo (the PlayStation and the CD-i respectively), Philips also gaining the right to release a series of CD-i titles based on popular Nintendo franchises.

It is considered a masterpiece of Mannerist sculpture. During the SNES's life, Nintendo contracted with two different companies to develop a CD-ROM-based peripheral for the console. Benvenuto Cellini created a salt cellar of gold and ebony in 1540 featuring Neptune and Amphitrite (earth and water) in elongated form and uncomfortable positions. Satellaview signals were broadcast from April 23, 1995 through June 30, 2000. Instead of being shown victorious over a foe much larger than he, David looks tense and ready for combat. Users of the Satellaview could download gaming news and specially designed games, which were frequently either remakes of or sequels to older Famicom titles, released in instalments. Michelangelo's statue of David differs from previous representations of the subject in that David is depicted before his battle with Goliath and not after the giant's defeat. GIGA satellite radio station.

It is an example of the contrapposto style of posing the human figure. Japan saw the release of the Satellaview, a modem which attached to the Super Famicom's expansion port and connected to the St. Michelangelo's David is possibly the most famous sculpture in the world, which was unveiled on September 8, 1504. In general, Nintendo proved to be somewhat more tolerant of unlicensed SNES peripherals than they had been with NES peripherals. Among the many sculptures of Michelangelo are those of David and the Pietà, as well as the Doni Virgin, Bacchus, Moses, Rachel, Leah, and members of the Medici family. Like the NES before it, the SNES saw its fair share of unlicensed third-party peripherals, including a new version of the Game Genie cheat cartridge designed for use with SNES games and a variety of game copier devices. Conceived fully in the round and independent of any architectural surroundings, it was the first major work of Renaissance sculpture. The Super Game Boy touted a number of feature enhancements over the Game Boy, including color support (in reality, merely the ability to substitute a different color palette: the games themselves were still limited to four colors) and custom screen borders.

At the time of its creation, it was the first free-standing nude statue since ancient times. One of the most interesting and successful first-party peripherals released for the SNES was the Super Game Boy, an adaptor cartridge allowing games designed for Nintendo's portable Game Boy system to be played on the SNES. His greatest achievement of his classic period is the bronze David (not to be confused with Michelangelo's David), which is currently located at the Bargello in Florence. Nintendo also released the SNES Mouse in conjunction with its Mario Paint title, and Hudson Soft, under license from Nintendo, released the Super Multitap, a multiplayer adaptor that allowed games to support up to eight players. One of the most important sculptors in the classical revival was Donatello. Many of these devices were modelled after earlier add-ons for the NES: the Super Scope was a light gun similar to the NES Zapper (though the Super Scope featured wireless capabilities) and the Super Advantage was an arcade-style joystick with adjustable turbo settings akin to the NES Advantage. There was a very obvious naturalism about contemporary sculpture, and highly true to life figures were being sculpted. Throughout the course of its life, a number of peripherals were released which added to the functionality of the SNES.

Sculpture was also revived, in many cases before the other arts. The adaptor would read the game from the front port and use the regional lockout chip programming from the second. Dutch-Burgundian sculptor Claus Sluter and the taste for naturalism signaled the beginning of the end of Gothic sculpture, evolving into the classicistic Renaissance style by the end of the 15th century. Then, in the back part, the player would put in another game that would work on this SNES unit. In Italy there was still a Classical influence, but Gothic made inroads in the sculptures of pulpits such as the Pisa Baptistery pulpit (1269) and the Siena pulpit. a rectangular cartridge that would not run in the SNES unit designed for round cartridges) into the front. In England sculpture was more confined to tombs and non-figurine decorations. A player could plug the device into the SNES (either version) and then place a game that would normally not run on that particular SNES unit (e.g.

The Bamberg Cathedral had the largest assemblage of 13th century sculpture. There was an adaptor made by various third parties designed to circumvent the regional lockout issues. Prior to this there had been no sculpture tradition in Ile-de-France—so sculptors were brought in from Burgundy. The solution was to start the game in the native speed and then flick the switch once the region check had successfully completed. 1145) are the earliest Gothic sculptures and were a revolution in style and the model for a generation of sculptors. PAL games would refuse to run on 60Hz machines and vice versa. The architectural statues at the Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral (ca. As an additional form of region lockout, later games would check that the SNES was running at the speed the game was expecting.

Gothic sculpture evolved from the early stiff and elongated style, still partly Romanesque, into a spatial and naturalistic feel in the late 12th and early 13th century. As most PAL TVs support NTSC and the SNES hardware made such a thing quite simple to add, a switch to select 50 or 60Hz operation was often added. In the 19th century, sculpture also became a bourgeois/upper class avocation, as poetry and painting had been, and the classical work of women sculptors began to appear. This practice was common across all consoles at the time, but created a squashed and out of proportion picture. Sculpture was still a trade, but exceptional sculptors were recognized on a level with exceptional poets and painters. Additionally, PAL's higher resolution was not taken advantage of, and the extra scanlines were blank, creating large black bars that letterboxed the image. But in the Classical tradition, some sculptors began to receive individual recognition in Periclean Athens and more so in the Renaissance revival 2000 years later, culminating in the career of Michelangelo who entered the circle of princes. Instead of being re-coded, most PAL games were simply slowed down from 60Hz to 50Hz, resulting in 17% slower gameplay and sound effects.

Worldwide, sculptors are usually tradesmen whose work is unsigned. PAL consoles often faced another modification. The topic of social status. Games towards the end of the console's lifecycle, such as Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars could detect this deadlock situation and refuse to run, so it later became common to install a switch that disconnected and connected the lockout chip as required. Classic examples of this are the removal of penises from the Vatican collection of Greek sculpture and the addition of a fig leaf to a plaster cast of Michelangelo's sculpture of David for Queen Victoria's visit to the British Museum. This meant that the lockout chips would not operate and could not halt the console. Occasionally, the nude form draws objections, often by fundamentalist moral or religious groups. Disconnecting pin 4 of the console's lockout chip caused a situation where there were two keys and no locks.

Nude statues are usually widely accepted by most societies, largely due to the length of tradition that supports this form. The chip lockout system worked by having hardware in the console act as a lock and the chip inside the cartridge act as the key. As in painting, they are often made as exercises in efforts to understand the anatomical structure of the human body and develop skills that will provide a foundation for making clothed figurative work. Alternatively, various other adapters or physical modification of the console could overcome regional lockout. Nude sculptures are still common. This not only circumvents the problem of different cartridge shapes but also removes any problem with lockout chips due to the internal design of the Game Genie. Subsequently, nudity in sculpture and painting has represented a form of ideal, be it innocence, openness or purity. The simplest way to play the Japanese and European cartridges in the North American system was to use a Game Genie cheat device with the small rectangular piece of plastic from its top removed.

Doryphoros of Polykleitos, led to nude figurative statues being seen as the 'perfect form' of representation for the human body. The Japanese and North American machines had the same region chip, so once the difference in the shape of the cartridges was overcome, cartridges were interchangeable. The Renaissance preoccupation with Greek classical imagery, such as the 4th century B.C. Additionally, a regional lockout chip within the console and in each cartridge prevented European games from being played on Japanese/North American consoles and vice versa despite the fact that European and Japanese Cartridges fit in each other's consoles. Athletes, priestesses and gods could be identified by their adornment or lack of it. Since the North American console has protruding grooves, the Japanese/European cartridges could not be inserted without the removal of these grooves and North American cartridges being completely rectangular could not fit into the slightly curved opening of the Japanese and European console units. A Nude or 'unadorned' figure in Greek classical sculpture was a reference to the status or role of the depicted person, deity or other being. The North American model had a rectangular bottom that had inset grooves which when inserted complemented the console's shape whereas the Japanese, Korean, and European cartridges had a smoothed curve on the front of the cartridges with no inset grooves.

The topic of Nudity. Game cartridges, depending on which market they were released in, were of different shapes. Features that the European Classical tradition shares with many others:. Nintendo employed several types of regional lockout. Features unique to the European Classical tradition:. Some video game critics consider the SNES era "the golden age of video games," citing the many groundbreaking games and classics made for the system,[1] whereas others question this romanticism.[2] See video game player for more. See also sculpture garden. In recent years, many SNES titles have been ported to the handheld Game Boy Advance, which has similar video capabilities.

Perhaps the majority of public art is sculpture. In Japan, the Super Famicom continued to be produced until September 2003 (also some new games were produced until the year 2000). Some common forms of sculpture are:.
Nintendo of America ceased production of the SNES in 1999. An overview of forms. All the American cases from the original NES to the SNES 2 were designed by Lance Barr.
. A similar redesigned Super Famicom Jr. was released in Japan around the same time.

Modern sculptors use both classical and abstract inspired designs. Like the earlier NES 2, the new model was designed to be slimmer and lighter than its predecessor but lacked S-Video and RGB output, and would prove to be among the last major SNES-related releases in America. Minimalist sculpture (Richard Serra) often replaced the figure in public settings. In October 1997, Nintendo released a redesigned SNES 2 in North America for $99 USD (which included the pack-in game Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island). In the 1950s traditional sculpture education would almost be completely replaced by a Bauhaus influenced concern for abstract design. By 1996, the 16-bit era of gaming had ended, and a new generation of consoles, including Nintendo's own Nintendo 64, caused the popularity of the SNES to wane. Public buildings of the first half of the 20th century often provided an architectural setting for sculpture, especially in relief.
.

American sculpture of the mid to late 19th century was often classical, often romantic, but showed a special bent for a dramatic, narrative, almost journalistic realism. Nintendo fixed all units aftermarket free of charge, but the theory held on for years. The history of sculpture in the United States reflects the country's 18th century foundation in Roman republican civic values as well as Protestant Christianity. The SNES was incompatible with several American-brand TVs, causing the screen to hop 3-5 times a second. Artistic works were ranked according to exact compliance with all the conventions, and the conventions were followed so strictly that over three thousand years, very little changed in the appearance of statutes. While the NES was accused of shoddy construction and poor planning, the SNES was rumored to be a tool of outright economic war. Very strict conventions were followed while crafting statues: male statues were darker than the female ones; in seated statues, hands were required to be placed on knees and specific rules governed appearance of every Egyptian god. In the period of the early 1990s, a blue-collar anti-Japanese sentiment had grown to maturity.

The ancient art of Egyptian sculpture evolved to represent the ancient Egyptian gods, and Pharaohs, the divine kings and queens, in physical form. until 1994, benefiting from Sega pulling out of the market and its continued production of SNES and its games well after the 32-bit era of gaming had started. The earliest known sculptures are from the Nok culture of Nigeria, made around 500 BCE. Nintendo would never achieve market leadership in Europe and did not manage to do so in the U.S. African art has an emphasis on Sculpture - African artists tend to favor three-dimensional artworks over two-dimensional works. Rivalry between Nintendo and Sega produced what is possibly the most notorious console war in history. The two Nio guardian images (1203) in the Great South Gate of the Todaiji in Nara illustrate Unkei's dynamic suprarealistic style. In addition many US gamers had come to expect backwards compatibility from console developers (as was the case with the Atari 2600 and 7800), but the SNES was not designed to play NES cartridges.

The Kei school of sculptors, particularly Unkei, created a new, more realistic style of sculpture. By the time of launch the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis had already become firmly entrenched in the US and European marketplace, helped by the lower cost of the Mega Drive/Genesis console and games and Sega's aggressive marketing in North America. Inside the Kondo at Horyu-ji is a Shaka Trinity (623), the historical Buddha flanked by two bodhisattvas and also the Guardian Kings of the Four Directions The wooden image ( 9th c.) of Shakyamuni, the "historic" Buddha, enshrined in a secondary building at the Muro-ji, is typical of the early Heian sculpture, with its ponderous body, covered by thick drapery folds carved in the hompa-shiki (rolling-wave) style, and its austere, withdrawn facial expression. Nintendo's Japanese market dominance was not repeated in the American and European markets. During the Kofun period of the third century, clay sculptures called haniwa were erected outside tombs. The PAL versions of the console looked identical to the Japanese Super Famicom, except for labelling. Most Japanese sculpture is associated with religion, and the medium's use declined with the lessening importance of traditional Buddhism. The SNES was released in the United Kingdom and Ireland in April 1992 for £150, with a German release following a few weeks later.

Countless paints and sculpture were made, often under governmental sponsorship. Initially sold for a price of $200 US, the North American package included the game Super Mario World. Almost nothing, other than jewelry, jade, or pottery is collected by art museums after the [Ming Dynasty]] ended in the late 17th century -- and absolutely nothing has yet been recognized as sculpture from the tumultuous 20th century, although there was a school of Soviet-influenced social realist sculpture in the early decades of the Communist regime, and as the century turned, Chinese craftsmen began to dominate commerical sculpture genres (the collector plates, figurines, toys, etc) and avant garde Chinese artists began to participate in the Euro-American enterprise of contemporary art. Nine months later, on August 13, 1991, Nintendo released the Super Famicom in North America with a new redesigned case as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. One place where sculptural portraiture was pursued, however, was in the monasteries. In Japan, the Super Famicom easily outsold its chief rival, the Mega Drive, and Nintendo retained control over approximately 80% of the Japanese console market thanks, in part, to Nintendo's retention of most of its key third party developers from the Famicom, including Capcom, Konami, Tecmo, Square Co., Ltd., Koei and Enix. Chinese sculpture has no nudes --other perhaps than figures made for medical training or practice -- and very little portraiture compared with the European tradition. The system was so popular that it was said to have attracted the attention of the Yakuza, leading to the decision to ship the devices at night in order to avoid robbery.

Pottery from many periods have been collected, and again the Tang period stands out apart for its free, easy feeling. An instant success, Nintendo's initial shipment of 300,000 units quickly sold out. Following the Tang, Western interest in Chinese artifacts drops off dramatically, except for might be considered ornamental furnishings, and especially objects in jade. Masayuki Uemura, the man responsible for designing the Famicom several years earlier, was put in charge of the design of the console and the Super Famicom was released in Japan on November 21, 1990 for ¥25,000. Considered especially desirable, and even profound, was the Buddhist sculpture, often monumental, begun in the Sui Dynasty, inspired by the Indian art of the Gupta period, and many are considered treasures of world art. Although the NES would continue to dominate the video game industry for years to come, Nintendo's hardware was beginning to show its age, and though Nintendo executives initially showed little interest in developing a new system, Sega and NEC's growing market share soon forced Nintendo to reconsider. Decorative figures like those shown below became very popular in 20th Century Euro-American culture, and were made available in bulk as warlords in the Chinese civil wars exported them to raise cash. In 1987 and 1988 respectively, NEC and Sega launched their contenders, the PC Engine and the Mega Drive, one of the first 16-bit home gaming systems.

(coinciding with what in Europe is sometimes called "The Dark Ages". Even as the original NES/Famicom was at the height of its popularity, several companies were launching their own consoles. The period now considered to be China's golden age is the Tang Dynasty. . (Qin Shi Huang) in 210–209 BC.) Tombs excavated from the Han period have revealed many figures found to be vigorous, direct, and appealing 2000 years later. Despite its relatively late start, the SNES became the best selling console of the 16-bit era but only after its competitor Sega had pulled out of the 16-bit market to focus on its 32-bit next generation console. The next period of interest was the Han Dynasty ( 206 BC - 220 AD) -- beginning with the spectacular Terracotta army assembled for the tomb of the first emperor of the very brief Chin dynasty that preceded it. Whereas the earlier system had struggled in Europe and large parts of Asia the SNES proved to be a global success, albeit one that could not match its predecessor's popularity in South East Asia and North America—due in part to increased competition from Sega's Mega Drive console (released in North America as the Genesis).

The first period of interest has been the Zhou Dynasty (1050-771 BC), from which come a variety of intricate cast bronze vessels. The Super Nintendo Entertainment System was Nintendo's second home console, following the Nintendo Entertainment System (often abbreviated to NES, released as the Famicom in Japan). Chinese artifacts date back as early as 10,000 BC -- and skilled,Chinese artisans have been active up to the present time -- but the bulk of what is displayed as sculpture in Euro-culture museums come from a few, select, historical periods. That console was licensed and distributed by Hyundai Electronics. Meanwhile, elsewhere in India, less anotomically accurate styles of human representation evolved, leading to the classical art that the world is now familiar with, and contributing to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout asia. In South Korea, it is known as the Super Comboy (슈퍼컴보이). Newer sculptures in Afghanistan, in stucco, schist or clay, display very strong blending of Indian post-Gupta mannerism and Classical influence, Hellenistic or possibly even Greco-Roman. In Japan it is known as the Super Famicom (スーパーファミコン).

The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved during the Gupta period (4th to 6th century) to reach a very high fineness of execution and delicacy in the modeling. The Super Nintendo Entertainment System, also known as Super NES or SNES, is a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, and Australia. Artistically, the Gandharan school of sculpture is said to have contributed wavy hair, drapery covering both shoulders, shoes and sandals, acanthus leaf decorations, etc. Retrieved 9 September 2005. This may be because Gandharan Buddhist sculpture in modern Afghanistan displays Greek and Persian artistic influence. SNES-CD. Although India had a long sculptural tradition and a mastery of rich iconography, the Buddha was never represented in human form before this time, but only through some of his symbols. Bayer, Glen.

During the 2nd to 1st century BCE in far nothern India, in what is now southern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan, sculptures became more explicit, representing episodes of the Buddha’s life and teachings. Retrieved 1 February 2005. Some huge shrines, such as the one at Ellora were not actually constructed using blocks, but instead carved out of solid rock, making them perhaps the largest and most intricate sculptures in the world. The Golden era - Just for the nostalgics?. Later, as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism developed further, India produced some of the most intricate bronzes in the world, as well as unriveled temple carvings. Silent Axis. This is one of the earliest instances of sculpture in the world. Retrieved 1 February 2005.

The first sculptures in India date back to the Indus Valley civilization, where stone and bronze carvings have been discovered. The Golden Era. See also Thai art. Mattias Liedholm. Many Thai sculptures or temples tended to be gilded, and on occasion enriched with inlays. Retrieved 9 February 2005. In Thailand, sculpture was almost exclusively of Buddha images. History of Sony Playstation.

Also see Angkor Wat. Mary Bellis. A great deal of Cambodian Hindu sculpture is preserved at Angkor, however organized looting has had a heavy impact on many sites around the country. The SA-1 was a multipurpose chip that allowed games such as Kirby Super Star, Kirby's Dream Land 3, and Super Mario RPG, as well as the Super Game Boy to stay competitive in the changing marketplace during the aging SNES/SFC's final years. Many different forms of sculpture were in use in the many different regions of Asia, often based around the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. SA-1 chip: This is an ASIC chipset with a 65c816 8/16-bit processor core, clocked at 10MHz, containing some extra circuitry specified by Nintendo, including some fast RAM, a memory mapper, DMA, several programmable timers, and the region lockout chip. In his late writings, Joan Miró even proposed that some day sculptures might be made of gases; see gas sculpture. The chip was used in Mega Man X2 and Mega Man X3.

Andy Goldsworthy is notable as a sculptor for his use of almost entirely natural materials in natural settings. This chip was used to handle the wireframe effects, perform more general trigonometric calculations, and to help out with sprite positioning and rotation. See also body fluids in art. C4 chip: A chip created by Capcom. Sculptors are constantly searching for new ways to make art and for new materials to make it with, including blood, feces, dead animals. Games that used this chip were Street Fighter Alpha 2 and Star Ocean. Computers and motors can also be used in sculptures, leading to works that may be classified as robotic. This allowed games to be bigger than normal by compressing the data.

Many artists use video and computers in their sculptures as well. S-DD1 chip : Other than its normal processing and copy protection duties, this chip was primarily a memory compression chip. Some sculptures are multimedia, for example sound sculptures which, as their name implies, produce sound. It primarily helped out with drawing the race track, especially during the times that the track branched into multiple paths, which was a unique feature of this type of game at the time. It is common for film sculptors to use blocks of polystyrene to carve large statuary from, although not particularly durable it is light and can be cut easily using a hot wire. DSP-4 chip: A DSP used in only one game cartridge, Top Gear 3000. However, advancements in technology and changes have broadened the range of materials sculptors can choose to use, including glass and sand, aluminum, polymers and many other synthetic materials, and liquid crystals. Although this chip does handle graphics decompression and bitplane conversion, a large portion of memory inside this chip is dedicated to rendering a very complicated title screen, leading one to the likely conclusion that its inclusion was more intended to prevent the game from being easily pirated.

Most traditional sculpture materials are still in wide use today. DSP-3 chip: An assistant chip used only in one Japanese game for the Super Famicom titled SD Gundam GX. Sculptors often built small preliminary works called maquettes of ephemeral materials such as plaster of paris, wax, clay and even plasticine, as Alfred Gilberts did for 'Eros' at Piccadilly Circus, London. DSP-2 chip: A bitmap scaling and bitplane conversion chip used only in one game cartridge, Atari's port of Dungeon Master to the SNES console. More common and less expensive materials were used for sculpture for wider consumption, including woods such as oak, box and lime; terracotta and other ceramics; spelter; and metals such as pewter. Later revisions of the chip, the 1A and 1B, were functionally the same but included bugfixes in their internal math calculations. More rarely precious materials such as gold and ivory were used for chryselephantine works. The chip can be found most notably in Pilotwings and Super Mario Kart, as well as a few other games.

Sculpture made for royal courts or large public works were often produced in expensive durable materials, primarily bronze and stone such as marble, limestone, porphyry, and granite. DSP-1 chip: This fixed-point Digital Signal Processor chip was created to allow programmers to generate more enhanced Mode 7 rotation and scaling effects in their games, and to perform very fast vector-based calculations. . Star Fox 2, Comanche, and FX Fighter, all games designed to take advantage of the increased power of the Super FX GSU-2, were developed but never released for the SNES/SFC, disappointing many followers of the technology at the time. A sculpture is a three-dimensional, man-made object selected for special recognition as art. Although the pinouts and maximum clock speed differ, the instruction set for the FX 1 and FX 2 chips are identical. doll. Finally, the design was tweaked to become the Super FX GSU-2 chip, which had a larger address bus and was manufactured with an improved semiconductor process to allow it to reach its target clock speed of 21MHz.

mask. Rather quickly, it was given a more conventional surface-mount package and labeled as the Super FX GSU-1, which was used in various games. costume. This chip went through three revisions, first starting out as a Chip-on-Board glob in the earliest Star Fox cartridges. glass blowing. The chip however could also be used to enhance 2D games such as Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island. pottery. Some 3D game carts that this chip can be found in are Star Fox, Doom, Dirt Trax FX, Stunt Race FX, Vortex, and Winter Gold.

Hologram. The chip was primarily used to create 3D game worlds made with polygons, texture mapping and light source shading. ambient space feels sacred or timeless. Super FX: Developed by Argonaut, the Super FX chip is a supplemental RISC CPU that was included in certain game cartridges to perform functions that the main CPU could not feasibly do. pieces feel solid and larger than they really are. 2 seven-pin controller ports in the front of the machine. details do not disrupt a sense of rhythm between solid volumes and the spaces that surround them. Controller Response: 16ms.

characters present an attitude of distance and inner contentment. Game controllers

    . Concern for naturalism based on observation, often from live models. Transformer Output: 10 volts DC, 850 mA (NTSC), 9 volts DC (PAL). use of classical costume and attributes of classical deities. Transformer Input: NTSC: 120 volts AC, 60Hz, 17 watts, PAL: 240 volts AC, 50Hz. portraits: showing signs of age and strong character. Power adapter
      .

      full figures: using the young, athletic male or full-bodied female nude. 48-Mbit for Star Ocean and Tales of Phantasia. Statue. Custom address decoders employed bank switching techniques to allow for larger sizes, eg. Site-Specific Art. This allowed ROM techology to scale with the system, as all early games were SlowROM, and then most became FastROM towards the end of the SNES/SFC's commercial market lifetime. Relief: sculpture still attached to a background, standing out from that ground in "High Relief" or "Low Relief" (bas relief). Upon power up, the SlowROM speed is selected by default, unless the game's program code tells it to run at the faster speed.

      Mobile (See also Calder's Stabiles.). 2 to 32-Mbit (0.25 to 4MB) which can be accessed at two selectable speeds ('SlowROM' and 'FastROM'). Jewellery. Game cartridge size

        . "In the round": designed by the sculptor to be viewed from any angle. Most common display modes: Pixel-to-pixel Mode1 (16 colors (4-bit) per tile; 3 scrolling layers) and affine mapped Mode7 (256 colors per tile; one rotating/scaling layer). Fountain. The renderer was designed such that it would drop the frontmost sprites instead of the rearmost sprites if a scanline exceeded the limit, allowing for creative clipping effects.

        Free-standing sculpture, not intended to be displayed on a pedestal or shelf. Maximum number of sprite pixels on one scanline: 256. Equestrian (horse) sculpture. Maximum onscreen objects (sprites): 128 (32 per line, up to 34, 8x8 tiles per line). The bust, a representation of a person from the chest up. Most games used 256x224 or 512x224 pixels since higher resolutions caused slowdown, flicker, and/or had increased limitations on layers and colors (due to memory bandwidth constraints); the higher resolutions were used for less processor-intensive games, in-game menus, text, and high resolution images. Resolution: between 256x224 and 512x448.

        Maximum colors per sprite: 128. Maximum colors on-screen: 4,096 without alpha and 32,768 (using color arithmetic for transparency effects). Maximum colors per layer per scanline: 256. Palette: 256 entries; 15-bit color depth (RGB555) for a total of 32,768 colors.

        512 + 32 bytes of 'OAM' (Object Attribute Memory) for objects; 512 bytes of 'CGRAM' for palette data. 64KB of VRAM for screen maps (for 'background' layers) and tile sets (for backgrounds and objects);. Video RAM: 64KB

          . Picture Processor Unit: 15-bit.

          Video

            . Note - while not directly related to SNES hardware, the standard extension for SNES audio subsystem state files saved by emulators is .SPC, a format used by SPC players. Pulse Code Modulator: 16-bit ADPCM (if programmer uses 4-bit compressed ADPCM samples, expanded to 16-bit resolution, processed with an additional 4-point Gaussian sound interpolation). Low-pass filter for improved quality of low-frequency (bass) tones.

            3-channel PCM. SFx sound chip : SonyNintendo S-DSP

              . Polyphony of 8 notes per voices. Hardware sound effects pitch modulation, echo effect with feedback (for reverberation) with 8-tap FIR filter, and ADSR and 'GAIN' (discretely controlled) volume envelopes.

              8-channel PCM. Hardware ADPCM decompression,. Main Sound Chip : Sony S-SMP

                . Memory Cycle Time: 279 milliseconds.

                Sound RAM: 64KB shared between SPC700 and S-SMP. Sound Controller Chip: 8-bit Sony SPC700 CPU for controlling the DSP; running at an effective clock rate around 1.024MHz.

                  . Sound
                    . The SNES/SFC 5A22 CPU has direct access to 128KB of Work RAM.

                    RAM

                      . It works at approximately 1.5 MIPS (using strictly 16-bit instructions) and has a theoretical peak of 1.79 million 16-bit adds per second. But for most purposes the bus runs at 2.68 MHz and drops to 1.79MHz when accessing certain PPU registers. The possible clock speeds were 1.79, 2.68 and 3.58 Megahertz.

                      The CPU, as a whole, employs a variable-speed system bus, with bus access times determined by the memory location accessed. Multiplication and division registers. DMA unit, supporting two primary modes, general DMA (for block transfers, at a rate of 2.68MB/s) and Hblank DMA (for transferring small data sets at the end of each scanline, outside of the active display period);. For generating IRQ interrupts on screen positions;.

                      For generating PSG sound with included 2A03 core. For generating NMI interrupts on Vblank;. For interfacing with controller ports;. The CPU additionly contains support hardware, including circuitry:

                        .

                        Core: Nintendo custom '5A22', believed to be produced by Ricoh; based around a 16-bit CMD/GTE 65c816 (a predecessor of the WDC 65C816, used by the Apple IIGS personal computer). CPU

                          .

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