Ruhollah Khomeini

Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic

Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shi'a Muslim cleric, and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. Khomeini was considered a spiritual leader to many Shi'a Muslims, and ruled Iran from the Shah's overthrow to Khomeini's own death in 1989. In Iran, he is officially addressed as Imam rather than Ayatollah, and his supporters also adhere to this convention. Khomeini is considered by many as one of the most influential men of the 20th century, and was named Time Magazine's Man of the Year in 1979.

Life in exile

He was born in the town of Khomein as Ruhollah Mousavi (روح‌الله موسوی in Persian) in 1900. As a descendent of the prophet Muhammad, he was entitled to use the style Sayyid before his name. Khomeini was named an ayatollah in the 1950s. In 1964 he was exiled from Iran for his constant criticisms of the government of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. He was sent initially to Turkey, before later being allowed to move to Iraq, where he stayed until being forced to leave in 1978, after which he went to Neauphle-le-Château in France. According to Alexandre de Marenches (then head of the French secret services), France suggested to the Shah that they could "arrange for Khomeini to have a lethal accident"; the Shah declined the assassination offer, arguing that this would make him a martyr. After the murder of Ali Shariati, a prominent revolutionary philosopher, Khomeini became one of the most influential opponents to the rule of the Shah, being perceived as the spiritual leader of those fighting his rule. During his exile, Khomeini wrote a book titled Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists, which laid out his beliefs as such: that all laws in an Islamic society should be based on the laws of Islam, all laws and activities should be monitored by clerical authorities on Islamic law (guardians), there should be no monarch (that Islamic countries should become republics and not monarchies). Khomeini believed that the leader of an Islamic Republic should be a Faqih (Islamic Jurist), who should be selected by a group of clerics. This Faqih would have absolute authority, and could only be removed from power by that very same group of clerics. Though the public cannot vote for the Faqih, according to the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, a group of clerics called the Assembly of Experts is voted in by the citizens of Iran every eight years, and they select the Faqih. The leader of Iran is usually addressed as the “Supreme Leader.” The book provides an insight on the eventual political background of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Khomeini replaced the Shah's government with a religious system dominated by the clergy.

Return to Iran

Only two weeks after the Shah left Iran on January 16, Khomeini returned to Iran, on Thursday, February 1, 1979, invited by the anti-Shah revolution which was already in progress. Western media sources estimated that up to six million revolutionaries welcomed him. Khomeini declared a provisional government, with Mehdi Bazargan as its prime minister, on February 11. On March 30 and 31, 1979, the provisional government asked all Iranians sixteen years of age and older to vote in a referendum on the question of accepting an Islamic Republic as the new form of government. Over 98% voted in favour of replacing the monarchy with an Islamic republic. Subsequent elections were held to approve of the newly-drafted constitution. Along with the position of the Supreme Leader, the constitution also requires that a president be elected every four years, but only those candidates approved indirectly by the Council of Guardians may run for the office. Khomeini himself became Supreme Leader for life, as "Leader of the Revolution". On February 4, 1980 Abolhassan Banisadr was elected as the first president of Iran.

Hostage crisis

On November 4, 1979 a group of students, all of whom were ardent followers of Khomeini, raided the United States embassy in Tehran, and took as hostage 63 American citizens. Three additional hostages were taken at the Iranian Foreign Ministry. Thirteen of the 66 hostages were released within two weeks, and one more in July 1980. The remaining fifty men and two women were held for 444 days — an event usually referred to as the Iran hostage crisis. The hostage-takers justified this violation of long-established international law as a reaction to the American refusal to hand over the Shah for trial. Supporters of Khomeini named the embassy a “Spy Den”, and fifty volumes of official and secret documents were gathered from it. Khomeini stated on February 23, 1980 that Iran's Parliament would decide the fate of the American embassy hostages, demanding that the United States hand over the Shah for trial in Iran. President Jimmy Carter launched a commando mission to rescue the hostages, but the attempt was thwarted when the helicopters failed under unexpected desert conditions in Tabas. Some Iranians considered this to be a miracle. Many commentators point to this failure as a major cause for Carter's loss in the following elections to Ronald Reagan. See also October Surprise.

Iran-Iraq war

Shortly after taking power, Khomeini began calling for similar Islamic revolutions across the Middle East. Led by Saddam Hussein, the secular republic of Iraq, ambitious to occupy its oil-rich neighbor (particularly Khuzestan province) and believing Iran to be weakened and in a state of turmoil, invaded Iran, starting what would become the decade-long Iran-Iraq war. The Iraqi invasion of Iran, supported by the United States to contain the ideological spread of Islamic revolution in the oil-rich Persian Gulf states, ironically enhanced Khomeini's stature and allowed him to consolidate and stabilize his leadership. During the war, the people of Iran rallied around Khomeini and his regime, and his personal popularity and power became unmatched, as Khomeini urged Iranians to fight for their country and religion, against secular Iraq.

Life under Khomeini

Under Khomeini's rule, Islamic law was instituted, with the Islamic dress code being strictly enforced for both men and women. While freedom of speech and freedom of the press continued to be just as curtailed as it was under the Shah, the oppression by the "morality police" made life extremely difficult for those opposed to the veil (hijab). Khomeini became the center of a large personality cult, and opposition to the religious rule of the clergy or Islam in general was often met with harsh punishments. In the immediate aftermath of the Revolution, there were many allegations of systematic human rights abuses, including mass executions, and torture.

In early 1989, Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for the killing of Salman Rushdie, claiming that Rushdie's murder was a religious duty for Muslims, because of Rushdie's alleged blasphemy against Muhammad. The Satanic Verses, Rushdie's novel which examines the integration of Indian characters into modern Western culture, implies that the Qur'an was not properly preserved. Rushdie's book contains passages that some Muslims – including Ayatollah Khomeini – considered offensive to Islam and Muhammad. The issuance of the fatwa caused many Westerners, particularly those on the left who had generally been in favor of the Revolution against the Shah, to reconsider their support of Khomeini.

Death and funeral

After eleven days in a hospital for an operation to stop internal bleeding, Khomeini died on Saturday, June 3, 1989. During the funeral, Tehran fell into chaos, requiring cancellation of the funeral, and new plans for a second funeral. Khomeini's first funeral was aborted by Iranian officials, after a large mob stormed the funeral procession, nearly destroying Khomeini's wooden coffin in order to get a glimpse of his body. At one point, Khomeini's body actually fell to the ground, as the crowd attempted to grab pieces of the shroud. Over ten thousand people were said to have been injured.

The second funeral was held under much tighter security. Khomeini's casket was made of steel, and it was surrounded by heavily armed security personnel. It was said that a crowd of more than nine million supporters of Khomeini gathered around the burial location, which itself was not supposed to have been revealed at the time.

Political thought and legacy

Although considered a fundamentalist by the western countries, most Iranians believe that among Shia clerics, Khomeini was actually one of the reformists of his time. He made many reforms to the shia clerical ahkaam which were revolutionary in their own time, and many Iranian clerics were against him on those cases. His most famous fatwas are the ones allowing Muslims to play chess, allowing the Iranian Muslim TV to show women without hijaab, and allowing gender-change surgeries in hospitals (Iran has now become the only country in the region with the technology). It is even said that Khomeini was personally against the hijaab being compulsory in Iran, and it was done under the pressure of hard-liner pressure groups, some years after the 1979 revolution.

Throughout his many writings and speeches, Khomeini consistently promoted his vision of a technocratic Islamic society, guided by the morality and ethics of the clergy. He believed in a free market economy, with respect for private ownership, and that businesses and corporations should be encouraged to contribute to religious charitable foundations which would benefit the poor. He advised against allowing wealthy individuals to participate in the government, and that politicians should follow his example and live a modest, frugal lifestyle, devoid of elitism and excess.

He was strongly against close relations with Western and East bloc nations, and believed that Iran should strive towards self-reliance. He viewed certain elements of Western culture as being inherently evil, and a corrupting influence upon the youth. As such, he often advocated the banning of popular Western fashions, music, cinema, and literature. His ultimate vision was for Islamic nations to converge together into a single unified power, in order to avoid alignment with either side (the West or the East), and he believed that this would happen at some point in the near future.

Khomeini's ideas did not originally find favor amongst the orthodox Iranian Shi'a clergy of the time, most of whom did not oppose the monarchy. While such clerics generally adhered to widely-accepted conservative theological schools of thought, Khomeini believed that interpretations should change and evolve, even if such changes were to radically differ from tradition, and that a cleric should be moved by divinely inspired guidance. In contrast with clerical mores of the day, he led an ascetic lifestyle, being deeply interested in Sufism, and was against the accumulation of land and wealth by the clergy (despite the fact that land reform had been a major cause of the mullahs' anger against the Shah). Towards the 1979 Revolution, many clerics gradually became disillusioned with the rule of the Shah, and began supporting Khomeini's vision of an Islamic Republic.

While Khomeini had never been a major figure amongst leftist intellectuals and activists prior to the Revolution, many of his political and religious ideas were considered by them to be progressive and reformist. However, they did not support many of his other views which conflicted with their own, in particular those that dealt with issues of secularism, women's rights, freedom of religion, and the concept of velayat-e-faqih (Guardianship of the Clergy).

Many of the democratic and social reforms that he had promised did not come to pass during his lifetime, and when faced with such criticism, Khomeini often stated that the Islamic Revolution would not be complete until Iran becomes a truly Islamic nation in every aspect, and that democracy and freedom would then come about "as a natural result of such a transformation". Khomeini's definition of democracy existed within an Islamic framework, his reasoning being that since Islam is the religion of the majority, anything that contradicted Islam would consequently be against democratic rule. His last will and testament largely focuses on this line of thought, encouraging both the general Iranian populace, the lower economic classes in particular, and the clergy to maintain their commitment to fulfilling Islamic revolutionary ideals.

Some centrist and reformist politicians, such as Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and Mohammad Khatami, have instituted or advocated policies which have led to conflicts with the current Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the Judiciary, and the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps. While the hard-line Iranians consider these policies as being opposed to Khomeini's principles, the reformers, especially Mohammad Khatami, claim that they are in exact accordance with Khomeini's style, referring to his constant warnings against extremism, and his views about freedom of speech.

These policies have been viewed by some as having alienated the lower economic classes, allowing wealthy elites to dominate the government, promoting closer relations with the West, and potentially disconnecting Khomeini from the future evolution of the Islamic Republic. Such factors played an important part in the victory of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who adheres closely to Khomeini, in the 2005 presidential elections.

Family and descendants

In 1929, Khomeini married the daughter of a cleric in Tehran. They had seven children, though only five survived infancy. His daughters all married into either merchant or clerical families, and both his sons entered into religious life. The elder son, Mostafa, died in 1977 while in exile with his father in Najaf, Iraq. Ahmad, the younger son, died in 1995, under mysterious circumstances.

Khomeini's granddaughter, Zahra Eshraghi, is married to Mohammad Reza Khatami, head of the Islamic Iran Participation Front, the main reformist party in the country, and is considered a pro-reform character herself.

Khomeini's grandson, Hossein, is a high-profile cleric, who is strongly against the system of the Islamic Republic. [1] After the 2003 American-led invasion of Iraq, he relocated to the holy city of Karbala.


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[1] After the 2003 American-led invasion of Iraq, he relocated to the holy city of Karbala. [1][2]. Khomeini's grandson, Hossein, is a high-profile cleric, who is strongly against the system of the Islamic Republic. Despite this minor fiasco, the judge, who was apparently a very patient person, still awarded Gödel his citizenship. Khomeini's granddaughter, Zahra Eshraghi, is married to Mohammad Reza Khatami, head of the Islamic Iran Participation Front, the main reformist party in the country, and is considered a pro-reform character herself. An amusing anecdote relating to Gödel relates that he apparently informed the presiding judge at his citizenship hearing, against the pleadings of Einstein, that he had discovered a way in which a dictatorship could be legally installed in the United States. Ahmad, the younger son, died in 1995, under mysterious circumstances. It is an international organization for the promotion of research in the areas of logic, philosophy, and the history of mathematics.

The elder son, Mostafa, died in 1977 while in exile with his father in Najaf, Iraq. The Kurt Gödel Society (founded in 1987) was named in his honor. His daughters all married into either merchant or clerical families, and both his sons entered into religious life. He had no children. They had seven children, though only five survived infancy. Kurt Gödel died of starvation on January 14, 1978, in Princeton, New Jersey, USA. In 1929, Khomeini married the daughter of a cleric in Tehran. Due to his paranoia this meant that Gödel refused to eat any food at all.

Such factors played an important part in the victory of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who adheres closely to Khomeini, in the 2005 presidential elections. Not only was this a cause of deep sorrow for Gödel, it also meant that his wife could no longer cook for him. These policies have been viewed by some as having alienated the lower economic classes, allowing wealthy elites to dominate the government, promoting closer relations with the West, and potentially disconnecting Khomeini from the future evolution of the Islamic Republic. Shortly before Gödel's death, his wife had become extremely ill and was consequently incapacitated in a hospital bed. While the hard-line Iranians consider these policies as being opposed to Khomeini's principles, the reformers, especially Mohammad Khatami, claim that they are in exact accordance with Khomeini's style, referring to his constant warnings against extremism, and his views about freedom of speech. As mentioned, Gödel suffered from paranoid psychological disorder. Some centrist and reformist politicians, such as Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and Mohammad Khatami, have instituted or advocated policies which have led to conflicts with the current Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the Judiciary, and the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps. There is an ironically titled biography of the great mathematician called, "Gödel: A Life of Logic.".

His last will and testament largely focuses on this line of thought, encouraging both the general Iranian populace, the lower economic classes in particular, and the clergy to maintain their commitment to fulfilling Islamic revolutionary ideals. For this reason Gödel would only eat his wife's cooking, refusing to even eat his own cooking for fear of being poisoned; this, in particular, would turn out to be fatal for the great logician. Khomeini's definition of democracy existed within an Islamic framework, his reasoning being that since Islam is the religion of the majority, anything that contradicted Islam would consequently be against democratic rule. Amongst his paranoias was the contention that unknown villains were trying to kill him by poisoning his food. Many of the democratic and social reforms that he had promised did not come to pass during his lifetime, and when faced with such criticism, Khomeini often stated that the Islamic Revolution would not be complete until Iran becomes a truly Islamic nation in every aspect, and that democracy and freedom would then come about "as a natural result of such a transformation". All this caused Gödel to suffer further physical illness. However, they did not support many of his other views which conflicted with their own, in particular those that dealt with issues of secularism, women's rights, freedom of religion, and the concept of velayat-e-faqih (Guardianship of the Clergy). The eccentric mathematician was a somewhat sickly man and was prescribed specific diets and medical regimens by doctors, but being as opinionated as he was, Gödel would often do the opposite of what his doctor would prescribe.

While Khomeini had never been a major figure amongst leftist intellectuals and activists prior to the Revolution, many of his political and religious ideas were considered by them to be progressive and reformist. The great logician was a highly opinionated man, having a strong opinion on just about everything including his diet and his medical prescriptions. Towards the 1979 Revolution, many clerics gradually became disillusioned with the rule of the Shah, and began supporting Khomeini's vision of an Islamic Republic. He left the windows of his house constantly open because he believed that unknown villains were trying to kill him by pouring poison gas into his house. In contrast with clerical mores of the day, he led an ascetic lifestyle, being deeply interested in Sufism, and was against the accumulation of land and wealth by the clergy (despite the fact that land reform had been a major cause of the mullahs' anger against the Shah). In the middle of winter, Gödel would leave all of the windows open in his home, causing it to freeze. While such clerics generally adhered to widely-accepted conservative theological schools of thought, Khomeini believed that interpretations should change and evolve, even if such changes were to radically differ from tradition, and that a cleric should be moved by divinely inspired guidance. The great mathematician would wear warm, winter clothing in the middle of summer.

Khomeini's ideas did not originally find favor amongst the orthodox Iranian Shi'a clergy of the time, most of whom did not oppose the monarchy. Gödel was a shy, withdrawn and eccentric person, and suffered from paranoid schizophrenia. His ultimate vision was for Islamic nations to converge together into a single unified power, in order to avoid alignment with either side (the West or the East), and he believed that this would happen at some point in the near future. This is now known as Gödel's ontological proof. As such, he often advocated the banning of popular Western fashions, music, cinema, and literature. In the early seventies, Gödel, who was deeply religious, circulated among his friends an elaboration on Gottfried Leibniz' ontological proof of God's existence. He viewed certain elements of Western culture as being inherently evil, and a corrupting influence upon the youth. Gödel was awarded (with Julian Schwinger) the first Einstein Award, in 1951, and was also awarded the National Medal of Science, in 1974.

He was strongly against close relations with Western and East bloc nations, and believed that Iran should strive towards self-reliance. He became a full professor at the institute in 1953 and an emeritus professor in 1976. He advised against allowing wealthy individuals to participate in the government, and that politicians should follow his example and live a modest, frugal lifestyle, devoid of elitism and excess. citizen. He believed in a free market economy, with respect for private ownership, and that businesses and corporations should be encouraged to contribute to religious charitable foundations which would benefit the poor. He became a permanent member of the IAS in 1946 and in 1948 he was naturalized as an U.S. Throughout his many writings and speeches, Khomeini consistently promoted his vision of a technocratic Islamic society, guided by the morality and ethics of the clergy. These "rotating universes" would allow time travel and caused Einstein to have doubts about his own theory.

It is even said that Khomeini was personally against the hijaab being compulsory in Iran, and it was done under the pressure of hard-liner pressure groups, some years after the 1979 revolution. In the late 1940s he demonstrated the existence of paradoxical solutions to Albert Einstein's field equations in general relativity. His most famous fatwas are the ones allowing Muslims to play chess, allowing the Iranian Muslim TV to show women without hijaab, and allowing gender-change surgeries in hospitals (Iran has now become the only country in the region with the technology). Gödel showed that both the axiom of choice and the generalized continuum hypothesis are true in the constructible universe, and therefore must be consistent. He made many reforms to the shia clerical ahkaam which were revolutionary in their own time, and many Iranian clerics were against him on those cases. In that work he introduced the constructible universe, a model of set theory in which the only sets which exist are those that can be constructed from simpler sets. Although considered a fundamentalist by the western countries, most Iranians believe that among Shia clerics, Khomeini was actually one of the reformists of his time. He also continued to work on logic and in 1940 he published his work Consistency of the axiom of choice and of the generalized continuum-hypothesis with the axioms of set theory which is a classic of modern mathematics.

It was said that a crowd of more than nine million supporters of Khomeini gathered around the burial location, which itself was not supposed to have been revealed at the time. He studied the works of Gottfried Leibniz in detail and, to a lesser extent, those of Kant and Edmund Husserl. Khomeini's casket was made of steel, and it was surrounded by heavily armed security personnel. At the Institute, Gödel's interests turned to philosophy and physics. The second funeral was held under much tighter security. After they arrived in San Francisco on March 4, 1940, Kurt and Adele took a train to Princeton, where he resumed his membership in the IAS. Over ten thousand people were said to have been injured. In January 1940 he and his wife left Europe via the trans-Siberian railway and traveled via Russia and Japan to the USA.

At one point, Khomeini's body actually fell to the ground, as the crowd attempted to grab pieces of the shroud. Since Germany had abolished the title of Privatdozent Gödel would now have to fear conscription into the Nazi army. Khomeini's first funeral was aborted by Iranian officials, after a large mob stormed the funeral procession, nearly destroying Khomeini's wooden coffin in order to get a glimpse of his body. After the Anschluss in 1938 Austria had become a part of Nazi Germany. During the funeral, Tehran fell into chaos, requiring cancellation of the funeral, and new plans for a second funeral. After this he visited the USA once more in the spring of 1939 at the University of Notre Dame. After eleven days in a hospital for an operation to stop internal bleeding, Khomeini died on Saturday, June 3, 1989. In the autumn of 1938 he visited the IAS again.

The issuance of the fatwa caused many Westerners, particularly those on the left who had generally been in favor of the Revolution against the Shah, to reconsider their support of Khomeini. He married Adele on September 20, 1938. Rushdie's book contains passages that some Muslims – including Ayatollah Khomeini – considered offensive to Islam and Muhammad. He returned to teaching in 1937 and during this time he worked on the proof of consistency of the continuum hypothesis; he would go on to show that this hypothesis cannot be disproved from the common system of axioms of set theory. The Satanic Verses, Rushdie's novel which examines the integration of Indian characters into modern Western culture, implies that the Qur'an was not properly preserved. The travelling and the hard work had exhausted him and the next year he had to recover from a depression. In early 1989, Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for the killing of Salman Rushdie, claiming that Rushdie's murder was a religious duty for Muslims, because of Rushdie's alleged blasphemy against Muhammad. Gödel would visit the IAS again in the autumn of 1935.

In the immediate aftermath of the Revolution, there were many allegations of systematic human rights abuses, including mass executions, and torture. at Princeton, took notes of these lectures which have been subsequently published. Khomeini became the center of a large personality cult, and opposition to the religious rule of the clergy or Islam in general was often met with harsh punishments. Stephen Kleene, who had just completed his Ph.D. While freedom of speech and freedom of the press continued to be just as curtailed as it was under the Shah, the oppression by the "morality police" made life extremely difficult for those opposed to the veil (hijab). In 1934 Gödel gave a series of lectures at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton entitled On undecidable propositions of formal mathematical systems. Under Khomeini's rule, Islamic law was instituted, with the Islamic dress code being strictly enforced for both men and women. This work was developed in number theory, using the construction of the Gödel numbers.

During the war, the people of Iran rallied around Khomeini and his regime, and his personal popularity and power became unmatched, as Khomeini urged Iranians to fight for their country and religion, against secular Iraq. During this year he also developed the ideas of computability and recursive functions to the point where he delivered a lecture on general recursive functions and the concept of truth. The Iraqi invasion of Iran, supported by the United States to contain the ideological spread of Islamic revolution in the oil-rich Persian Gulf states, ironically enhanced Khomeini's stature and allowed him to consolidate and stabilize his leadership. He delivered an address to the annual meeting of the American Mathematical Society. Led by Saddam Hussein, the secular republic of Iraq, ambitious to occupy its oil-rich neighbor (particularly Khuzestan province) and believing Iran to be weakened and in a state of turmoil, invaded Iran, starting what would become the decade-long Iran-Iraq war. In this year he took his first trip to the USA, during which he met Albert Einstein who would become a good friend. Shortly after taking power, Khomeini began calling for similar Islamic revolutions across the Middle East. However after Schlick, whose seminar had aroused Gödel's interest in logic, was murdered by a National Socialist student, Gödel was much affected and had his first nervous breakdown.

See also October Surprise.. Hitler's rise to power in 1933, in Germany had little effect on Gödel's life in Vienna since he did not have much interest in politics. Many commentators point to this failure as a major cause for Carter's loss in the following elections to Ronald Reagan. Gödel earned his Habilitation at the UV in 1932 and in 1933 he became a Privatdozent (unpaid lecturer) there. Some Iranians considered this to be a miracle. He did this using a process known as Gödel numbering. President Jimmy Carter launched a commando mission to rescue the hostages, but the attempt was thwarted when the helicopters failed under unexpected desert conditions in Tabas. To make this precise, however, Gödel needed to solve several technical issues, such as encoding proofs and the very concept of provability within integer numbers.

Khomeini stated on February 23, 1980 that Iran's Parliament would decide the fate of the American embassy hostages, demanding that the United States hand over the Shah for trial in Iran. That is, a formula which obtains in arithmetic, but which is not provable from any humanly constructible set of axioms for arithmetic. Supporters of Khomeini named the embassy a “Spy Den”, and fifty volumes of official and secret documents were gathered from it. Thus there will always be at least one true but unprovable statement. The hostage-takers justified this violation of long-established international law as a reaction to the American refusal to hand over the Shah for trial. If it were provable it would be false, which contradicts the fact that provable statements are always true. The remaining fifty men and two women were held for 444 days — an event usually referred to as the Iran hostage crisis. Gödel essentially constructed a formula that claims that it is unprovable in a given formal system.

Thirteen of the 66 hostages were released within two weeks, and one more in July 1980. In hindsight, the basic idea of the incompleteness theorem is rather simple. Three additional hostages were taken at the Iranian Foreign Ministry. It also implies that not all mathematical questions are computable. On November 4, 1979 a group of students, all of whom were ardent followers of Khomeini, raided the United States embassy in Tehran, and took as hostage 63 American citizens. These theorems ended a hundred years of attempts to establish a definitive set of axioms to put the whole of mathematics on an axiomatic basis such as in the Principia Mathematica and Hilbert's formalism. On February 4, 1980 Abolhassan Banisadr was elected as the first president of Iran. In this article he proved that for any computable axiomatic system that is powerful enough to describe arithmetic on the natural numbers (e.g. the Peano axioms or ZFC) it holds that:.

Khomeini himself became Supreme Leader for life, as "Leader of the Revolution". In 1931 he published his famous incompleteness theorems in Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme. Along with the position of the Supreme Leader, the constitution also requires that a president be elected every four years, but only those candidates approved indirectly by the Council of Guardians may run for the office. He added a combinatorial version to his completeness result, which was published by the Vienna Academy of Sciences. Subsequent elections were held to approve of the newly-drafted constitution. In 1930 a doctorate in Philosophy was granted to Gödel. Over 98% voted in favour of replacing the monarchy with an Islamic republic. In this dissertation he established the completeness of the first-order predicate calculus (also known as Gödel's completeness theorem).

On March 30 and 31, 1979, the provisional government asked all Iranians sixteen years of age and older to vote in a referendum on the question of accepting an Islamic Republic as the new form of government. In 1929 Gödel became an Austrian citizen and later that year he completed his doctoral dissertation under Hans Hahn's supervision. Khomeini declared a provisional government, with Mehdi Bazargan as its prime minister, on February 11. He started to publish papers on logic and attended a lecture by David Hilbert in Bologna on completeness and consistency of mathematical systems. Western media sources estimated that up to six million revolutionaries welcomed him. While at UV Kurt met his future wife Adele Nimbursky (née Porkert). Only two weeks after the Shah left Iran on January 16, Khomeini returned to Iran, on Thursday, February 1, 1979, invited by the anti-Shah revolution which was already in progress. Kurt then studied number theory, but when he took part in a seminar run by Moritz Schlick which studied Bertrand Russell's book Introduction to mathematical philosophy he became interested in mathematical logic.

Khomeini replaced the Shah's government with a religious system dominated by the clergy. He read Kant's Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft, and participated in the Vienna Circle with Moritz Schlick, Hans Hahn, and Rudolf Carnap. The leader of Iran is usually addressed as the “Supreme Leader.” The book provides an insight on the eventual political background of the Islamic Republic of Iran. During this time he adopted ideas of mathematical realism. Though the public cannot vote for the Faqih, according to the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, a group of clerics called the Assembly of Experts is voted in by the citizens of Iran every eight years, and they select the Faqih. Although initially intending to study theoretical physics he also attended courses on mathematics and philosophy. This Faqih would have absolute authority, and could only be removed from power by that very same group of clerics. By that time he had already mastered university-level mathematics.

Khomeini believed that the leader of an Islamic Republic should be a Faqih (Islamic Jurist), who should be selected by a group of clerics. At the age of 18 Kurt joined his brother Rudolf in Vienna and entered the UV. During his exile, Khomeini wrote a book titled Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists, which laid out his beliefs as such: that all laws in an Islamic society should be based on the laws of Islam, all laws and activities should be monitored by clerical authorities on Islamic law (guardians), there should be no monarch (that Islamic countries should become republics and not monarchies). Already during his teens Kurt studied Gabelsberger shorthand, Goethe's Theory of Colours and criticisms of Isaac Newton, and the writings of Kant. After the murder of Ali Shariati, a prominent revolutionary philosopher, Khomeini became one of the most influential opponents to the rule of the Shah, being perceived as the spiritual leader of those fighting his rule. His interest in mathematics increased when in 1920 his older brother Rudolf (born 1902) left for Vienna to go to Medical School at the University of Vienna (UV). According to Alexandre de Marenches (then head of the French secret services), France suggested to the Shah that they could "arrange for Khomeini to have a lethal accident"; the Shah declined the assassination offer, arguing that this would make him a martyr. Although Kurt had first excelled in languages he later became more interested in history and mathematics.

He was sent initially to Turkey, before later being allowed to move to Iraq, where he stayed until being forced to leave in 1978, after which he went to Neauphle-le-Château in France. He attended German-language primary and secondary school in Brno and completed them with honors in 1923. In 1964 he was exiled from Iran for his constant criticisms of the government of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. In his German-speaking family young Kurt was known as Der Herr Warum (Mr Why). Khomeini was named an ayatollah in the 1950s. Kurt Gödel was born April 28, 1906, in Brünn (now Brno), Moravia, Austria-Hungary (now the Czech Republic) to Rudolf Gödel, the manager of a textile factory, and Marianne Gödel (née Handschuh). As a descendent of the prophet Muhammad, he was entitled to use the style Sayyid before his name. .

He was born in the town of Khomein as Ruhollah Mousavi (روح‌الله موسوی in Persian) in 1900. He published his most important result in 1931 at age of twenty-five when he worked at Vienna University, Austria. . Kurt Gödel was perhaps the greatest logician of the 20th century and one of the three greatest logicians of all time with Aristotle and Frege. Khomeini is considered by many as one of the most influential men of the 20th century, and was named Time Magazine's Man of the Year in 1979. Gödel made important contributions to proof theory; he clarified the connections between classical logic, intuitionistic logic and modal logic by defining translations between them. In Iran, he is officially addressed as Imam rather than Ayatollah, and his supporters also adhere to this convention. He also produced celebrated work on the continuum hypothesis, showing that it cannot be disproven from the accepted set theory axioms, assuming that those axioms are consistent.

Khomeini was considered a spiritual leader to many Shi'a Muslims, and ruled Iran from the Shah's overthrow to Khomeini's own death in 1989. To prove this theorem, Gödel developed a technique now known as Gödel numbering, which codes formal expressions into arithmetic. Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shi'a Muslim cleric, and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. Gödel's most famous works were his incompleteness theorems, the most famous of which states that any self-consistent recursive axiomatic system powerful enough to describe integer arithmetic will allow for "true" propositions about integers that can not be proven from the axioms. After World War II, at the age of 42, he obtained US citizenship. When Hitler annexed Austria, Gödel automatically became a German citizen at age 32.

He was born in Brünn in Moravia, Austria-Hungary (now Brno in the Czech Republic), became a Czechoslovak citizen at age 12 when the Austro-Hungarian empire was broken up, and an Austrian citizen at age 23. Kurt Gödel [kurt gøːdl], (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was a logician, mathematician, and philosopher of mathematics. (ISBN 0812694082). Gödel Meets Einstein: Time Travel in the Gödel Universe. Open Court.

Yourgrau, Palle (1999). (ISBN 0465092934). A World Without Time: The Forgotten Legacy of Gödel and Einstein. Basic Books. Yourgrau, Palle (2004).

A logical journey: From Gödel to philosophy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Wang, Hao (1996). (ISBN 0-8147-5816-9). Nagel, Ernst, & Newman, James R..Gödel's Proof. New York University Press.

Gödel, Escher, Bach (ISBN 0465026567). Hofstadter, Douglas. (ISBN 0534575951). On Gödel. Wadsworth.

Hintikka, Jaakko (2000). (ISBN 0393051692). Norton & Company. W.

Incompleteness: The Proof and Paradox of Kurt Godel (Great Discoveries). W. Goldstein, Rebecca (2005). (ISBN 0738205184). Gödel: A life of logic. Perseus.

Depauli-Schimanovich, Werner, & Casti, John L. (ISBN 1568810253). Logical dilemmas: The life and work of Kurt Gödel. A K Peters. Dawson, John W.

(1940). The Consistency of the Axiom of Choice and of the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis with the Axioms of Set Theory. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. (Available in English at http://home.ddc.net/ygg/etext/godel/ ). 38 (1931).

Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme, Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik, vol. If the system is consistent, then the consistency of the axioms cannot be proved within the system. (It is this theorem that is generally known as the incompleteness theorem.). The system cannot be both consistent and complete.

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