Sturm, Ruger & Company NYSE: RGR is a Connecticut-based manufacturing company composed of three divisions: Ruger Firearms, Ruger Investment Castings, and Ruger Golf. The best known division is the first one, because Sturm, Ruger was formed as a firearms company - in fact, the firearms division is often called "Sturm, Ruger" even though "Sturm" is no longer part of its official name. Ruger is the largest American firearms manufacturer.Ruger Vaquero
Sturm, Ruger & Company was founded by William B. Ruger and Alexander McCormick Sturm in 1949 in a small, rented machine shop in Southport, Connecticut. They initially produced a .22 caliber pistol (see Ruger MK II), which became so successful that it launched the entire company. Ruger Firearms is now the nation's largest firearms manufacturer, and the only one producing firearms in all four market segments: rifles, shotguns, pistols, and revolvers.
Ruger has absolute dominance of the .22 rimfire rifle market in the U.S. with its Ruger 10/22, and has had that dominance for some years now that was assured by its inexpensiveness and high quality. It has produced a custom edition of it sold only by Wal-Mart.
Ruger similarly dominates the .22 rimfire semiauto pistol market with the Ruger MK II. Like the 10/22, the MkII is extremely well supported with a variety of good aftermarket accessories.
Ruger Casting has plants in New Hampshire and Arizona, making ferrous, ductile iron and commercial titanium castings. Ruger Golf makes steel and titanium castings for golf clubs made by a number of different brands.
Sturm, Ruger stock has been publicly traded since 1969, and became a New York Stock Exchange company in 1990 (NYSE:RGR). After Alex Sturm’s death in 1951, William B. Ruger continued to direct the company and until his death in 2002.
From 1949 through 2004, Ruger has built over 20 million firearms, and currently offers hundreds of models for hunters, target shooters, collectors, and law enforcement.
Current members of the board of directors of the company are: John Cosentino, Richard Cunniff, John Kingsley, William Ruger, Stephen Sanetti, James E. Service, and Joseph Strasser.
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Submachineguns. Some diver training organizations and groups of divers teach techniques, such as DIR diving for configuring diving equipment. Revolvers. An excess of tubes and connections passing through the water tend to decrease diving performance by causing hydrodynamic drag in swimming. Rimfire Pistols. High capacity buoyancy compensators are used to allow the diver to control his or her depth.
Current members of the board of directors of the company are: John Cosentino, Richard Cunniff, John Kingsley, William Ruger, Stephen Sanetti, James E. The diver may carry two or more sets of breathing equipment to provide redundant alternative gas systems in the event that the other fails or is exhausted. . They often have their own demand regulators and mouthpieces, and if so, they are technically distinct extra scuba sets. From 1949 through 2004, Ruger has built over 20 million firearms, and currently offers hundreds of models for hunters, target shooters, collectors, and law enforcement. If these extra cylinders are small, they are sometimes called "pony cylinders". Ruger continued to direct the company and until his death in 2002. Some scuba sets incorporate attached extra stage cylinders, as bailout in case the main breathing gas supply is used up or malfunctions, or containing another gas mixture.
After Alex Sturm’s death in 1951, William B. Many modern rebreathers use advanced electronics to monitor and regulate the composition of the breathing gas. Sturm, Ruger stock has been publicly traded since 1969, and became a New York Stock Exchange company in 1990 (NYSE:RGR). These systems use small nylon bags of lead shot pellets which are distributed throughout the BCD, allowing a diver to gain a better overall weight distribution leading to a more horizontal position in the water. Ruger Golf makes steel and titanium castings for golf clubs made by a number of different brands. While weighting systems originally consisted of solid lead blocks attached to a belt around the diver's waist, modern diving weighting systems are now incorporated into the BCD. Ruger Casting has plants in New Hampshire and Arizona, making ferrous, ductile iron and commercial titanium castings. Diving weighting systems, ranging from 2 to 15 kilograms, increase density of the scuba diver to compensate for the buoyancy of diving equipment, allowing the diver to fully submerge underwater with ease by obtaining neutral or slightly negative buoyancy.
Like the 10/22, the MkII is extremely well supported with a variety of good aftermarket accessories. Certain BCD's allow for integrated weight, meaning that the BCD has special pockets for the weights that can be dumped easily in case of an emergency. Ruger similarly dominates the .22 rimfire semiauto pistol market with the Ruger MK II. Another button deflates the BCD and increases the density of the equipment and causes the diver to sink. It has produced a custom edition of it sold only by Wal-Mart. The bladders inside the BCD inflate with air from the ‘direct feed’ to decrease the total density of the SCUBA equipment and cause the diver to float. with its Ruger 10/22, and has had that dominance for some years now that was assured by its inexpensiveness and high quality. Although strictly speaking this is not a part of the breathing apparatus, it is usually connected to the divers air supply, in order to provide easy inflation of the device, this can usually also be done manually via a mouthpiece.
Ruger has absolute dominance of the .22 rimfire rifle market in the U.S. In modern scuba sets, a buoyancy compensator (BC) or buoyancy control device (BCD), such as a back-mounted wing or stabiliser jacket (otherwise known as a 'stab jacket'), is built into the scuba set harness. Ruger Firearms is now the nation's largest firearms manufacturer, and the only one producing firearms in all four market segments: rifles, shotguns, pistols, and revolvers. The use of an extra feed from the first stage regulator permits control of the life jacket as a buoyancy aid. They initially produced a .22 caliber pistol (see Ruger MK II), which became so successful that it launched the entire company. The first were inflated with a small carbon dioxide cylinder, later with a small air cylinder. Ruger and Alexander McCormick Sturm in 1949 in a small, rented machine shop in Southport, Connecticut. It was put on before putting on the cylinder harness.
Sturm, Ruger & Company was founded by William B. The ABLJ is used for two purposes, one to adjust the buoyancy of the diver to compensate for loss of buoyancy (chiefly due to compression of neoprene wetsuit) and more importantly as a lifejacket that can be rapidly inflated even at depth. Ruger is the largest American firearms manufacturer. In the 1960's adjustable buoyancy life jackets for aqualung-type scuba became available. The best known division is the first one, because Sturm, Ruger was formed as a firearms company - in fact, the firearms division is often called "Sturm, Ruger" even though "Sturm" is no longer part of its official name. In emergency they had to jettison their weights. Sturm, Ruger & Company NYSE: RGR is a Connecticut-based manufacturing company composed of three divisions: Ruger Firearms, Ruger Investment Castings, and Ruger Golf. In the beginning scuba divers dived without any buoyancy aid.
Ruger MP9. The harnesses of many diving rebreathers made by Siebe Gorman included a large back-sheet of strong reinforced rubber. 480 Super Redhawk. Sport scuba usually had quick-release fastenings instead of ordinary buckles. Blackhawk series. Many did not have a backpack plate, but the cylinders were held directly against the diver's back. Bearcat. The buckles were usually quick-release.
Single Six. Before 1971 all breathing sets including scuba came with a plain harness of straps with buckles like on a rucksack or spray-tank-pack. Vaquero. Among the things that prompted Cousteau to develop efficient air-breathing diving free-swimming diving gear, were two oxygen toxicity accidents that he had earlier with rebreathers. Ruger 22/45 MK III]]. Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Emile Gagnan invented the first type of SCUBA diving equipment, the Aqua-Lung in 1943. Ruger MK III. A predecessor to scuba gear, the Momson lung, was used as emergency escape gear by WWII submariners.
Ruger MK II. Rebreather technology is also used in space suits. Ruger MK I (not currently in production). Industrial rebreathers have been used since soon after 1900. Ruger P97. The first open-circuit industrial breathing sets were designed by modifying the design of the Cousteau aqualung. P Series. These breathing sets are nowadays called SCBA (Self Contained Breathing Apparatus) (The initials SCBA have had other meanings).
Ruger 96/22. Breathing sets operating on the above principles are not only used underwater but in other situations where the atmosphere is dangerous (little oxygen, poisonous etc). Ruger 77/17. There are alternative methods that a person can use to survive and function while underwater, including:. Ruger 77/22. In practice, dive times are more often influenced by other factors such as water temperature and the requirement for safe ascent (see decompression sickness). Ruger 10/22. The life of the soda lime scrubber is likely to be less than this and so will be the limiting factor of the dive.
M77 Mark II Assorted Models. So, a diver who has a 3 litre oxygen cylinder filled to 200 bar and who leaves 25% in reserve will be able to do a 450 minute dive (3 L × 200 bar × 0.75 / 1). Ruger Police Carbine. Except during the ascent, the fully-closed circuit rebreather that is operating correctly uses virtually no diluent. Mini-30. An oxygen rebreather diver consumes about 1 litre of oxygen per minute as does a fully-closed circuit rebreather diver. Mini-14. So, a diver who uses a 5 litre cylinder filled to 200 bar and who leaves 25% in reserve will be able to do a 22.5 minute dive (5 L × 200 bar × 75% / 33.33).
Although it uses gas more economically, the weight of the rebreathing equipment means the diver carries smaller cylinders. Thus, the same diver whose breathing rate at the surface is 25 L/min will consume gas at a rate of about 33.33 L/min. A semi-closed circuit rebreather dive is about three times the length of the equivalent open circuit dive; gas is recycled but fresh gas must be constantly injected and used gas vented. At 100 L/min the dive will be a maximum of 22.5 minutes (2250/100).
If a 15 litre cylinder filled to 200 bar is used until there is a reserve of 25% there is (75% × 200 × 15) = 2250 litres. ( (30 m / 10 m per bar) + 1 bar atmospheric pressure ) × 25 L/min = 100 L/min ). An open circuit diver whose breathing rate at the surface (atmospheric pressure) is 25 litres per minute will consume 100 litres of gas per minute at 30 metres. The duration of an open-circuit dive depends on factors such as the capacity (volume of gas) in the diving cylinder, the depth of the dive and the breathing rate of the diver.
Main article :rebreather. The main limiting factors on rebreathers are the duration of the carbon dioxide scrubber, which is generally at least 3 hours, and the efficiency of the scrubber at depth. Although oxygen rebreathers have a maximum operating depth of around 6 metres / 18 feet, several types of fully-closed circuit rebreathers, when using a helium based diluent, are capable of 100+ metre / 330+ feet dives. The rebreather's economic use of gas, typically 1.6 litres of oxygen per minute, allows dives of much longer duration than is possible with open circuit equipment where gas consumption is typically 10 times higher.
This type of scuba equipment is known as 'closed circuit'. Then the gas is fit to be re-inhaled. The oxygen consumed by the diver is replaced, nearly always from a cylinder, The exhaled carbon dioxide generated by the diver is removed by passing the gas through a "scrubber": a canister full of soda lime. In other rebreathers, the inhaled and exhaled gas goes back and forth along a single tube: this is called the pendulum system.
In some rebreathers, one-way valves direct the gas through a "loop". With rebreathers, the gas the diver exhales is stored between breaths in a "counterlung".
Someone made as an experiment a twin-hose type regulator where the energy released as the air expands from cylinder pressure to the surrounding pressure as the diver breathes in, was not thrown away but was used to power a propeller. In comics there have been thousands of drawings of two-cylinder twin-hose aqualungs shown wrongly with one wide breathing tube coming straight out of each cylinder top with no regulator, far more than of twin-hose aqualungs drawn correctly with a regulator. Note its layout in the image. Another optional extra was a mouthpiece that also had a snorkel attached, and a valve to switch between aqualung and snorkel.
These sets came with a mouthpiece as standard, but a fullface mask was an option. The return tube was not for rebreathing but because the air exhaust needed to be at the same depth as the regulator's second stage diaphragm to avoid pressure differences, which would cause a free-flow or resistance to breathing according to the diver's attitude in the water. It consists of two wide breathing tubes similar to those on many modern rebreathers. In this type of set the two (or occasionally the one or the three) stages of the regulator are in a large circular valve assembly mounted on top of the cylinder pack.
But when he patented it, the Navy requisitioned the patent, and by the time the Navy found no use in the patent and released it, the market had moved on and he got no use from the patent. Captain Trevor Hampton in the 1950's or 1960's designed an early single-hose aqualung with a fullface mask with a circular window which was a very big and thus very sensitive demand regulator diaphragm. They made an early make of single-hose aqualung that had a fullface mask as standard. Normalair is a firm that formerly were based at Yeovil (UK).
Many modern scuba sets have a spare second stage demand valve on its own hose, which is called an "octopus" or "alternate air source", which is typically yellow in colour. This type is called "single hose". Most modern open-circuit scuba sets have a diving regulator consisting of a first stage pressure reducing valve that is sealed over the diving cylinder's output valve, and the second stage "demand valve"; at the mouthpiece, with a thin pressure hose linking the two stages. Colloquially this type of breathing set is often called an aqualung, however, the word Aqua-Lung is correctly a tradename protected by the Cousteau-Gagnan patent.
The regulator supplies the diver with as much of the gas as needed, at a pressure suitable for breathing at the depth of the diver.
They run out of air quicker than aqualungs. Constant flow scuba sets do not have a demand regulator; the breathing gas flows at a constant rate unless the diver switches it on and off by hand. Open circuit scuba may supply various breathing gases; but rarely pure oxygen, except during decompression stops in technical diving. At partial pressures over about 1.4 to 1.6 atmospheres, oxygen becomes toxic.
Newspapers and television news often describe open circuit scuba wrongly as "oxygen" equipment, probably by false analogy from aeroplane pilots' oxygen cylinders. Some divers use the word "scuba" to mean open-circuit sets only. Some rebreathers only have a constant-flow regulator like in blowtorches. Most open-circuit scuba and some rebreathers have a demand regulator to control the supply of breathing gas.
Both types of scuba provide a means of supplying air or other breathing gas, nearly always from a high pressure diving cylinder, and a harness to strap it to the diver's body. Modern scuba sets are of two types:. . A scuba set provides a scuba diver with the breathing gas necessary to breathe underwater.
As with radar, the acronym has become so familiar that it is often not capitalised and is treated as an ordinary word: for example, it has been taken into the Welsh language as "sgwba". These initials originated in 1939 in the US Navy to refer to US military diver's rebreather sets. SCUBA is an acronym for Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus. operations in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas eg large fluid or gas containers,.
mining, especially mine rescue. firefighting. Snuba Diving - Using the same type of equipment as scuba diving, the diver breathes from compressed air tanks, which float on a free floating raft at the surface, allowing the diver only 20-30 feet (6–9 m) of depth to travel. But see Like-A-Fish for an attempt to develop real artificial gills for divers.
In the real world they would have to process an unrealistically massive amount of water to extract enough oxygen to supply an active diver. Artificial gills (human) - these are science fiction only. It is memorably portrayed in the film "The Abyss". It has possibilities of being used for very deep diving.
Liquid breathing - so far, in the real world, liquid breathing for humans is only laboratory experiments, and (one lung at a time) medical treatment. Atmospheric diving suit - an armored suit which protects the diver from the surrounding water pressure. Some tourist resorts now offer a surface supplied diving arrangement, trademarked as Snuba, as an introduction to diving for the inexperienced. surface supplied diving - originally used in professional diving for long or deep dives where an umbilical line connects the diver with the surface providing breathing gas, and sometimes warm water to heat the diving suit, and usually nowadays voice communications.
snorkelling - a form of free-diving where the diver's mouth and nose can remain underwater when breathing, because the diver is able to breathe at the surface through a short tube known as a snorkel. free-diving - swimming underwater on a single breath of air. SCAMP (Supercritical Air Mobility Pack®) is an out-of-water liquid-air open-circuit breathing set designed by NASA by adapting space suit technology. It would have to be filled immediately before use.
Its diving duration is likely several hours. Janwillem Bech's rebreather site shows pictures of a Kriolang that was made in 1974. The Russian Kriolang (from Greek cryo- (= "frost") + English "lung") was copied from Jordan Klein's "Mako" cryogenic open-circuit scuba. Jordan Klein designed a cryogenic open-circuit scuba called "Mako" and made at least a prototype.
There are three variants of rebreather: oxygen, semi-closed circuit and fully-closed circuit rebeathers. Rebreathers use gas very economically, making long dives easy and special mixes cheaper to use at the expense of more complicated technology and extensive experience and training requirements. Here the diver breathes in from the set, and out back into the set where the exhaled gas is reprocessed to make it fit to breathe again. closed-circuit (or rebreather).
Sometimes cave divers have cylinders slung at their sides instead. Submarine Products sold a sport air scuba with 3 backpack cylinders. "Twin sets" with two backpack cylinders were much more common in the 1960s than now. 21% Oxygen / 79% Nitrogen) The cylinder is nearly always worn on the back.
Most divers use standard air (i.e. It can be uneconomic when used with expensive gas mixes such as heliox and trimix. The duration of open-circuit dives is shorter than a dive with a rebreather, in proportion to the weight and bulk of the set. This type of equipment is relatively simple, making it cheap and reliable.
Here the diver breathes in from the set and out to waste. open-circuit (often called an "aqualung", see Aqua-Lung™).