Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism is a form of church government, practiced by many (although not all) of those Protestant churches (known as Reformed churches), which historically subscribed to the teachings of John Calvin. Presbyterianism traces its institutional roots back to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. There are many separate Presbyterian Churches in different nations around the world. Besides national distinctions, Presbyterians also have divided from one another for doctrinal reasons, especially in the wake of the Enlightenment.

History of Presbyterianism

These denominations derive their name from the Greek word presbyteros, which means "elder." Presbyterian church governance is common to the Protestant churches that were most closely modelled after the Reformation in Switzerland. In England, Scotland and Ireland, the Reformed churches that adopted a presbyterian instead of episcopalian government, became known naturally enough, as the Presbyterian Church.

In Scotland, John Knox (1505-1572), who had studied under Calvin in Geneva, returned to Scotland and led the Parliament of Scotland to embrace the Reformation in 1560. The existing Church of Scotland was thus reformed along Presbyterian lines. In Ireland the Presbyterian Church was formed from the Church of Scotland and later became The Presbyterian Church In Ireland.In England, Presbyterianism was established in secret in 1572, toward the end of the reign of Elizabeth I of England. In 1647, by an act of the Long Parliament under the control of Puritans, the Church of England embraced Presbyterianism . The re-establishment of the monarchy in 1660 brought the re-establishment of episcopalian government in England (and in Scotland for a short time); but the Presbyterian church in England continued in non-conformity, outside of the established church. In Ireland, Presbyterianism was established by Scottish immigrants and missionaries to Ulster. The Presbytery of Ulster was formed separately from the established church, in 1642. Presbyterians, as well as Roman Catholics in Ulster and the rest of Ireland suffered under the discriminatory Penal Laws until they were revoked in the early 19th century. All three, very diverse branches of Presbyterianism, as well as independents, and some Dutch, German, and French Reformed denominations, combined in America to form what would eventually become the Presbyterian Church USA (1705). The Presbyterian church in England and Wales is the United Reformed Church, whilst the tradition also influenced the Methodist church, established in 1736.

Because of an emphasis on equal education for all people, Presbyterians have 'planted' and encouraged schools across the US as the country grew and the missionaries were sent out to the people.

Characteristics of Presbyterians

Main article: Presbyterian church governance

Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by both doctrine and institutional organization, or as they prefer to call it 'church order'. The origins of the Presbyterian churches were in Calvinism, which is no longer emphasized in some of the contemporary branches. Many of the branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups. These splits have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Calvinist Westminster Confession of Faith, which historically serves as the main constitutional document of Presbyterian churches. Those groups that adhere to the document most strictly are typified by baptism of the infant children of believers, the exclusive use of Psalms (modified for metrical singing), singing unaccompanied by instruments, a common communion cup, only men are eligible for ordination to any church office, and a fully Calvinist doctrine of salvation. Because of this diversity of belief, more conservative Presbyterians are likely to attend the smaller denominations that have chosen to split from a larger body. While these conservative Presbyterians are not in the majority, their numbers are significant.

Presbyterian government is based on Elders. Teaching and ruling elders, sitting as a 'Kirk Session', (commonly refered to as simply 'session') are responsible for the discipline, the nurture and the mission of the local congregation. Sometimes the practicalities of buildings and finance in the congregation are delegated to a distinct group (known variosly as a 'Board' or 'Deacons' Court'. Teaching elders (ministers) have responsibility for teaching, worship and performing sacraments. Ministers are called by individual congregations. A congregation issues a call for the minister's service, but this call must be ratified by the Presbytery.

Above the Kirk Sessions exist Presbyteries, which have area responsibilities. These are composed of ministers and elders from each of the constituent congregations. The Presbytery sends representatives to a broader regional assembly, generally known as the General Assembly, although an intermediate level of a synod sometimes exists. This congregation / presbytery / synod / general assembly schema is based on the historical structure of the larger Presbyterian churches, like the Church of Scotland; some of the smaller bodies, like the Presbyterian Church in America or the Presbyterian Church in Ireland skip one of the steps between congregation and General Assembly, and usually the step skipped is the Synod. The Church of Scotland has now abolished the Synod.

Presbyterians place great importance upon education and continuous study of the scriptures, theological writings, and understanding and interpretation of church doctrine embodied in several statements of faith and catechisms formally adopted by various branches of the church. References to the adoption of Calvin's theology of predestination and the typical member's predisposition to conduct themselves "decently and in order" have earned them the moniker of the "frozen chosen". However, most Presbyterians generally exhibit their faith in action as well as words, including generosity, hospitality, and the constant pursuit of social justice and reform as well as proclaiming the gospel of Christ.

Varieties of Presbyterians in North America

Even before the Presbyterians left Scotland there were divisions in the larger Presbyterian family. In North America, because of past doctrinal differences, Presbyterian churches often overlap, with congregations of many different Presbyterian groups in any one city. The largest Presbyterian denomination in the United States is the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA). Other Presbyterian bodies in the United States include the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC), the Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC (http://www.epc.org)), the Reformed Presbyterian Church, the Bible Presbyterian Church (BPC), the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP Synod), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States (RPCUS). In Canada, the largest Presbyterian Church is the Presbyterian Church in Canada; in 1925, about seventy percent of which, merged with the Methodist Church, Canada, and the Congregational Union of Canada to form the United Church of Canada.

Famous American Presbyterians

  • Dick Armey, U.S. Representative; conservative Republican from Texas
  • John C. Breckinridge, U.S. Vice-President under Buchanan
  • William Jennings Bryan of the famous Scopes "Monkey Trial" in Tennessee 1925 and three times U.S. Presidential nominee for the Democratic Party
  • James Buchanan, 15th U.S. President
  • Frederick Buechner, author of fantasy novels and non-fiction religious books
  • Aaron Burr, U.S. Vice-President under Jefferson
  • The Rev. Aaron Burr, co-founder of Princeton University
  • John C. Calhoun, U.S. Vice-President under Adams and Jackson
  • Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th U.S. President
  • Brian DePalma, film director; raised as a Presbyterian
  • John Foster Dulles, U.S. Secretary of State in the Eisenhower Administration
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower, 34th President
  • Bill Frist, current Senate Majority Leader
  • Lamar Alexander, junior United States Senator from Tennessee
  • Jay Rockefeller, junior United States Senator from West Virginia
  • Mel Watt, Congressman from North Carolina and Chairman of the Congressional Black Caucus.
  • John Glenn, Astronaut, United States Senator
  • Katherine Harris, Florida Secretary of State during the 2000 election crisis and current congresswoman (R)
  • Benjamin Harrison, 23rd U.S. President
  • A. A. Hodge, seminary professor
  • Charles Hodge, seminary professor
  • Andrew Jackson, 7th U.S. President
  • Stonewall Jackson, General in the Confederate Army
  • Norman Maclean, author and academic
  • James Knox Polk, 11th U.S. President (converted from Presbyterianism to Methodism)
  • Ronald Reagan, 40th U.S. President
  • Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State (2005- )
  • The Rev. Fred Rogers, also known as the famous Mister Rogers, was an ordained Presbyterian Minister up until his death.
  • Jimmy Stewart, actor
  • Norman Thomas runs for President as the Socialist Party candidate in 1928
  • Daniel D. Tompkins, U.S. Vice-President under Monroe
  • Mark Twain, American author
  • Henry A. Wallace, U.S. Vice-President under F.D. Roosevelt
  • Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield, Princeton Seminary professor
  • William A. Wheeler, U.S. Vice-President under Hayes
  • Christine Todd Whitman, former governor of New Jersey
  • Woodrow Wilson, 28th President
  • The Rev. John Witherspoon, only clergyman to sign the Declaration of Independence

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In Canada, the largest Presbyterian Church is the Presbyterian Church in Canada; in 1925, about seventy percent of which, merged with the Methodist Church, Canada, and the Congregational Union of Canada to form the United Church of Canada. Detroit has several sister cities, including. Other Presbyterian bodies in the United States include the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC), the Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC (http://www.epc.org)), the Reformed Presbyterian Church, the Bible Presbyterian Church (BPC), the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP Synod), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States (RPCUS). For a more extensive list see People from Detroit. The largest Presbyterian denomination in the United States is the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA). Detroit has been home to luminaries from virtually every major sport, including boxing Joe Louis, baseball (Ty Cobb and Al Kaline of the Detroit Tigers), hockey (Gordie Howe of the Detroit Red Wings), basketball Isiah Thomas of the Pistons) and football (Barry Sanders of the Lions). In North America, because of past doctrinal differences, Presbyterian churches often overlap, with congregations of many different Presbyterian groups in any one city. Durant and the Dodge Brothers.

Even before the Presbyterians left Scotland there were divisions in the larger Presbyterian family. The auto industry has spawned its own cast of significant names, particularly such pioneers as Henry Ford, William C. However, most Presbyterians generally exhibit their faith in action as well as words, including generosity, hospitality, and the constant pursuit of social justice and reform as well as proclaiming the gospel of Christ. Artists such as Eminem and Aaliyah are among the celebrities who have kept the musical pipeline flowing. References to the adoption of Calvin's theology of predestination and the typical member's predisposition to conduct themselves "decently and in order" have earned them the moniker of the "frozen chosen". Detroit's rich musical heritage has produced a vast roster of hit makers, from R&B artists such as Smokey Robinson and Aretha Franklin to rockers such as Bob Seger and Ted Nugent. Presbyterians place great importance upon education and continuous study of the scriptures, theological writings, and understanding and interpretation of church doctrine embodied in several statements of faith and catechisms formally adopted by various branches of the church. Detroit also has a light rail system known as the People Mover, providing a 2.9 mile loop in the downtown area. Although it has faced massive criticism for its lack of punctual service and high cost, the People Mover continues to operate daily.

The Church of Scotland has now abolished the Synod. In recent years the Southeast Michigan Transportation Authority has been established with the goal of expanding and integrating the transit systems located in the Detroit Metro area. This congregation / presbytery / synod / general assembly schema is based on the historical structure of the larger Presbyterian churches, like the Church of Scotland; some of the smaller bodies, like the Presbyterian Church in America or the Presbyterian Church in Ireland skip one of the steps between congregation and General Assembly, and usually the step skipped is the Synod. Service in the suburbs is provided by Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART). The Presbytery sends representatives to a broader regional assembly, generally known as the General Assembly, although an intermediate level of a synod sometimes exists. Transit services in the City of Detroit are provided by the Detroit Department of Transportation (DDOT), they provide an extensive, if not erratic, bus service throughout the city and very near suburbs. These are composed of ministers and elders from each of the constituent congregations. Also the city has two international border crossings, the Ambassador Bridge and the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel, both linking Detroit to Windsor, Ontario on the Canadian side by crossing the Detroit River.

Above the Kirk Sessions exist Presbyteries, which have area responsibilities. Detroit is the crossroads for six major Interstate Highways, including I-75, I-94, I-96, I-696, I-275, and I-375. A congregation issues a call for the minister's service, but this call must be ratified by the Presbytery. Because of its gateway between the United States and Canada and its major industrial status — along with its major highways, rail connections and international airport — Detroit has been an important transportation hub. Ministers are called by individual congregations. Comerica Park will host the 2005 MLB All Star Game in July 2005, and Ford Field will host Super Bowl XL in February 5, 2006. Teaching elders (ministers) have responsibility for teaching, worship and performing sacraments. CART continued downtown until 1992, when the race was moved to another temporary course on Belle Isle where the race remained through 2001.

Sometimes the practicalities of buildings and finance in the congregation are delegated to a distinct group (known variosly as a 'Board' or 'Deacons' Court'. Detroit was also the former home of a round of the Formula One World Championship, holding a race on the streets of downtown Detroit from 1982 until 1987, after which the sanction moved from Formula One to Indycars. Teaching and ruling elders, sitting as a 'Kirk Session', (commonly refered to as simply 'session') are responsible for the discipline, the nurture and the mission of the local congregation. It is the world's only cross-national marathon. Presbyterian government is based on Elders. Detroit is home to the Detroit International Marathon, which crosses the border into Canada via the Ambassador Bridge and returns to the United States through the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel. While these conservative Presbyterians are not in the majority, their numbers are significant. A world record was set on December 13, 2003, when the largest crowd in basketball history — 78,129 — packed Ford Field to watch the University of Kentucky defeat Michigan State University, 79–74.

Because of this diversity of belief, more conservative Presbyterians are likely to attend the smaller denominations that have chosen to split from a larger body. In college sports, the University of Detroit Mercy has a NCAA Division I program, and Wayne State University has both NCAA Division I and II programs. Those groups that adhere to the document most strictly are typified by baptism of the infant children of believers, the exclusive use of Psalms (modified for metrical singing), singing unaccompanied by instruments, a common communion cup, only men are eligible for ordination to any church office, and a fully Calvinist doctrine of salvation. A Red Wings marketing campaign in the late 1990s launched the nickname Hockeytown, a city moniker subsequently embraced by local fans and national media. These splits have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Calvinist Westminster Confession of Faith, which historically serves as the main constitutional document of Presbyterian churches. Detroit is perhaps the most fervent hockey hotbed in the United States. Many of the branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups. Like many industrial cities, Detroit is known for its avid fans, particularly in such blue-collar sports as football (Detroit Lions) and hockey (Detroit Red Wings).

The origins of the Presbyterian churches were in Calvinism, which is no longer emphasized in some of the contemporary branches. There are three active major sports venues in the city: Comerica Park for baseball, Ford Field for football and Joe Louis Arena for ice hockey. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by both doctrine and institutional organization, or as they prefer to call it 'church order'. cities with teams from four major sports.). Main article: Presbyterian church governance. All but one play within the city of Detroit (basketball's Detroit Pistons play in suburban Auburn Hills). (See also: U.S. Because of an emphasis on equal education for all people, Presbyterians have 'planted' and encouraged schools across the US as the country grew and the missionaries were sent out to the people. Detroit is home to professional teams representing the four major sports in North America.

The Presbyterian church in England and Wales is the United Reformed Church, whilst the tradition also influenced the Methodist church, established in 1736. Once the home of the University of Michigan, which was founded in Detroit in 1817 then later moved to Ann Arbor in 1837, Detroit has several universities and colleges within its borders, including:. All three, very diverse branches of Presbyterianism, as well as independents, and some Dutch, German, and French Reformed denominations, combined in America to form what would eventually become the Presbyterian Church USA (1705). In 2004, following numerous scandals and legal decisions, a court-ordered reorganization of the Detroit Police Department was underway with supervision of the FBI. Presbyterians, as well as Roman Catholics in Ulster and the rest of Ireland suffered under the discriminatory Penal Laws until they were revoked in the early 19th century. He has also been criticised for his lack in improving the city. The Presbytery of Ulster was formed separately from the established church, in 1642. Since taking office, however, the mayor and his administration have found themselves dogged by ongoing accusations of scandal and impropriety. Detroit's major media have relentlessly pursued the stories, including reports of wild parties involving strippers at the mayoral mansion [3] (http://www.freep.com/news/locway/probe15_20030515.htm), though the mayor has strongly denied accusations of wrongdoing.

In Ireland, Presbyterianism was established by Scottish immigrants and missionaries to Ulster. Widely considered a hot rising political star when he won election in 2001, Democratic Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick has been dubbed "America's hip-hop mayor" because of his fond appreciation for black youth culture. The re-establishment of the monarchy in 1660 brought the re-establishment of episcopalian government in England (and in Scotland for a short time); but the Presbyterian church in England continued in non-conformity, outside of the established church. No Republican has been elected mayor of Detroit in the past 40 years. In 1647, by an act of the Long Parliament under the control of Puritans, the Church of England embraced Presbyterianism . Democratic Party. In Ireland the Presbyterian Church was formed from the Church of Scotland and later became The Presbyterian Church In Ireland.In England, Presbyterianism was established in secret in 1572, toward the end of the reign of Elizabeth I of England. As with most large urban centers in the United States, Detroit consistently supports the U.S.

The existing Church of Scotland was thus reformed along Presbyterian lines. See also List of mayors of Detroit, Michigan. In Scotland, John Knox (1505-1572), who had studied under Calvin in Geneva, returned to Scotland and led the Parliament of Scotland to embrace the Reformation in 1560. The current mayor is Kwame Kilpatrick. In England, Scotland and Ireland, the Reformed churches that adopted a presbyterian instead of episcopalian government, became known naturally enough, as the Presbyterian Church. Municipal elections are held every year congruent to 1 modulo 4 (e.g., 1993, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009, ...). These denominations derive their name from the Greek word presbyteros, which means "elder." Presbyterian church governance is common to the Protestant churches that were most closely modelled after the Reformation in Switzerland. The city is run by the mayor and a nine member city council, elected at large on a nonpartisan ballot.

Besides national distinctions, Presbyterians also have divided from one another for doctrinal reasons, especially in the wake of the Enlightenment. Instead of just locking criminals behind prison bars, Detroit is beginning to realize that community ties, dealing with poverty and educating the youth are the most effective methods of prevention. There are many separate Presbyterian Churches in different nations around the world. Despite its high crime rates, the local communities and the government are working together to curb the street crimes and are working into the local neighborhoods to provide better housing and economic conditions. Presbyterianism traces its institutional roots back to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. Most of the suburbs mentioned are predominantly white and have contrasting demographics. Presbyterianism is a form of church government, practiced by many (although not all) of those Protestant churches (known as Reformed churches), which historically subscribed to the teachings of John Calvin. They include Farmington Hills, Troy, and Sterling Heights.

John Witherspoon, only clergyman to sign the Declaration of Independence. Sharply contrasting the dangerous streets of Detroit, many of the suburbs to the north of 8 Mile Road in Oakland and Macomb counties are among the 25 safest cities in the United States with a population of 75,000 or above. The Rev. The various street gangs which patrol the streets have caused much of the violence and crime. Woodrow Wilson, 28th President. Major crimes in Detroit include burglary, theft, carjacking, robbery, rape, assault, and homicide. Christine Todd Whitman, former governor of New Jersey. Many of these problems can be blamed on the widespread urban decay, poverty, de facto segregation of African Americans, and unemployment that has struck Detroit.

Vice-President under Hayes. Listed as the second most dangerous city by the Morgan Quitno Corporation's statistics [2] (http://www.morganquitno.com/) (after Camden, New Jersey), Detroit has been one of the most crime-ridden cities in the United States. Wheeler, U.S. City has looming budget deficit estimated at $214 to $400 million, and default or rising of taxes is expected. William A. In addition to property tax, the city levies an income tax of 2.65% on residents, 1.325% on non-residents, and 1.6% on corporations. Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield, Princeton Seminary professor. Other major industries include advertising, computer software and casino gambling.

Roosevelt. Metro Detroit is also home to the national pizza chains Domino's and Little Caesars. Vice-President under F.D. Including the Big Three, there are 17 Fortune 500 companies headquartered in metro Detroit, including Kmart Corporation, Borders Books and Music, Comerica Inc., Federal-Mogul, Kelly Services and Lear Corporation. Wallace, U.S. According to one saying, "When the auto industry hiccups, Detroit coughs, and when the auto industry catches a cold, Detroit gets pneumonia.". Henry A. But there's a flip side to the automotive dominance: Because of its almost singular dependence on the auto industry, Detroit is more acutely vulnerable to economic cycles than most large cities.

Mark Twain, American author. It is not uncommon in Detroit to hear radio ads or to spy billboards in which multimillion-dollar auto corporations make insider sales pitches to one another. Vice-President under Monroe. Detroit and its suburbs constitute a manufacturing powerhouse, most notably as home to the American automobile industry and the Big Three auto companies. General Motors is based in Detroit, Ford Motor Company in nearby Dearborn, and one of the two world headquarters for DaimlerChrysler in Auburn Hills (the other is in Stuttgart, Germany). Dotting the Detroit landscape are countless offices and plants in the automotive support business: parts, supplies, electronics, and design. Tompkins, U.S. In 2004, Men's Fitness magazine named Detroit the fattest city in the U.S. Daniel D. Out of the total population, 34.5% of those under the age of 18 and 18.6% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Norman Thomas runs for President as the Socialist Party candidate in 1928. 26.1% of the population and 21.7% of families are below the poverty line. Jimmy Stewart, actor. The per capita income for the city is $14,717. Fred Rogers, also known as the famous Mister Rogers, was an ordained Presbyterian Minister up until his death. Males have a median income of $33,381 versus $26,749 for females. The Rev. The median income for a household in the city is $29,526, and the median income for a family is $33,853.

Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State (2005- ). For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 83.5 males. President. For every 100 females there are 89.1 males. Ronald Reagan, 40th U.S. The median age is 31 years. President (converted from Presbyterianism to Methodism). In the city the population is spread out with 31.1% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% who are 65 years of age or older.

James Knox Polk, 11th U.S. The average household size is 2.77 and the average family size is 3.45. Norman Maclean, author and academic. 29.7% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.2% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. Stonewall Jackson, General in the Confederate Army. There are 336,428 households out of which 33.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.7% are married couples living together, 31.6% have a female householder with no husband present, and 35.1% are non-families. President. 4.96% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Andrew Jackson, 7th U.S. The racial makeup of the city is 81.55% Black or African American, 12.26% White, 0.33% Native American, 0.97% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.54% from other races, and 2.32% from two or more races. Charles Hodge, seminary professor. There are 375,096 housing units at an average density of 2,703.0/mi² (1,043.6/km²). Hodge, seminary professor. The population density is 6,855.1/mi² (2,646.7/km²). A. As of the census2 of 2000, there are 951,270 people, 336,428 households, and 218,341 families residing in the city.

A. Some of the Current and historic neighborhoods in Detroit include: Black Bottom, Brush Park, Corktown, Chaldean Town, Cultural Center, Del Ray, East English Village, Eastern Market, Greektown, Indian Village, Mexicantown, New Center, Old Redford, Palmer Woods, Poletown, Rosedale Park, Springwells, and Warrendale. President. 100,545) has been described in news reports as "the whitest American city" as the 2000 census revealed that 97 percent of its population identified themselves as white. Benjamin Harrison, 23rd U.S. Detroit is more than four-fifths African-American, while nearby Livonia (pop. Katherine Harris, Florida Secretary of State during the 2000 election crisis and current congresswoman (R). On the east side, the aptly (although unintentionally) named Alter Road separates Detroit from affluent Grosse Pointe.

John Glenn, Astronaut, United States Senator. While less prevalent than in the 1970s and 1980s, perceptions of racial segregation continue to provoke criticism and soul-searching in the Detroit area. 8 Mile Road, the boundary between the city and suburban Oakland and Macomb counties, is more than a line on a map; it is often held up by politicians and sociologists as a symbolic dividing wall between blacks and whites. Mel Watt, Congressman from North Carolina and Chairman of the Congressional Black Caucus. The Michigan Chronicle, the state's largest black-owned newspaper, is based in Detroit. Jay Rockefeller, junior United States Senator from West Virginia. Other communities with large black populations include Southfield, Pontiac and Oak Park, which are all north of the former segregation boundary 8 Mile Road. Lamar Alexander, junior United States Senator from Tennessee. About three-fourths of them live within the city limits.

Bill Frist, current Senate Majority Leader. African Americans are a major racial group in the area, numbering more than 1 million. Eisenhower, 34th President. The southwest side of the city contains a large Mexican American community, while significant populations of Chinese, Indian, Korean and Filipino ancestry are found in Oakland County, notably in Troy. Dwight D. Recently, the area has witnessed the growth of Asian American and Hispanic communities. Secretary of State in the Eisenhower Administration. Detroit is also home to large Chaldean and Arab American populations, and suburban Dearborn is home to the country's largest concentration of Arab Americans.

John Foster Dulles, U.S. Detroit's ethnic communities are largely the descendants of those Poles, Irish, Italians and Greeks who made their way to the city during its early 20th-century industrial boom. Brian DePalma, film director; raised as a Presbyterian. Traces of the Southern accent can still be heard in these areas, mingling with the more nasal Midwest accent to create a distinctive pattern of speech. President. Metro Detroit residents with Southern origin possibly comprise a majority of the region's population; they most certainly do in suburban sectors such as Downriver, where newcomers established communities upon their arrival. Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th U.S. Detroit's population increased more than sixfold during the first half of the 20th century, thanks largely to a massive influx of Southern migrants—both white and black—who came to the area for the burgeoning automobile industry jobs.

Vice-President under Adams and Jackson. Throughout the city, French colonial influence is found prominently in place names (Gratiot Ave., Beaubien St., Cadieux Rd., Chene Park), though only a small percentage of area residents are descended from 18th-century French settlers. Calhoun, U.S. In 2003, the three-day number was 117. John C. 29–31 period, according to city officials, representing a 30 percent decline in total fires and a 41 percent decline in suspicious fires. Aaron Burr, co-founder of Princeton University. The Angel's Night campaign, launched in the late 1990s, draws thousands of volunteers to patrol the streets during Halloween week. The effort has largely squelched Devil's Night arson: In 2002, there were just 110 fires during the Oct.

The Rev. The city faced hundreds of arsons, often in the city's many abandoned homes, each year on Devil's Night, the evening before Halloween. Vice-President under Jefferson. For a more extensive list, see: Detroit in the movies. Aaron Burr, U.S. Detroit is a setting and/or filming location for several Hollywood feature films including as well as some television series:. Frederick Buechner, author of fantasy novels and non-fiction religious books. Detroit (and its suburbs) is the setting for a number of novels and short story collections, including:.

President. Information on the Nain Rouge and other Detroit oddities has been compiled at the Web site Mythic Detroit (http://www.davidaspitzley.org/MythicDetroit). James Buchanan, 15th U.S. Detroit is said to be home to the Nain Rouge, the red dwarf who is said to attack people and bring bad luck to the city. Presidential nominee for the Democratic Party. The nearby city of Hamtramck is noted for its pączkis. William Jennings Bryan of the famous Scopes "Monkey Trial" in Tennessee 1925 and three times U.S. On the festival of Fat Tuesday (also known as Pączki Day, though traditionally celebrated by Poles on Fat Thursday), occurring on the last Tuesday before Lent, many metro Detroiters join in the festivity by indulging in jelly-filled donuts called pączkis.

Vice-President under Buchanan. Founded in 1907 by two Russian immigrant brothers in Detroit, Faygo soda remains a Detroit tradition, and is sold internationally. Breckinridge, U.S. The sculpture, commissioned by Sports Illustrated magazine and executed by Robert Graham, is a 24-foot-long arm with a fisted hand suspended by a 24-foot-high pyramidal framework. John C. A memorial to Joe Louis at the intersection of Jefferson and Woodward Avenues was dedicated on October 16, 1986. Representative; conservative Republican from Texas. Other cultural centers include the Motown Historical Museum, Detroit Historical Museum, Museum of African American History, Detroit Science Center, Tuskegee Airmen Museum, Historic Fort Wayne, Dossin Great Lakes Museum and the Belle Isle Conservatory.

Dick Armey, U.S. Other city recreational facilities include municipal golf courses (William Rogell, Rouge, Belle Isle, Palmer Park), Northwest Activities Center, Detroit Zoo and the Belle Isle Aquarium (though unfortunately, the Belle Isle Aquarium and Zoo are closed as of April 2005, though there is a movement to reopen them). Major parks include Belle Isle, Palmer Park, River Rouge Park, Chene Park and Campus Martius Park. Major theaters include the Fox Theatre, Masonic Temple Theatre, Fisher Theatre, State Theatre, Music Hall, and the Detroit Repertory Theatre. The city is home to the Detroit Symphony Orchestra and the Detroit Opera House.

The Detroit Institute of Arts houses what is considered to be one of the most prominent American collections outside New York City, and features showcase pieces by Diego Rivera, Picasso and Van Gogh along with such hometown artists as Charles McGee. Detroit is also considered the birthplace of techno music, and hosts a large electronic music festival in Hart Plaza each Spring. In recent years, Detroit has assumed a kind of gritty, hip cachet around the world, thanks largely to such modern ambassadors as the White Stripes, Eminem, the Electric Six, and Kid Rock. Notable 1970s and 1980s rock music performers hailing from the Detroit area include the Stooges, the MC5, and the Romantics.

The city is also regarded as the quintessential Rock 'n Roll town, due to its receptive and enthusiastic rock music audiences. until 1972, was home to some of the most popular recording acts in the world, including Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, and Detroit area natives Stevie Wonder, Diana Ross & the Supremes, Smokey Robinson & The Miracles, The Four Tops, and Martha Reeves & the Vandellas. The label, founded in Detroit by Berry Gordy, Jr., and housed at the "Hitsville U.S.A." building on West Grand Ave. One of the highlights of Detroit's musical history was the success of Motown Records during the 1960s and early 1970s.

Music has been the dominant feature of Detroit's nightlife since the late 1940s, and both city and suburbs teem with live music venues. Sister arena The Palace of Auburn Hills typically ranks in the top three, often ahead of such high-profile venues as New York's Madison Square Garden. 1 summer concert venue in the United States in both attendance and box office gross, according to Pollstar and Billboard magazines. In 2004, as in most previous years, DTE Energy Music Theater in nearby Clarkston, Michigan was the No.

Within the entertainment industry, Detroit is widely regarded as one the country's strongest markets—perhaps the strongest in per capita terms—particularly in live music and theater. Detroit is sometimes called Murda-Town or The D by locals, notably those within the hip-hop community. Detroit sits atop a large salt mine[1] (http://info.detnews.com/history/story/index.cfm?id=17&category=business).
. Also notice the three systems of roads: the oldest French roads running perpendicular to the river, radial roads from a Washington, D.C.-inspired system and true north-south roads from the Northwest Ordinance township system.

Clair (northernmost) and Lake Erie. In the satellite photograph [left], the two large bodies of water are Lake St. The total area is 2.92% water. 359.4 km² (138.8 mi²) of it is land and 10.8 km² (4.2 mi²) of it is water.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 370.2 km² (142.9 mi²). Detroit completely encircles the cities of Hamtramck and Highland Park. It lies north of Windsor, Ontario—Detroiters sometimes quip that Canada is "our neighbor to the south." Detroit features two public border crossings, the Ambassador Bridge and Detroit-Windsor Tunnel, with a railroad tunnel also connecting the two countries. Clair, in southeastern Michigan.

Detroit is located on the north bank of the Detroit River, between Lake Erie and Lake St. Many downtown centers draw partons and host activities; Greektown, Eastern Market and the Michigan State Fairgrounds and the new Campus Martius Park. Significant landmarks such as the Fox Theater and the Gem Theater have been restored and now host concerts, musicals and plays. The 2004 opening of the Compuware Center gave downtown Detroit its first significant new office building in a decade.

In 2000, Comerica Park replaced historic Tiger Stadium as the home of the Detroit Tigers—a move that brought some controversy—and Ford Field (2002) brought football's Detroit Lions back into Detroit from suburban Pontiac. In 1996 a state referendum paved the way for three Detroit casinos—MGM Detroit, Motor City Casino and Greektown Casino—with the goal of increasing tourism and stemming the flow of gambling dollars to nearby Windsor, Ontario. "Renaissance" has been a perennial buzzword among generations of city leaders, particularly during the construction and completion of the Renaissance Center, but it was not until the 1990s that Detroit enjoyed something of a bona fide revival, much of it centered downtown. Though those figures have decreased in recent years, the crime rate remains high.

During the latter half of the twentieth century, Detroit's crime figures were often among the highest in the country. Recent urban renewal efforts have led to the demolition or renovation of several abandoned skyscrapers and large buildings, the razing of old houses for new housing developments, and an expedited process to remove abandoned homes near schools. Large numbers of buildings and homes were abandoned, with many remaining for years in states of decay. The city's population has plummeted since 1950 as residents have moved to the suburbs, particularly following the 12th Street Riot in 1967.

Detroit has endured a painful decline during the past several decades, and is often held up as a symbol of Rust Belt urban blight. The labor activism established during those years, which brought fame and notoriety to hometown union leaders such as Jimmy Hoffa and Walter Reuther, remains a key feature on the city's cultural and political landscape. With the factories came high-profile labor strife, climaxing in the 1930s as the United Auto Workers initiated bitter battles with Detroit's auto manufacturers. Durant, the Dodge brothers and Louis Chevrolet, solidified Detroit's status as the world's car capital, and the blossoming industry spurred the city's spectacular growth during the first half of the 20th century.

Ford's manufacturing innovations as well as significant contributions from many other automotive pioneers such as William C. A thriving carriage trade set the stage for the work of Henry Ford, who in 1899 built his first automobile factory in Highland Park, an independent city within Detroit. The city grew steadily during the 1830s, and subsequent decades saw substantial growth in the shipping, shipbuilding and manufacturing industries. Situated strategically on a strait along the Great Lakes waterway, Detroit emerged as a key transportation center.

Detroit was incorporated as a city in 1815. William Henry Harrison in 1813. Though Detroit fell to the British for a short time during the War of 1812 (see: Battle of Detroit), it was recaptured by Gen. In 1796 Detroit and its surrounding areas passed to the United States, and from 1805 to 1847 the town was the territorial and state capitol of Michigan.

The British gained control of the area in 1760 and thwarted an Indian attack three years later during Pontiac's Rebellion. Clair and Erie. Originally the settlement was called Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit after the comte de Pontchartrain, minister of marine under Louis XIV and for the river that connects Lakes St. French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded a fort and settlement at the site of Detroit in 1701.

"Detroit" is sometimes used as shorthand for the Metro Detroit region, which is also unofficially referred to as "Southeast Michigan." Residents are generally known as "Detroiters.". Detroit is the United States' 10th most populous city, with 951,000 residents in 2000, according to United States Census Bureau. The Interstate 75 corridor running through Oakland County has been nicknamed by civic leaders as Automation Alley. "River of the Strait" — and across from the Canadian city of Windsor, Ontario, the city is the seat of Wayne County and the center of a tri-county industrial zone (including Oakland and Macomb counties) that is among the most significant in the American Rust Belt.

Located along the Detroit River — French: Rivière du Détroit, i.e. Established in 1701 by French fur traders, today it is best known as the world's automotive center and an important music capital — legacies celebrated by the city's two familiar nicknames, Motor City and Motown.
Detroit (IPA: /dɪˈtʰɹɔɪt/; French: Détroit, pronounced /detʀwa/) is a city in Wayne County in the state of Michigan, in the Midwest region of the United States. Turin, Italy.

Toyota, Japan. Nassau, Bahamas. Minsk, Belarus. Kitwe, Zambia.

Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Chongqing, People's Republic of China. Willow Run Airport (YIP). Young International Airport (DET), no current commercial passenger service, also formerly known as Detroit City Airport.

Coleman A. Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County International Airport (DTW), the Detroit area's principal airport is located in nearby Romulus, Michigan and is a hub for Northwest Airlines and Spirit Airlines. 2006 MISL expansion franchise. Detroit Demolition, National Women's Football Association.

Detroit Shock, Women's National Basketball Association. Detroit Red Wings, National Hockey League. Detroit Pistons, NBA (although the name holds, the Pistons play in suburban Auburn Hills). Detroit Lions, National Football League.

Detroit Tigers, Major League Baseball. Wayne County Community College. Sacred Heart Major Seminary. College for Creative Studies.

Lewis College of Business. Marygrove College. Wayne State University. University of Detroit Mercy.

Assult on Precinct 13 (2004). Home Improvement (TV) (1991-99). Tiger Town (TV) (1983). Scarecrow (1973).

RoboCop (1987) and sequels. Presumed Innocent (1990). Hoffa, (1992). The Crow (1994).

Beverly Hills Cop (1984). 8 Mile (2002). Harold Robbins, The Betsy 1971. Joyce Carol Oates, Them 1968.

Elmore Leonard, City Primeval: Detroit at High Noon 1980. Kienzle, The Rosary Murders 1979. William X. Arthur Hailey, Wheels 1971.

Jeffrey Eugenides, The Virgin Suicides 1993 and Middlesex 2002. Jim Ray Daniels, Detroit Tales 2003. Harriette Arnow, The Dollmaker 1954. America's Thanksgiving Parade (Thanksgiving).

Woodward Dream Cruise (August). Concert of Colors diverse music festival (Summer). Ford Detroit International Jazz Festival (September). Detroit Thunder Fest hydroplane race (July).

Comerica Tastefest (July). Windsor-Detroit International Freedom Festival (June–July). DEMF/Movement/Fuse-In electronic music festival (May). Downtown Hoedown country music festival (May).

North American International Auto Show (January).

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