Presbyterianism is a form of church government, practiced by many (although not all) of those Protestant churches (known as Reformed churches), which historically subscribed to the teachings of John Calvin. Presbyterianism traces its institutional roots back to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. There are many separate Presbyterian Churches in different nations around the world. Besides national distinctions, Presbyterians also have divided from one another for doctrinal reasons, especially in the wake of the Enlightenment.
History of Presbyterianism
These denominations derive their name from the Greek word presbyteros, which means "elder." Presbyterian church governance is common to the Protestant churches that were most closely modelled after the Reformation in Switzerland. In England, Scotland and Ireland, the Reformed churches that adopted a presbyterian instead of episcopalian government, became known naturally enough, as the Presbyterian Church.
In Scotland, John Knox (1505-1572), who had studied under Calvin in Geneva, returned to Scotland and led the Parliament of Scotland to embrace the Reformation in 1560. The existing Church of Scotland was thus reformed along Presbyterian lines. In Ireland the Presbyterian Church was formed from the Church of Scotland and later became The Presbyterian Church In Ireland.In England, Presbyterianism was established in secret in 1572, toward the end of the reign of Elizabeth I of England. In 1647, by an act of the Long Parliament under the control of Puritans, the Church of England embraced Presbyterianism . The re-establishment of the monarchy in 1660 brought the re-establishment of episcopalian government in England (and in Scotland for a short time); but the Presbyterian church in England continued in non-conformity, outside of the established church. In Ireland, Presbyterianism was established by Scottish immigrants and missionaries to Ulster. The Presbytery of Ulster was formed separately from the established church, in 1642. Presbyterians, as well as Roman Catholics in Ulster and the rest of Ireland suffered under the discriminatory Penal Laws until they were revoked in the early 19th century. All three, very diverse branches of Presbyterianism, as well as independents, and some Dutch, German, and French Reformed denominations, combined in America to form what would eventually become the Presbyterian Church USA (1705). The Presbyterian church in England and Wales is the United Reformed Church, whilst the tradition also influenced the Methodist church, established in 1736.
Because of an emphasis on equal education for all people, Presbyterians have 'planted' and encouraged schools across the US as the country grew and the missionaries were sent out to the people.
Characteristics of Presbyterians
Main article: Presbyterian church governance
Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by both doctrine and institutional organization, or as they prefer to call it 'church order'. The origins of the Presbyterian churches were in Calvinism, which is no longer emphasized in some of the contemporary branches. Many of the branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups. These splits have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Calvinist Westminster Confession of Faith, which historically serves as the main constitutional document of Presbyterian churches. Those groups that adhere to the document most strictly are typified by baptism of the infant children of believers, the exclusive use of Psalms (modified for metrical singing), singing unaccompanied by instruments, a common communion cup, only men are eligible for ordination to any church office, and a fully Calvinist doctrine of salvation. Because of this diversity of belief, more conservative Presbyterians are likely to attend the smaller denominations that have chosen to split from a larger body. While these conservative Presbyterians are not in the majority, their numbers are significant.
Presbyterian government is based on Elders. Teaching and ruling elders, sitting as a 'Kirk Session', (commonly refered to as simply 'session') are responsible for the discipline, the nurture and the mission of the local congregation. Sometimes the practicalities of buildings and finance in the congregation are delegated to a distinct group (known variosly as a 'Board' or 'Deacons' Court'. Teaching elders (ministers) have responsibility for teaching, worship and performing sacraments. Ministers are called by individual congregations. A congregation issues a call for the minister's service, but this call must be ratified by the Presbytery.
Above the Kirk Sessions exist Presbyteries, which have area responsibilities. These are composed of ministers and elders from each of the constituent congregations. The Presbytery sends representatives to a broader regional assembly, generally known as the General Assembly, although an intermediate level of a synod sometimes exists. This congregation / presbytery / synod / general assembly schema is based on the historical structure of the larger Presbyterian churches, like the Church of Scotland; some of the smaller bodies, like the Presbyterian Church in America or the Presbyterian Church in Ireland skip one of the steps between congregation and General Assembly, and usually the step skipped is the Synod. The Church of Scotland has now abolished the Synod.
Presbyterians place great importance upon education and continuous study of the scriptures, theological writings, and understanding and interpretation of church doctrine embodied in several statements of faith and catechisms formally adopted by various branches of the church. References to the adoption of Calvin's theology of predestination and the typical member's predisposition to conduct themselves "decently and in order" have earned them the moniker of the "frozen chosen". However, most Presbyterians generally exhibit their faith in action as well as words, including generosity, hospitality, and the constant pursuit of social justice and reform as well as proclaiming the gospel of Christ.
Varieties of Presbyterians in North America
Even before the Presbyterians left Scotland there were divisions in the larger Presbyterian family. In North America, because of past doctrinal differences, Presbyterian churches often overlap, with congregations of many different Presbyterian groups in any one city. The largest Presbyterian denomination in the United States is the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA). Other Presbyterian bodies in the United States include the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC), the Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC (http://www.epc.org)), the Reformed Presbyterian Church, the Bible Presbyterian Church (BPC), the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP Synod), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States (RPCUS). In Canada, the largest Presbyterian Church is the Presbyterian Church in Canada; in 1925, about seventy percent of which, merged with the Methodist Church, Canada, and the Congregational Union of Canada to form the United Church of Canada.
Famous American Presbyterians
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In Canada, the largest Presbyterian Church is the Presbyterian Church in Canada; in 1925, about seventy percent of which, merged with the Methodist Church, Canada, and the Congregational Union of Canada to form the United Church of Canada. See: List of Los Angeles natives. Other Presbyterian bodies in the United States include the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC), the Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC (http://www.epc.org)), the Reformed Presbyterian Church, the Bible Presbyterian Church (BPC), the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP Synod), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States (RPCUS). Related topics: Maps of Los Angeles, California. The largest Presbyterian denomination in the United States is the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA). Of 782,164 renter-occupied units, 21,720 units have a rent of less than $200, 22,915 have rent between $200-$299, 123,579 have rent between $300-$499, 300,153 have rent between $500-$749, 162,156 have rent between $750-$999, 101,720 have rent between $1,000-$1,499, 35,384 have rent of $1,500 or more, and 14,537 do not pay rent in the form of cash. In North America, because of past doctrinal differences, Presbyterian churches often overlap, with congregations of many different Presbyterian groups in any one city. 16,682 units lack complete plumbing facilities, 26,606 lack complete kitchen facilities, and 27,672 units do not have telephone service.
Even before the Presbyterians left Scotland there were divisions in the larger Presbyterian family. 940,097 housing units use utility gas for house heating fuel, 17,170 use bottled, tank, or LP gas, 260,453 use electricity, 647 use fuel oil, kerosene, or similar fuels, 124 use coal or coke, 1,881 use wood, 3,137 use solar energy, 2,117 use some other fuel, and 49,732 do not use fuel. However, most Presbyterians generally exhibit their faith in action as well as words, including generosity, hospitality, and the constant pursuit of social justice and reform as well as proclaiming the gospel of Christ. Of the 1,337,668 housing units, 7,250 were built between 1999-March 2000, 25,363 between 1995-1998, 49,785 between 1990-1994, 148,376 between 1980-1989, 200,978 between 1970-1979, 234,429 between 1960-1969, 447,923 between 1940-1959, and 223,564 were built in 1939 or earlier. References to the adoption of Calvin's theology of predestination and the typical member's predisposition to conduct themselves "decently and in order" have earned them the moniker of the "frozen chosen". Of the structures containing the 1,337,668 housing units in the city, 524,787 are in a structure of only 1 detached unit, 87,776 are in a structure of only 1 attached unit, 42,814 are in a structure of 2 units, 86,253 are in a structure of 3-4 units, 126,263 are in a structure of 5-9 units, 138,634 are in a structure of 10-19 units, 322,059 are in a structure of 20 or more units, 8,222 are a mobile home, and 860 are a boat, R.V., van, or similar constructs. Presbyterians place great importance upon education and continuous study of the scriptures, theological writings, and understanding and interpretation of church doctrine embodied in several statements of faith and catechisms formally adopted by various branches of the church. Bus, train, and subway service in the city of Los Angeles is provided by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; taxicabs are private businesses are are not included.
The Church of Scotland has now abolished the Synod. Of the 152,435 workers that use public transportation, 144,973 use bus or trolley (http://www.ladottransit.com/other/trolley/index.html) bus, 804 use a streetcar, 3,054 use a subway (the Metro (http://www.metro.net/) Red Line (http://www.metro.net/riding_metro/metro_rail/red_line.htm) is the only existence of a subway in the city), 1,730 use rail service, 136 use a ferryboat (such workers commute to or from the Channel Islands of California, most likely to or from Avalon), and 1,738 use a taxicab. This congregation / presbytery / synod / general assembly schema is based on the historical structure of the larger Presbyterian churches, like the Church of Scotland; some of the smaller bodies, like the Presbyterian Church in America or the Presbyterian Church in Ireland skip one of the steps between congregation and General Assembly, and usually the step skipped is the Synod. Of the 220,408 workers that carpool, 163,508 have a carpool of 2 people, 34,845 have 3 people, 13,266 have 4 people or more, 5,682 have 6-7 people, and 3,107 have 7 or more people. The Presbytery sends representatives to a broader regional assembly, generally known as the General Assembly, although an intermediate level of a synod sometimes exists. 61,695 work at home. These are composed of ministers and elders from each of the constituent congregations. Of 1,494,895 out of the 1,690,316 workers 16 years or older, 982,735 drive to work alone in a motor vehicle, 220,408 carpool, 152,435 use public transportation, 53,386 walk, 2,474 use a motorcycle, 9,052 use a bicycle, and 12,710 use other means of transportation to commute to work.
Above the Kirk Sessions exist Presbyteries, which have area responsibilities. Of the 1,433,200 workers that do not work at home, 97,677 leave to go to work between 5:00 A.M.-5:59 A.M., 117,065 leave between 6:00-6:29 A.M., 126,156 leave between 6:30-6:59 A.M., 211,629 leave between 7:00-7:29 A.M., 190,922 leave between 7:30-7:59 A.M., 179,318 leave between 8:00-8:29 A.M., 94,857 leave between 8:30-8:59 A.M., 204,567 leave between 9:00-11:59 A.M., 85,128 leave between 12:00 P.M.-3:59 P.M., and 125,881 leave at all other times. A congregation issues a call for the minister's service, but this call must be ratified by the Presbytery. Of the workers, 1,209,942 are privately employed, 162,402 are government workers, 153,551 are self-employed, and 6,179 are unpaid family workers. Ministers are called by individual congregations. The mean time to commute to work (one-way) is 29.6 minutes. Teaching elders (ministers) have responsibility for teaching, worship and performing sacraments. There are 756,303 females that are at least 16 years old in the labor force.
Sometimes the practicalities of buildings and finance in the congregation are delegated to a distinct group (known variosly as a 'Board' or 'Deacons' Court'. There are 1,690,316 people at least 16 years old in the labor force, of which 1,688,652 are in the civilian labor force, 1,664 are in the Armed Forces, and 156,578 are unemployed. Teaching and ruling elders, sitting as a 'Kirk Session', (commonly refered to as simply 'session') are responsible for the discipline, the nurture and the mission of the local congregation. 509,841 are naturalized citizens and 1,002,879 are not citizens. Presbyterian government is based on Elders. Of such foreign born people, 569,771 entered between 1990 to March 2000. While these conservative Presbyterians are not in the majority, their numbers are significant. Of 1,512,720 foreign born people, 100,252 were born in Europe, 376,767 were born in Asia, 20,730 were born in Africa, 4,104 were born in Oceania, 996,996 were born in Latin America, and 13,859 were born in Northern America.
Because of this diversity of belief, more conservative Presbyterians are likely to attend the smaller denominations that have chosen to split from a larger body. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas). Those groups that adhere to the document most strictly are typified by baptism of the infant children of believers, the exclusive use of Psalms (modified for metrical singing), singing unaccompanied by instruments, a common communion cup, only men are eligible for ordination to any church office, and a fully Calvinist doctrine of salvation. Of 2,182,114 native people, 1,485,576 were born in California, 663,746 were born in a different state of the United States of America, and 31,792 were born in a United States territory (Puerto Rico, Guam, U.S. These splits have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Calvinist Westminster Confession of Faith, which historically serves as the main constitutional document of Presbyterian churches. Of 2,308,887 people 25 years of age or older, 437,758 have less than a 9th grade educational attainment, 332,414 have between a 9th-12th grade educational attainment with no diploma, 401,938 are high school graduates or equivalent, 424,785 have some college education but with no degree, 122,931 have an associate degree, 379,630 have a bachelor's degree, and 209,431 have a graduate or professional degree. Many of the branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups. Out of the total population, 30.3% of those under the age of 18 and 12.6% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
The origins of the Presbyterian churches were in Calvinism, which is no longer emphasized in some of the contemporary branches. 22.1% of the population and 18.3% of families are below the poverty line. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by both doctrine and institutional organization, or as they prefer to call it 'church order'. The per capita income for the city is $20,671. Main article: Presbyterian church governance. Males have a median income of $31,880 versus $30,197 for females. Because of an emphasis on equal education for all people, Presbyterians have 'planted' and encouraged schools across the US as the country grew and the missionaries were sent out to the people. The median income for a household in the city is $36,687, and the median income for a family is $39,942.
The Presbyterian church in England and Wales is the United Reformed Church, whilst the tradition also influenced the Methodist church, established in 1736. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.5 males. All three, very diverse branches of Presbyterianism, as well as independents, and some Dutch, German, and French Reformed denominations, combined in America to form what would eventually become the Presbyterian Church USA (1705). For every 100 females there are 99.4 males. Presbyterians, as well as Roman Catholics in Ulster and the rest of Ireland suffered under the discriminatory Penal Laws until they were revoked in the early 19th century. The median age is 32 years. The Presbytery of Ulster was formed separately from the established church, in 1642. In the city the population is spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 34.1% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, and 9.7% who are 65 years of age or older.
In Ireland, Presbyterianism was established by Scottish immigrants and missionaries to Ulster. The average household size is 2.83 and the average family size is 3.56. The re-establishment of the monarchy in 1660 brought the re-establishment of episcopalian government in England (and in Scotland for a short time); but the Presbyterian church in England continued in non-conformity, outside of the established church. 28.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 7.4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. In 1647, by an act of the Long Parliament under the control of Puritans, the Church of England embraced Presbyterianism . There are 1,275,412 households out of which 33.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% are married couples living together, 14.5% have a female householder with no husband present, and 37.4% are non-families. In Ireland the Presbyterian Church was formed from the Church of Scotland and later became The Presbyterian Church In Ireland.In England, Presbyterianism was established in secret in 1572, toward the end of the reign of Elizabeth I of England. 46.53% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race and 29.75% White, not of Latino/Hispanic origins.
The existing Church of Scotland was thus reformed along Presbyterian lines. The racial makeup of the city is 46.93% White, 11.24% African American, 0.80% Native American, 9.99% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 25.70% from other races, and 5.18% from two or more races. In Scotland, John Knox (1505-1572), who had studied under Calvin in Geneva, returned to Scotland and led the Parliament of Scotland to embrace the Reformation in 1560. There are 1,337,706 housing units at an average density of 1,101.1/km² (2,851.8/mi²). In England, Scotland and Ireland, the Reformed churches that adopted a presbyterian instead of episcopalian government, became known naturally enough, as the Presbyterian Church. The population density is 3,041.3/km² (7,876.8/mi²). These denominations derive their name from the Greek word presbyteros, which means "elder." Presbyterian church governance is common to the Protestant churches that were most closely modelled after the Reformation in Switzerland. As of the census2 of 2000, there are 3,694,820 people, 1,275,412 households, and 798,407 families residing in the city.
Besides national distinctions, Presbyterians also have divided from one another for doctrinal reasons, especially in the wake of the Enlightenment. Ethnic enclaves like Chinatown, Koreatown, Little India (Artesia), Little Armenia, Thai Town, Historic Filipinotown and Little Ethiopia give testimony to the polyglot character of Los Angeles. There are many separate Presbyterian Churches in different nations around the world. is home to people from more than 140 countries, who speak at least 224 different languages. Presbyterianism traces its institutional roots back to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. L.A. Presbyterianism is a form of church government, practiced by many (although not all) of those Protestant churches (known as Reformed churches), which historically subscribed to the teachings of John Calvin. Los Angeles is also home to the largest populations of Japanese and Persians living in the U.S., and has one of the largest Native American populations in the country.
John Witherspoon, only clergyman to sign the Declaration of Independence. Los Angeles hosts the largest populations of Armenians, Cambodians, Filipinos, Guatemalans, Israelis, Koreans, Thais, Mexicans, Hungarians and Salvadorans outside of their respective countries. The Rev. The Hispanic and Asian American populations are growing particularly quickly — the Asian American population is the largest of any city in the U.S. Woodrow Wilson, 28th President. can truly be described as a "world city" — that is, it has one of the largest and most diverse populations of any municipality anywhere. Christine Todd Whitman, former governor of New Jersey. L.A.
Vice-President under Hayes. The people of Los Angeles are known as Angelenos. Wheeler, U.S. In addition the groundwater is increasingly threatened by MTBE from gas stations and perchlorate from rocket fuel. Some consider urban sprawl to be a result of the city's transportation system. William A. The Los Angeles Basin and the San Fernando Valley hold in the fumes from automobiles, diesel trucks, shipping, and locomotive engines, as well as manufacturing and other sources. Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield, Princeton Seminary professor. Due to the city's geography and the popularity of automobiles, the city suffers from severe air pollution in the form of smog.
Roosevelt. Most of these contain sailboats and yachts, like Manhattan Beach, Redondo Beach and Marina-Del-Rey. Vice-President under F.D. There are also smaller, non-industrial harbors along L.A.'s western coastline. Wallace, U.S. The sea ports of the Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach together make up the Los Angeles - Long Beach Harbor, the busiest and overall third largest container shipping port in the world. Henry A. Los Angeles also has the world's busiest general aviation airport, Van Nuys Airport (VNY).
Mark Twain, American author. The other major commercial airports are Ontario International Airport (ONT), Bob Hope Airport (BUR) formerly known as Burbank Airport, Long Beach Municipal Airport (LGB), and John Wayne International Airport (SNA). Vice-President under Monroe. The main Los Angeles airport is Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), the 5th busiest commercial airport in the world. LAX handled 55 million passengers and 2 million tons of cargo in 2003. Tompkins, U.S. The Los Angeles area has more airports than any major city in the world, with 5 major commercial airports, and many more general aviation airports. Daniel D. Rail shipping is handled by Union Pacific and Burlington Northern Santa Fe.
Norman Thomas runs for President as the Socialist Party candidate in 1928. Rail passenger service is provided by Amtrak and Metrolink from historic Union Station. Jimmy Stewart, actor. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and other agencies operate bus, subway and light railroad lines which together carry over a million passengers a day. Fred Rogers, also known as the famous Mister Rogers, was an ordained Presbyterian Minister up until his death. freeway system successfully handles millions of commuters as they endure a daily collective migration of about 99 million miles (160,000,000 km). The Rev. is considered to be the home of traffic jams and car culture, the L.A.
Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State (2005- ). While L.A. President. Los Angeles is the center of the huge Southern California freeway system. Ronald Reagan, 40th U.S. See also: Freeway system of Los Angeles. President (converted from Presbyterianism to Methodism). Main article: Transportation of Los Angeles.
James Knox Polk, 11th U.S. See the Economy section of the Los Angeles County article for a list of such companies in Los Angeles County. Norman Maclean, author and academic. There are many other well-known companies with headquarters located in the County of Los Angeles or the greater Los Angeles area, but they are far beyond the City of Los Angeles (and the scope of this article). Stonewall Jackson, General in the Confederate Army. The companies below clearly benefit from their proximity to Los Angeles, while at the same time they also avoid the city's taxes (and other problems). President. For example, Los Angeles charges a gross receipts tax based on a percentage of business revenue, while most neighboring cities charge only small flat fees.
Andrew Jackson, 7th U.S. Few major companies are headquartered within the boundaries of the City of Los Angeles for a variety of reasons, such as the city's high taxes. Charles Hodge, seminary professor. The ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach are vital to North American trade with the Pacific Rim countries. Hodge, seminary professor. The most important industries in Los Angeles are entertainment, adult entertainment, and media production, aerospace, telecommunications, law, tourism, health and medicine, manufacturing and transportation. A. Main article: Economy of Los Angeles.
A. County, Whittier, Long Beach area
John Glenn, Astronaut, United States Senator. Signs have been placed on major thoroughfares designating some of the communities, a practice going back decades. Mel Watt, Congressman from North Carolina and Chairman of the Congressional Black Caucus. These divisions have no legal status but are of significance to residents for cultural and financial reasons. Jay Rockefeller, junior United States Senator from West Virginia. Most of the neighborhood names come either from farm towns that were annexed by the growing city, physical terrain features, major streets, or subdivision names coined by enterprising developers. Lamar Alexander, junior United States Senator from Tennessee. The city is divided into many neighborhoods.
Bill Frist, current Senate Majority Leader. There are also unincorporated enclaves which are under Los Angeles County jurisdiction. Eisenhower, 34th President. territory. Dwight D. San Fernando in the northern corner of the San Fernando Valley is also a separate city entirely surrounded by L.A. Secretary of State in the Eisenhower Administration. Both Santa Monica and Marina del Rey are surrounded except on their ocean side.
John Foster Dulles, U.S. except where it shares a boundary with the unincorporated communities of Ladera Heights and Baldwin Hills. Brian DePalma, film director; raised as a Presbyterian. Culver City is surrounded by L.A. President. For example, Beverly Hills and West Hollywood are completely surrounded by the City of Los Angeles except for a small border the two cities share. Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th U.S. The city boundaries are quite complicated.
Vice-President under Adams and Jackson. The San Pedro/Harbor City area was annexed to the city of Los Angeles so the city could have access and control over the Port of Los Angeles and is only connected by a narrow Corridor with the rest of L.A, which follows the Harbor Freeway for the most part. Many Angelenos consider the Eastside to be the area east of the Los Angeles River, above Orange County. Calhoun, U.S. Adjoining areas that are outside the actual city boundaries of the incorporated city of Los Angeles include the South Bay, the San Gabriel Valley and the Foothills. John C. (formerly known as South Central L.A.); and the San Pedro/Harbor City area. Aaron Burr, co-founder of Princeton University. Some other areas of Los Angeles include the Westside; South L.A.
The Rev. Or, consider the San Fernando Valley: Lying north-northwest of Downtown L.A., "The Valley" is a 15 mile (24 km) wide basin ringed by mountains. Vice-President under Jefferson. For example, Downtown Los Angeles is the area of Los Angeles roughly enclosed by three freeways and one river: the Harbor Freeway to the west, the Hollywood Freeway to the north, the Los Angeles River to the east, and the Santa Monica Freeway to the south. Aaron Burr, U.S. Some areas are bounded by natural features such as mountains or the ocean; others are marked by city boundaries, freeways, or other constructed landmarks. Frederick Buechner, author of fantasy novels and non-fiction religious books. See also Bunker Hill, Los Angeles, California..
President. The Los Angeles Downtown News keeps a list of ongoing development projects, updated every quarter, here (http://www.downtownnews.com/development/). James Buchanan, 15th U.S. For example, Downtown Los Angeles is gaining more skyscrapers (some of which are residential towers), the office vacancy rate is decreasing, and the value of housing units and homes continues to rise. Presidential nominee for the Democratic Party. sprawl has reached its geographic limits around 2000 (future expansion of the sprawl will involve leapfrogging across whole mountain ranges), so these numbers are beginning to change as real estate investment becomes focused towards the central areas of the city. William Jennings Bryan of the famous Scopes "Monkey Trial" in Tennessee 1925 and three times U.S. However, the L.A.
Vice-President under Buchanan. In contrast to this, the extent of the region's suburban sprawl has been so thoroughly cultivated so as to result in a greater metropolitan area with a relatively high density of 7,070 people per square mile (2,730/km²) according to the 2000 census. Breckinridge, U.S. This decentralization has resulted in the city of Los Angeles having a very low population density compared to other large American cities (less than one-third the density of New York City, and nearly half the density of Chicago). John C. Los Angeles became a real city as automobiles began to be mass-produced, and as a result it developed somewhat less densely. Representative; conservative Republican from Texas. At the same time, the area's reputation for sprawl is more historic than real in today's terms.
Dick Armey, U.S. It is not always meaningful to refer to Los Angeles as a distinct city, but people outside of Southern California commonly refer to the entire region as "L.A.," even though there are five counties, more than 100 distinct municipalities, hundreds of neighborhoods and districts, and more people than any individual state except for Texas, New York, Florida, and, of course, California. Greater Los Angeles (also referred to locally as "Southern California" or "The Southland") is such a sprawling area that residents refer to broad general sub-regions. A major stretch of Wilshire Boulevard has high-rises outside of Century City, such as in the Miracle Mile, Los Angeles, California and Mid-Wilshire. The area around LAX as well as the stretch of Century Boulevard to the direct east of LAX also makes a small, mid-rise skyline.
Warner Center in the San Fernando Valley has a small skyline of commercial towers, with the tallest being around 25 stories. Encino, also in the San Fernando Valley, has many towers along Ventura Boulevard and nearby streets that have high-rises with story amounts in the 20's. Downtown has the tallest skyline, however, which mixes a few extremely tall high-rises with many lower high-rises (most around 12 stories) from the times when there was a low height limit. Century City and the parts of Wilshire Boulevard through Westwood together form a rather busy skyline that is often confused with the downtown skyline. The skyline of Los Angeles consists of several different clusters of high-rise buildings; most of these clusters are not directly connected to each other.
The recent "rise" of South Park, the low-rise district of downtown south of Bunker Hill (roughly south of 8th Street and north of the Santa Monica Freeway), is bringing skyscrapers that are high enough in quantity and height to create an extended downtown skyline within a few years from 2005. This is a brief list, however, there are many more. Some recent, new examples of skyscraper construction include:. Hence, what the office tower rush in the 1970s and 1980s added to the skyline is now occuring again in the form of residential.
Many of the new skyscrapers are housing, especially in Downtown. The skyline has seen rapid growth due to improvements in building standards, which has made some buildings highly earthquake-resistant. Despite its relative decentralization, Los Angeles has one of the largest skylines in the United States. See also: Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley.
The major waterway of Los Angeles is the Los Angeles River. Lukens. The highest point in Los Angeles is Sister Elsie Peak, 5,080 feet at the far reaches of the northeastern San Fernando Valley, part of Mt. The total area is 5.86% water.
1,214.9 km² (469.1 mi²) of it is land and 75.7 km² (29.2 mi²) of it is water. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1,290.6 km² (498.3 mi²). The extreme north-south distance is 44 miles (71 km), the extreme east-west distance is 29 miles (47 km), and the length of the city boundary is 342 miles (550 km). has a total area of 472.08 square miles (1,223 km²).
L.A. The city is situated in a semitropical Mediterranean climate zone. Main article: Geography of Los Angeles. Notable sister cities include Athens, Jakarta, Berlin, Mumbai, Vancouver, Mexico City, Makati and St. Petersburg.
Los Angeles has 20 Sister Cities, more than any other municipality in California. There are crime video games that take place in Los Angeles such as Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (which has a city named Los Santos which is based on Los Angeles) and True Crime: Streets of LA (which takes place in Los Angeles and is a close replica of the area). One interesting example is a report on ten freeway shootings within two months  (http://www.nbc4.tv/news/4449599/detail.html). Numerous instances of all these crimes are documented on the LAPD press release Web site  (http://www.lapdonline.org/press_releases/press_releases.htm).
Other common crimes include: car-to-car shootings (see road rage), drive-by shootings, thrill killings, hit-and-run accidents, and carjackings. The city's complex freeway system makes it easier to go on for miles, while still remaining in the same general area. In Los Angeles, car chases happen more often than in most major cities (sometimes a few times in one week). Every day, the middle pages of Los Angeles newspapers are packed with reports of violent crimes which would be front page news in almost any other city in the United States.
According to a May 2001 Drug Threat Assessment by the National Drug Intelligence Center (http://www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs0/668/overview.htm), Los Angeles County is home to 152,000 gang members organized into 1,350 gangs. As a result, people around the world know that the number 187 stands for murder in California. Many movies and songs about Los Angeles depict the fact that the city is home to a large number of gangsters and professional criminals. Supreme Court in Washington, D.C.
Of course, the court of last resort for both federal and state cases is the U.S. Federal cases are appealed to the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, which hears them at its branch building in Pasadena. State cases are appealed to the Court of Appeal for the Second Appellate District, which is also headquartered in the Civic Center, and then to the California Supreme Court, which is headquartered in San Francisco but also hears argument in Los Angeles (again, in the Civic Center). In 2003, the tabloid television show Extra (based in nearby Glendale) found itself running so many reports on the legal problems of local celebrities that it spun them off into a separate show, Celebrity Justice.
Simpson are frequently seen in Los Angeles courts. Thanks to Hollywood, celebrities like O.J. As a result, both the county superior court and the federal district court are respectively the busiest courts of their type in the nation. Unlike the largest city in the United States, New York, all of the city of Los Angeles and most of its important suburbs are located within a single county.
Both are headquartered in a large cluster of government buildings in the city's Civic Center. District Court for the Central District of California hears all federal cases. The Los Angeles County Superior Court has jurisdiction over all cases arising under state law, while the U.S. See also: List of mayors of Los Angeles, California.
The first notable achievement of the neighborhood councils was their organized opposition in March 2004 to an 18% increase in water rates by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (a municipal monopoly), which led the city council to suspend the rate hike pending further study. These and other regulatory requirements have proven frustrating for activists unaccustomed to bureaucratic procedures. Though the councils have little actual power, they are still official government bodies and so must abide by California's Brown Act that strictly governs the meetings of deliberative assemblies. More than 90 neighborhood councils have been formed and all stakeholders in a district may vote for council members.
The councils cover districts which are not necessarily identical to the traditional neighborhoods of Los Angeles, the borders of which often reflect those of cities that were annexed to Los Angeles (see Communities, neighborhoods and districts below). These advisory councils were first proposed by city council member Joel Wachs in 1996 and were incorporated in the Charter Reform of 1999. To make the government more responsive and to help encourage the cohesiveness of neighborhood communities, the city council has promoted the formation of neighborhood councils. The main problem seems to be that the city administration in Downtown gives more priority to high-density neighborhoods like Mid-City and Downtown at the expense of its far-flung suburban neighborhoods.
The city government has been perceived as inefficient and ineffective by residents of some areas, which ultimately led to an unsuccessful secession movement by the San Fernando Valley and Hollywood in 2002. The district attorney, elected by the county voters, prosecutes misdemeanors in unincorporated areas and in 78 of the 88 cities in the county, as well as felonies everywhere in the county. The city attorney prosecutes misdemeanors within the city limits. Other elected city officials include the city attorney, Rocky Delgadillo, and the city controller, Laura Chick.
There are 15 city council districts. The current mayor is James Hahn and the mayor-elect is Antonio Villaraigosa. The city has a mayor-council system. The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department polices all unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County and some cities which have contracted for law enforcement services because they lack police departments of their own, including Calabasas, West Hollywood, and Compton.
The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) polices the city of Los Angeles. Main article: Law and government of Los Angeles. area, such as Caltech, see Los Angeles County, California#Colleges and universities. Note: For more colleges and universities in the L.A.
++Los Angeles Community College District. Since then, the LAUSD has embarked on an aggressive school construction program to relieve overcrowding, and has developed high-quality magnet schools to nurture talented students and encourage them to remain within the public school system. Wealthy and upper-middle-class parents placed their children in elite private schools like Harvard-Westlake, Crossroads School, The Buckley School, Milken Community High School, Notre Dame High School, Brentwood School (Los Angeles), and Marlborough School, while middle-class families fled into suburban school districts beyond LAUSD boundaries. After Proposition 13 in 1978, urban school districts had considerable trouble with funding and LAUSD became known for its underfunded, overcrowded and poorly maintained campuses.
The primary school district that serves Los Angeles is the Los Angeles Unified School District. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi founded the Transcendental Meditation movement in Los Angeles in the late 1950s. Los Angeles has been a destination for Swamis and Gurus as early as 1900, including Paramahansa Yogananda (1920). Gene Scott was based near downtown.
Until his death in 2005, Dr. Billy Graham became a celebrity during a successful revival campaign in Los Angeles. In the 1920s, Aimee Semple McPherson established a thriving evangelic ministry, with her Angelus Temple in Echo Park open to both black and white congregants. The city has also been home to some very colorful religious leaders and icons.
One wing of the Theosophist movement is centered in Los Angeles, and another is set in neighboring Pasadena. Los Angeles is the home to a number of Neopagans, as well as adherents of various other mystical religions. The Self-Realization Fellowship is also based in Hollywood and has a private park in Pacific Palisades. Today, the Church of Scientology has a major presence in Hollywood.
Immigrants from Asia, for example, have formed a number of significant Buddhist congregations. Los Angeles's large multi-ethnic population has fostered some of the less common religions of North America. The Azusa Street Revival (1906–1909) in Los Angeles was a key milestone in the history of the Pentecostal movement. Los Angeles has the second-largest Jewish community in the United States, rivaled only by New York City.
A major temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is situated in West Los Angeles. Roger Cardinal Mahony oversaw construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, completed in 2002 at the north end of downtown. The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Los Angeles leads the largest archdiocese in the country. Los Angeles is home to adherents of many religions.
See: List of Los Angeles television stations. Examples include the Daily Breeze (serving the South Bay), and the Long Beach Press-Telegram. Many cities adjacent to Los Angeles also have their own daily newspapers whose coverage and availability overlaps into certain Los Angeles neighborhoods. It strongly supports lowering taxes.
Daily News also focuses on business issues, education, and crime. The L.A. Times often does high-quality investigative journalism on important inner-city issues like healthcare and crime, while the L.A. Daily News is usually content to run wire stories on those issues, if it covers them at all. One example of this is that the L.A.
Most of the above papers are center-left or left in their political stance with the clear exception of the Daily News, which is center-right. City Beat, Los Angeles magazine, Los Angeles Business Journal, Los Angeles Daily Journal (legal industry paper), Variety, (show-biz industry paper), and Los Angeles Downtown News. (http://www.downtownnews.com) In addition to the English and Spanish language papers, numerous local periodicals serve immigrant communities in their native languages, e.g. Korean, Persian, and Japanese. Los Angeles is served by the Los Angeles Times and La Opinión (the city's major Spanish-language paper.), as well as smaller regional newspapers, alternative weeklies and magazine, including the Los Angeles Newspaper Group's Daily News (which focuses coverage on the Valley), Village Voice Media's L.A. Weekly, L.A. Orchids require special attention in this Mediterranean climate.
Wisteria has been known to grow to house-lot-size, and in Descanso Gardens, there are forests of camellia trees. If there were no city here, flower-growing could still flourish as an industry, as it does in Lompoc. There are many exotic flowers and flowering trees that are blooming year-round, with subtle colors, including the jacaranda, hibiscus, phlox, bougainvillea, coral tree blossoms and bird of paradise. Unfortunately, many native species are so rare as to be endangered, such as the Los Angeles sunflower.
Native plants include: California poppy, matilija poppy, toyon, coast live oak, giant wild rye grass, and hundreds of others. The largest area is coastal sage scrub, which covers the hillsides in combustible chaparral. With its beaches, dunes, wetlands, hills, mountains, and rivers, the area contains a number of important biological communities. Los Angeles is remarkably rich in native plant species.
Across the county a great variety of outdoor activities are available, such as skiing, rock climbing, gold panning, hang gliding, and windsurfing. Numerous outdoor clubs serve these sports, including the Angeles Chapter of the Sierra Club, which annually leads over 4,000 outings in the area. Los Angeles is perhaps the most mountainous metropolis in the world, with four mountain ranges partly inside city boundaries. Thousands of miles of trails crisscross the city and neighboring areas, providing exercise and wilderness access on foot, bike, or horse. Los Angeles has twice played host to the summer Olympic Games: in 1932 and in 1984. Area beaches are popular with surfers, who have created their own subculture.
Beach volleyball and windsurfing were both invented in the area (though predecessors of both were first invented in some form by Duke Kahanamoku in Hawaii). Venice, also known as Dogtown, is credited with being the birthplace of skateboarding and the place where rollerblading first became popular. In late December 2004 the name was officially changed to the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim in order to associate with the larger city while still complying with contractual obligations. At various times in history, however, the Angels have been known as the Los Angeles Angels (1961-1965), the California Angels (1965-1997), and the Anaheim Angels (1997-2004); talks in 2004 suggested the team was considering returning to the original name, over loud protests from the Anaheim government. Anaheim, about 25 miles (40 km) to the south-east, is home to the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim hockey team and the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim baseball team.
Los Angeles has been without an NFL franchise since 1995 despite being the second biggest television market in North America. Los Angeles is the home of the Los Angeles Dodgers baseball team, the Los Angeles Lakers and Los Angeles Clippers men's basketball teams, the Los Angeles Sparks women's basketball team, the Los Angeles Kings hockey team, the Club Deportivo Chivas USA and Los Angeles Galaxy soccer teams, and the Los Angeles Avengers arena football team. See also: List of sites of interest in the Los Angeles area. The Main Library is located in downtown Los Angeles and has been recognized as a National Historic Site.
Residents of the unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County and various cities within the county are served by the County of Los Angeles Public Library The LAPL is funded by voter approved bond and tax levy packages. Residents of the city of Los Angeles are served by the Los Angeles Public Library (LAPL) and its branch locations. For more criticism, see Arts and culture of Los Angeles: Criticism. However, this culture has also inspired criticism that it is not really a unique culture at all.
As a major global metropolis, Los Angeles has evolved a unique culture that is well-portrayed in popular media. Despite its young age, Los Angeles is known as the world capital of motion picture production, and it is also an important center for music, art, and architecture. Main article: Arts and culture of Los Angeles. riots, the Northridge earthquake was a severe emotional shock to Southern Californians, in addition to causing billions of dollars in physical damage. Other major earthquakes include the 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake and the 1971 Sylmar earthquake.
Coming less than two years after the L.A. The most recent was the 1994 Northridge earthquake, which was centered in the northern San Fernando Valley. Like most areas of California, Los Angeles's history is punctuated with major earthquakes. A city-wide vote on San Fernando Valley and Hollywood secession was defeated in 2002.
The XXIII Olympiad was successfully hosted in Los Angeles in 1984. The city was once again tested by the 1992 Los Angeles riots and the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The Watts riots in 1965 reminded the country of the deep divisions that even the nation's youngest city faced. The postwar years saw an even greater boom as urban sprawl expanded into the San Fernando Valley. This period also saw the arrival of the German Exiles, which included such notables as Thomas Mann, Bertolt Brecht, and Lion Feuchtwagner.
World War II brought new growth and prosperity to the city, although many of its Japanese-American residents were transported to internment camps for the duration of the war. The city was the proud host of the 1932 Summer Olympics. In the 1920s the motion picture and aviation industries both flocked to Los Angeles and helped to further develop it. In 1913, William Mulholland completed the aqueduct that assured the city's growth and led to the annexation by the City of Los Angeles, starting in 1915, of dozens of neighboring communities without water supplies of their own.
Even more important to the city's growth was water. Oil was discovered in 1892, and by 1923, Los Angeles was supplying one-quarter of the world's petroleum. Railroads arrived when the Southern Pacific completed its line to Los Angeles in 1876. Los Angeles was incorporated as a city in 1850.
Yankees gained control after they flooded into California during the Gold Rush and secured the subsequent admission of California into the United States. Mexican independence from Spain was achieved in the 1820s, but the greatest change took place in present day Montebello after the Battle of Rio San Gabriel in 1847, which decided the fate of Los Angeles. It remained a small mission and ranch town for decades. On September 4, 1781, settlers from the San Gabriel Mission founded the town and named it El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de la Porciúncula, "The Town of Our Lady Queen of the Angels of the Small Portion".
In 1771, the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel was founded, thus establishing a permanent presence in the area and securing Spanish territory. In 1769, the Spanish returned to California to stay. The Spanish first arrived in 1542, when Juan Cabrillo visited the area. The Los Angeles coastal area was occupied by the Tongva, Chumash, and even earlier Native American peoples for thousands of years.
Main Article: History of Los Angeles, California. See also: The Greater Los Angeles Area. People are attracted to the city for its balmy weather, its vibrant lifestyle, and the opportunity to realize the "American Dream.". It is one of the largest entry points for immigrants to the United States, and it contains people from every nation, making it one of world's most culturally-rich places.
The economy of Los Angeles is driven by agriculture, petroleum, entertainment (motion pictures, television, and recorded music), aerospace, international trade, and tourism. The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power provides service to city residents and businesses. The Los Angeles Police Department, Los Angeles Public Library System and Los Angeles Unified School District are among the largest such organizations in the country. Los Angeles is governed by a mayor and a 15-member council.
In addition, Los Angeles is an "Alpha" world city since it has hosted two Olympic Games and is home to renowned scientific and cultural institutions. The city is also large by geographic standards since it sprawls over more than 465 square miles (1200 square kilometers), making it larger than New York City or Chicago. As of the 2000 census, it has a population of 3,694,820, but a May 1, 2005, California Department of Finance estimate shows the city's population at 3,957,875, with the metropolitan area at 17,545,623. It was incorporated as a city in California on April 4, 1850 and is the county seat of Los Angeles County.
The City of Los Angeles (from Spanish Los Ángeles, meaning angels) is the second largest city in the United States in terms of population, as well as one of the world's most important economic, cultural, and entertainment centers. Klein, The History of Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of Memory, Verso 1997. Norman M. Lynell George, No crystal stair : African Americans in the city of angels, London : Verso, 1992.
Mike Davis, City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles, Vintage Books 1992. Ulin (ed), Writing Los Angeles: A Literary Anthology, Library of America 2002. David L. For neighborhood demographics, see Maps of Los Angeles, California.
For other cities and unincorporated neighborhoods in the Los Angeles area, see Los Angeles County, California. List of districts and neighborhoods of Los Angeles (sorted by region and then alphabetically). Category page for Los Angeles neighborhoods (sorted alphabetically). Cove (http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=210977) (http://www.covemarinadelrey.com), an 18 story condominium tower in Marina del Rey.
9th and Flower Lofts (http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=214405), a 38 story residential tower at 9th and Flower Streets. NoHo Tower (http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/cs/?id=195925), a 15 story residential tower with bottom floor retail in North Hollywood. Metropolis (http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/cx/?id=112023), a mixed use tri-tower (38, 47, and 52 stories, respectively) at Franciso and 9th Street downtown. The Californian on Wilshire (http://www.thecalifornianonwilshire.com) (http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/cs/?id=192611) which is a 23 story condominium tower on Wilshire Boulevard in Westwood.
11th and Grand (http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=209800), a 27 story tower at 11th and Grand in downtown, opposite Elleven. Elleven (http://www.elleven-south.com) (http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/cs/?id=205060), a tri-tower complex (13, 19, and 23 story towers) at the northwest block from 11th and Grand to 12th and Grand in downtown. University of Phoenix (Private College). Los Angeles Mission College++.
Los Angeles Valley College++. Los Angeles Pierce College++. Pepperdine University School of Law. Southwestern University School of Law.
Otis College of Art and Design(Otis). Occidental College (Oxy). Los Angeles City College (LACC). Loyola Marymount University (LMU).
California State University, Northridge (CSUN). California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA). University of Southern California (USC). University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).