Presbyterianism is a form of church government, practiced by many (although not all) of those Protestant churches (known as Reformed churches), which historically subscribed to the teachings of John Calvin. Presbyterianism traces its institutional roots back to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. There are many separate Presbyterian Churches in different nations around the world. Besides national distinctions, Presbyterians also have divided from one another for doctrinal reasons, especially in the wake of the Enlightenment.
History of Presbyterianism
These denominations derive their name from the Greek word presbyteros, which means "elder." Presbyterian church governance is common to the Protestant churches that were most closely modelled after the Reformation in Switzerland. In England, Scotland and Ireland, the Reformed churches that adopted a presbyterian instead of episcopalian government, became known naturally enough, as the Presbyterian Church.
In Scotland, John Knox (1505-1572), who had studied under Calvin in Geneva, returned to Scotland and led the Parliament of Scotland to embrace the Reformation in 1560. The existing Church of Scotland was thus reformed along Presbyterian lines. In Ireland the Presbyterian Church was formed from the Church of Scotland and later became The Presbyterian Church In Ireland.In England, Presbyterianism was established in secret in 1572, toward the end of the reign of Elizabeth I of England. In 1647, by an act of the Long Parliament under the control of Puritans, the Church of England embraced Presbyterianism . The re-establishment of the monarchy in 1660 brought the re-establishment of episcopalian government in England (and in Scotland for a short time); but the Presbyterian church in England continued in non-conformity, outside of the established church. In Ireland, Presbyterianism was established by Scottish immigrants and missionaries to Ulster. The Presbytery of Ulster was formed separately from the established church, in 1642. Presbyterians, as well as Roman Catholics in Ulster and the rest of Ireland suffered under the discriminatory Penal Laws until they were revoked in the early 19th century. All three, very diverse branches of Presbyterianism, as well as independents, and some Dutch, German, and French Reformed denominations, combined in America to form what would eventually become the Presbyterian Church USA (1705). The Presbyterian church in England and Wales is the United Reformed Church, whilst the tradition also influenced the Methodist church, established in 1736.
Because of an emphasis on equal education for all people, Presbyterians have 'planted' and encouraged schools across the US as the country grew and the missionaries were sent out to the people.
Characteristics of Presbyterians
Main article: Presbyterian church governance
Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by both doctrine and institutional organization, or as they prefer to call it 'church order'. The origins of the Presbyterian churches were in Calvinism, which is no longer emphasized in some of the contemporary branches. Many of the branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups. These splits have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Calvinist Westminster Confession of Faith, which historically serves as the main constitutional document of Presbyterian churches. Those groups that adhere to the document most strictly are typified by baptism of the infant children of believers, the exclusive use of Psalms (modified for metrical singing), singing unaccompanied by instruments, a common communion cup, only men are eligible for ordination to any church office, and a fully Calvinist doctrine of salvation. Because of this diversity of belief, more conservative Presbyterians are likely to attend the smaller denominations that have chosen to split from a larger body. While these conservative Presbyterians are not in the majority, their numbers are significant.
Presbyterian government is based on Elders. Teaching and ruling elders, sitting as a 'Kirk Session', (commonly refered to as simply 'session') are responsible for the discipline, the nurture and the mission of the local congregation. Sometimes the practicalities of buildings and finance in the congregation are delegated to a distinct group (known variosly as a 'Board' or 'Deacons' Court'. Teaching elders (ministers) have responsibility for teaching, worship and performing sacraments. Ministers are called by individual congregations. A congregation issues a call for the minister's service, but this call must be ratified by the Presbytery.
Above the Kirk Sessions exist Presbyteries, which have area responsibilities. These are composed of ministers and elders from each of the constituent congregations. The Presbytery sends representatives to a broader regional assembly, generally known as the General Assembly, although an intermediate level of a synod sometimes exists. This congregation / presbytery / synod / general assembly schema is based on the historical structure of the larger Presbyterian churches, like the Church of Scotland; some of the smaller bodies, like the Presbyterian Church in America or the Presbyterian Church in Ireland skip one of the steps between congregation and General Assembly, and usually the step skipped is the Synod. The Church of Scotland has now abolished the Synod.
Presbyterians place great importance upon education and continuous study of the scriptures, theological writings, and understanding and interpretation of church doctrine embodied in several statements of faith and catechisms formally adopted by various branches of the church. References to the adoption of Calvin's theology of predestination and the typical member's predisposition to conduct themselves "decently and in order" have earned them the moniker of the "frozen chosen". However, most Presbyterians generally exhibit their faith in action as well as words, including generosity, hospitality, and the constant pursuit of social justice and reform as well as proclaiming the gospel of Christ.
Varieties of Presbyterians in North America
Even before the Presbyterians left Scotland there were divisions in the larger Presbyterian family. In North America, because of past doctrinal differences, Presbyterian churches often overlap, with congregations of many different Presbyterian groups in any one city. The largest Presbyterian denomination in the United States is the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA). Other Presbyterian bodies in the United States include the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC), the Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC (http://www.epc.org)), the Reformed Presbyterian Church, the Bible Presbyterian Church (BPC), the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP Synod), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States (RPCUS). In Canada, the largest Presbyterian Church is the Presbyterian Church in Canada; in 1925, about seventy percent of which, merged with the Methodist Church, Canada, and the Congregational Union of Canada to form the United Church of Canada.
Famous American Presbyterians
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In Canada, the largest Presbyterian Church is the Presbyterian Church in Canada; in 1925, about seventy percent of which, merged with the Methodist Church, Canada, and the Congregational Union of Canada to form the United Church of Canada. See also:. Other Presbyterian bodies in the United States include the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC), the Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC (http://www.epc.org)), the Reformed Presbyterian Church, the Bible Presbyterian Church (BPC), the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP Synod), the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States (RPCUS). Here is a list of teams with the league they are a part of and the venue the play in:. The largest Presbyterian denomination in the United States is the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA). Houston is home to several professional sports franchises. In North America, because of past doctrinal differences, Presbyterian churches often overlap, with congregations of many different Presbyterian groups in any one city. See also:.
Even before the Presbyterians left Scotland there were divisions in the larger Presbyterian family. It's "en su defensa" (In Your Defense) segments have garnered regional acclaim, and En Su Defensa month was proclaimed by Mayor Bill White in 2004. However, most Presbyterians generally exhibit their faith in action as well as words, including generosity, hospitality, and the constant pursuit of social justice and reform as well as proclaiming the gospel of Christ. Univision Affiliate KXLN-TV is among the highest rated Spanish language television stations in the United States. References to the adoption of Calvin's theology of predestination and the typical member's predisposition to conduct themselves "decently and in order" have earned them the moniker of the "frozen chosen". These reports garnered the reporters and the station national and international attention and awards. Presbyterians place great importance upon education and continuous study of the scriptures, theological writings, and understanding and interpretation of church doctrine embodied in several statements of faith and catechisms formally adopted by various branches of the church. KHOU-TV's team of "Defenders" began and lead a national investigation on the failure of Firestone Wilderness AT tires in several vehicles.
The Church of Scotland has now abolished the Synod. The station also employs Marvin Zindler, whose week-long exposÚ on the Chicken Ranch brothel later became the basis for the Broadway musical The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas. This congregation / presbytery / synod / general assembly schema is based on the historical structure of the larger Presbyterian churches, like the Church of Scotland; some of the smaller bodies, like the Presbyterian Church in America or the Presbyterian Church in Ireland skip one of the steps between congregation and General Assembly, and usually the step skipped is the Synod. Since then, the charity's donations dwindled, leaving the owner fuming. The Presbytery sends representatives to a broader regional assembly, generally known as the General Assembly, although an intermediate level of a synod sometimes exists. ABC-13 KTRK TV's Wayne Dolcefino released a controversial report that allegedly showed bad business practices of a charity called "Kid Care". These are composed of ministers and elders from each of the constituent congregations. Houston also is home to the TV stations and radio stations that serve the metro area.
Above the Kirk Sessions exist Presbyteries, which have area responsibilities. Houston has a variety of newspapers, with the Houston Chronicle (which is the only major daily newspaper in Houston receiving wide distribution) being read all across the South-Central United States. A congregation issues a call for the minister's service, but this call must be ratified by the Presbytery. See also:. Ministers are called by individual congregations. Other alternative of higher learning includes the Houston Community College System, which has several campuses around Houston to serve all areas and is one of the largest community college system in the United States. Teaching elders (ministers) have responsibility for teaching, worship and performing sacraments. Houston is world renowned for health and medicine research facilities located in the Medical Center such as the Baylor College of Medicine and many others.
Sometimes the practicalities of buildings and finance in the congregation are delegated to a distinct group (known variosly as a 'Board' or 'Deacons' Court'. Houston is the location of a well known prestigious private institution of Rice University, which boasts the largest financial endowment of any university in the world. Teaching and ruling elders, sitting as a 'Kirk Session', (commonly refered to as simply 'session') are responsible for the discipline, the nurture and the mission of the local congregation. The UH Law Center's Health Law and Policy Institute is ranked number one in the nation while the Intellectual Property Law Program is ranked fifth, according to U.S. News & World Report. Presbyterian government is based on Elders. Amongst the most prestigious of the University of Houston's colleges is the University of Houston Law Center (law school). While these conservative Presbyterians are not in the majority, their numbers are significant. UH is also home to over forty research centers and institutes.
Because of this diversity of belief, more conservative Presbyterians are likely to attend the smaller denominations that have chosen to split from a larger body. The interdisciplinary research conducted at UH breaks new ground in such vital areas as superconductivity, space commercialization, biomedical engineering, economics, education, petroleum exploration and management. Those groups that adhere to the document most strictly are typified by baptism of the infant children of believers, the exclusive use of Psalms (modified for metrical singing), singing unaccompanied by instruments, a common communion cup, only men are eligible for ordination to any church office, and a fully Calvinist doctrine of salvation. Their flagship institution is the University of Houston, the only doctoral degree granting extensive research institution in Houston and is the third largest in the state of Texas with an enrollment of over 35,000. These splits have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Calvinist Westminster Confession of Faith, which historically serves as the main constitutional document of Presbyterian churches. Houston is served by the University of Houston System, the largest urban state system of higher education in the Gulf Coast, which has four universities with three located in Houston. Many of the branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups. See also:.
The origins of the Presbyterian churches were in Calvinism, which is no longer emphasized in some of the contemporary branches. As of 2005, several candidates for the Houston City Council have brought up the issue of whether term limits should be amended or eliminated. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by both doctrine and institutional organization, or as they prefer to call it 'church order'. A proposal to amend the Houston city charter where the current 2-year term will be amended to 4 years in office has been debated. Main article: Presbyterian church governance. There are several issues brought up in the Houston area with term limits - during Mayor Lee Brown's final term in office, he refers to term limits as a dis-service for elected officials since incumbents do not gain the needed experience in city government. Because of an emphasis on equal education for all people, Presbyterians have 'planted' and encouraged schools across the US as the country grew and the missionaries were sent out to the people. Controller Annise Parker is the only ex-council member who ran for a nonpartisan office.
The Presbyterian church in England and Wales is the United Reformed Church, whilst the tradition also influenced the Methodist church, established in 1736. Several former city officials - Anthony Hall, Rodney Ellis, Sheila Jackson-Lee, Sylvia Garcia, Martha Wong, Chris Bell, and Annise Parker - had to run for another elected position either as a Democrat or Republican once their term expires. All three, very diverse branches of Presbyterianism, as well as independents, and some Dutch, German, and French Reformed denominations, combined in America to form what would eventually become the Presbyterian Church USA (1705). The City of Houston has been enforcing the 3-term rule since November 1991 after a referendum passed. Presbyterians, as well as Roman Catholics in Ulster and the rest of Ireland suffered under the discriminatory Penal Laws until they were revoked in the early 19th century. Local municipal government in the City of Houston is considered as a home-rule city, and members of city council and the Controller's position are nonpartisan. The Presbytery of Ulster was formed separately from the established church, in 1642. At-large council members represent the entire city, as well as collaborate with district council members in response to district concerns.
In Ireland, Presbyterianism was established by Scottish immigrants and missionaries to Ulster. City Council members, who make up the legislative branch, are elected from nine districts in the city, along with five at-large positions. The re-establishment of the monarchy in 1660 brought the re-establishment of episcopalian government in England (and in Scotland for a short time); but the Presbyterian church in England continued in non-conformity, outside of the established church. A mayor, who is the executive branch of the city government, can be elected consecutively for three terms. In 1647, by an act of the Long Parliament under the control of Puritans, the Church of England embraced Presbyterianism . The current mayor of Houston is Bill White, who is serving his first term. In Ireland the Presbyterian Church was formed from the Church of Scotland and later became The Presbyterian Church In Ireland.In England, Presbyterianism was established in secret in 1572, toward the end of the reign of Elizabeth I of England. A portion of southwest Houston, east of Missouri City, extends into Fort Bend County and also portion of northeast Houston extends into Montgomery County.
The existing Church of Scotland was thus reformed along Presbyterian lines. Houston is the county seat of Harris County. In Scotland, John Knox (1505-1572), who had studied under Calvin in Geneva, returned to Scotland and led the Parliament of Scotland to embrace the Reformation in 1560. See also:. In England, Scotland and Ireland, the Reformed churches that adopted a presbyterian instead of episcopalian government, became known naturally enough, as the Presbyterian Church. cities, and the housing in Houston is among the most affordable in the Nation. These denominations derive their name from the Greek word presbyteros, which means "elder." Presbyterian church governance is common to the Protestant churches that were most closely modelled after the Reformation in Switzerland. The city has the second lowest cost of living in comparison to other major U.S.
Besides national distinctions, Presbyterians also have divided from one another for doctrinal reasons, especially in the wake of the Enlightenment. Houston is unique in being the largest American city without zoning regulations. There are many separate Presbyterian Churches in different nations around the world. Real Estate is also a large business in the Houston area, and NASA's presence in the city's southeast side has provided an additional economic boost. Presbyterianism traces its institutional roots back to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. It still is vital to the region, but most of the banks operating there are not based in Houston. Presbyterianism is a form of church government, practiced by many (although not all) of those Protestant churches (known as Reformed churches), which historically subscribed to the teachings of John Calvin. Houston has attempted to build a banking industry in the city, but all of the companies which had been started in Houston were merged with other companies nationwide.
John Witherspoon, only clergyman to sign the Declaration of Independence. However, Pasadena still has its refineries, and the Port of Houston is among the busiest in the world. The Rev. When the embargo was lifted, the growth stopped. Woodrow Wilson, 28th President. Demand on Texas oil increased, and many people from the northeast came down to profit from the trade. Christine Todd Whitman, former governor of New Jersey. The city's second growth spurt occurred in the late 1970s, with the Arab Oil Embargo.
Vice-President under Hayes. The 1920s had Houston's first growth spurt. Wheeler, U.S. Houston became a major port as a result of the downfall of Galveston and the rise of the Houston Ship Channel. William A. Unlike most places, where high gas prices are seen as harmful to the economy, they are generally seen as beneficial for Houston as many are employed in the energy industry. Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield, Princeton Seminary professor. Houston has had several growth spurts in relation to the Texas oil industry.
Roosevelt. A new 20,000 SF Terminal and a 60-acre GA Complex, are currently under construction, with the Terminal completion expected in Spring 2006. Vice-President under F.D. The airport mostly serves corporate, governmental, and private clienteles, while it is owned and operated by the City of Sugar Land. Wallace, U.S. Sugar Land Regional Airport is the fourth largest airport in the Houston—Sugar Land—Baytown Metropolitan Area, and the only general reliever airport in the southwest sector. Henry A. To the southwest of Houston, in Sugar Land, is the Sugar Land Regional Airport (SGR), formerly Sugar Land Municipal Airport.
Mark Twain, American author. Ellington Field is in danger of closing down, as of February 2004. Vice-President under Monroe. Passenger flights ended on September 7, 2004. Tompkins, U.S. The only passenger traffic that Ellington Field (EFD) ever handled consists of passengers going to and from Galveston County flying to Bush Airport to reduce travel time to that said airport. Daniel D. Hobby has a lot of the intra-United States traffic that is headed for downtown, southern Houston, Galveston, and the southern suburbs; it also handles all flights by Southwest Airlines from Houston.
Norman Thomas runs for President as the Socialist Party candidate in 1928. Bush Airport handles all of the city's international traffic. Jimmy Stewart, actor. Houston is served by George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH) and William P. Hobby Airport (HOU). Fred Rogers, also known as the famous Mister Rogers, was an ordained Presbyterian Minister up until his death. Brown and former METRO chairwoman Shirley DeLibero. The Rev. Two METRORail cars - #101 and #102 - are the only METRO vehicles with dedication plaques to former mayor Lee P.
Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State (2005- ). Although now only about 8 miles (13 km) long a long term plan is being developed for several more much longer line segments connecting diverse corners of the metropolitan area. President. This is Texas's second major light rail service, after DART's light rail service in Dallas, Texas. Ronald Reagan, 40th U.S. METRO hopes to expand the Light Rail to the 2 major airports, as well as the Bay Area, Katy, Spring and along the Southwest Freeway. President (converted from Presbyterianism to Methodism). A 27 mile (43 km) expansion has been approved to run the service all along the central Houston area, including Uptown.
James Knox Polk, 11th U.S. It runs primarily along Main Street from central Downtown Houston to the Texas Medical Center and Reliant Park. Norman Maclean, author and academic. The city got the METRORail, a light rail service, on January 1, 2004. Stonewall Jackson, General in the Confederate Army. Uptown, METRO provides free service on the Uptown Shuttle. President. The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas, or METRO, provides public transportation in the form of buses, trolleys, and lift vans.
Andrew Jackson, 7th U.S. Residents often refer to Freeways and Tollways by their names instead of numbers. Charles Hodge, seminary professor. For a road map of Houston, click here (http://www.soulofamerica.com/images/maps/houston_map.jpeg). Hodge, seminary professor. Highway 59 to Texas Highway 288 in Brazoria County. A. The next portion to be constructed is from the current terminus at U.S.
A. Highway 59 and was completed in 1994. President. A controversial proposed highway project, Texas Highway 99, would form a third loop outside of Houston. Currently, the completed portion of Texas Highway 99 runs from just north of Interstate 10 east of Katy in Harris County to Sugar Land in Fort Bend County at U.S. Benjamin Harrison, 23rd U.S. Most of this freeway requires payment of $1 or more toll every five or ten miles. Katherine Harris, Florida Secretary of State during the 2000 election crisis and current congresswoman (R). The roughly square "Loop-610" is quartered into "North Loop," "South Loop," "West Loop," and "East Loop." The roads of Beltway 8 and their freeway core, the Sam Houston Parkway, are the next loop, at a diameter of roughly 25 miles.
John Glenn, Astronaut, United States Senator. The innermost is Interstate 610, forming approximately a 10 mile diameter loop around downtown. Mel Watt, Congressman from North Carolina and Chairman of the Congressional Black Caucus. Houston has a hub-and-spoke freeway structure with multiple loops. Jay Rockefeller, junior United States Senator from West Virginia. New landscaping projects and a longstanding ban on new billboards are two ways that Houston is trying to back away from this side effect of convenience. Lamar Alexander, junior United States Senator from Tennessee. The frontage roads make freeway access very easy, but due to their visibility to passing traffic, they have attracted most of Houston's gas stations and major retail stores.
Bill Frist, current Senate Majority Leader. Alongside most freeways are two to four lanes in each direction parallel to the freeway permitting easy access to individual city streets. Eisenhower, 34th President. One unusual characteristic of Houston's freeways are its frontage roads. Dwight D. Houston has an extensive network of freeway cameras linked to a transit control center to monitor and study traffic. Secretary of State in the Eisenhower Administration. Timed freeway entrances, which regulate the addition of cars to the freeway, are also common.
John Foster Dulles, U.S. The primary method currently in use is the High-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane for vans and carpools. Brian DePalma, film director; raised as a Presbyterian. Texas Department of Transportation (TX DOT) planners have been running experiments to reduce traffic congestion at rush hour. President. Interstate 45 south has been in a continuous state of construction, in one portion or another, almost since the first segment was built in 1952. Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th U.S. Houston freeways are heavily traveled and often being reconstructed to meet the demands of continuing growth.
Vice-President under Adams and Jackson. Houston is ranked among the most ozone-polluted cities in the United States. Calhoun, U.S. This dependence on cars causes various pollution problems, including excessive ozone levels. John C. Houston's size and lack of zoning have contributed to decentralization, or urban sprawl, which, combined with the humidity and hot summers, has made the automobile the favored means of transportation. Aaron Burr, co-founder of Princeton University. For a full list of the cities in the Houston area, see:.
The Rev. Areas far north, west, east and south of the inner-city also use 936 and/or 409. Vice-President under Jefferson. However, the geographic division between 713, 281, and 832 has been eliminated, and newly issued phone numbers (especially for cell phones and fax machines) within that zone may be assigned any of the three codes. Aaron Burr, U.S. Those outside the 610 Loop that are within the city limits normally receive the 281 or 832 area code. Frederick Buechner, author of fantasy novels and non-fiction religious books. Locations within the Houston city limits that are inside the 610 Loop traditionally used the 713 area code.
President. Yet a third - the "Grand Parkway", has begun construction roughly 10 miles (16 km) beyond that around the outer suburbs and currently extends from Katy to Sugar Land. James Buchanan, 15th U.S. Another ring road, Beltway 8 (also known simply as the "Beltway"), encircles the city another 5 miles (8 km) further out. Presidential nominee for the Democratic Party. The outlying areas of Houston, as well as the rest of Bellaire, the airports and the suburbs and enclaves are outside the loop. William Jennings Bryan of the famous Scopes "Monkey Trial" in Tennessee 1925 and three times U.S. Locations in Houston are generally classified as either being inside or outside Interstate 610, known as the 610 Loop which include the Central business district and the 'island' cities of West University (West U.), and Southside Place, and a portion of Bellaire.
Vice-President under Buchanan. Kemah is surrounded by Galveston Bay to the east and Clear Lake (a brackish-water boater's paradise with open pass through to Galveston Bay) to the west. Breckinridge, U.S. Another tourist hot spot is Kemah where visitors see the Kemah Boardwalk, which has many seafood restaurants and local tourist attractions. John C. Beach houses owned by Houstonians have sprung up in other cities along the shoreline to the Gulf of Mexico. Representative; conservative Republican from Texas. The city's vulnerability on a narrow barrier bar island led to the creation of the mainland Houston Ship Channel made by the dredging of shallow Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay to form a protected port some 40 miles (64 km) inland of the open Gulf and less than 10 miles (16 km) from Houston's central business district.
Dick Armey, U.S. Before near destruction in 1900 Galveston was the larger and wealthier of the two cities and dubbed "The Wall Street of the Southwest", and was on par with New Orleans as the Gulf Coast's premier city. A popular day trip may include Galveston where people can visit Moody Gardens or visit a nearby beach. However, a small portion of northeast Houston has the zip codes of 77339 and 77345. Zip codes in Houston range from 77002 to 77099.
The following are areas of the inner-city:. Note that if these business districts were considered one, they would form the third largest in the United States. The city also has the third largest skyline in the United States (after New York City and Chicago, Illinois), but because it is spread over a few miles, pictures of the city show, for the most part, the Downtown area. Rather than a single “downtown” as the center of the city's employment, five additional business districts have grown throughout the inner-city. Houston, being the largest city in the United States without zoning laws, has grown in an unusual manner.
See also:. Furthermore, aided by the popularity of the late hip-hop artist DJ Screw, Houston is known among youth, primarily in the South, as having its own distinctive style of hip-hop commonly known as screw music or referred to locally as simply "screw." Many young Houstonians of all ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds who were in touch with the local hip-hop culture may remember the advent of this form of Southern rap which began to take place around late 1999. The design for the first Compaq computer was sketched on a napkin at House of Pies, a notable diner near the Montrose area. Several Houston-based restaurants, such as Ninfa Laurenzo's Mama Ninfa's Mexican restaurant chain, Johnny Carrabba's Carrabba's, and Kim Su Tran La's Kim Sơn Vietnamese restaurant chain, have become well known in Texas and throughout the country.
For example, although Dallas has more restaurants per person than even New York City, Houstonians eat out more often than residents of any other city in the United States, and the only city in which eating out is cheaper than Houston is New Orleans, Louisiana. This rivalry often leads to comparison of the assets of one city to the assets of the other. Houstonians often consider themselves more "down to earth" than their neighbors to the north. Because the Houston—Sugar Land—Baytown and the Dallas—Fort Worth—Arlington metropolitan areas are both the major economic centers of the state, they enjoy a friendly rivalry.
In some neighborhoods, street signs are seen in Chinese and Vietnamese. Like many other large cities in the United States, Houston is a very diverse city with a variety of different ethnic groups. About 90 languages are spoken in the area. Houston also boasts of having a population with a younger age than the national average. Houston has the second highest South African population in the United States, after Miami, Florida.
Recent redevelopment of Midtown from run-down to upscale has increased property values and property taxes thus forcing the Vietnamese American out of their current neighborhood into other areas. Houston has two Chinatowns, as well as the third largest Vietnamese American population in the United States. Houston has the third largest Hispanic population in the United States. People from Asia such as China, South Korea, Japan, India, Pakistan, and Vietnam have been immigrating to Houston. The Hispanic population in Houston is increasing as more and more people from Latin countries try to find work in Houston. Hispanics make up a significant amount of the population.
Out of the total population, 26.1% of those under the age of 18 and 14.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. 19.2% of the population and 16.0% of families are below the poverty line. The per capita income for the city is $20,101. Males have a median income of $32,084 versus $27,371 for females.
The median income for a household in the city is $36,616, and the median income for a family is $40,443. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.8 males. For every 100 females there are 99.7 males. The median age is 31 years.
In the city the population is spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 33.8% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 8.4% who are 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.67 and the average family size is 3.39. 29.6% of all households are made up of individuals and 6.2% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. There are 717,945 households out of which 33.1% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.2% are married couples living together, 15.3% have a female householder with no husband present, and 36.3% are non-families.
37.41% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. The racial makeup of the city is 49.27% White, 25.31% Black or African American, 0.44% Native American, 5.31% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 16.46% from other races, and 3.15% from two or more races. There are 782,009 housing units at an average density of 521.1/km▓ (1,349.6/mi▓). The population density is 1,301.8/km▓ (3,371.7/mi▓).
As of the census2 of 2000, there are 1,953,631 people, 717,945 households, and 457,330 families residing in the city. Like many areas of Texas, Houston suffers from the Red Imported Fire Ant. While Dallas gets hotter temperatures, Houston's heat index is often higher. Dallas has a hot and dry climate while Houston has a hot and humid climate.
Houston's climate is often compared to that of Dallas, Texas. Many neighborhoods have changed since the storm; older houses in some afflicted neighborhoods have been torn down and replaced with larger houses with larger foundations. Houston's worst contemporary flood was Tropical Storm Allison which passed through the city in June, 2001. Flooding has proved to be an increasingly serious problem in Houston.
The last hurricane of consequence to hit Houston was Hurricane Alicia in 1983, but Tropical Storm Allison in 2001 caused billions of dollars in damages. The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 led to Galveston losing its status as the major port city and economic power in Southeast Texas; development of the Ship Channel and its port refineries shifted the honor to Houston. Hurricanes have slammed into the Texas Gulf Coast on numerous occasions; several have passed through Houston, causing death and destruction. Land subsidence forced the city to turn to ground-level water sources such as Lake Houston.
The city once relied on groundwater for its water needs. Most of Houston is very flat and is about fifty feet above sea level in elevation; the Houston Heights area has the highest elevation in the city. The Ship Channel goes past Galveston, Texas into the Gulf of Mexico. The Buffalo Bayou, which runs into downtown, the Brays Bayou, which runs along the Texas Medical Center, White Oak Bayou runs through the Heights and near northwest area and the Sims Bayou in the south of Houston merge in downtown Houston into the Houston Ship Channel.
Houston has four major bayous passing through the city. Snow is almost unheard of, and typically does not accumulate when it is seen. The coolest period is usually in January, when north winds bring winter rains. Winters in Houston are cool and temperate.
Afternoon rains are not uncommon, and Houston meteorologists are not given to predicting a zero percent chance of rain on most days. Summer thunderstorms sometimes bring the moderately common tornadoes to the area. To cope with the heat, people use air conditioning in nearly every car and post-war building in the city. The air tends to feel still and the humidity (often 90 to 100% relative humidity) makes the air feel hotter than it really is.
In summertime, daily high temperatures are in the 90 to 105 ░F range throughout much of July and August. Prevailing winds are from the south and southeast during most of the year, bringing heat from the deserts of Mexico and moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Average yearly precipitation levels range from 36 to 48 inches. Much of Houston was built on forested land, marshes or prairie, all of which can still be seen in surrounding areas.
The city is located in the gulf coastal plains biome, and the vegetation is classified as a temperate grassland. Houston's climate is classified as being humid subtropical. The total area is 3.70% water. 1,500.7 km▓ (579.4 mi▓) of it is land and 57.7 km▓ (22.3 mi▓) of it is water.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1,558.4 km▓ (601.7 mi▓). Main article: History of Houston. The city has also the recipient of this award in years prior, including 2001, 2002, and 2003. Methodology for determining for the 2005 status included the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's survey which listed 23% of Houston residents as clinically obese, as well as other less serious statistics, such as Houston having twice the number of donut shops per capita compared to the national average. In 2005, Men's Fitness magazine named Houston the fattest city in the U.S.
Rice Stadium, at Rice University, was the home to the Super Bowl VIII, and Super Bowl XXXVIII was played at the Reliant Stadium in February 2004. (Other nicknames include "H-Town", "Clutch City", and "Magnolia City".). It is known by the locals, however, as the Bayou City. "Houston" was the first word uttered on the moon, as Neil Armstrong reported back to NASA.
Officially, Houston has been nicknamed the Space City. Other major institutions of higher learning in Houston include University of Saint Thomas, Houston Baptist University, University of Houston-Clear Lake, University of Houston-Downtown, and Texas Southern University. Houston is also home to Rice University, a well known private institution which boasts one of the largest financial endowments of any university in the world. Houston is home to many institutions of higher learning such as the University of Houston, which is Texas' premier metropolitan extensive research university and also the flagship institution of the University of Houston System.
Houston is considered a "Gamma World City" by the GaWC. states, as well as hundreds of countries worldwide. Because of the economic trades, many residents have moved in from other U.S. The Port of Houston is one of the busiest ports in the United States, second in the world as far as foreign tonnage.
Houston is world renowned for its energy industry (particularly oil),
aeronautics industry and ship channel. Today, the city limits cover about 600 square miles (1,600 km▓) in area, and it's also the largest city in the
United States which does not have zoning laws. The city of Houston was incorporated in 1837. 29░40' N
In 1900, the population in Houston was about 45,000 and it was the 85th largest town in the United States. Houston is one of the newest and fastest growing major cities in the United States. Census estimate placed the city's population at 2,009,690. Census 2000, the city had a total population of 1,953,631, but a July 1, 2003, U.S.
As of the U.S. A portion of southwest Houston extends into Fort Bend County and a small portion in the northeast extends into Montgomery County. The city is the county seat of Harris County, the third most populous county in the country. The City of Houston is the fourth largest city in the United States and one of the two largest economic areas in the state of Texas.
Toyota Center. Robertson Stadium. Rice Stadium. Reliant Stadium.
Reliant Astrodome. Minute Maid Park (formerly Enron or Astros Field). Hofheinz Pavilion. Former professional sports teams.
Hockey: Aeros - AHL - Toyota Center. Energy - WPFL - Rice Stadium. Texans - NFL - Reliant Stadium. American Football
Comets - WNBA - Toyota Center. Rockets - NBA - Toyota Center. Basketball
List of radio stations in Houston (http://www.radio-locator.com/cgi-bin/locate?select=city&city=houston&state=tx&sid=&x=21&y=11). List of movies set in Houston. List of television stations in Houston. List of newspapers in Houston.
List of events in Houston. The University of Texas Medical Branch. Anderson Cancer Center. D.
The University of Texas M. The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The University of Texas System
University of Phoenix. University of Houston-Downtown. University of Houston-Clear Lake. University of Houston.
University of Houston System
Texas A&M University System
Houston Community College System. Houston Baptist University. DeVry University. Baylor College of Medicine.
The Art Institute of Houston. Public schools and libraries in Houston. List of sister cities. List of mayors in Houston.
List of major companies in Houston. Texas Highway 288 - South Freeway, Nolan Ryan Expressway. Texas Highway 249 - Tomball Parkway. Texas Highway 225 - Pasadena Freeway, LaPorte Freeway.
Texas Highway 122 - Fort Bend Parkway. Texas Highway 99 - Grand Parkway. Highway 290 - Northwest Freeway, Hempstead Highway. U.S.
(Houston's first and only "mini-freeway"). Highway 90A - South Main St. U.S. Highway 90 - Beaumont Highway.
U.S. Highway 59 - Southwest Freeway to southwest / Eastex Freeway to northeast. U.S. Interstate 610 - North Loop, South Loop, West Loop, and East Loop.
Interstate 45 - North Freeway (to north) / Gulf Freeway (to southeast). Interstate 10 - Katy Freeway (to west) / Baytown East Freeway (to east). Beltway 8 - Sam Houston Parkway (Beltway 8 refers to the frontage road). Montgomery County.
Liberty County. Harris County. Galveston County. Fort Bend County.
Chambers County. Brazoria County. It is home to the 14,000-acre master-planned community of Kingwood. The Kingwood—Humble area is in the northeast part of town and part of this portion area is in Montgomery County.
Another city is Deer Park, which is home to the San Jacinto Monument. The cities of Baytown, La Porte, and Channelview are filled with refineries and chemical plants. To the east is the city of Pasadena. This area has grown farther out from the Downtown area than most suburbs have.
Katy is about 30 minutes west of Downtown. League City, just south of this area, is home to a few water-side resorts. The Clear Lake area was annexed into the city of Houston in 1979. It is home to NASA, the master-planned community of Clear Lake City, the University of Houston-Clear Lake, and a very large Asian American community.
The Clear Lake area is a southeast suburb of Houston. Most of The Woodlands lies in the city of Houston's extraterritorial jurisdiction (ETJ) and the city limits of Shenandoah. This is one of the largest and most popular master-planned communities in the country. The Woodlands is a large master-planned community about 30 miles north of Downtown Houston in Montgomery County.
Sugar Land is now a principal city of the Houston—Sugar Land—Baytown Metropolitan Statistical Area. It also is one of the fastest growing and wealthiest cities in the state due to the numerous master-planned communities in the area, such as First Colony, New Territory, Greatwood, Sugar Creek, Sugar Lakes, Avalon, and Riverstone to name a few. It is currently the home to a number of international energy, software, and product firms. Sugar Land is a city southwest of Houston in northeast Fort Bend County, and is named for the former Imperial Sugar refinery.
Westbury and Meyerland are becoming popular places for some of the artistic and gay and lesbian communities to live, as real estate in Montrose has become more expensive due to gentrification. As noted above, Sharpstown has a large Asian American community and was the first master-planned community in Houston. Fondren Southwest and Meyerland are centers of Houston's Jewish community. To the southwest are several communities that sprang up in the years following World War II, when they were considered to be suburbs, such as Fondren Southwest, Meyerland, Sharpstown, and Westbury.
This area is often not considered a suburb, more so an area within central Houston. It is the largest of a series of affluent municipalities separate but surrounded by the city of Houston known as the Villages, which include Hedwig Village, Bunker Hill Village, Hunters Creek Village, Piney Point Village, Hilshire Village, and Spring Valley. The zip code within Memorial, 77024, is the fourth wealthiest in the nation. To the west is the Memorial Area.
Fifth Ward is another predominantly African American community. It was the prominent area of the African American community. Fourth Ward, the first African American community in Houston, historically has been among the poorest areas of the inner-city, but is undergoing extensive gentrification because of its proximity to Downtown. The African American community in this area picked up the prominence after World War I.
The tallest structure in Third Ward is the Moody Towers, an 18-story twin tower on the University of Houston campus. Third Ward, southeast of Downtown, is the location of the University of Houston and Texas Southern University. Second Ward is now made up of a predominantly Hispanic community. Austin High School depicts this art deco architecture.
Stephen F. Second Ward, located east of downtown, was developed in the roaring '20s. First Ward has been torn down down in recent years as part of a gentrification effort. Houston's "Wards" got its name from political geographic districts when the city was established in 1837 - the ward designation is the progenitor of the current-day Houston City Council districts - there are nine districts within the Houston city limits.
The six "Wards". The Museum District contains over 16 institutions, Hermann Park, the Houston Zoo and the Miller Outdoor Theatre. It is one of the most visited museum districts in the country. Bordering the Texas Medical Center are Reliant Park and Six Flags Astroworld to the south and the Rice University/Rice Village area to the north. This is the largest medical complex in the world.
The Texas Medical Center, about three miles (5 km) south of the Midtown area. This area is home to many high-end retailers, as well as local and national fashion designers. The Uptown area is also known as the Galleria shopping district, as it is the center of Houston's fashion scene. It is the city's second largest business district and is home to the world-famous Williams Tower.
Uptown Houston is primarily anchored by the Houston Galleria. Near and partially blending into River Oaks, the areas of Highland Village and Upper Kirby are home to many high-end shopping and dining venues. Though the area is between Downtown and the Uptown District, this neighborhood boasts of mansions, as opposed to the surrounding area's highrise apartments and lofts. It is the wealthiest neighborhood in Texas, and is home to many celebrities and political figures.
River Oaks is an affluent area, often compared to Beverly Hills. This area is home to a few skyscrapers, as well as the Compaq Center, soon to be the Lakewood International Center. The Greenway Plaza business district is west of Midtown and southwest of Downtown Houston. It is also the location of the Menil Collection and the University of Saint Thomas.
This community was known for the Westheimer Street Festival, a community gathering which later fell victim to gentrification. It is the center of Houston's gay and lesbian community, and known for its vintage shops, 1950s-style eateries, and street art. Montrose is located west of Downtown and Midtown and northwest of the Medical Center. It is also home to Little Saigon, the center of Vietnamese American commerce and businesses.
Midtown is southwest of Downtown and is a recently redeveloped area with many newly constructed trendy apartments and flats. The Houston Heights is also home to the art car community - the current location of the Art Car Museum is a tourist attraction. Many of the Victorian houses and Craftsman bungalows are in high demand, especially those that have been been remodeled. The Heights has been experiencing gentrification as well due to its status as a historically-preserved community because of deed restriction enforcement.
Like the neighboring Montrose to the south of Interstate 10, the Houston Heights has long been a popular place for the artistic and gay and lesbian communities to live. To the present day it retains a ban on liquor sales and is a popular area for antique shopping along the 19th Street corridor. It was Incorporated in 1891 and consolidated into the city of Houston in 1919. Like the smaller Woodland Heights neighborhood just to its east, it was originally a separate, independent suburb connected to Houston by streetcar.
The historic Houston Heights, near downtown, has the highest point of elevation in the city. Off of Main Street and Interstate 10, at the beginining of the light rail, is the University of Houston-Downtown. This comes after its opening on January 1, 2004 and the opening of the light rail service. The Main Street Corridor in Downtown is now a popular nightlife spot.
Brown Convention Center, while the newer (which originated around 1982), larger one resides primarily on Bellaire Boulevard in west of Houston's Sharpstown neighborhood. The original one is in the eastern corridor of Downtown in the shadow of the George R. There are two Chinatowns of Houston. The Houston Theater District is the second largest performing arts district, next to the one in New York City.
Jones Hall is home to the Houston Symphony Orchestra. The Houston Theater District, in north Downtown, is home to Houston's eight performing arts organizations and includes the stages of the Alley Theater, Hobby Center for the Performing Arts, Wortham Center, Jones Hall and the Verizon Wireless Theatre (formerly Aerial Theater). The Skyline District is the heart of Downtown and home to many headquarters of various multinational businesses and financial institutions. Downtown, the seventh largest business district in the country. The area is in the very center of the city's highway system.
List of famous people raised in Houston. List of museums outside of the Museum District. She was found to be suffering from postpartum depression. June 20, 2001 - Andrea Pia Yates drowns her children in a bathtub.
23 people die in the flood. June 2001 - Tropical Storm Allison causes bayous in Houston to overflow, causing massive flooding. June 4, 1999 - Noemi Dominguez was shot dead in her home by Angel Maturino Resendiz, a serial killer. Her husband, Robert Angleton, and his brother, Roger Angleton, would be suspected for the crime.
April 16, 1997 - Doris Angleton is murdered in her River Oaks home. August 18, 1983 - Hurricane Alicia hits Houston and Galveston. July 1978 - Race Riots occur in the Moody Park section of the city, and are documented by KPRC-TV, whose reporters are attacked and injured during their report. 27 boys are killed by 3 men.
August 1973 - "Houston Mass Murders" occur. December 1961 - Hurricane Carla hits Houston. December 24, 2004 - Freak snowstorm hits, causing record Christmas snowfall in the region. 2004 - Citgo's headquarters move from Tulsa to Houston.
2004 - Houston hosts the Super Bowl as well as the MLB All-Star Game. The ordinance took effect on October 22, 2004. was not popular with Downtown-area restaurant owners. to 2 a.m.
The original proposal for paid curbside parking between 6 p.m. July 30, 2004 - The Houston City Council unanimously votes for a change in the curbside parking ordinance where Saturday metered parking is enforced. CST - this marks the reintroduction of rail service since June 1940. January 1, 2004 - METRORail is opened to the public at 1 p.m.
Both Parker and Tatro are term-limited in their current seats. December 6, 2003 - Annise Parker defeats fellow council member Bruce Tatro to become Houston's first openly lesbian city controller. Fall 2003 - Halliburton's headquarters move from Dallas to Houston. June 28-June 29, 2003 - The Westheimer Street Festival staged their homecoming on Westheimer during Gay Pride Weekend after promoters decided to move the festival back to the Montrose because of it declining attendance when the festival was on Allen Parkway since May 2000.
May 2003 - For the first time, the Houston Art Car Parade is not held on the same weekend with the Houston International Festival. After Garcia's victory, the Houston City Council appoints Judy Gray Johnson to fill her unexpired term until the November 2003 elections. Garcia (in her third term) successfully campaigns for Harris County Commissioner Precinct 2, making her the first Hispanic female to hold office in the Harris County Commissioners Court. November 5, 2002 - Houston City Controller Sylvia R.
At the same time, the University of Houston System celebrates its 25th anniversary with an enrollment of over 54,000. 2002 - The University of Houston celebrates its 75th anniversary with an enrollment of 34,443 that fall semester. The company goes bankrupt. November 2001 - Enron is found to have accounting scandals.
Attendance figures declined. Promoters of the festival were denied a street closure permit back in January 2000 under a revised festival ordinance where public hearings are held. May 6-May 7, 2000 - After 27 years of holding the Westheimer Street Festival in the Montrose, the festival was held in Eleanor Tinsley Park west of Downtown Houston. Brown is elected as Houston's first African American mayor; at the same time, Annise Parker is the first openly gay or lesbian city council member.
November 1997 - Former Houston Police Chief Lee P. 1996 - The master-planned community of Kingwood is annexed by the city of Houston. After 1996, the festival was renamed the Bayou City Art Festival. Joseph Parkway) in Downtown Houston; it was the first time the art festival was not held in the Montrose.
April 1993 - The Westheimer Colony Art Festival is held on a stretch of Calhoun Road (now St. July 9-11, 1990 - Houston hosts the 16th G7 Summit. 1988 - The University of Houston-University Park reverts its name back to the University of Houston after much controversy with the name change in 1985 in order to separate its identity and confusion with the other three universities in the UH System. June 1, 1987 - The former Shamrock Hilton hotel is demolished as part of the Texas Medical Center expansion efforts despite protests from historical preservationists.
At the time it is the largest outdoor concert in history, and is entered into the Guinness Book of World Records. April 5, 1986 - City takes part in celebration of Texas' Sesquicentennial, 25th Anniversary of NASA, and the Houston International Festival with Rendez-vous Houston concert. 1985 - The University of Houston changes its name to the University of Houston-University Park to separate its identity and confusion with the other three universities within the UH System. 1982 - Texas Commerce Bank Tower is completed in Downtown Houston, making it the tallest building west of the Mississippi until the late 1980's, and presently the tallest five-sided building in the world.
Brown as the first African American police chief. She would appoint Lee P. Whitmire is elected as the first woman mayor. 1981 - Kathryn J.
1980s - The end of the Embargo causes the Houston growth bubble to burst. 1979 - a portion of the master-planned community of "Clear Lake City" that is in Houston's extraterritorial jurisdiction (ETJ) and an area east of Missouri City in Fort Bend County are annexed into the corporate limits of Houston. Houston is the first in the nation to modernize their signage, which is still done to this present day. 1978-1980 - Traffic signal signage at major intersections were improved.
1978 - The headquarters of Continental Airlines move to Houston after buying out Texas International. 1977 - The University of Houston celebrates its 50th anniversary as the Texas Legislature establishes the University of Houston System, a state system of higher education that includes three other universities. People from the "Rust Belt" states such as New York and Pennsylvania move into Houston. 1970s - The Arab Oil Embargo causes demand for Texas oil to boom.
July 20, 1969 - "Houston" becomes the first word spoken from the moon, by astronaut Neil Armstrong of the Apollo 11 mission. 1969 - Houston Intercontinental Airport, currently George Bush Intercontinental Airport, is opened to the public. At the same time, the Houston Colt .45s are rechristened as the Houston Astros. April 9, 1965 - The Astrodome opens.
1963 - The Humble Building is completed, the tallest building west of the Mississippi River at the time. Johnson Space Center opens on land donated by Rice University. 1963 - The Manned Spacecraft Center, which would become the Lyndon B. 1963 - The University of Houston ends its status as a private institution and becomes a state university by entering into the Texas State System of Higher Education after a long battle with opponents from other state universities blocking the change.
1959 - Sharpstown Mall opens and is the first indoor air-conditioned mall in the world. Highway 75 and signals the beginning of freeway construction in the city. 1948 - The Gulf Freeway opens as U.S. 1945 - The University of Houston separates from HISD and becomes a private university.
1939 - The University of Houston moves to its permanent location, southeast of Downtown. Hobby Airport, is opened. 1937 - Houston Municipal Airport, which would later become William P. 1934 - Houston Junior College becomes a four-year institution and changes its name to the University of Houston.
1927 - Houston Junior College opens its doors as part of Houston Independent School District. 1920s - The Texas oil boom causes people to move into the city, causing its first growth spurt. 1914 - President Woodrow Wilson opens the Houston Ship Channel 74 years after the digging had started. 1912 - The Rice Institute opens, later known as Rice University.
1904 - Houston Lyceum and Carnegie Library opens, later known as Houston Public Library. 1902 - President Theodore Roosevelt approves a one-million dollar fund for the construction of the Houston Ship Channel. A new industry will start. 1900s - Oil is discovered in Texas.
The dispute over where the state records should go would cause a conflict. 1839 - The capital of the Republic moves to Austin. It became the provisional capital of Texas. June 5, 1837 - The city gets a city charter from the Congress of the Republic of Texas.
1836 - The Allen Brothers, John Kirby, and Augustus Chapman co-founded Houston.