PlayStation 2

The PlayStation 2 (PS2) (Japanese: プレイステーション2) is Sony's second video game console, the successor to the PlayStation and the predecessor to the PlayStation 3. Its development was announced in March 1999, and it was first released in Japan on March 4, 2000 and in North America and Puerto Rico on October 26, 2000. It was released in Europe on November 24, 2000.

The PS2 is part of the sixth generation era, and has become the fastest selling gaming console in history, with over 100 million units shipped by November 2005, beating the previous record holder, the PlayStation, by three years and nine months.

History

Only a few million users had obtained consoles by the end of 2000 due to manufacturing delays. The PlayStation 2 was such a hot item after its release that it was near impossible to find one on retailer shelves, leaving those wanting a PlayStation 2 to either wait or purchase the console online at sites such as eBay, where the console was being sold by many people for twice and sometimes five times as much as the manufacturer's listed price. Developers also complained that it was difficult to develop for the system, with little in the way of reference material from Sony for its exotic architecture. The PS2 launch seemed unimpressive and gaffe-prone, compared to the well-planned launch of the Sega Dreamcast, which was making a genuine attempt to woo developers and which had better launch titles. Yet, the PS2 initially sold well solely on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and its backwards compatibility, selling over 900,000 units in the first weekend in Japan. This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation. Another major selling point over the Dreamcast was the PlayStation 2's ability to play DVDs, which gained it a presence in electronics stores which did not formerly sell video game consoles. Later, Sony gained steam with new development kits for game developers and more PlayStations for consumers.

Many analysts predicted a close 3-way matchup between the PS2 and its soon-to-be-released competitors Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, noting that the PS2's graphics were inferior but that it had the advantage of a head start, and had a wide assortment of games of every genre (Xbox's strength was in its hardware; GameCube was the cheapest of the 3 consoles). However, the release of several blockbuster games during the 2001 holiday season pushed the PS2 far in front even as the Xbox and GameCube made their impressive debuts. Shortly afterwards, Sony also slashed PS2 prices greater than expected in order to maintain momentum and hold off its potential rivals. [1]

Although Sony placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first year, that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Sony rolled a PS2 online adapter in late 2002 to compete with Microsoft, with several online first party online titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM US Navy SEALS in order to show that Sony was supporting this feature actively. Sony also advertised heavily, and its online model had the advantage of being supported by Electronic Arts. As a result, although Sony and Nintendo both started out late and although both followed a decentralized model of online gaming where the responsibility is up to the developer to provide the servers, Sony's attempt was the more successful between the two. The Xbox Live system (with it's built in capabilities) is however the most successful of the three.

Hardware sales remained strong until 2004 saw the console apparently approaching saturation point, causing it to lose the top sales position for a time [2]. The heavy dependence of Sony on its Computer Entertainment division was shown when dropping PlayStation 2 sales [3] caused the parent's profits to fall 89% [4]. During that year, game sales fell to $7.5 billion from $8.2 billion. Its operating income slid to $650 million from $1 billion, losing $25 million in Q4 of 2004. [5]. Acording to NPD Group the Xbox outsold PS2 during 5 months of 2004: April, July, August, November and December. Despite this, Sony console won the total 2004 sales by 600 thousands units of difference.

In September of that year, in time for the launch of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (the best-selling game during the 2004 Holiday season), Sony revealed a new, smaller PS2 (see Hardware revisions). In preparation for the launch of a new, slimmer PlayStation 2 model (SCPH-70000), Sony had stopped making the older PS2 model (SCPH-5000x) sometime during the summer of 2004 to let the distribution channel empty out stock of the units. After an apparent manufacturing issue caused some initial slowdown in producing the new unit, Sony reportedly underestimated demand, caused in part by shortages between the time the old units were cleared out and the new units were ready. This led to further shortages, and the issue was compounded in Britain when a Russian oil tanker became stuck in the Suez Canal, blocking a ship from China carrying PS2s bound for the UK. During one week in November, sales in the entire country of Britain totalled 6,000 units — compared to 70,000 a few weeks prior. [6] Shortages in North America were also extremely severe; one retail chain in the U.S., GameStop, had just 186 PS2 and Xbox units on hand across more than 1700 stores on the day before Christmas. [7]

Sales record

When the PlayStation 2 launched in Japan in March 2000, Sony sold 980,000 units over the opening weekend. [8]

When the PlayStation 2 launched in America in October 26, 2000, Sony sold 510,000 units within the first 24 hours. With a price of $299.99 per console, Sony made gross sales of roughly $153,000,000. To this day, the PS2 holds the record for the most consoles sold in a single day as well as the record for most consoles sold in launch day in America. PS2's opening day console sales eclipsed the previous record of 225,000 made by the Sega Dreamcast in 1999.

The PlayStation 2 holds the record of fastest selling video game console ever, 100 million PlayStation 2 units were shipped in only five years and nine months, shattering the previous record of nine years and six months by the PlayStation. [9]

Games

The PlayStation brand's strength has lead to strong third-party support for the system. Although the launch titles for the PS2 were unimpressive in 2000, the holiday season of 2001 saw the release of several best-selling and critically acclaimed games. Those PS2 titles helped the PS2 maintain and extend its lead in the video game console market, despite increased competition from the launches of the Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube. In several cases, Sony made exclusivity deals with publishers in order to pre-empt its competitors. Critically acclaimed games on the machine are the Grand Theft Auto and the ever-popular Final Fantasy (Square Enix) series, the latest two Metal Gear Solid titles, all three Devil May Cry titles, the SSX series, latest three Ace Combat titles, the Square Enix/Disney collaboration Kingdom Hearts, and first-party Sony Computer Entertainment brands such as the Gran Turismo, SOCOM, Ratchet & Clank and Jak and Daxter series, ICO, Shadow of the Colossus, God of War and the Everquest spin-offs Champions of Norrath and Champions: Return to Arms.

Hardware compatibility

PlayStation 2 default black 8MB Memory Card

The PS2 hardware can read both compact discs and DVDs. It is backwards compatible with older PlayStation (PS1) games, allows for DVD Video playback, and will play PS2 games off cheap CD-ROMs or higher-capacity DVD-ROMs. The ability to play DVD movies allowed consumers to more easily justify the PS2's relatively high price tag (in October 2000, the MSRP was $300) as it removed the need to buy an external DVD player (indeed, it could be said that the success of the DVD format was partly due to the PS2's ability to play DVDs, as the format seemed to appeal more to consumers after the console's launch). The PS2 also supports PS1 memory cards (for PS1 game saves only) and controllers as well. The PS2's Dual Shock 2 controller is essentially an upgraded PS1 Dual Shock; analog face, shoulder and D-pad buttons replaced the digital buttons of the original.

When it was released, the PS2 had many advanced features that were not present in other contemporary video game consoles, including its DVD capabilities and USB and IEEE 1394 expansion ports. It was not until late 2001 that the Microsoft Xbox became the second console with (non-standard) USB and DVD support. (This is assuming the Nuon, an advanced DVD player graphics coprocessor, is not considered a console.) Even then, the Xbox required separate remote accessory to unlock the DVD function and Sony could continue to pitch the PS2 as DVD capable out of the box.

Note that compatability with USB devices is dependent on the software supporting said USB device. For example, the PS2 will not boot an ISO image from a USB flash drive, but Gran Turismo 4 can save screenshots to one.

Software compatibility

Support for original PlayStation games was also an important selling point for the PS2, letting owners of an older system upgrade to the PlayStation 2 and keep their old software, and giving new users access to older games until a larger library was developed for the new system. As an added bonus, the PS2 had the ability to enhance PlayStation games by speeding up disc read time and/or adding texture smoothing to improve graphics. While the texture smoothing was universally effective (albeit with odd effects where transparent textures are used), faster disk reading could cause some games to fail to load or play correctly.

A handful of PlayStation titles (notably Metal Gear Solid: Special Missions) fail to run on the PS2 at all (Special Missions fails to recognise Metal Gear Solid at the disk swap screen, for example). This problem appears to have been rectified in the slimline versions of the PS2, where most of the previously unplayable PSone games can now be played. It is a common misconception that disk swapping in a game (for example, for multi-disk games or expansion packs) is not possible on the PS2. The anomalous failure of the above title at its disk swap screen may have given birth to this rumor. Software for all PlayStation consoles contains one of four region codes: for Japan and Asia: NTSC/J, North America: NTSC-U/C, Europe and Oceania: PAL, and China: NTSC/C[10].

Online play

With the purchase of a separate unit called the Network Adaptor (which is built into the newest system revision), some PS2 games support online multiplayer. Instead of having a unified, subscription-based online service like Xbox Live, online multiplayer on the PS2 is split between publishers and run on third-party servers. However, this comes at a price as any connection can connect to the internet with a PS2, resulting in lag whenever slow connections are present. Most recent PS2 online games have been developed to exclusively only support broadband internet access. Xbox Live exclusively requires broadband internet.

All newer online PS2 games (since 2003) are protected by the Dynamic Network Authentication System (DNAS). The purpose of this system is to prevent piracy and online cheating. DNAS will prevent games from being played online if they are determined to be pirated copies, or if they have been modified.

Home development

Linux for PlayStation 2

Sony released a version of the Linux operating system for the PS2 in a package that also includes a keyboard, mouse, Ethernet adapter and hard disk drive. Currently, Sony's online store states that the Linux kit is no longer for sale in North America. However as of July 2005, the European version was still available. (The kit boots by installing a proprietary interface, the Run-time environment which is on a region-coded DVD, so the European and USA kits each only work with a PS2 from that region).

In Europe and Australia, the PlayStation 2 comes with a free Yabasic interpreter on the bundled demo disk. This allows simple programs to be created for the PlayStation 2 by the end-user. This was included in a failed attempt to circumvent a UK tax by defining the console as a "computer" if it contained certain software.

A port of the NetBSD project is also available for the PS2.

It is also possible to listen to MP3 music and watch DivX movies with homebrew programs running in consoles that have a modchip installed or with network software like GameShark's Media Player.

Hardware revisions

The PlayStation 2 has undergone many revisions, some only of internal construction and others with substantial external changes. These are colloquially known amongst PlayStation 2 hardware hackers as V0, V1, V2, etc., up to V14 (as of 2005).

V0 was a Japanese model and was never sold in Europe or the US. These included a PCMCIA slot instead of the Expansion Bay (DEV9) port of newer models. V0 did not have a built-in DVD player and instead relied on an encrypted player that was copied to a memory card from an included CD-ROM (normally, the PS2 will only execute encrypted software from its memory card, but see PS2 Independence Exploit). V3 has a substantially different internal structure from the subsequent revisions, featuring several interconnected printed circuit boards. As of V4 everything was unified into one board, except the power supply. V5 introduces minor internal changes and the only difference between V6 (sometimes called V5.1) and V5 is the orientation of the Power/Reset switch board connector, which was reversed to prevent the use of no-solder modchips. V7 and V8 are also similar. Assembly of the PS2 moved to China with the V9 (model number SCPH-50000/SCPH-50001), which added the Infrared port for the optional DVD Remote Control, removed the widely unused FireWire port, added the capability to read DVD-RW and +RW discs, and a quieter fan. V10 and V11 have minor changes.

The two versions of the PS2 with an Eye Toy camera

In September 2004 Sony unveiled the third major hardware revision (V12, model number SCPH-70000). Available in November 2004, it is smaller and thinner than the old version and includes a built-in Ethernet port. In some markets it also integrates a modem. Due to its thinner profile, it does not contain the 3.5" expansion bay, and therefore does not support the internal hard disk drive but due to the presence of USB 2.0 ports an external USB Hard disk can still be used, and now uses an external power supply, like the Gamecube. Although external USB 2.0 enclosures are affordable the lack of internal hard disk has implicated a problem for users with perhaps little knowledge of the software required to enable the external disk functionality. For some consumers this is in fact a limitation, especially for the fans of titles such as Final Fantasy XI, which requires the use of this peripheral, and prevents the use of the official PS2 Linux kit. A product named HD Connect can be soldered into the unit giving hard drive support though. It is widely believed that Sony has abandoned support for the hard drive. There are also some disputes on the numbering for this PS2 version, since there are actually two sub-versions of the SCPH-70000. One of them includes the old EE and GS chips, and the other contains the newer unified EE+GS chip, otherwise being identical. Since the V12 version had already been established for this model, there were some disputes regarding these sub-versions. Two propositions were to name the old model (EE and GS, separate chips) V11.5 and the newer model V12, and to name the old model V12 and the newer model V13. Currently, most people just use V12 for both models, or V12 for the old model and V13 for the newer one.

The new V12 model was first released in black. A silver edition is available in the United Kingdom and Germany exclusively. It is unknown whether or not this will follow the color schemes of the older model.

The Japanese PSX console.

There is also now a V14 model (SCPH-75001) which contains an integrated EE and GS (disputed ), and different ASICs compared to previous revisions, some chips having a copyright date of 2005 compared to 2000 or 2001 for earlier models. It also has a different lens and some compatibility issues documented by Sony for earlier PS2 games.

Sony has also made a PVR/DVD burning consumer device that plays PlayStation 2 games called the PSX. The device was poorly received, with some major features absent from the first revisions of the hardware, and has thus far experienced very weak sales in Japan, in spite of major price drops [11]. The machine's future continues to be uncertain, with North American and European launches considered to be distant if at all.

Later hardware revisions had better compatibility with PlayStation games (Metal Gear Solid: VR Missions works on most silver models). However, the new Japanese slim models have more issues with playing PlayStation games than the first PS2 revisions. [citation needed]

Accessories

DualShock 2

Main articles: DualShock, PlayStation 2 Expansion Bay

The PS2's controller is largely identical to the PlayStation's, with the same basic functionality; however, it includes analog pressure sensitivity on the face and shoulder buttons, is lighter and includes two more levels of vibration. The fact that the design didn't change pleased some consumers who were already used to the PS1 controller, however, it disappointed others who were hoping for a more ergonomic design (the two analogue sticks being as they are in an awkward-to-use position for the thumbs to operate).

Optional hardware include additional controllers ,a DVD remote control, a hard disk, an Ethernet adapter, memory cards, and various cables and interconnects: Multitap, YPbPr, S-Video, RGB SCART and composite video cables, RF modulator, USB camera ("EyeToy"), keyboard, mouse and a Headset. Unlike the original Playstation, which required that the user use an official Sony Playstation mouse to play mouse-compatible games, the few Playstation 2 games with mouse support work with standard PC-compatible USB mice. Early versions of the Playstation 2 could be networked via an iLink port, though this had little game support and was dropped.

Technical Issues

Disc Read Error

Owners of early PS2 models purchased from launch until spring 2002 commonly reported faulty optical drives in their consoles. The earliest drives suffered from a constantly misaligning laser lens but later defects were the result of a shift in voltage to the laser itself. The first problem was relatively easy to remedy, but it required opening the machine's casing and tweaking a cog that controlled the lens' distance from the discs it was supposed to read, thus voiding the warranty. This usually didn't matter, as the warranty had already expired by the time such problems began to appear. The second fix involved the use of an oscillator. As time went on, more and more drives began breaking down and a class action lawsuit was filed against Sony. They had the option of either paying the requested fines in damages, or offering free repair and replacements at their discretion. [12] Sony chose the latter and, until February 2005, they honored their agreement.

A second lawsuit is being filed against Sony for all of the above, plus claims that defective hardware is damaging media discs. The first hearings are set to commence in April and May, 2006. More information: PS2 Settlement

Modchips

The PlayStation 2, like the original PlayStation, incorporates circuitry to prevent the playing of copied or out-of-region discs. In response to this, a thriving "underground" grey market exists, selling modchips. These devices, when installed, bypass the checks and allow the discs to run.

The installation of modchips in PlayStation 2 consoles is widely discouraged by Sony and many user groups and technicians. The obvious reason is piracy, but the chips also have several other drawbacks as well. Many of these chips work on a different voltage than the console, risking damage to the unit.

Because of the existence of these hazards, Sony has overlaid a seal onto each of their consoles. If this seal is broken (thus providing evidence that the console has been opened and possibly modified), Sony will refuse to repair the system.

However, in Australia, the court has ruled that using a modchip to play legally purchased game from another region is legal, thus making the modchip legal in Australia. Conversely, a court in the United Kingdom ruled [13] in 2004 that commercial possession, sale, installation or use of a modchip was illegal under the EU Copyright Directive.

Screenshots

Technical specifications

The specifications of the PlayStation 2 console are as follows, with hardware revisions:

Emotion Engine CPU
  • CPU: 128 bit "Emotion Engine" clocked at 294 MHz (later versions 299 MHz), 10.5 million transistors
    • System Memory: 32 MB Direct Rambus or RDRAM (note that some computers use this type of RAM)
    • Memory Bus Bandwidth: 3.2 GB per second
    • Main processor: MIPS R5900 CPU core, 64 bit
    • Co-Processor: FPU (Floating Point Multiply Accumulator × 1, Floating Point Divider × 1)
    • Vector Units: VU0 and VU1 (Floating Point Multiply Accumulator × 9, Floating Point Divider × 1), 128 bit
    • Floating Point Performance: 6.2 GFLOPS (single precission 32-bit floating point)
    • 3D CG Geometric Transformation: 66 million polygons per second (1)
    • Compressed Image Decoder: MPEG-2
    • I/O Processor interconnection: Remote Procedure Call over a serial link, DMA controller for bulk transfer
    • Cache Memory: Instruction: 16KB, Data: 8KB + 16 KB (ScrP)
  • Graphics: "Graphics Synthesizer" clocked at 147 MHz
    • DRAM Bus bandwidth: 47.0GB per second
    • DRAM Bus width: 2560-bit (composed of three independendent buses: 1024-bit write, 1024-bit read, 512-bit read/write)
    • Pixel Configuration: RGB:Alpha:Z Buffer (24:8, 15:1 for RGB, 16, 24, or 32-bit Z buffer)
    • Maximum Polygon Rate: 75 million polygons per second (1)
    • Dedicated connection to: Main CPU and VU1
  • Sound: "SPU1+SPU2" (SPU1 is actually the CPU)
    • Number of voices: 48 hardware channels of ADPCM on SPU2 plus software-mixed channels
    • Sampling Frequency: 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz (selectable)
  • I/O Processor
    • CPU Core: Original PlayStation CPU (MIPS R3000A clocked at 33.8688 MHz or 37.5 MHz)
    • Sub Bus: 32 Bit
    • Connection to: SPU and CD/DVD controller.
    • Interface Types: 2 proprietary PlayStation controller ports (250KHz clock for PS1 and 500KHz for PS2 controllers), 2 proprietary Memory Card slots using MagicGate encryption (250KHz for PS1 cards, up to 2MHz for PS2 cards -may be just 1MHz, please, confirmate it-), Expansion Bay (DEV9 or PCMCIA on early models) port for Network Adaptor, Modem and Hard Disk Drive, IEEE 1394 (2), Infrared remote control port (2), and 2 USB 1.1 ports with an OHCI-compatible controller.
  • Disc Media: DVD-ROM (CD-ROM compatible) with copy protection. 4.7GB capacity, a few are DVD-9 (8.5 GB)

(1) Polygons per second under ideal circumstances (e.g. no texturing, lighting, or vertex colors applied). Some criticize these figures for being unrealistic, and not indicative of real-world performance. The true polygons per second figure with full textures, effects etc. is around 7 million.

(2) IEEE 1394 removed in SCPH-50000 and later hardware versions, and Infrared remote port added.

Price history

North America

  • US$299.99 (October 26, 2000, Launch Price)
  • US$199.99 (May 14, 2002)
  • US$179.99 (May 13, 2003)
  • US$149.99 (May 11, 2004)

Japan

  • JP¥39,800 (March 2000, Launch Price)
  • JP¥35,000 (June 29, 2001)
  • JP¥29,800 (November 29, 2001)
  • JP¥25,000 (2002)
  • JP¥19,800 (November 13, 2003)
  • JP¥17,800 (June 2004)

Republic of China (Taiwan)

  • NT$10,900 (January 24, 2002, SCPH-30007, Launch Price)
  • NT$ 7,980 (January 1, 2003, SCPH-30007)
  • NT$ 6,980 (2003, SCPH-39007)
  • NT$ 6,980 (October 10, 2003, SCPH-50007)
  • NT$ 6,480 (January 1, 2004, SCPH-50007)
  • NT$ 5,888 (June 1, 2004, SCPH-50007)
  • NT$ 5,888 (November 3, 2004, SCPH-70007)

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Republic of China (Taiwan). Poland has also had a strong influence on the countries surrounding it. Japan. Today, we can see these influences in Polish architecture, folklore and art. North America. Polish culture has a rich thousand-year history influenced from both west and east. (2) IEEE 1394 removed in SCPH-50000 and later hardware versions, and Infrared remote port added. [6].

is around 7 million. The rest of the population consists mainly of Eastern Orthodox (about 509 500), Jehovah's Witnesses (about 123 034) and various Protestant (about 86 880 in the largest Evangelical-Augsburg Church and about as many in smaller churches) religious minorities. The true polygons per second figure with full textures, effects etc. Most Poles adhere to the Roman Catholic faith and 95% count as practising Catholics. Some criticize these figures for being unrealistic, and not indicative of real-world performance. The Polish language, a member of the West Slavic branch of the Slavic languages, functions as the official language of Poland. no texturing, lighting, or vertex colors applied). The officially recognised ethnic minorities include: Germans, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Jews and Belarusians.

(1) Polygons per second under ideal circumstances (e.g. 774,900 people (2.03%) didn't declare any nationality. The specifications of the PlayStation 2 console are as follows, with hardware revisions:. Today 36,983,700 people, or 96.74% of the population considers itself Polish (Census 2002), 471,500 (1.23%) declared another nationality. Conversely, a court in the United Kingdom ruled [13] in 2004 that commercial possession, sale, installation or use of a modchip was illegal under the EU Copyright Directive. However, the outcome of World War II and the following shift westwards to the area between the Curzon line and the Oder-Neisse line gave Poland an appearance of homogeneity. However, in Australia, the court has ruled that using a modchip to play legally purchased game from another region is legal, thus making the modchip legal in Australia. Poland formerly played host to many languages, cultures, and religions.

If this seal is broken (thus providing evidence that the console has been opened and possibly modified), Sony will refuse to repair the system. Nevertheless, despite high expenditures for telecom infrastructure (the coverage increased from 78 users per 1000 inhabitants in 1989 to 282 in 2000)
the coverage mobile cellular is 660 users per 1000 people (2005). Because of the existence of these hazards, Sony has overlaid a seal onto each of their consoles. The share of the telecom sector in the GDP is 4.4% (end of 2000 figure), compared to 2.5% in 1996. Many of these chips work on a different voltage than the console, risking damage to the unit. In total, there are around 91,000 scientists in Poland today. The obvious reason is piracy, but the chips also have several other drawbacks as well. There are also around 300 research and development institutes, with about 10,000 more researchers.

The installation of modchips in PlayStation 2 consoles is widely discouraged by Sony and many user groups and technicians. Today, Poland has more than a hundred tertiary education instutions; traditional universities to be found in its major cities of Gdańsk, Bydgoszcz, Katowice, Kraków, Lublin, Łódź, Poznań, Rzeszów, Warsaw and Wrocław as well as technical, medical, economic institutions elsewhere, employing around 61,000 workers. These devices, when installed, bypass the checks and allow the discs to run. In 1773 King Stanisław August Poniatowski established his Commission on National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej), the world's first state ministry of education. In response to this, a thriving "underground" grey market exists, selling modchips. In 1364, in Kraków, the Jagiellonian University, founded by King Kazimierz Wielki, became one of Europe's great early universities. The PlayStation 2, like the original PlayStation, incorporates circuitry to prevent the playing of copied or out-of-region discs. The library catalog of the Cathedral Chapter of Kraków dating back to 1110 shows that already in the early 12th century Polish intellectuals had access to the European literature.

More information: PS2 Settlement. The education of Polish society was a goal of rulers as early as the 12th century. The first hearings are set to commence in April and May, 2006. Poland produces: clothes, electronics, cars (including luxury car Leopard), buses (Autosan, Jelcz SA, Solaris, Solbus) helicopters (PZL Świdnik), planes (PZL Mielec), ships, military engineering (including tanks), medicines (Polpharma, Polfa, etc), food, chemical products etc. A second lawsuit is being filed against Sony for all of the above, plus claims that defective hardware is damaging media discs. Since joining the European Union, many young Polish people have left their country to work in other EU countries because of high unemployment rate (about 17%). [12] Sony chose the latter and, until February 2005, they honored their agreement. For now, Poland is preparing to make the Euro its official currency (as other countries of the European Union), and the Złoty will eventually be abolished from the modern Polish economy.

They had the option of either paying the requested fines in damages, or offering free repair and replacements at their discretion. There is much speculation as to just when Poland might be ready to join the Eurozone, although the best guess estimates put the entry date somewhere between 2009 and 2013. As time went on, more and more drives began breaking down and a class action lawsuit was filed against Sony. The most notable task on the horizon is the preparation of the economy (through continuing deep structural reforms) to allow Poland to meet the strict economic criteria for entry into the European Single Currency. The second fix involved the use of an oscillator. Although the Polish economy is currently undergoing an economic boom there are many challenges ahead. This usually didn't matter, as the warranty had already expired by the time such problems began to appear. Annual growth rates broken down by quarters:.

The first problem was relatively easy to remedy, but it required opening the machine's casing and tweaking a cog that controlled the lens' distance from the discs it was supposed to read, thus voiding the warranty. Forecasted GDP for 2006 is 4.3%. The earliest drives suffered from a constantly misaligning laser lens but later defects were the result of a shift in voltage to the laser itself. In 2004 GDP growth equalled 5.4%, and in 2005 3.3%. Owners of early PS2 models purchased from launch until spring 2002 commonly reported faulty optical drives in their consoles. The prospect of closer integration with the European Union has put the economy back on track, with growth of 3.7% annually in 2003, a rise from 1.4% annually in 2002. Early versions of the Playstation 2 could be networked via an iLink port, though this had little game support and was dropped.
. GDP growth had been strong and steady from 1993 to 2000 with only a short slowdown from 2001 to 2002.

Unlike the original Playstation, which required that the user use an official Sony Playstation mouse to play mouse-compatible games, the few Playstation 2 games with mouse support work with standard PC-compatible USB mice. Warsaw leads Central Europe in foreign investment and allegedly needs a continued large inflow. Optional hardware include additional controllers ,a DVD remote control, a hard disk, an Ethernet adapter, memory cards, and various cables and interconnects: Multitap, YPbPr, S-Video, RGB SCART and composite video cables, RF modulator, USB camera ("EyeToy"), keyboard, mouse and a Headset. Structural reforms in health care, education, the pension system, and state administration have resulted in larger-than-expected fiscal pressures. The fact that the design didn't change pleased some consumers who were already used to the PS1 controller, however, it disappointed others who were hoping for a more ergonomic design (the two analogue sticks being as they are in an awkward-to-use position for the thumbs to operate). Challenges remain, especially under-investment. The PS2's controller is largely identical to the PlayStation's, with the same basic functionality; however, it includes analog pressure sensitivity on the face and shoulder buttons, is lighter and includes two more levels of vibration. Poland has a large agricultural sector of private farms, that could be a leading producer of food in the European Union now that Poland is a member.

Main articles: DualShock, PlayStation 2 Expansion Bay. The biggest privatisations so far were a sale of Telekomunikacja Polska, a national telecom to France Telecom (2000) and an issue of 30% shares of the biggest Polish bank, PKO BP, on the Polish stockmarket (2004). [citation needed]
. Restructuring and privatisation of "sensitive sectors" (e.g., coal, steel, railways, and energy) has begun. However, the new Japanese slim models have more issues with playing PlayStation games than the first PS2 revisions. The privatisation of small and medium state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms have allowed for the rapid development of an aggressive private sector, followed by a development of consumer rights organisations later on. Later hardware revisions had better compatibility with PlayStation games (Metal Gear Solid: VR Missions works on most silver models). Since its return to democracy, Poland has steadfastly pursued a policy of liberalising the economy and today stands out as one of the most successful and open examples of the transition from a partially state-capitalist market economy to a primarily privately owned market economy.

The machine's future continues to be uncertain, with North American and European launches considered to be distant if at all. Lower levels of administrative division are:. The device was poorly received, with some major features absent from the first revisions of the hardware, and has thus far experienced very weak sales in Japan, in spite of major price drops [11]. Poland is subdivided into sixteen administrative regions known as voivodships (województwa, singular - województwo):. Sony has also made a PVR/DVD burning consumer device that plays PlayStation 2 games called the PSX. Poland enjoys a temperate climate, with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters and mild summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. It also has a different lens and some compatibility issues documented by Sony for earlier PS2 games. Remains of the ancient forests survive: see list of forests in Poland.

There is also now a V14 model (SCPH-75001) which contains an integrated EE and GS (disputed ), and different ASICs compared to previous revisions, some chips having a copyright date of 2005 compared to 2000 or 2001 for earlier models. Masuria (Mazury) forms the largest and most-visited lake district in Poland. It is unknown whether or not this will follow the color schemes of the older model. Poland also contains over 9,300 lakes, predominantly in the north of the country. A silver edition is available in the United Kingdom and Germany exclusively. Several large rivers cross the plains; for instance, the Vistula (Wisła), Oder (Odra), Warta the (Western) Bug. The new V12 model was first released in black. The Polish landscape consists almost entirely of the lowlands of the North European Plain, at an average height of 173 metres (568 ft), though the Sudetes (including the Karkonosze) and the Carpathian Mountains (including the Tatra mountains, where one also finds Poland's highest point, Rysy, at 2,499 m or 8,199 ft) form the southern border.

Currently, most people just use V12 for both models, or V12 for the old model and V13 for the newer one. The Ombudsman has the duty of guarding the observance and implementation of the rights and liberties of the human being and of the citizen, the law and principles of community life and social justice. Two propositions were to name the old model (EE and GS, separate chips) V11.5 and the newer model V12, and to name the old model V12 and the newer model V13. The Sejm (on approval of the Polish Senate) appoints the Ombudsman or the Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection (Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich) for a five-year term. Since the V12 version had already been established for this model, there were some disputes regarding these sub-versions. Its major institutions include the Supreme Court (Sąd Najwyższy), the Supreme Administrative Court (Naczelny Sąd Administracyjny) (judges appointed by the president of the republic on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judiciary for an indefinite period), the Constitutional Tribunal (Trybunał Konstytucyjny) (judges chosen by the Sejm for nine-year terms) and the Tribunal of State (Trybunał Stanu) (judges chosen by the Sejm for for the current term of office of the Sejm, except for the position of chairperson which is held by the First President of the Supreme Court). One of them includes the old EE and GS chips, and the other contains the newer unified EE+GS chip, otherwise being identical. The judicial branch plays a minor role in decision-making.

There are also some disputes on the numbering for this PS2 version, since there are actually two sub-versions of the SCPH-70000. Only the first kind has occurred to date. It is widely believed that Sony has abandoned support for the hard drive. The National Assembly is formed on three occasions: Taking the oath of office by a new president, bringing an indictment against the President of the Republic to the Tribunal of State, and declaration of a President's permanent incapacity to exercise their duties due to the state of their health. A product named HD Connect can be soldered into the unit giving hard drive support though. When sitting in joint session, members of the Sejm and Senate form the National Assembly, (Polish Zgromadzenie Narodowe). For some consumers this is in fact a limitation, especially for the fans of titles such as Final Fantasy XI, which requires the use of this peripheral, and prevents the use of the official PS2 Linux kit. With the exception of ethnic minority parties, only candidates of political parties receiving at least 5% of the total national vote can enter the Sejm.

Although external USB 2.0 enclosures are affordable the lack of internal hard disk has implicated a problem for users with perhaps little knowledge of the software required to enable the external disk functionality. The Senate, on the other hand, is elected under a rare plurality bloc voting method where several candidates with the highest support are elected from each electorate. Due to its thinner profile, it does not contain the 3.5" expansion bay, and therefore does not support the internal hard disk drive but due to the presence of USB 2.0 ports an external USB Hard disk can still be used, and now uses an external power supply, like the Gamecube. The Sejm is elected under a proportional representation electoral system using the d'Hondt method similar to that used in many parliamentary political systems. In some markets it also integrates a modem. Polish voters elect a two house parliament, consisting of a 460 member lower house Sejm and a 100 member Senate (Senat). Available in November 2004, it is smaller and thinner than the old version and includes a built-in Ethernet port. The current president is Lech Kaczyński.

In September 2004 Sony unveiled the third major hardware revision (V12, model number SCPH-70000). The president, elected by popular vote every five years, serves as the head of state. V10 and V11 have minor changes. The president appoints the cabinet according to the proposals of the prime minister, typically from the majority coalition in the bicameral legislature's lower house (the Sejm). Assembly of the PS2 moved to China with the V9 (model number SCPH-50000/SCPH-50001), which added the Infrared port for the optional DVD Remote Control, removed the widely unused FireWire port, added the capability to read DVD-RW and +RW discs, and a quieter fan. The government structure centres on the Council of Ministers, led by a prime minister. V7 and V8 are also similar. Its current constitution dates from 1997.

V5 introduces minor internal changes and the only difference between V6 (sometimes called V5.1) and V5 is the orientation of the Power/Reset switch board connector, which was reversed to prevent the use of no-solder modchips. Poland is a democratic republic. As of V4 everything was unified into one board, except the power supply. Poland joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. V3 has a substantially different internal structure from the subsequent revisions, featuring several interconnected printed circuit boards. Polish voters then said yes to the EU in a referendum in June 2003. V0 did not have a built-in DVD player and instead relied on an encrypted player that was copied to a memory card from an included CD-ROM (normally, the PS2 will only execute encrypted software from its memory card, but see PS2 Independence Exploit). Poland joined the NATO alliance in 1999 along with the Czech Republic and Hungary.

These included a PCMCIA slot instead of the Expansion Bay (DEV9) port of newer models. Poland was the first post-communist country to regain pre-1989 GDP levels. V0 was a Japanese model and was never sold in Europe or the US. Despite a temporary slump in social and economic standards, there were numerous improvements in other human rights (free speech, functioning democracy and the like). These are colloquially known amongst PlayStation 2 hardware hackers as V0, V1, V2, etc., up to V14 (as of 2005). A shock therapy program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. The PlayStation 2 has undergone many revisions, some only of internal construction and others with substantial external changes. The Solidarity movement greatly contributed to the soon-following collapse of Communism all over Eastern Europe.

It is also possible to listen to MP3 music and watch DivX movies with homebrew programs running in consoles that have a modchip installed or with network software like GameShark's Media Player. It eroded the dominance of the Communist Party; by 1989 it had triumphed in parliamentary elections, and Lech Wałęsa, a Solidarity candidate, eventually won the presidency in 1990. A port of the NetBSD project is also available for the PS2. Labour turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union, "Solidarity", which over time became a political force. This was included in a failed attempt to circumvent a UK tax by defining the console as a "computer" if it contained certain software. It was a time when the economy was more modern, and the government had large credits. This allows simple programs to be created for the PlayStation 2 by the end-user. In 1970 the government was changed.

In Europe and Australia, the PlayStation 2 comes with a free Yabasic interpreter on the bundled demo disk. In 1956 the régime became more liberal, freeing many people from prison and expanding some personal freedoms. (The kit boots by installing a proprietary interface, the Run-time environment which is on a region-coded DVD, so the European and USA kits each only work with a PS2 from that region). The People's Republic of Poland (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa) was officially proclaimed in 1952. However as of July 2005, the European version was still available. In 1948 a turn towards Stalinism brought in the beginning of the next period of totalitarian rule. Currently, Sony's online store states that the Linux kit is no longer for sale in North America. Military alignment within the Warsaw Pact throughout the Cold War was also part of this change.

Sony released a version of the Linux operating system for the PS2 in a package that also includes a keyboard, mouse, Ethernet adapter and hard disk drive. The Soviet Union instituted a new communist government in Poland, analogous to much of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. DNAS will prevent games from being played online if they are determined to be pirated copies, or if they have been modified. The largest number of ethnic Poles outside of the country can be found in the United States. The purpose of this system is to prevent piracy and online cheating. A Polish minority is still present in neighbouring countries of Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania, as well as in other countries (see Poles article for the population numbers). All newer online PS2 games (since 2003) are protected by the Dynamic Network Authentication System (DNAS). As a result of these events, Poland became, for the first time in history, an ethnically unified country.

Xbox Live exclusively requires broadband internet. The shift forced the migration of millions of people – Poles, Germans, Ukrainians, Jews. Most recent PS2 online games have been developed to exclusively only support broadband internet access. After the shift, Poland emerged 20% smaller by 77,500 km² (29,900 mi²); although the important cities of Gdańsk (Danzig), Szczecin (Stettin) and Wrocław (Breslau) were all incorporated into its post-war borders. However, this comes at a price as any connection can connect to the internet with a PS2, resulting in lag whenever slow connections are present. On the other hand, the western border of Poland was moved to the Oder-Neisse line. Instead of having a unified, subscription-based online service like Xbox Live, online multiplayer on the PS2 is split between publishers and run on third-party servers. The second aggressor, the Soviet Union, was given the right to occupy former Polish territory in negotiations, which means that the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was partially confirmed.

With the purchase of a separate unit called the Network Adaptor (which is built into the newest system revision), some PS2 games support online multiplayer. At its conclusion, Poland's borders were shifted westwards, pushing the eastern border to the Curzon line, even though the defense of Poland was the reason that France and the United Kingdom had declared war on Germany. Software for all PlayStation consoles contains one of four region codes: for Japan and Asia: NTSC/J, North America: NTSC-U/C, Europe and Oceania: PAL, and China: NTSC/C[10]. Of all the countries involved in the war, Poland lost the highest percentage of its citizens: over 6 million perished, half of them Polish Jews. The anomalous failure of the above title at its disk swap screen may have given birth to this rumor. The eastern part of the German occupied zone was transformed into the General Government area, and the western part was just incorporated to German Reich. It is a common misconception that disk swapping in a game (for example, for multi-disk games or expansion packs) is not possible on the PS2. Warsaw surrendered on September 28, 1939.

This problem appears to have been rectified in the slimline versions of the PS2, where most of the previously unplayable PSone games can now be played. The 1926 May Coup of Józef Piłsudski turned the Second Polish Republic into Sanacja that lasted until the start of World War II when Germany and the Soviet Union invaded Poland. A handful of PlayStation titles (notably Metal Gear Solid: Special Missions) fail to run on the PS2 at all (Special Missions fails to recognise Metal Gear Solid at the disk swap screen, for example). It was established after a series of military conflicts, like the 1919-1921 Polish-Soviet War. While the texture smoothing was universally effective (albeit with odd effects where transparent textures are used), faster disk reading could cause some games to fail to load or play correctly. Shortly after the surrender of Germany in November 1918, Poland regained its independence as the Second Polish Republic (II Rzeczpospolita Polska). As an added bonus, the PS2 had the ability to enhance PlayStation games by speeding up disc read time and/or adding texture smoothing to improve graphics. During World War I all the Allies agreed on the restitution of Poland that United States President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed in point 13 of his Fourteen Points.

Support for original PlayStation games was also an important selling point for the PS2, letting owners of an older system upgrade to the PlayStation 2 and keep their old software, and giving new users access to older games until a larger library was developed for the new system. Later in the 19th century, Austrian-ruled Galicia became the oasis of Polish freedom. For example, the PS2 will not boot an ISO image from a USB flash drive, but Gran Turismo 4 can save screenshots to one. However, the tsars soon reduced Polish freedoms and Russia eventually de facto annexed the country. Note that compatability with USB devices is dependent on the software supporting said USB device. The eastern part was ruled by the Russian tsar as a Congress Kingdom, and possessed a liberal constitution. (This is assuming the Nuon, an advanced DVD player graphics coprocessor, is not considered a console.) Even then, the Xbox required separate remote accessory to unlock the DVD function and Sony could continue to pitch the PS2 as DVD capable out of the box. Napoleon recreated a Polish state, the Duchy of Warsaw, but after the Napoleonic wars, Poland was split again by the Allies at the Congress of Vienna.

It was not until late 2001 that the Microsoft Xbox became the second console with (non-standard) USB and DVD support. Poles resented their shrinking freedoms and several times rebelled against their oppressors (see List of Polish Uprisings). When it was released, the PS2 had many advanced features that were not present in other contemporary video game consoles, including its DVD capabilities and USB and IEEE 1394 expansion ports. The process of reforms ceased with the partitions of Poland between Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793 and 1795 which ultimately dissolved the country. The PS2's Dual Shock 2 controller is essentially an upgraded PS1 Dual Shock; analog face, shoulder and D-pad buttons replaced the digital buttons of the original. The Enlightenment in Poland fostered a growing national movement to repair the state, resulting in what is claimed to be the first modern written constitution in Europe, the Constitution of May 3 in 1791. The PS2 also supports PS1 memory cards (for PS1 game saves only) and controllers as well. Russian tsars took advantage of this unique political vulnerability by offering money to Parliamentary traitors, who in turn would consistently and subversively block necessary reforms and new solutions.

The ability to play DVD movies allowed consumers to more easily justify the PS2's relatively high price tag (in October 2000, the MSRP was $300) as it removed the need to buy an external DVD player (indeed, it could be said that the success of the DVD format was partly due to the PS2's ability to play DVDs, as the format seemed to appeal more to consumers after the console's launch). In Polish Democracy every member of parliament was able to break any work or project by shouting 'Liberum Veto' during the session. It is backwards compatible with older PlayStation (PS1) games, allows for DVD Video playback, and will play PS2 games off cheap CD-ROMs or higher-capacity DVD-ROMs. During the following 80 years, the waning of the central government and deadlock of the institutions weakened the nation, leading to anarchistic tendencies and a growing dependency on Russia. The PS2 hardware can read both compact discs and DVDs. Numerous wars against the Ottoman Empire, Russia, Cossacks, Transylvania and Brandenburg-Prussia ultimately came to an end in 1699. Critically acclaimed games on the machine are the Grand Theft Auto and the ever-popular Final Fantasy (Square Enix) series, the latest two Metal Gear Solid titles, all three Devil May Cry titles, the SSX series, latest three Ace Combat titles, the Square Enix/Disney collaboration Kingdom Hearts, and first-party Sony Computer Entertainment brands such as the Gran Turismo, SOCOM, Ratchet & Clank and Jak and Daxter series, ICO, Shadow of the Colossus, God of War and the Everquest spin-offs Champions of Norrath and Champions: Return to Arms. In the mid-17th century a Swedish invasion rolled through the country in the turbulent time known as "The Deluge" (potop).

In several cases, Sony made exclusivity deals with publishers in order to pre-empt its competitors. Poles often call themselves the nation of the free people. Those PS2 titles helped the PS2 maintain and extend its lead in the video game console market, despite increased competition from the launches of the Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube. Since that time Poles have regarded freedom as their most important value. Although the launch titles for the PS2 were unimpressive in 2000, the holiday season of 2001 saw the release of several best-selling and critically acclaimed games. Landowners gained almost unlimited ownership over serfs. The PlayStation brand's strength has lead to strong third-party support for the system. The citizens of Poland took pride in their ancient freedoms and Sejm parliamentary system, although the szlachta monopolised most of the benefits as most of Poles since the middle of the fourteenth century were serfs.

[9]. A golden age occurred in the 16th century during its union (Lublin Union) with Lithuania in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The PlayStation 2 holds the record of fastest selling video game console ever, 100 million PlayStation 2 units were shipped in only five years and nine months, shattering the previous record of nine years and six months by the PlayStation. Under the Jagiellon dynasty, Poland forged an alliance with its neighbour Lithuania. PS2's opening day console sales eclipsed the previous record of 225,000 made by the Sega Dreamcast in 1999. Teeple, ISBN 0-7894-8926-0 www.dk.com Dorling Kindersley). To this day, the PS2 holds the record for the most consoles sold in a single day as well as the record for most consoles sold in launch day in America. The only areas which escaped were Milan, Poland, Belgium, eastern Germany and part of southwest France." (Page 235 of "Timelines of World History" by John B.

With a price of $299.99 per console, Sony made gross sales of roughly $153,000,000. Their fortress there had been besieged by Mongol invaders who had suddenly begun to die of a disease that caused black, blood-oozing swellings and immense pain....By 1351, it had spread over most of Europe. When the PlayStation 2 launched in America in October 26, 2000, Sony sold 510,000 units within the first 24 hours. Luckily, the Black Death which affected most parts of Europe from 1347 to 1351 did not come to Poland: "One of the greatest calamities in European history began in 1347 when bubonic plague struck, brought to Italy, it is thought, by a group of Genoese returning home through Sicily and Pisa from Kaffa in the Crimea. [8]. His son Kazimierz Wielki repaired the Polish economy, built new castles and won the war against the Russian dukedom (Lwów became a Polish City). When the PlayStation 2 launched in Japan in March 2000, Sony sold 980,000 units over the opening weekend. In 1320 Władysław I became the King of the reunified Poland.

[7]. In the 12th century Poland fragmented into several smaller states, which were later ravaged by the Mongol armies of the Golden Horde in 1241. [6] Shortages in North America were also extremely severe; one retail chain in the U.S., GameStop, had just 186 PS2 and Xbox units on hand across more than 1700 stores on the day before Christmas. Poland's first historically documented ruler, Mieszko I, was baptized in 966, adopting Catholic Christianity as the country's new official religion, to which the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next century. During one week in November, sales in the entire country of Britain totalled 6,000 units — compared to 70,000 a few weeks prior. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. This led to further shortages, and the issue was compounded in Britain when a Russian oil tanker became stuck in the Suez Canal, blocking a ship from China carrying PS2s bound for the UK. It gave rise to an alternative name for "Pole": Lęch, Lęchowie in Old Church Slavonic, Lechia, Lechites in Latin, Lach in Ruthenian, Lyakh in Russian, as well as to old German Lechien, Hungarian Lengyelorszag, Lengyel, Lithuanian Lenkija, lenkas and Turkish Lechistan (from Persian Lehestan).

After an apparent manufacturing issue caused some initial slowdown in producing the new unit, Sony reportedly underestimated demand, caused in part by shortages between the time the old units were cleared out and the new units were ready. Parallel to this terminology, another one, Lechia, came into use, thought to derive from the tribe name Lędzianie. In preparation for the launch of a new, slimmer PlayStation 2 model (SCPH-70000), Sony had stopped making the older PS2 model (SCPH-5000x) sometime during the summer of 2004 to let the distribution channel empty out stock of the units. This is because the Polanie could be descendants of West-Slavs from the South like Serbs, as the above source states. In September of that year, in time for the launch of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (the best-selling game during the 2004 Holiday season), Sony revealed a new, smaller PS2 (see Hardware revisions). From the source, listed above, there is shown a connection between the people of the South-West Slavic group (such as Serbs) and Poles. Despite this, Sony console won the total 2004 sales by 600 thousands units of difference. Poles belong as a separate category in the Lechitic subgroup of the West-Slavic people.

Acording to NPD Group the Xbox outsold PS2 during 5 months of 2004: April, July, August, November and December. In the tenth century their king was converted to Christianity." To be accurate we must confess, that ruler which was first converted to Christianity wasn't a king at all - it is said he was only a prince (we are talking about Mieszko I). [5]. The text reads that "...In the seventh and eighth centuries AD, Slavic peoples from the south-known as Polonie, or plain-dwellers, occupied most of Poland. Its operating income slid to $650 million from $1 billion, losing $25 million in Q4 of 2004. ISBN 1-55192-413-7. During that year, game sales fell to $7.5 billion from $8.2 billion. The quoted text is taken from "Geographica's Pocket: World Reference" located on page 549.

The heavy dependence of Sony on its Computer Entertainment division was shown when dropping PlayStation 2 sales [3] caused the parent's profits to fall 89% [4]. This is an informative source as to the origins of the name Poland, in Polish: Polska. Hardware sales remained strong until 2004 saw the console apparently approaching saturation point, causing it to lose the top sales position for a time [2]. In old Latin chronicles the terms terra Poloniae (land of Poland) or Regnum Poloniae (kingdom of Poland) appear. The Xbox Live system (with it's built in capabilities) is however the most successful of the three. The conventional etymology of the ethnic name of the Poles relates it to these Polish Polanie, "dwellers of the field"; pole, "field", analogous to Russian polyî, "open land", from Indo-European pelè-, "flat" + -anie, "inhabitants", analogous to Latin -anus, "originating from" (please compare Yuriev-Polsky). As a result, although Sony and Nintendo both started out late and although both followed a decentralized model of online gaming where the responsibility is up to the developer to provide the servers, Sony's attempt was the more successful between the two. Common opinion holds that the name Polska comes from the Slavic Polanie tribe who established the Polish state in the 10th century (Greater Poland).

Sony also advertised heavily, and its online model had the advantage of being supported by Electronic Arts. Their name derives from the tribal name Polanie - people living around Lake Gopło - the cradle of Poland mentioned as Glopeani having 400 strongholds circa 845 (Bavarian Geographer). Sony rolled a PS2 online adapter in late 2002 to compete with Microsoft, with several online first party online titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM US Navy SEALS in order to show that Sony was supporting this feature actively. The names of the country, Polska, and of the nationality, the Poles, are of Slavic origin. Although Sony placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first year, that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Poland's official name in Polish is Rzeczpospolita Polska. [1]. .

Shortly afterwards, Sony also slashed PS2 prices greater than expected in order to maintain momentum and hold off its potential rivals. In 1999 Poland acceded to NATO, and in 2004 it joined the European Union. However, the release of several blockbuster games during the 2001 holiday season pushed the PS2 far in front even as the Xbox and GameCube made their impressive debuts. The current Third Polish Republic was established, followed a few years later by the drafting of a new constitution in 1997. Many analysts predicted a close 3-way matchup between the PS2 and its soon-to-be-released competitors Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, noting that the PS2's graphics were inferior but that it had the advantage of a head start, and had a wide assortment of games of every genre (Xbox's strength was in its hardware; GameCube was the cheapest of the 3 consoles). In 1989 the first partially-free elections in Poland's post-World War II history concluded the Solidarity (Solidarność) movement's struggle for freedom and resulted in the defeat of Poland's communist rulers. Later, Sony gained steam with new development kits for game developers and more PlayStations for consumers. Following the Second World War it became a communist satellite state of the Soviet Union known as the People's Republic of Poland.

Another major selling point over the Dreamcast was the PlayStation 2's ability to play DVDs, which gained it a presence in electronics stores which did not formerly sell video game consoles. It regained independence in 1918 in the aftermath of the First World War as the Second Polish Republic. This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation. Soon afterwards, the country ceased to exist after being partitioned by its neighbours Russia, Austria, and Prussia. Yet, the PS2 initially sold well solely on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and its backwards compatibility, selling over 900,000 units in the first weekend in Japan. In 1791 the Sejm of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth adopted the Constitution of May 3, Europe's first modern codified constitution, and the second in the world after the Constitution of the United States. The PS2 launch seemed unimpressive and gaffe-prone, compared to the well-planned launch of the Sega Dreamcast, which was making a genuine attempt to woo developers and which had better launch titles. The Polish state was formed over 1,000 years ago under the Piast dynasty, and reached its golden age near the end of the 16th century under the Jagiellonian dynasty, when Poland was one of the largest, wealthiest, and most powerful countries in Europe.

Developers also complained that it was difficult to develop for the system, with little in the way of reference material from Sony for its exotic architecture. The Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska) is a country located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) to the north. The PlayStation 2 was such a hot item after its release that it was near impossible to find one on retailer shelves, leaving those wanting a PlayStation 2 to either wait or purchase the console online at sites such as eBay, where the console was being sold by many people for twice and sometimes five times as much as the manufacturer's listed price. Index of Economic Freedom 2005: Rank 41st out of 155 countries. Only a few million users had obtained consoles by the end of 2000 due to manufacturing delays. Reporters Without Borders world-wide press freedom index 2004: Rank 32nd out of 167 countries. . Human Development Index 2005: Rank 36th out of 177 countries.

The PS2 is part of the sixth generation era, and has become the fastest selling gaming console in history, with over 100 million units shipped by November 2005, beating the previous record holder, the PlayStation, by three years and nine months. Park Mużakowski (shared by Poland and Germany). It was released in Europe on November 24, 2000. Gothic Wooden Chruches in Subcarpathian and Lesser Poland Voivodships. Its development was announced in March 1999, and it was first released in Japan on March 4, 2000 and in North America and Puerto Rico on October 26, 2000. Białowieża Forest (National Park - largest remaining primeval forest in Europe). The PlayStation 2 (PS2) (Japanese: プレイステーション2) is Sony's second video game console, the successor to the PlayStation and the predecessor to the PlayStation 3. Kalwaria Zebrzydowska (Pilgrim´s Place).

NT$ 5,888 (November 3, 2004, SCPH-70007). Świdnica (Baroque Peace Chruch). NT$ 5,888 (June 1, 2004, SCPH-50007). Jawor (Baroque Peace Church). NT$ 6,480 (January 1, 2004, SCPH-50007). Oświęcim (Auschwitz concentration camp). NT$ 6,980 (October 10, 2003, SCPH-50007). Toruń (Gothic Town).

NT$ 6,980 (2003, SCPH-39007). Zamość (Renaissance Town). NT$ 7,980 (January 1, 2003, SCPH-30007). Malbork (Biggest Brick Stone Castle). NT$10,900 (January 24, 2002, SCPH-30007, Launch Price). Wieliczka (Salt mine). JP¥17,800 (June 2004). Kraków (Old Town).

JP¥19,800 (November 13, 2003). Warszawa (Old Town). JP¥25,000 (2002). The principal ports and harbours are: Port of Gdańsk, Port of Gdynia, Port of Szczecin, Port of Świnoujście, Port of Ustka, Port of Kolobrzeg, Gliwice, Warsaw, Wrocław. JP¥29,800 (November 29, 2001). The merchant marine consists of 114 ships, with an additional 100 ships registered outside the country. JP¥35,000 (June 29, 2001). Marine: The total length of navigable rivers and canals is 3,812 kilometres (2,369 mi).

JP¥39,800 (March 2000, Launch Price). The number of passengers at Polish airports has consistently increased since 1991. US$149.99 (May 11, 2004). Air: Poland has eight major airports (in decreasing order of traffic: Warsaw, Kraków, Katowice, Gdańsk, Poznań, Wrocław, Szczecin, Bydgoszcz and Rzeszów), a total of 123 airports and airfields, as well as three heliports. US$179.99 (May 13, 2003). There are a total of 9,283,000 registered passenger automobiles, as well as 1,762,000 registered trucks and buses (2000). US$199.99 (May 14, 2002). The total length of expressways/highways is 364,657 kilometres (226,587 mi).

US$299.99 (October 26, 2000, Launch Price). The Government has undertaken a programme to improve the standard of a number of significant national highways by 2013. 4.7GB capacity, a few are DVD-9 (8.5 GB). Road: By Western European standards, Poland has a relatively poor infrastructure of expressways/highways. Disc Media: DVD-ROM (CD-ROM compatible) with copy protection. [5]. Interface Types: 2 proprietary PlayStation controller ports (250KHz clock for PS1 and 500KHz for PS2 controllers), 2 proprietary Memory Card slots using MagicGate encryption (250KHz for PS1 cards, up to 2MHz for PS2 cards -may be just 1MHz, please, confirmate it-), Expansion Bay (DEV9 or PCMCIA on early models) port for Network Adaptor, Modem and Hard Disk Drive, IEEE 1394 (2), Infrared remote control port (2), and 2 USB 1.1 ports with an OHCI-compatible controller. Refurbishment of the network has commenced to bring standards into line with western European railway networks.

Connection to: SPU and CD/DVD controller. Rail: The Polish State Railways (PKP) is one of the larger railway systems of central and western Europe, with 23,420 kilometres (14,552 mi) in its network (1998). Sub Bus: 32 Bit. Telephones - main lines in use: 12.5 million (Raport Telecom Team 2005). CPU Core: Original PlayStation CPU (MIPS R3000A clocked at 33.8688 MHz or 37.5 MHz). Telephones - mobile cellular: 25.3 million (Raport Telecom Team 2005). I/O Processor

    . 2005: Q1 - 2.1% | Q2 - 2.8% | Q3 - 3.7% | Q4 - 4.4%.

    Sampling Frequency: 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz (selectable). 2004: Q1 - 6.9% | Q2 - 6.1% | Q3 - 4.8% | Q4 - 4.9%. Number of voices: 48 hardware channels of ADPCM on SPU2 plus software-mixed channels. 2003: Q1 - 2.2% | Q2 - 3.8% | Q3 - 4.7% | Q4 - 4.7%. Sound: "SPU1+SPU2" (SPU1 is actually the CPU)

      . gminas (commune). Dedicated connection to: Main CPU and VU1. powiats (counties).

      Maximum Polygon Rate: 75 million polygons per second (1). Pixel Configuration: RGB:Alpha:Z Buffer (24:8, 15:1 for RGB, 16, 24, or 32-bit Z buffer). DRAM Bus width: 2560-bit (composed of three independendent buses: 1024-bit write, 1024-bit read, 512-bit read/write). DRAM Bus bandwidth: 47.0GB per second.

      Graphics: "Graphics Synthesizer" clocked at 147 MHz

        . Cache Memory: Instruction: 16KB, Data: 8KB + 16 KB (ScrP). I/O Processor interconnection: Remote Procedure Call over a serial link, DMA controller for bulk transfer. Compressed Image Decoder: MPEG-2.

        3D CG Geometric Transformation: 66 million polygons per second (1). Floating Point Performance: 6.2 GFLOPS (single precission 32-bit floating point). Vector Units: VU0 and VU1 (Floating Point Multiply Accumulator × 9, Floating Point Divider × 1), 128 bit. Co-Processor: FPU (Floating Point Multiply Accumulator × 1, Floating Point Divider × 1).

        Main processor: MIPS R5900 CPU core, 64 bit. Memory Bus Bandwidth: 3.2 GB per second. System Memory: 32 MB Direct Rambus or RDRAM (note that some computers use this type of RAM). CPU: 128 bit "Emotion Engine" clocked at 294 MHz (later versions 299 MHz), 10.5 million transistors

          .

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