PlayStation 2

The PlayStation 2 (PS2) (Japanese: プレイステーション2) is Sony's second video game console, the successor to the PlayStation and the predecessor to the PlayStation 3. Its development was announced in March 1999, and it was first released in Japan on March 4, 2000 and in North America and Puerto Rico on October 26, 2000. It was released in Europe on November 24, 2000.

The PS2 is part of the sixth generation era, and has become the fastest selling gaming console in history, with over 100 million units shipped by November 2005, beating the previous record holder, the PlayStation, by three years and nine months.

History

Only a few million users had obtained consoles by the end of 2000 due to manufacturing delays. The PlayStation 2 was such a hot item after its release that it was near impossible to find one on retailer shelves, leaving those wanting a PlayStation 2 to either wait or purchase the console online at sites such as eBay, where the console was being sold by many people for twice and sometimes five times as much as the manufacturer's listed price. Developers also complained that it was difficult to develop for the system, with little in the way of reference material from Sony for its exotic architecture. The PS2 launch seemed unimpressive and gaffe-prone, compared to the well-planned launch of the Sega Dreamcast, which was making a genuine attempt to woo developers and which had better launch titles. Yet, the PS2 initially sold well solely on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and its backwards compatibility, selling over 900,000 units in the first weekend in Japan. This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation. Another major selling point over the Dreamcast was the PlayStation 2's ability to play DVDs, which gained it a presence in electronics stores which did not formerly sell video game consoles. Later, Sony gained steam with new development kits for game developers and more PlayStations for consumers.

Many analysts predicted a close 3-way matchup between the PS2 and its soon-to-be-released competitors Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, noting that the PS2's graphics were inferior but that it had the advantage of a head start, and had a wide assortment of games of every genre (Xbox's strength was in its hardware; GameCube was the cheapest of the 3 consoles). However, the release of several blockbuster games during the 2001 holiday season pushed the PS2 far in front even as the Xbox and GameCube made their impressive debuts. Shortly afterwards, Sony also slashed PS2 prices greater than expected in order to maintain momentum and hold off its potential rivals. [1]

Although Sony placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first year, that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Sony rolled a PS2 online adapter in late 2002 to compete with Microsoft, with several online first party online titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM US Navy SEALS in order to show that Sony was supporting this feature actively. Sony also advertised heavily, and its online model had the advantage of being supported by Electronic Arts. As a result, although Sony and Nintendo both started out late and although both followed a decentralized model of online gaming where the responsibility is up to the developer to provide the servers, Sony's attempt was the more successful between the two. The Xbox Live system (with it's built in capabilities) is however the most successful of the three.

Hardware sales remained strong until 2004 saw the console apparently approaching saturation point, causing it to lose the top sales position for a time [2]. The heavy dependence of Sony on its Computer Entertainment division was shown when dropping PlayStation 2 sales [3] caused the parent's profits to fall 89% [4]. During that year, game sales fell to $7.5 billion from $8.2 billion. Its operating income slid to $650 million from $1 billion, losing $25 million in Q4 of 2004. [5]. Acording to NPD Group the Xbox outsold PS2 during 5 months of 2004: April, July, August, November and December. Despite this, Sony console won the total 2004 sales by 600 thousands units of difference.

In September of that year, in time for the launch of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (the best-selling game during the 2004 Holiday season), Sony revealed a new, smaller PS2 (see Hardware revisions). In preparation for the launch of a new, slimmer PlayStation 2 model (SCPH-70000), Sony had stopped making the older PS2 model (SCPH-5000x) sometime during the summer of 2004 to let the distribution channel empty out stock of the units. After an apparent manufacturing issue caused some initial slowdown in producing the new unit, Sony reportedly underestimated demand, caused in part by shortages between the time the old units were cleared out and the new units were ready. This led to further shortages, and the issue was compounded in Britain when a Russian oil tanker became stuck in the Suez Canal, blocking a ship from China carrying PS2s bound for the UK. During one week in November, sales in the entire country of Britain totalled 6,000 units — compared to 70,000 a few weeks prior. [6] Shortages in North America were also extremely severe; one retail chain in the U.S., GameStop, had just 186 PS2 and Xbox units on hand across more than 1700 stores on the day before Christmas. [7]

Sales record

When the PlayStation 2 launched in Japan in March 2000, Sony sold 980,000 units over the opening weekend. [8]

When the PlayStation 2 launched in America in October 26, 2000, Sony sold 510,000 units within the first 24 hours. With a price of $299.99 per console, Sony made gross sales of roughly $153,000,000. To this day, the PS2 holds the record for the most consoles sold in a single day as well as the record for most consoles sold in launch day in America. PS2's opening day console sales eclipsed the previous record of 225,000 made by the Sega Dreamcast in 1999.

The PlayStation 2 holds the record of fastest selling video game console ever, 100 million PlayStation 2 units were shipped in only five years and nine months, shattering the previous record of nine years and six months by the PlayStation. [9]

Games

The PlayStation brand's strength has lead to strong third-party support for the system. Although the launch titles for the PS2 were unimpressive in 2000, the holiday season of 2001 saw the release of several best-selling and critically acclaimed games. Those PS2 titles helped the PS2 maintain and extend its lead in the video game console market, despite increased competition from the launches of the Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube. In several cases, Sony made exclusivity deals with publishers in order to pre-empt its competitors. Critically acclaimed games on the machine are the Grand Theft Auto and the ever-popular Final Fantasy (Square Enix) series, the latest two Metal Gear Solid titles, all three Devil May Cry titles, the SSX series, latest three Ace Combat titles, the Square Enix/Disney collaboration Kingdom Hearts, and first-party Sony Computer Entertainment brands such as the Gran Turismo, SOCOM, Ratchet & Clank and Jak and Daxter series, ICO, Shadow of the Colossus, God of War and the Everquest spin-offs Champions of Norrath and Champions: Return to Arms.

Hardware compatibility

PlayStation 2 default black 8MB Memory Card

The PS2 hardware can read both compact discs and DVDs. It is backwards compatible with older PlayStation (PS1) games, allows for DVD Video playback, and will play PS2 games off cheap CD-ROMs or higher-capacity DVD-ROMs. The ability to play DVD movies allowed consumers to more easily justify the PS2's relatively high price tag (in October 2000, the MSRP was $300) as it removed the need to buy an external DVD player (indeed, it could be said that the success of the DVD format was partly due to the PS2's ability to play DVDs, as the format seemed to appeal more to consumers after the console's launch). The PS2 also supports PS1 memory cards (for PS1 game saves only) and controllers as well. The PS2's Dual Shock 2 controller is essentially an upgraded PS1 Dual Shock; analog face, shoulder and D-pad buttons replaced the digital buttons of the original.

When it was released, the PS2 had many advanced features that were not present in other contemporary video game consoles, including its DVD capabilities and USB and IEEE 1394 expansion ports. It was not until late 2001 that the Microsoft Xbox became the second console with (non-standard) USB and DVD support. (This is assuming the Nuon, an advanced DVD player graphics coprocessor, is not considered a console.) Even then, the Xbox required separate remote accessory to unlock the DVD function and Sony could continue to pitch the PS2 as DVD capable out of the box.

Note that compatability with USB devices is dependent on the software supporting said USB device. For example, the PS2 will not boot an ISO image from a USB flash drive, but Gran Turismo 4 can save screenshots to one.

Software compatibility

Support for original PlayStation games was also an important selling point for the PS2, letting owners of an older system upgrade to the PlayStation 2 and keep their old software, and giving new users access to older games until a larger library was developed for the new system. As an added bonus, the PS2 had the ability to enhance PlayStation games by speeding up disc read time and/or adding texture smoothing to improve graphics. While the texture smoothing was universally effective (albeit with odd effects where transparent textures are used), faster disk reading could cause some games to fail to load or play correctly.

A handful of PlayStation titles (notably Metal Gear Solid: Special Missions) fail to run on the PS2 at all (Special Missions fails to recognise Metal Gear Solid at the disk swap screen, for example). This problem appears to have been rectified in the slimline versions of the PS2, where most of the previously unplayable PSone games can now be played. It is a common misconception that disk swapping in a game (for example, for multi-disk games or expansion packs) is not possible on the PS2. The anomalous failure of the above title at its disk swap screen may have given birth to this rumor. Software for all PlayStation consoles contains one of four region codes: for Japan and Asia: NTSC/J, North America: NTSC-U/C, Europe and Oceania: PAL, and China: NTSC/C[10].

Online play

With the purchase of a separate unit called the Network Adaptor (which is built into the newest system revision), some PS2 games support online multiplayer. Instead of having a unified, subscription-based online service like Xbox Live, online multiplayer on the PS2 is split between publishers and run on third-party servers. However, this comes at a price as any connection can connect to the internet with a PS2, resulting in lag whenever slow connections are present. Most recent PS2 online games have been developed to exclusively only support broadband internet access. Xbox Live exclusively requires broadband internet.

All newer online PS2 games (since 2003) are protected by the Dynamic Network Authentication System (DNAS). The purpose of this system is to prevent piracy and online cheating. DNAS will prevent games from being played online if they are determined to be pirated copies, or if they have been modified.

Home development

Linux for PlayStation 2

Sony released a version of the Linux operating system for the PS2 in a package that also includes a keyboard, mouse, Ethernet adapter and hard disk drive. Currently, Sony's online store states that the Linux kit is no longer for sale in North America. However as of July 2005, the European version was still available. (The kit boots by installing a proprietary interface, the Run-time environment which is on a region-coded DVD, so the European and USA kits each only work with a PS2 from that region).

In Europe and Australia, the PlayStation 2 comes with a free Yabasic interpreter on the bundled demo disk. This allows simple programs to be created for the PlayStation 2 by the end-user. This was included in a failed attempt to circumvent a UK tax by defining the console as a "computer" if it contained certain software.

A port of the NetBSD project is also available for the PS2.

It is also possible to listen to MP3 music and watch DivX movies with homebrew programs running in consoles that have a modchip installed or with network software like GameShark's Media Player.

Hardware revisions

The PlayStation 2 has undergone many revisions, some only of internal construction and others with substantial external changes. These are colloquially known amongst PlayStation 2 hardware hackers as V0, V1, V2, etc., up to V14 (as of 2005).

V0 was a Japanese model and was never sold in Europe or the US. These included a PCMCIA slot instead of the Expansion Bay (DEV9) port of newer models. V0 did not have a built-in DVD player and instead relied on an encrypted player that was copied to a memory card from an included CD-ROM (normally, the PS2 will only execute encrypted software from its memory card, but see PS2 Independence Exploit). V3 has a substantially different internal structure from the subsequent revisions, featuring several interconnected printed circuit boards. As of V4 everything was unified into one board, except the power supply. V5 introduces minor internal changes and the only difference between V6 (sometimes called V5.1) and V5 is the orientation of the Power/Reset switch board connector, which was reversed to prevent the use of no-solder modchips. V7 and V8 are also similar. Assembly of the PS2 moved to China with the V9 (model number SCPH-50000/SCPH-50001), which added the Infrared port for the optional DVD Remote Control, removed the widely unused FireWire port, added the capability to read DVD-RW and +RW discs, and a quieter fan. V10 and V11 have minor changes.

The two versions of the PS2 with an Eye Toy camera

In September 2004 Sony unveiled the third major hardware revision (V12, model number SCPH-70000). Available in November 2004, it is smaller and thinner than the old version and includes a built-in Ethernet port. In some markets it also integrates a modem. Due to its thinner profile, it does not contain the 3.5" expansion bay, and therefore does not support the internal hard disk drive but due to the presence of USB 2.0 ports an external USB Hard disk can still be used, and now uses an external power supply, like the Gamecube. Although external USB 2.0 enclosures are affordable the lack of internal hard disk has implicated a problem for users with perhaps little knowledge of the software required to enable the external disk functionality. For some consumers this is in fact a limitation, especially for the fans of titles such as Final Fantasy XI, which requires the use of this peripheral, and prevents the use of the official PS2 Linux kit. A product named HD Connect can be soldered into the unit giving hard drive support though. It is widely believed that Sony has abandoned support for the hard drive. There are also some disputes on the numbering for this PS2 version, since there are actually two sub-versions of the SCPH-70000. One of them includes the old EE and GS chips, and the other contains the newer unified EE+GS chip, otherwise being identical. Since the V12 version had already been established for this model, there were some disputes regarding these sub-versions. Two propositions were to name the old model (EE and GS, separate chips) V11.5 and the newer model V12, and to name the old model V12 and the newer model V13. Currently, most people just use V12 for both models, or V12 for the old model and V13 for the newer one.

The new V12 model was first released in black. A silver edition is available in the United Kingdom and Germany exclusively. It is unknown whether or not this will follow the color schemes of the older model.

The Japanese PSX console.

There is also now a V14 model (SCPH-75001) which contains an integrated EE and GS (disputed ), and different ASICs compared to previous revisions, some chips having a copyright date of 2005 compared to 2000 or 2001 for earlier models. It also has a different lens and some compatibility issues documented by Sony for earlier PS2 games.

Sony has also made a PVR/DVD burning consumer device that plays PlayStation 2 games called the PSX. The device was poorly received, with some major features absent from the first revisions of the hardware, and has thus far experienced very weak sales in Japan, in spite of major price drops [11]. The machine's future continues to be uncertain, with North American and European launches considered to be distant if at all.

Later hardware revisions had better compatibility with PlayStation games (Metal Gear Solid: VR Missions works on most silver models). However, the new Japanese slim models have more issues with playing PlayStation games than the first PS2 revisions. [citation needed]

Accessories

DualShock 2

Main articles: DualShock, PlayStation 2 Expansion Bay

The PS2's controller is largely identical to the PlayStation's, with the same basic functionality; however, it includes analog pressure sensitivity on the face and shoulder buttons, is lighter and includes two more levels of vibration. The fact that the design didn't change pleased some consumers who were already used to the PS1 controller, however, it disappointed others who were hoping for a more ergonomic design (the two analogue sticks being as they are in an awkward-to-use position for the thumbs to operate).

Optional hardware include additional controllers ,a DVD remote control, a hard disk, an Ethernet adapter, memory cards, and various cables and interconnects: Multitap, YPbPr, S-Video, RGB SCART and composite video cables, RF modulator, USB camera ("EyeToy"), keyboard, mouse and a Headset. Unlike the original Playstation, which required that the user use an official Sony Playstation mouse to play mouse-compatible games, the few Playstation 2 games with mouse support work with standard PC-compatible USB mice. Early versions of the Playstation 2 could be networked via an iLink port, though this had little game support and was dropped.

Technical Issues

Disc Read Error

Owners of early PS2 models purchased from launch until spring 2002 commonly reported faulty optical drives in their consoles. The earliest drives suffered from a constantly misaligning laser lens but later defects were the result of a shift in voltage to the laser itself. The first problem was relatively easy to remedy, but it required opening the machine's casing and tweaking a cog that controlled the lens' distance from the discs it was supposed to read, thus voiding the warranty. This usually didn't matter, as the warranty had already expired by the time such problems began to appear. The second fix involved the use of an oscillator. As time went on, more and more drives began breaking down and a class action lawsuit was filed against Sony. They had the option of either paying the requested fines in damages, or offering free repair and replacements at their discretion. [12] Sony chose the latter and, until February 2005, they honored their agreement.

A second lawsuit is being filed against Sony for all of the above, plus claims that defective hardware is damaging media discs. The first hearings are set to commence in April and May, 2006. More information: PS2 Settlement

Modchips

The PlayStation 2, like the original PlayStation, incorporates circuitry to prevent the playing of copied or out-of-region discs. In response to this, a thriving "underground" grey market exists, selling modchips. These devices, when installed, bypass the checks and allow the discs to run.

The installation of modchips in PlayStation 2 consoles is widely discouraged by Sony and many user groups and technicians. The obvious reason is piracy, but the chips also have several other drawbacks as well. Many of these chips work on a different voltage than the console, risking damage to the unit.

Because of the existence of these hazards, Sony has overlaid a seal onto each of their consoles. If this seal is broken (thus providing evidence that the console has been opened and possibly modified), Sony will refuse to repair the system.

However, in Australia, the court has ruled that using a modchip to play legally purchased game from another region is legal, thus making the modchip legal in Australia. Conversely, a court in the United Kingdom ruled [13] in 2004 that commercial possession, sale, installation or use of a modchip was illegal under the EU Copyright Directive.

Screenshots

Technical specifications

The specifications of the PlayStation 2 console are as follows, with hardware revisions:

Emotion Engine CPU
  • CPU: 128 bit "Emotion Engine" clocked at 294 MHz (later versions 299 MHz), 10.5 million transistors
    • System Memory: 32 MB Direct Rambus or RDRAM (note that some computers use this type of RAM)
    • Memory Bus Bandwidth: 3.2 GB per second
    • Main processor: MIPS R5900 CPU core, 64 bit
    • Co-Processor: FPU (Floating Point Multiply Accumulator × 1, Floating Point Divider × 1)
    • Vector Units: VU0 and VU1 (Floating Point Multiply Accumulator × 9, Floating Point Divider × 1), 128 bit
    • Floating Point Performance: 6.2 GFLOPS (single precission 32-bit floating point)
    • 3D CG Geometric Transformation: 66 million polygons per second (1)
    • Compressed Image Decoder: MPEG-2
    • I/O Processor interconnection: Remote Procedure Call over a serial link, DMA controller for bulk transfer
    • Cache Memory: Instruction: 16KB, Data: 8KB + 16 KB (ScrP)
  • Graphics: "Graphics Synthesizer" clocked at 147 MHz
    • DRAM Bus bandwidth: 47.0GB per second
    • DRAM Bus width: 2560-bit (composed of three independendent buses: 1024-bit write, 1024-bit read, 512-bit read/write)
    • Pixel Configuration: RGB:Alpha:Z Buffer (24:8, 15:1 for RGB, 16, 24, or 32-bit Z buffer)
    • Maximum Polygon Rate: 75 million polygons per second (1)
    • Dedicated connection to: Main CPU and VU1
  • Sound: "SPU1+SPU2" (SPU1 is actually the CPU)
    • Number of voices: 48 hardware channels of ADPCM on SPU2 plus software-mixed channels
    • Sampling Frequency: 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz (selectable)
  • I/O Processor
    • CPU Core: Original PlayStation CPU (MIPS R3000A clocked at 33.8688 MHz or 37.5 MHz)
    • Sub Bus: 32 Bit
    • Connection to: SPU and CD/DVD controller.
    • Interface Types: 2 proprietary PlayStation controller ports (250KHz clock for PS1 and 500KHz for PS2 controllers), 2 proprietary Memory Card slots using MagicGate encryption (250KHz for PS1 cards, up to 2MHz for PS2 cards -may be just 1MHz, please, confirmate it-), Expansion Bay (DEV9 or PCMCIA on early models) port for Network Adaptor, Modem and Hard Disk Drive, IEEE 1394 (2), Infrared remote control port (2), and 2 USB 1.1 ports with an OHCI-compatible controller.
  • Disc Media: DVD-ROM (CD-ROM compatible) with copy protection. 4.7GB capacity, a few are DVD-9 (8.5 GB)

(1) Polygons per second under ideal circumstances (e.g. no texturing, lighting, or vertex colors applied). Some criticize these figures for being unrealistic, and not indicative of real-world performance. The true polygons per second figure with full textures, effects etc. is around 7 million.

(2) IEEE 1394 removed in SCPH-50000 and later hardware versions, and Infrared remote port added.

Price history

North America

  • US$299.99 (October 26, 2000, Launch Price)
  • US$199.99 (May 14, 2002)
  • US$179.99 (May 13, 2003)
  • US$149.99 (May 11, 2004)

Japan

  • JP¥39,800 (March 2000, Launch Price)
  • JP¥35,000 (June 29, 2001)
  • JP¥29,800 (November 29, 2001)
  • JP¥25,000 (2002)
  • JP¥19,800 (November 13, 2003)
  • JP¥17,800 (June 2004)

Republic of China (Taiwan)

  • NT$10,900 (January 24, 2002, SCPH-30007, Launch Price)
  • NT$ 7,980 (January 1, 2003, SCPH-30007)
  • NT$ 6,980 (2003, SCPH-39007)
  • NT$ 6,980 (October 10, 2003, SCPH-50007)
  • NT$ 6,480 (January 1, 2004, SCPH-50007)
  • NT$ 5,888 (June 1, 2004, SCPH-50007)
  • NT$ 5,888 (November 3, 2004, SCPH-70007)

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Republic of China (Taiwan). These alumni have led significant advances in research and development of aerospace technology and established an amazing record for exploration of space. Japan. The only other non-military institution that has more alumni who have become astronauts is the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). North America. Over one third of all of NASA's manned space missions have had at least one Purdue graduate as a crew member. (2) IEEE 1394 removed in SCPH-50000 and later hardware versions, and Infrared remote port added. All together, Purdue has produced 22 astronauts, including the first and last men to walk on the moon.

is around 7 million. Purdue alumni have an especially strong relationship with NASA and the space program. The true polygons per second figure with full textures, effects etc. Purdue’s distinguished faculty have won Nobel prizes, solved long-standing riddles in science, headed government agencies, and received countless awards. Some criticize these figures for being unrealistic, and not indicative of real-world performance. Purdue alumni have headed corporations, held federal offices, founded television networks, and flown through space. no texturing, lighting, or vertex colors applied). Purdue University has long been associated with accomplished and distinguished students and faculty.

(1) Polygons per second under ideal circumstances (e.g. See Purdue's website for more information. The specifications of the PlayStation 2 console are as follows, with hardware revisions:. Purdue University operates fifteen separate residence facilities for its undergraduate and graduate students including: Cary Quadrangle, Earhart Hall, Harrison Hall, Hawkins Hall, Hillenbrand Hall, Hilltop Apartments, McCutcheon Hall, Meredith Hall, Owen Hall, Purdue Village, Shreve Hall, Tarkington Hall, Wiley Hall, Windsor Halls, and Young Hall. Conversely, a court in the United Kingdom ruled [13] in 2004 that commercial possession, sale, installation or use of a modchip was illegal under the EU Copyright Directive. The Board of Trustees directly appoints other major officers of the university including a Provost who serves as the chief academic officer for the university, a number of vice presidents with oversight over specific university operations, and the satellite campus chancellors. However, in Australia, the court has ruled that using a modchip to play legally purchased game from another region is legal, thus making the modchip legal in Australia. The office of the president oversees admission and registration, student conduct and counseling, the administration and scheduling of classes and space, the administration of student athletics and organized extracurricular activities, the libraries, the appointment of the faculty and conditions of their employment, the appointment of all non-faculty employees and the conditions of employment, the general organization of the university, and the planning and administration of the university budget.

If this seal is broken (thus providing evidence that the console has been opened and possibly modified), Sony will refuse to repair the system. He is responsible for organizing and establishing the administrative staff of the university not otherwise established by the trustees, and delegating to each administrative office with appropriate duties and responsibilities. Because of the existence of these hazards, Sony has overlaid a seal onto each of their consoles. Jischke, appointed by the Board of Trustees, is the chief administrative officer of the university. Many of these chips work on a different voltage than the console, risking damage to the unit. President Martin C. The obvious reason is piracy, but the chips also have several other drawbacks as well. Current board members include:.

The installation of modchips in PlayStation 2 consoles is widely discouraged by Sony and many user groups and technicians. Each member serves for a term of three years, except the student member who serves for two years. These devices, when installed, bypass the checks and allow the discs to run. The Board of Trustees consists of ten members (including one student of the university), as appointed by the governor of Indiana. In response to this, a thriving "underground" grey market exists, selling modchips. The authority and responsibility of the Board of Trustees can be changed only by legislative acts of the Indiana General Assembly. The PlayStation 2, like the original PlayStation, incorporates circuitry to prevent the playing of copied or out-of-region discs. The laws of the state of Indiana require that the trustees: provide a seal, have power to appoint and remove all professors and teachers, regulate faculty and staff compensations, do anything necessary and expedient to put and keep the university in operation, and make all bylaws, rules, and regulations necessary to conduct and manage the university.

More information: PS2 Settlement. When Purdue University was established in 1869, the Indiana General Assembly created a Board of Trustees having, by law, full governance and control of the university. The first hearings are set to commence in April and May, 2006. Below is a selection of the most popular legends. A second lawsuit is being filed against Sony for all of the above, plus claims that defective hardware is damaging media discs. Many of these legends are so outlandish, it is difficult to believe they are still in circulation. [12] Sony chose the latter and, until February 2005, they honored their agreement. Like many institutions with long and rich histories, Purdue University is steeped in legend.

They had the option of either paying the requested fines in damages, or offering free repair and replacements at their discretion. The lyrics are as follows:. As time went on, more and more drives began breaking down and a class action lawsuit was filed against Sony. Elliott Hall of Music. The second fix involved the use of an oscillator. The University Choir first performed the hymn in 1943, during convocation in the Edward C. This usually didn't matter, as the warranty had already expired by the time such problems began to appear. The lyrics and music were written by Alfred Kirchhoff in 1941.

The first problem was relatively easy to remedy, but it required opening the machine's casing and tweaking a cog that controlled the lens' distance from the discs it was supposed to read, thus voiding the warranty. In 1993 the Purdue Board of Trustees approved the "Purdue Hymn" as the official alma mater of the university. The earliest drives suffered from a constantly misaligning laser lens but later defects were the result of a shift in voltage to the laser itself. The lyrics of the refrain are:. Owners of early PS2 models purchased from launch until spring 2002 commonly reported faulty optical drives in their consoles. The official fight song of Purdue University, “Hail Purdue!”, was composed in 1912 by alumni Edward Wotawa (music) and James Morrison (lyrics) as the "Purdue War Song." "Hail Purdue" was copyrighted in 1913 and dedicated to the Varsity Glee Club. Early versions of the Playstation 2 could be networked via an iLink port, though this had little game support and was dropped.
. The distinctive colors were inspired by those of Princeton University, at the time the leader in college football, whose colors were black and orange.

Unlike the original Playstation, which required that the user use an official Sony Playstation mouse to play mouse-compatible games, the few Playstation 2 games with mouse support work with standard PC-compatible USB mice. Purdue University adopted its school colors, Old Gold and Black, in the fall of 1887. Optional hardware include additional controllers ,a DVD remote control, a hard disk, an Ethernet adapter, memory cards, and various cables and interconnects: Multitap, YPbPr, S-Video, RGB SCART and composite video cables, RF modulator, USB camera ("EyeToy"), keyboard, mouse and a Headset. The seal is generally reserved for more formal usage than the logos of the Boilermaker Special, or Purdue Pete, although a different seal composed of a stylized P surrounded by a circle appears on diplomas. The fact that the design didn't change pleased some consumers who were already used to the PS1 controller, however, it disappointed others who were hoping for a more ergonomic design (the two analogue sticks being as they are in an awkward-to-use position for the thumbs to operate). The words 'Purdue University' are set in Uncial typeface above the griffin, and below the three-part shield represents the three stated aims of the university: education, research, and service. The PS2's controller is largely identical to the PlayStation's, with the same basic functionality; however, it includes analog pressure sensitivity on the face and shoulder buttons, is lighter and includes two more levels of vibration. The seal features a stylized griffin, which in medieval heraldry symbolizes strength.

Main articles: DualShock, PlayStation 2 Expansion Bay. The seal, designed by Purdue professor Al Gowan, replaced one that had been used informally for more than 70 years. [citation needed]
. In 1969 the Purdue University Board of Trustees approved the official seal of Purdue as part of the university’s centennial celebration. However, the new Japanese slim models have more issues with playing PlayStation games than the first PS2 revisions. The inflatable mascot, made of parachute material, stands nearly 10 feet (3 meters) tall, and represents a young boy who hopes to become a Purdue Boilermaker. Later hardware revisions had better compatibility with PlayStation games (Metal Gear Solid: VR Missions works on most silver models). Purdue's newest symbol, Rowdy, was introduced in 1997 during the first home football game of the season.

The machine's future continues to be uncertain, with North American and European launches considered to be distant if at all. As a matter of tradition, the modern mallet-wielding Boilermaker character always appears in a #1 jersey. The device was poorly received, with some major features absent from the first revisions of the hardware, and has thus far experienced very weak sales in Japan, in spite of major price drops [11]. By 1956 Purdue Pete was at the center of activity at Boilermaker athletic events, as entertainer and energizer. Sony has also made a PVR/DVD burning consumer device that plays PlayStation 2 games called the PSX. Eventually, the popularity of the image grew among the Purdue community, and the advertisement evolved into a full character, complete with costume and mallet. It also has a different lens and some compatibility issues documented by Sony for earlier PS2 games. Pete was originally developed in 1940 as an advertising logo for the University Bookstore.

There is also now a V14 model (SCPH-75001) which contains an integrated EE and GS (disputed ), and different ASICs compared to previous revisions, some chips having a copyright date of 2005 compared to 2000 or 2001 for earlier models. Though not the official mascot, Purdue Pete is one of the most recognized symbols of Purdue University. It is unknown whether or not this will follow the color schemes of the older model. The latest generation of the mascot, the Boilermaker Special Mark V, was dedicated during the halftime show of the 1993 football game versus Notre Dame at Purdue's Ross-Ade Stadium. A silver edition is available in the United Kingdom and Germany exclusively. The Boilermaker Special, a locomotive, has been the official mascot of Purdue athletics since the 1930s. The new V12 model was first released in black. In the more than 130 years since the founding of the university, several mascots have emerged in support of the Boilermaker athletic teams, including: The Boilermaker Special, Purdue Pete, and more recently, Rowdy.

Currently, most people just use V12 for both models, or V12 for the old model and V13 for the newer one. Before the widespread adoption of ‘Boilermaker,’ Purdue was also sometimes referred to as the home of the "haymakers," the "rail-splitters," the "sluggers," or the "cornfield sailors.". Two propositions were to name the old model (EE and GS, separate chips) V11.5 and the newer model V12, and to name the old model V12 and the newer model V13. Soon afterward, Lafayette newspapers were using the name, and in 1892 the student newspaper announced its approval of the 'boilermaker'. Since the V12 version had already been established for this model, there were some disputes regarding these sub-versions. In 1891, the Purdue football team was first referred to as the "Boiler Makers" by a reporter from Crawfordsville, Indiana, who wrote about the team’s 44-0 victory over local rival Wabash College. One of them includes the old EE and GS chips, and the other contains the newer unified EE+GS chip, otherwise being identical. The name that has become such a big part of the identity of the university has its origins in the words of a nineteenth century sportswriter.

There are also some disputes on the numbering for this PS2 version, since there are actually two sub-versions of the SCPH-70000. Over the years, the name has been applied to Purdue organizations (athletic and otherwise), institutions, and individuals alike, and has come to be the unofficial nickname for all things Purdue, although Boilermaker is the official moniker of the athletics teams and certain other university organizations. It is widely believed that Sony has abandoned support for the hard drive. Since the 1890s, the term ‘Boilermaker’ has been synonymous with Purdue. A product named HD Connect can be soldered into the unit giving hard drive support though. After his first season at Purdue, Tiller was named National Coach of the Year by both Football News and Kickoff magazines, the GTE Region 3 Coach of the Year by the American Football Coaches Association and the Big Ten Dave McClain Coach of the Year. For some consumers this is in fact a limitation, especially for the fans of titles such as Final Fantasy XI, which requires the use of this peripheral, and prevents the use of the official PS2 Linux kit. The team has made a bowl appearance every year of Tiller’s leadership except in 2005 after a streak of 8 straight appearances.

Although external USB 2.0 enclosures are affordable the lack of internal hard disk has implicated a problem for users with perhaps little knowledge of the software required to enable the external disk functionality. Before Tiller joined the Boilers as the 33rd head coach in 1996, the team had not seen a bowl game since 1984. Due to its thinner profile, it does not contain the 3.5" expansion bay, and therefore does not support the internal hard disk drive but due to the presence of USB 2.0 ports an external USB Hard disk can still be used, and now uses an external power supply, like the Gamecube. The Boilermaker football team, once a minor player in the conference, has enjoyed a significant resurgence in recent years under the leadership of head coach Joe Tiller. In some markets it also integrates a modem. Coach Keady had the honor of being named in The Sporting News as the best college coach never to make the final four. Available in November 2004, it is smaller and thinner than the old version and includes a built-in Ethernet port. In his years at Purdue, Keady has led the Boilermakers to more than 500 victories.

In September 2004 Sony unveiled the third major hardware revision (V12, model number SCPH-70000). Coach Keady became Purdue's all-time-winningest coach on December 6, 1997. V10 and V11 have minor changes. Men’s former head coach Gene Keady coached his final season with the Boilermakers in the 2004 – 2005 season after 25 years with the Boilermakers. Assembly of the PS2 moved to China with the V9 (model number SCPH-50000/SCPH-50001), which added the Infrared port for the optional DVD Remote Control, removed the widely unused FireWire port, added the capability to read DVD-RW and +RW discs, and a quieter fan. The current coach of the Boilermaker men's basketball team is Matt Painter. V7 and V8 are also similar. The Boilermaker men's and women's basketball teams have won more Big Ten Championships than any other conference school, with 27 conference banners, including a league-leading 21 for the men’s team.

V5 introduces minor internal changes and the only difference between V6 (sometimes called V5.1) and V5 is the orientation of the Power/Reset switch board connector, which was reversed to prevent the use of no-solder modchips. The Boilermakers battle the Hoosiers on the football field each year to win the Old Oaken Bucket, Purdue leads the series first played in 1925, 66-35-6. As of V4 everything was unified into one board, except the power supply. Traditional rivals include Big Ten colleagues the Indiana Hoosiers and the Illinois Fighting Illini, and the Notre Dame Fighting Irish from the Big East Conference. V3 has a substantially different internal structure from the subsequent revisions, featuring several interconnected printed circuit boards. Purdue is a founding member of the Big Ten Conference, and played a central role in its creation. V0 did not have a built-in DVD player and instead relied on an encrypted player that was copied to a memory card from an included CD-ROM (normally, the PS2 will only execute encrypted software from its memory card, but see PS2 Independence Exploit). Purdue is home to 18 Division I/I-A NCAA teams including football, basketball, cross country, tennis, wrestling, golf, volleyball and others.

These included a PCMCIA slot instead of the Expansion Bay (DEV9) port of newer models. Many of the university's other schools have gained repute over the years. V0 was a Japanese model and was never sold in Europe or the US. Purdue University's traditional strengths have been in its world-renowned agriculture and engineering programs. These are colloquially known amongst PlayStation 2 hardware hackers as V0, V1, V2, etc., up to V14 (as of 2005). degrees. The PlayStation 2 has undergone many revisions, some only of internal construction and others with substantial external changes. Over the past ten years, Purdue’s School of Aeronautics and Astronautics has awarded more aerospace engineering degrees than any other institution in the country, issuing 6 percent of all undergraduate degrees and 7 percent of all Ph.D.

It is also possible to listen to MP3 music and watch DivX movies with homebrew programs running in consoles that have a modchip installed or with network software like GameShark's Media Player. The school adopted its present name in 1973. A port of the NetBSD project is also available for the PS2. The programs were popular among returning veterans in the years following World War II, bringing total undergraduate enrollment to 736 students. This was included in a failed attempt to circumvent a UK tax by defining the console as a "computer" if it contained certain software. The school initially offered undergraduate degrees in both aeronautical engineering and the new field of air transportation, and issued its first graduate degrees in 1947. This allows simple programs to be created for the PlayStation 2 by the end-user. Later, other training programs for the war were introduced that eventually lead to the formation of an independent School of Aeronautics in 1945.

In Europe and Australia, the PlayStation 2 comes with a free Yabasic interpreter on the bundled demo disk. As a result of the expansion in technical education prompted by World War II, the aeronautical engineering electives in mechanical engineering were expanded to create a full four-year degree program in 1941 within the newly-rechristened School of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering. (The kit boots by installing a proprietary interface, the Run-time environment which is on a region-coded DVD, so the European and USA kits each only work with a PS2 from that region). Purdue libraries maintain an extensive Earhart collection, which is still studied by those seeking to solve the mystery of her disappearance. However as of July 2005, the European version was still available. Earhart began her fateful transoceanic flight from the Purdue University Airport. Currently, Sony's online store states that the Linux kit is no longer for sale in North America. Purdue also played a central role in Earhart's ill-fated "Flying Laboratory" project, providing funds for the Lockheed L-10 Electra aircraft she intended to fly around the world.

Sony released a version of the Linux operating system for the PS2 in a package that also includes a keyboard, mouse, Ethernet adapter and hard disk drive. Famed aviator Amelia Earhart came to Purdue in 1935 and served as a "Counselor on Careers for Women," a staff position she held until her disappearance in 1937. DNAS will prevent games from being played online if they are determined to be pirated copies, or if they have been modified. In 1930 Purdue became the first university in the country to offer college credit for flight training, and later became the first to open its own airport. The purpose of this system is to prevent piracy and online cheating. Although it would be several years before a separate school would be established, Purdue did begin offering technical electives in aeronautical engineering within the School of Mechanical Engineering in 1921. All newer online PS2 games (since 2003) are protected by the Dynamic Network Authentication System (DNAS). He arrived from Dayton, Ohio with a proposal to establish a School of Aviation Engineering at Purdue.

Xbox Live exclusively requires broadband internet. Haskins became the first alumnus to land an aircraft on campus. Most recent PS2 online games have been developed to exclusively only support broadband internet access. In 1919 George W. However, this comes at a price as any connection can connect to the internet with a PS2, resulting in lag whenever slow connections are present. Clifford Turpin, from the class of 1908, was the first Purdue graduate to become an aviator, and received flight instruction from Orville Wright himself. Instead of having a unified, subscription-based online service like Xbox Live, online multiplayer on the PS2 is split between publishers and run on third-party servers. J.

With the purchase of a separate unit called the Network Adaptor (which is built into the newest system revision), some PS2 games support online multiplayer. The event, sponsored by Purdue alumni, attracted an estimated 17,000 onlookers and enthusiasts, and was the first of many such exhibitions at Purdue. Software for all PlayStation consoles contains one of four region codes: for Japan and Asia: NTSC/J, North America: NTSC-U/C, Europe and Oceania: PAL, and China: NTSC/C[10]. In the summer of 1911 the club hosted Aviation Day, the Lafayette community's first aircraft demonstration. The anomalous failure of the above title at its disk swap screen may have given birth to this rumor. Cicero Veal, professor of mechanical engineering at Purdue, organized the Purdue Aero Club. It is a common misconception that disk swapping in a game (for example, for multi-disk games or expansion packs) is not possible on the PS2. In 1910, Dr.

This problem appears to have been rectified in the slimline versions of the PS2, where most of the previously unplayable PSone games can now be played. Since the earliest days of the University, students, faculty, and staff have played major, and often instrumental, roles in the history of aerospace. A handful of PlayStation titles (notably Metal Gear Solid: Special Missions) fail to run on the PS2 at all (Special Missions fails to recognise Metal Gear Solid at the disk swap screen, for example). Although the School of Aeronautics and Astronautics was not formally established until 1945, Purdue and the greater Lafayette community have a long history in the field of aviation. While the texture smoothing was universally effective (albeit with odd effects where transparent textures are used), faster disk reading could cause some games to fail to load or play correctly. By 1883 enrollment had increased beyond 350, and by the turn of the twentieth century Purdue had begun a period of active expansion: scholarship standards were raised, courses were expanded, and equipment was improved. As an added bonus, the PS2 had the ability to enhance PlayStation games by speeding up disc read time and/or adding texture smoothing to improve graphics. The first female students were admitted to the university in the fall of the same year.

Support for original PlayStation games was also an important selling point for the PS2, letting owners of an older system upgrade to the PlayStation 2 and keep their old software, and giving new users access to older games until a larger library was developed for the new system. Purdue issued its first degree, a Bachelor’s of Science in Chemistry, in 1875. For example, the PS2 will not boot an ISO image from a USB flash drive, but Gran Turismo 4 can save screenshots to one. Classes first began at Purdue on September 16, 1874 with three buildings, six instructors, and 39 students. Note that compatability with USB devices is dependent on the software supporting said USB device. In 1869, it was decided that the college would be founded near the city of Lafayette and established as Purdue University, in the name of the institution’s principal benefactor. (This is assuming the Nuon, an advanced DVD player graphics coprocessor, is not considered a console.) Even then, the Xbox required separate remote accessory to unlock the DVD function and Sony could continue to pitch the PS2 as DVD capable out of the box. The state of Indiana received a gift of $150,000 from John Purdue, a Lafayette business leader and philanthropist (buried at Purdue), along with $50,000 from Tippecanoe County, and 150 acres (.6 km²) of land from Lafayette residents in support of the project.

It was not until late 2001 that the Microsoft Xbox became the second console with (non-standard) USB and DVD support. In 1865, the Indiana General Assembly took advantage of this offer, and began plans to establish such an institution. When it was released, the PS2 had many advanced features that were not present in other contemporary video game consoles, including its DVD capabilities and USB and IEEE 1394 expansion ports. On July 2nd of 1862, President Lincoln signed the Morrill Act into law, offering public lands to any state that would establish and maintain a college for the purpose of teaching agriculture and mechanics. The PS2's Dual Shock 2 controller is essentially an upgraded PS1 Dual Shock; analog face, shoulder and D-pad buttons replaced the digital buttons of the original. The main campus has a consistent enrollment of over 30,000 undergraduate students and of nearly 8,000 graduate students. The PS2 also supports PS1 memory cards (for PS1 game saves only) and controllers as well. Purdue is also home to the state of Indiana's school of veterinary medicine.

The ability to play DVD movies allowed consumers to more easily justify the PS2's relatively high price tag (in October 2000, the MSRP was $300) as it removed the need to buy an external DVD player (indeed, it could be said that the success of the DVD format was partly due to the PS2's ability to play DVDs, as the format seemed to appeal more to consumers after the console's launch). Particularly notable among its numerous research facilities and centers are Discovery Park, the home to its several interdisciplinary programs, and the non-academic Purdue Research Park. It is backwards compatible with older PlayStation (PS1) games, allows for DVD Video playback, and will play PS2 games off cheap CD-ROMs or higher-capacity DVD-ROMs. The campus is well-known for important and groundbreaking contributions in strategic areas. The PS2 hardware can read both compact discs and DVDs. The main campus is particularly noted for its engineering, agriculture, and business administration programs, which are consistently counted among the best. Critically acclaimed games on the machine are the Grand Theft Auto and the ever-popular Final Fantasy (Square Enix) series, the latest two Metal Gear Solid titles, all three Devil May Cry titles, the SSX series, latest three Ace Combat titles, the Square Enix/Disney collaboration Kingdom Hearts, and first-party Sony Computer Entertainment brands such as the Gran Turismo, SOCOM, Ratchet & Clank and Jak and Daxter series, ICO, Shadow of the Colossus, God of War and the Everquest spin-offs Champions of Norrath and Champions: Return to Arms. .

In several cases, Sony made exclusivity deals with publishers in order to pre-empt its competitors.
. Those PS2 titles helped the PS2 maintain and extend its lead in the video game console market, despite increased competition from the launches of the Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube. This main campus in West Lafayette anchors the Purdue University System statewide, which is comprised of regional campuses, satellite technology-training centers, and county agricultural extension offices. Although the launch titles for the PS2 were unimpressive in 2000, the holiday season of 2001 saw the release of several best-selling and critically acclaimed games. Purdue University is a public land-grant university whose primary campus is located in West Lafayette, Indiana on the bluffs above the Wabash River. The PlayStation brand's strength has lead to strong third-party support for the system. See also Purdue University System..

[9]. Purdue University System. The PlayStation 2 holds the record of fastest selling video game console ever, 100 million PlayStation 2 units were shipped in only five years and nine months, shattering the previous record of nine years and six months by the PlayStation. Engineering Projects In Community Service. PS2's opening day console sales eclipsed the previous record of 225,000 made by the Sega Dreamcast in 1999. Purdue University Horticulture Gardens. To this day, the PS2 holds the record for the most consoles sold in a single day as well as the record for most consoles sold in launch day in America. See List of Purdue University people.

With a price of $299.99 per console, Sony made gross sales of roughly $153,000,000. Jischke, 2000-Present. When the PlayStation 2 launched in America in October 26, 2000, Sony sold 510,000 units within the first 24 hours. Martin C. [8]. Beering, 1983-2000. When the PlayStation 2 launched in Japan in March 2000, Sony sold 980,000 units over the opening weekend. Steven C.

[7]. Hicks, acting president, 1982-1983. [6] Shortages in North America were also extremely severe; one retail chain in the U.S., GameStop, had just 186 PS2 and Xbox units on hand across more than 1700 stores on the day before Christmas. John W. During one week in November, sales in the entire country of Britain totalled 6,000 units — compared to 70,000 a few weeks prior. Hansen, 1971-1982. This led to further shortages, and the issue was compounded in Britain when a Russian oil tanker became stuck in the Suez Canal, blocking a ship from China carrying PS2s bound for the UK. Arthur G.

After an apparent manufacturing issue caused some initial slowdown in producing the new unit, Sony reportedly underestimated demand, caused in part by shortages between the time the old units were cleared out and the new units were ready. Hovde, 1946-1971. In preparation for the launch of a new, slimmer PlayStation 2 model (SCPH-70000), Sony had stopped making the older PS2 model (SCPH-5000x) sometime during the summer of 2004 to let the distribution channel empty out stock of the units. Frederick L. In September of that year, in time for the launch of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (the best-selling game during the 2004 Holiday season), Sony revealed a new, smaller PS2 (see Hardware revisions). Potter, acting president, 1945-1946. Despite this, Sony console won the total 2004 sales by 600 thousands units of difference. Andrey A.

Acording to NPD Group the Xbox outsold PS2 during 5 months of 2004: April, July, August, November and December. Elliott, 1922-1945. [5]. Edward C. Its operating income slid to $650 million from $1 billion, losing $25 million in Q4 of 2004. Marshall, acting president, 1921-1922. During that year, game sales fell to $7.5 billion from $8.2 billion. Henry W.

The heavy dependence of Sony on its Computer Entertainment division was shown when dropping PlayStation 2 sales [3] caused the parent's profits to fall 89% [4]. Stone, 1900-1921. Hardware sales remained strong until 2004 saw the console apparently approaching saturation point, causing it to lose the top sales position for a time [2]. Winthrop E. The Xbox Live system (with it's built in capabilities) is however the most successful of the three. James Henry Smart, 1883-1900. As a result, although Sony and Nintendo both started out late and although both followed a decentralized model of online gaming where the responsibility is up to the developer to provide the servers, Sony's attempt was the more successful between the two. White, 1876-1883.

Sony also advertised heavily, and its online model had the advantage of being supported by Electronic Arts. Emerson E. Sony rolled a PS2 online adapter in late 2002 to compete with Microsoft, with several online first party online titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM US Navy SEALS in order to show that Sony was supporting this feature actively. John Hougham, acting president, 1876. Although Sony placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first year, that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Shortridge, 1874-1875. [1]. Abraham C.

Shortly afterwards, Sony also slashed PS2 prices greater than expected in order to maintain momentum and hold off its potential rivals. Richard Owen, 1872-1874. However, the release of several blockbuster games during the 2001 holiday season pushed the PS2 far in front even as the Xbox and GameCube made their impressive debuts. Townsend, of Hartford City, Indiana. Many analysts predicted a close 3-way matchup between the PS2 and its soon-to-be-released competitors Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, noting that the PS2's graphics were inferior but that it had the advantage of a head start, and had a wide assortment of games of every genre (Xbox's strength was in its hardware; GameCube was the cheapest of the 3 consoles). Mark W. Later, Sony gained steam with new development kits for game developers and more PlayStations for consumers. Thomas Spurgeon, of Peoria, Illinois.

Another major selling point over the Dreamcast was the PlayStation 2's ability to play DVDs, which gained it a presence in electronics stores which did not formerly sell video game consoles. Powers, of Gary, Indiana. This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation. Mamon M. Yet, the PS2 initially sold well solely on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and its backwards compatibility, selling over 900,000 units in the first weekend in Japan. Peterson, of Rochester, Indiana. The PS2 launch seemed unimpressive and gaffe-prone, compared to the well-planned launch of the Sega Dreamcast, which was making a genuine attempt to woo developers and which had better launch titles. Robert E.

Developers also complained that it was difficult to develop for the system, with little in the way of reference material from Sony for its exotic architecture. William Oesterle, of Indianapolis, Indiana. The PlayStation 2 was such a hot item after its release that it was near impossible to find one on retailer shelves, leaving those wanting a PlayStation 2 to either wait or purchase the console online at sites such as eBay, where the console was being sold by many people for twice and sometimes five times as much as the manufacturer's listed price. Edmondson, of Clayton, Indiana. Only a few million users had obtained consoles by the end of 2000 due to manufacturing delays. Barbara H. . Rachel Cumberbatch, of Lebanon, Indiana.

The PS2 is part of the sixth generation era, and has become the fastest selling gaming console in history, with over 100 million units shipped by November 2005, beating the previous record holder, the PlayStation, by three years and nine months. Birck, of Hinsdale, Illinois. It was released in Europe on November 24, 2000. Michael J. Its development was announced in March 1999, and it was first released in Japan on March 4, 2000 and in North America and Puerto Rico on October 26, 2000. Hardin, Vice Chairman, of Danville, Indiana. The PlayStation 2 (PS2) (Japanese: プレイステーション2) is Sony's second video game console, the successor to the PlayStation and the predecessor to the PlayStation 3. John D.

NT$ 5,888 (November 3, 2004, SCPH-70007). Timothy McGinley, Chairman, of Indianapolis, Indiana. NT$ 5,888 (June 1, 2004, SCPH-50007). J. NT$ 6,480 (January 1, 2004, SCPH-50007). Though this story cannot be corroborated, it has been a favorite folk legend among some of the administration. NT$ 6,980 (October 10, 2003, SCPH-50007). According to the legend, the coaches gathered a number of boilermakers from the Monon Railroad Shops, enrolled them in one class each, and added them to the team.

NT$ 6,980 (2003, SCPH-39007). The legend tells of two Purdue football coaches that would not accept the scrawny volunteers that came out for the team. NT$ 7,980 (January 1, 2003, SCPH-30007). Another legend purports to offer an explanation of the Boilermaker moniker. NT$10,900 (January 24, 2002, SCPH-30007, Launch Price). In recent years due to rennovation, this has been removed. JP¥17,800 (June 2004). A series of smokestacks on top of a building were arranged in such a way that it looked like an upraised finger was being shown in the general direction of Indiana University.

JP¥19,800 (November 13, 2003). Another legend was of John Purdue's finger. JP¥25,000 (2002). A particle accelerator is underground in the physics building, and does extend into the general vicinity of the fountain. JP¥29,800 (November 29, 2001). It generates a small amount of energy, comparable to the amount of energy to run a hair dryer or toaster. JP¥35,000 (June 29, 2001). There is a nuclear reactor, but it is in the Electrical Engineering building.

JP¥39,800 (March 2000, Launch Price). This has some semblance of truth. US$149.99 (May 11, 2004). The reactor is cooled by the Engineering fountain. US$179.99 (May 13, 2003). According to some stories there is a nuclear reactor underground, which powers the entire campus. US$199.99 (May 14, 2002). These, of course, are also untrue.

US$299.99 (October 26, 2000, Launch Price). The legends range from silly to macabre and many involve students from rival Indiana University participating in grave robbing and other acts of desecration. 4.7GB capacity, a few are DVD-9 (8.5 GB). There are also a number of legends that periodically circulate on campus that involve benefactor John Purdue’s grave, which is located on campus per his final requests. Disc Media: DVD-ROM (CD-ROM compatible) with copy protection. In fact, the new tower includes bells from the original Bell Tower, which was demolished in 1956. Interface Types: 2 proprietary PlayStation controller ports (250KHz clock for PS1 and 500KHz for PS2 controllers), 2 proprietary Memory Card slots using MagicGate encryption (250KHz for PS1 cards, up to 2MHz for PS2 cards -may be just 1MHz, please, confirmate it-), Expansion Bay (DEV9 or PCMCIA on early models) port for Network Adaptor, Modem and Hard Disk Drive, IEEE 1394 (2), Infrared remote control port (2), and 2 USB 1.1 ports with an OHCI-compatible controller. However, inside the modern Bell Tower are a computerized carillon, and an electronic clock.

Connection to: SPU and CD/DVD controller. Project leaders supposedly had a speaker system installed to imitate the sound of ringing bells. Sub Bus: 32 Bit. The legend claims that when construction of the tower was completed in 1995 it was discovered that the tower was structurally flawed, and as a result the bells could not ring without risking collapse. CPU Core: Original PlayStation CPU (MIPS R3000A clocked at 33.8688 MHz or 37.5 MHz). One of the more bizarre, yet most commonly heard, legends on campus concerns the integrity of the Purdue Bell Tower. I/O Processor

    . It is of interest to note that these buildings are considered "off-campus" by many of the students, due to their location in an area which is surrounded primarily by local business.

    Sampling Frequency: 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz (selectable). Although both buildings on the West Lafayette campus are made of limestone, both had brick included in their foundations in keeping with the 'red brick' tradition. Number of voices: 48 hardware channels of ADPCM on SPU2 plus software-mixed channels. Although this claim cannot be substantiated, it is apparently contradicted by two university buildings: Krannert and Rawls halls. Sound: "SPU1+SPU2" (SPU1 is actually the CPU)

      . A legend connected with benefactor John Purdue asserts that he owned the local brickyard, and that his donation carried the stipulation that all permanent university buildings must be built of red brick or his entire gift reverts to Purdue's heirs. Dedicated connection to: Main CPU and VU1. Purdue and Indiana University rigged up the first supercomputer network in the nation to tie together university-owned computers with a combined peak capacity of more than one teraflop.

      Maximum Polygon Rate: 75 million polygons per second (1). Although not academic, Purdue's research park was ranked first by the Association of University Research Parks in 2004[4]. Pixel Configuration: RGB:Alpha:Z Buffer (24:8, 15:1 for RGB, 16, 24, or 32-bit Z buffer). Purdue was the birthplace of the nation’s first academic program in computer science in 1962[3]. DRAM Bus width: 2560-bit (composed of three independendent buses: 1024-bit write, 1024-bit read, 512-bit read/write). Its technology education program ranks first in the nation[2]. DRAM Bus bandwidth: 47.0GB per second. Purdue's College of Technology is the largest producer of engineering technology graduates among public universities in the United States.

      Graphics: "Graphics Synthesizer" clocked at 147 MHz

        . Purdue's School of Nuclear Engineering ranks 4th by US News & World Report. Cache Memory: Instruction: 16KB, Data: 8KB + 16 KB (ScrP). The School of Industrial Engineering was 3rd by US News & World Report. I/O Processor interconnection: Remote Procedure Call over a serial link, DMA controller for bulk transfer. Purdue's landscape and architecture design program ranks 2nd in the nation. Compressed Image Decoder: MPEG-2. Purdue's industrial/manufacturing program ranks 2nd in the nation.

        3D CG Geometric Transformation: 66 million polygons per second (1). Purdue's College of Engineering ranks 8th in the nation by US News & World Report. Floating Point Performance: 6.2 GFLOPS (single precission 32-bit floating point). Krannert School of Management's MBA was ranked 1st by regional corporate recruiters in the Wall Street Journal[1]. Vector Units: VU0 and VU1 (Floating Point Multiply Accumulator × 9, Floating Point Divider × 1), 128 bit. Krannert School of Management ranks 8th among public universities according to Business Week. Co-Processor: FPU (Floating Point Multiply Accumulator × 1, Floating Point Divider × 1). 1 nationally by a survey published in the Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education.

        Main processor: MIPS R5900 CPU core, 64 bit. Purdue University's hospitality and tourism management undergraduate program has been ranked No. Memory Bus Bandwidth: 3.2 GB per second. System Memory: 32 MB Direct Rambus or RDRAM (note that some computers use this type of RAM). CPU: 128 bit "Emotion Engine" clocked at 294 MHz (later versions 299 MHz), 10.5 million transistors

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