Phat Farm

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Phat Farm is an urban fashion line created by Russell Simmons, the founder of Def Jam in 1992. The brand is fairly expensive and worn for fashion instead of sport. The broken flag logo visible on every clothing article except footwear is touted as a symbol of the state of separation the world is in right now. Some Phat Farm articles are political.

Simmons sold his interest in Phat Farm for 140 million dollars in 2004.

Store Location- 129 Prince Street New York NY

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Store Location- 129 Prince Street New York NY. The Unicode standard defines 8 characters for card suits in the Miscellaneous Symbols block, from U+2660 to U+2667:

. Simmons sold his interest in Phat Farm for 140 million dollars in 2004. The standard 54-card deck is also commonly known as a poker deck or—in Japan—a Trump deck, to differentiate it from "dedicated" card games such as UNO, or other dynamic card decks like Hanafuda and Kabufuda. Some Phat Farm articles are political. Among the games played with this deck are: el mus (a very popular and highly regarded vying game of Basque origin), la brisca, el tute (with many variations), el guiñote, la escoba (a trick-taking game), el julepe, el cinquillo, las siete y media, la mona, el truc (or truco), and el cuajo (a matching game from the Philippines). The broken flag logo visible on every clothing article except footwear is touted as a symbol of the state of separation the world is in right now. The Spanish deck is used not only in Spain, but also in other countries where Spain maintained an influence (e.g., the Philippines and Puerto Rico) 1.

The brand is fairly expensive and worn for fashion instead of sport. Many Spanish games involve forty-card decks, with the 8s and 9s removed. Phat Farm is an urban fashion line created by Russell Simmons, the founder of Def Jam in 1992. The three court or face cards in each suit are as follows: la sota ("the knave", jack or page, numbered 10 and equivalent to the Anglo-French card J), el caballo ("the horse", horseman, knight or cavalier, numbered 11 and used instead of the Anglo-French card Q; note the original Tarot deck has both a cavalier and a queen of each suit, while the Anglo-French deck dropped the former, and the Spanish deck dropped the latter), and finally el rey ("the king", numbered 12 and equivalent to the Anglo-French card K). The cards (naipes or cartas in Spanish) are all numbered, but unlike in the standard Anglo-French deck, the card numbered 10 is the first of the court cards (instead of a card depicting ten coins/cups/swords/batons); so each suit has only twelve cards. Apart from its characteristic icon, each suit can also be identified by a pattern of interruptions in the horizontal sections of the quadrangular line that frames each card (this pattern is known as la pinta): none for oros, one for copas, two for espadas and three for bastos.

Being a Latin-suited deck (like the Italian deck), it is organized into four palos (suits) that closely match those of the Tarot deck: oros ("golds" or coins, cf. the Tarot suit of pentacles), copas (cups), espadas (swords) and bastos (batons or clubs, cf. the Tarot suit of wands). However, like most other decks derived from it, the Spanish deck kept only the minor arcana (with the exception of the 10s and the queen of each suit, which were dropped), while all of the major arcana from the Tarot deck were discarded. The traditional Spanish deck (referred to as baraja española in Spanish) is a direct descendant of the Tarot deck. Example: "Triestine" playing cards manufactured by Modiano.

The cards' value is determined by identifying the face card or counting the number of suit characters. Unlike Anglo-American cards, Italian cards do not have any numbers (or letters) identifying their value. The face cards are:. The suits are coins (sometimes suns or sunbursts), swords, cups and clubs (sometimes batons), and each suit contains an ace (or one), numbers two through seven, and three face cards.

Hundreds of different designs are in use in different parts of the country (about one per province). Italian playing cards most commonly consist of a deck of 40 cards. Explanations of these games can be found at The Card Games Website. Games that are played with this deck including Ulti, Snapszer (or 66), Zsírozás, Preferansz and Lórum.

Interesting that he have chosen the characters of a Swiss drama as his characters for his over and under cards, however if he would have chosen Hungarian heroes or freedom fighters, his deck of cards would have never made it into distribution, due to the heavy censorship of the goverment at the time. It was long believed that the card was invented in Vienna at the Card Painting Workshop of Ferdinand Piatnik, however in 1974 the very first deck was found in an English Private Collection, and it has shown the name of the inventor and creator of deck as Schneider József, a Master Card Painter at Pest, and the date of its creation as 1837. The characters of the Under and Over cards were taken from the drama, William Tell, written by Schiller in 1804, that was shown at Kolozsvár (today Cluj-Napoca) in 1827. The Aces show the four seasons: the ace of hearts is spring, the ace of bells is summer, the ace of leaves is autumn and the ace of acorns is winter.

The numbering includes VII, VIII, IX, X, Under, Over, King and Ace. It is a 32 card deck, its four colors include hearts, bells, leaves and acorns. The Hungarian Card was born in the times before the 1848-49 Hungarian Freedom Fights, when revolutionary movements were awakening all over in Europe. example Old German playing cards as produced by Altenburger Spielkartenfabrik.

Therefore, many "French" decks in Germany now have yellow or orange diamonds and green spades. After the reunification a compromise deck was created, with French symbols, but German colors. In the game Skat, Eastern Germany players used the German deck, while players in western Germany mainly used the French deck. Many southern Germans and Austrians prefer decks with hearts, bells, leaves, and acorns (for hearts, diamonds, spades, and clubs), as mentioned above.

German and Austrian suits may have different appearances. Tens may be either abbreviated to T or written as 10. Shorthand notation may list the rank first "A♠" (as is typical when discussing poker) or list the suit first (as is typical in listing several cards in bridge) "♠AKQ". When giving the full written name of a specific card, the rank is given first followed by the suit, e.g., "Ace of Spades".

Some decks use four colors for the suits in order to make it easier to tell them apart: the most common set of colors is black (spades ), red (hearts ), blue (diamonds ) and green (clubs ). Many decks have large indices, largely for use in stud poker games, where being able to read cards from a distance is a benefit and hand sizes are small. Many casino decks and solitaire decks have four indices instead of the usual two. Casino blackjack decks may include markings intended for a machine to check the ranks of cards, or shifts in rank location to allow a manual check via inlaid mirror.

Some decks include additional design elements. 44mm × 66mm) for solitaire and larger ones for card tricks. Other sizes are also available, such as a smaller size (usually 1¾in × 2⅝in, approx. Interestingly, in most casino poker games, the bridge sized card is used.

56mm × 87mm), the latter being more suitable for games such as bridge in which a large number of cards must be held concealed in a player's hand. The most common sizes for playing cards are poker size (2½in × 3½in; 62mm × 88mm, or B8 size according to ISO 216) and bridge size (2¼in × 3½in, approx. They merely differentiate one court card from another and have also become distorted over time. Similarly the objects carried by the court cards have no significance.

The King Of Hearts did originally have a moustache but it was lost by poor copying of the original design. Other oddities such as the lack of a moustache on the King of Hearts also have little significance. However the Rouen cards were so badly copied in England that the current designs are gross distortions of the originals. In these early cards the Jack of Spades, Jack of Hearts and the King of Diamonds are shown from the rear, with their heads turned back over the shoulder so that they are seen in profile.

They stem from designs produced in Rouen before 1516 and by 1540-67 these Rouen designs show well-executed pictures in the court cards with the typical court costumes of the time. However the Kings, Queens and Jacks of standard Anglo/American cards today do not represent anyone. The United States Playing Card Company suggests that in the past, the King of Hearts was Charlemange, the King of Diamonds was Julius Caesar, the King of Clubs was Alexander the Great, and the King of Spades was the Biblical King David. For example, the Queen of Hearts is believed by some to be a representation of Elizabeth of York - the Queen consort of King Henry VII of England.

There are theories about who the court cards represent. The Queen of Spades appears to hold a scepter and is sometimes known as "the bedpost queen.". The Ace of Spades, unique in its large, ornate spade, is sometimes said to be the death card, and in some games is used as a trump card. The king of Diamonds is sometimes referred to as "the man with the ax" because of this.

The King of Diamonds is armed with an ax while the other three kings are armed with swords. The king of hearts is shown with a sword behind his head, leading to the nickname "suicide king". Another such variation, "deuces, aces, one-eyed faces," is used to indicate aces, twos, the jack of hearts, the jack of spades, and the king of diamonds are wild. When deciding which cards are to be made wild in some games, the phrase, "acey, deucey, one-eyed jack," is sometimes used, which means that aces, twos, and the one-eyed jacks are all wild.

The jack of spades and jack of hearts are drawn in profile, while the rest of the courts are shown in full face (the exception being the King of Diamonds), leading to the former being called the "one-eyed" jacks. Though specific design elements of the court cards are rarely used in game play, a few are notable. The packs were also sealed with a government duty wrapper. Until August 4, 1960, decks of playing cards printed and sold in the United Kingdom were liable for taxable duty and the Ace of Spades carried an indication of the name of the printer and the fact that taxation had been paid on the cards.

The fanciful design and manufacturer's logo commonly displayed on the Ace of Spades began under the reign of James I of England, who passed a law requiring an insignia on that card as proof of payment of a tax on local manufacture of cards. Modern playing cards carry index labels on opposite corners (rarely, all four corners) to facilitate identifying the cards when they overlap. Two (sometimes one or four) Jokers, often distinguishable with one being more colorful than the other, are included in commercial decks but many games require one or both to be removed before play. Each suit includes an ace, depicting a single symbol of its suit; a king, queen, and jack, each depicted with a symbol of its suit; and ranks two through ten, with each card depicting that many symbols (pips) of its suit.

The primary deck of fifty-two playing cards in use today, called Anglo-American playing cards, includes thirteen ranks of each of the four French suits, spades (), hearts (), diamonds () and clubs (), with reversible Rouennais court cards. The context for these stories is sometimes given to suggest that the interpretation is a joke, generally being the purported explanation given by someone caught with a deck of cards in order to suggest that their intended purpose was not gambling (Urban Legends Reference Pages article). Popular legend holds that the composition of a deck of cards has religious, metaphysical or astronomical significance: typical numerological elements of the explanation are that the four suits represent the four seasons, the 13 cards per suit are the 13 phases of the lunar cycle, black and red are for day and night, and finally, if the value of each card is added up - and 1 is added, which is generally explained away as being for a single joker - the result is 365, the number of days in a year. An example of what the old cardboard product was like is documented in Buster Keaton's silent comedy The Navigator, in which the forlorn comic tries to shuffle and play cards during a rainstorm.

In the twentieth century, a means for coating cards with plastic was invented, and has taken over the market, producing a durable product. Many manufacturers use them to carry trademark designs. Unlike face cards, the design of jokers varies widely. The two jokers are often differentiated as "Big" and "Little," or more commonly, "Red" and "Black." In many card games the jokers are not used.

In contemporary decks, one of the two jokers is often more colorful or more intricately detailed than the other, though this feature is not used in most card games. Although the joker card often bears the image of a fool, which is one of the images of the Tarot deck, it is not believed that there is any relation. Created for the Alsatian game of Euchre, it spread to Europe from America along with the spread of Poker. The joker is an American innovation.

This innovation required abandoning some of the design elements of the earlier full-length courts. Before this, other players could often get a hint of what other players' hands contained by watching them reverse their cards. Reversible court cards meant that players would not be tempted to make upside-down court cards right side up. This was followed by the innovation of reversible court cards.

The use of indices changed the formal name of the lowest court card to Jack. All Fours was considered a low-class game, so the use of the term Jack at one time was considered vulgar. However, from the 1600s on the Knave had often been termed the Jack, a term borrowed from the game All Fours where the Knave of trumps is termed the Jack. Before this time, the lowest court card in an English deck was officially termed the Knave, but its abbreviation ("Kn") was too similar to the King ("K").

Corner and edge indices appeared in the mid-1800s, which enabled people to hold their cards close together in a fan with one hand (instead of the two hands previously used). Another dicing term, trey (3), sometimes shows up in playing card games. The term "Ace" itself comes from a dicing term in Anglo-Norman language, which is itself derived from the Latin as (the smallest unit of coinage). This concept may have been hastened in the late 1700s by the French Revolution, where games began being played "ace high" as a symbol of lower classes rising in power above the royalty.

However, as early as the late 1400s special significance began to be placed on the nominally lowest card, now called the Ace, so that it sometimes became the highest card and the Two, or Deuce, the lowest. In early games the kings were always the highest card in their suit. Oddly, the Parisian names have become more common in modern use, even with cards of Rouennais design. Parisian tradition uses the same names, but assigns them to different suits: the kings of spades, hearts, diamonds, and clubs are David, Charles, Caesar, and Alexander; the queens are Pallas, Judith, Rachel, and Argine; the knaves are Ogier, La Hire, Hector, and Judas Maccabee.

The queens are Pallas (warrior goddess; equivalent to the Greek Athena or Roman Minerva), Rachel (biblical mother of Joseph), Argine (the origin of which is obscure; it is an anagram of regina, which is Latin for queen), and Judith (from Book of Judith). The knaves (or "jacks"; French "valet") are Hector (prince of Troy), La Hire (comrade-in-arms to Joan of Arc), Ogier (a knight of Charlemagne), and Judas Maccabeus (who led the Jewish rebellion against the Syrians). Rouen courts are traditionally named as follows: the kings of spades, hearts, diamonds, and clubs are David, Alexander, Caesar, and Charles (Charlemagne), respectively. It is likely that the Rouennais cards were popular imports in England, establishing their design as standard there, though other designs became more popular in Europe (particularly in France, where the Parisian design became standard).

A prolific manufacturing center in the 1500s was Rouen, which originated many of the basic design elements of court cards still present in modern decks. Early court cards were elaborate full-length figures; the French in particular often gave them the names of particular heroes and heroines from history and fable. Court cards have likewise undergone some changes in design and name. However this may be, it seems certain that the earliest cards commonly used in this country were of the same kind, with respect to the marks of the suits, as those used in Italy and Spain.".

"If cards were actually known in Italy and Spain in the latter part of the 14th century, it is not unlikely that the game was introduced into this country by some of the English soldiers who had served under Hawkwood and other free captains in the wars of Italy and Spain. This confusion of names and symbols is accounted for by Chatto thus:. In England the French suits were used, and are named hearts, clubs (corresponding to trèfle, the French symbol being joined to the Italian name, bastoni), spades (corresponding to the French pique, but having the Italian name, spade=sword) and diamonds. The trèfle, so named for its resemblance to the trefoil leaf, was probably copied from the acorn; the pique similarly from the leaf of the German suits, while its name derived from the sword of the Italian suits (alternative opinion: derived from the German word "Spaten", which is a tool like "Schüppe" and in optical sense similar to the Pique-sign; "Schüppe" is a German slang-name for Pique) [5].

These suits have generally prevailed because decks using them could be made more cheaply; the former suits were all drawings which had to be reproduced by woodcuts, but the French suits could be made by stencil. The four suits (hearts, diamonds, spades, clubs) now used in most of the world originated in France, approximately in 1480. This probably came about in the 1780s, when occult philosophers [ mistakenly associated the symbols on Tarot cards with Egyptian hieroglyphs. While originally (and still in some places, notably Europe) used for the game of Tarocchi, the Tarot deck today is more often used for cartomancy and other occult practices.

It is likely that the Tarot deck was invented in Italy at that time, though it is often mistakenly believed to have been imported into Europe by Gypsies (see detailed studies, also the article Tarot). Later Italian and Spanish cards of the 15th century used swords, batons, cups, and coins. The cards manufactured by German printers used in the later standard the suits of hearts, bells, leaves, and acorns still present in Eastern and Southeastern German decks today used for Skat and other games, in the very early time suits took many vary variations, however. Suits also varied; many makers saw no need to have a standard set of names for the suits, so early decks often had different suit names (typically 4 suits, although 5 suits also habd been common and other structures are also known).

Throughout the 1400s, 56-card decks containing a King, Queen, Knight, and Valet were common. In an early surviving German pack (dated in the 1440s), Queens replace Kings in two of the suits as the highest card. Queens were introduced in a number of different ways. Europeans changed the court cards to represent European royalty and attendants, originally "king", "chevalier", and "knave" (or "servant").

The Europeans experimented with the structure of playing cards, particularly in the 1400s. The German Brief maler or card-painter probably progressed into the wood engraver; but there is no proof that the earliest wood engravers were the card-makers. However, in this period professional card makers were established in Germany, so it is probable that wood engraving was employed to produce cuts for sacred subjects before it was applied to cards, and that there were hand-painted and stencilled cards before there were wood engravings of saints. No playing cards engraved on wood exist whose creation can be confirmed as early 1423 (the earliest-dated wood engraving generally accepted).

Many early woodcuts were colored using a stencil, so it would seem that the art of depicting and coloring figures by means of stencil plates was well known when wood engraving was first introduced. If the assumption is true that the cards of that period were printed from wood blocks, the early card makers or cardpainters of Ulm, Nuremberg, and Augsburg, from about 1418 to 1450 [4], were most likely also wood engravers. It is possible that the art of wood engraving, which led to the art of printing, developed because of the demand for implements of play. However, this was quite expensive, so other means were needed to mass-produce them.

It is clear that the earliest cards were executed by hand, like those designed for Charles VI. An early mention of a distinct series of playing cards is the entry of Charles or Charbot Poupart, treasurer of the household of Charles VI of France, in his book of accounts for 1392 or 1393, which records payment for the painting of three sets or packs of cards, which were evidently already well known. In the account-books of Johanna, duchess of Brabant, and her husband, Wenceslaus of Luxemburg, there is an entry dated May 14, 1379 as follows: "Given to Monsieur and Madame four peters, two forms, value eight and a half moutons, wherewith to buy a pack of cards". A Paris ordinance dated 1369 does not mention cards; its 1377 update includes cards.

The first widely accepted references to cards are in 1371 in Spain, in 1377 in Switzerland, and, in 1380, they are referenced in many locations including Florence, Paris, and Barcelona [2] [3]. In the late 1300s, the use of playing cards spread rapidly across Europe. Regardless, the Indian cards have many distinctive features: they are round, generally hand painted with intricate designs, and comprise more than four suits (often as many as twelve). It is not known whether these cards influenced the design of the Indian cards used for the game of Ganjifa, or whether the Indian cards may have influenced these.

There is some evidence to suggest that this deck may have evolved from an earlier 48-card deck that had only two court cards per suit, and some further evidence to suggest that earlier Chinese cards brought to Europe may have travelled to Persia, which then influenced the Mameluke and other Egyptian cards of the time before their reappearance in Europe. Mayer in the Topkapi Sarayi Museum, Istanbul, in 1939 [1]; this particular complete pack was not made before 1400, but the complete deck allowed matching to a private fragment dated to the twelfth or thirteenth century. A complete pack of Mameluke playing cards was discovered by L.A. The Mameluke court cards showed abstract designs not depicting persons (at least not in any surviving specimens) though they did bear the names of military officers.

Each suit contained ten "spot" cards (cards identified by the number of suit symbols or "pips" they show) and three "court" cards named malik (King), nā'ib malik (Viceroy or Deputy King), and thānī nā'ib (Second or Under-Deputy). In particular, the Mameluke deck contained 52 cards comprising four "suits": polo sticks, coins, swords, and cups. It is likely that the ancestors of modern cards arrived in Europe from the Mamelukes of Egypt in the late 1300s, by which time they had already assumed a form very close to those in use today. Passages have been quoted from various works, of or relative to this period, but modern research leads to the supposition that the word rendered cards has often been mistranslated or interpolated.

Boccaccio, Chaucer and other writers of that time specifically refer to various games, but there is not a single passage in their works that can be fairly construed to refer to cards. If cards were generally known in Europe as early as 1278, it is very remarkable that Petrarch, in his dialogue that treats gaming, never once mentions them. The 38th canon of the council of Worcester (1240) is often quoted as evidence of cards having been known in England in the middle of the 13th century; but the games de rege et regina there mentioned are now thought to more likely have been chess. The time and manner of the introduction of cards into Europe are matters of dispute.

The Chinese word pái (牌) is used to describe both paper cards and gaming tiles. The designs on modern Mahjong tiles and dominoes likely evolved from those earliest playing cards. Wilkinson suggests in The Chinese origin of playing cards that the first cards may have been actual paper currency which were both the tools of gaming and the stakes being played for. These were represented by ideograms, with numerals of 2-9 in the first three suits and numerals 1-9 in the "tens of myriads".

Ancient Chinese "money cards" have four "suits": coins (or cash), strings of coins (which may have been misinterpreted as sticks from crude drawings), myriads of strings, and tens of myriads. The origin of playing cards is obscure, but it is almost certain that they began in China after the invention of paper. . In most games, the cards are assembled into a "deck" (or "pack"), and their order is randomized by a procedure called "shuffling" to provide an element of chance in the game.

One side of each card (the "front" or "face") carries markings that distinguish it from the others and determine its use under the rules of the particular game being played, while the other side (the "back") is identical for all cards, usually a plain color or abstract design. Specialty and novelty decks are commonly produced for collectors, often with political, cultural, or educational themes. They are also a popular collectible (as distinct from the cards made specifically for collectible trading card games). As a result, their use sometimes meets with disapproval from some religious groups (such as conservative Christians).

Playing cards are often used as props in magic tricks, as well as occult practices such as cartomancy, and a number of card games involve (or can be used to support) gambling. A complete set of cards is a pack or deck. A playing card is a typically hand-sized rectangular (in India, round) piece of heavy paper or thin plastic used for playing card games. Rodolfo, Gács Rezső.

Jeff Wessmiller. Dai Vernon. Juan Tamariz. John Scarne.

Darwin Ortiz. Jeff McBride. Ed Marlo. René Lavand.

Larry Jennings. Ricky Jay. Guy Hollingworth. Brother John Hamman.

Lennart Green. Erdnase. W. S.

Alex Elmsley. Daryl. Mike Caro. David Blaine.

Michael Ammar. Allan Ackerman. Aladin. Jack - a younger man standing, without a crown.

Knight - a man sitting on a horse. King - a man standing, wearing a crown.

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