Wright brothers

(Redirected from Orville Wright)

The Wright brothers, Orville Wright (August 19, 1871 - January 30, 1948) and Wilbur Wright (April 16, 1867 - May 30, 1912), are generally credited with the design and construction of the first practical aeroplane, and making the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones. However, their accomplishments have been subject to many counter-claims by some people and nations at their start, and through to the present day.

Early career and research

Wilbur Wright was born in Millville, Indiana in 1867, Orville in Dayton, Ohio in 1871. Both received high school educations but no diplomas.

The Wright brothers grew up in Dayton, where they opened a bicycle repair, design and manufacturing company (the Wright Cycle Company) in 1892. They used the occupation to fund their growing interest in flight. Drawing on the work of Sir George Cayley, Octave Chanute, Otto Lilienthal and Samuel Pierpont Langley, they began their mechanical aeronautical experimentation in 1899. The brothers extended the technology of flight by emphasizing control of the aircraft (instead of increased power) for taking off into the air. They developed three-axis control and established principles of control still used today.

The Wrights had researched and initially relied upon the aeronautical literature of the day, including Lilienthal's tables; but finding that the Smeaton Coefficient (a variable in the formula for lift and the formula for drag) was wrong, had a wind tunnel built by their employee, Charlie Taylor, and tested over two hundred different wing shapes in it, eventually devising their own tables relating air pressure to wing shape. Their work and projects with bicycles, gears, bicycle motors, and balance (while riding a bicycle), were critical to their success in creating the mechanical airplane.

During their research, the Wrights always worked together, and their contributions to the aeroplane's development are inseparable.

Flights

Toward first flight

First flight, December 17, 1903.

The Wright Brothers were noted for placing the emphasis of their aviation research on navigational control rather than simply lift and propulsion which would make sustained flight practical. To that end, they first made gliders (beginning in 1899), using an intricate system called “wing warping.” If one wing bent one way, it would receive more lift, which would make the plane lift. If they could control how the gliders' wings warped, then it would make flying much easier. To allow warping in the first gliders, they had to keep the front and rear posts that hold up the glider unbraced. The warping was then controlled by wire running through the wings, which led to sticks the flyer held, and he could pull one or the other to make it turn left or right.

In 1900 they went to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina to continue their aeronautical work, choosing Kitty Hawk (specifically a sand dune called Kill Devil Hill) on the advice of a National Weather Service meterologist because of its strong and steady winds and because its remote location afforded the brothers privacy from prying eyes in the highly competitive race to invent a successful heavier-than-air flying machine. They experimented with gliders at Kitty Hawk from 1900 through 1902, each year constructing a new glider. Their last glider, the Wright Glider of 1902, applied many important innovations in flight, and the brothers made over a thousand flights with it. On March 23, 1903 they applied for a patent (granted as U.S. patent number 821,393, "Flying-Machine", on May 23, 1906) for the novel technique of controlling lateral movement and turning by "wing warping". By 1903, the Wright Brothers were perhaps the most skilled glider pilots in the world.

USPS stamp depicting the "first flight."

In 1903, they built the Wright Flyer -- later the Flyer I (today popularly known as the Kitty Hawk), carved propellers and had an engine built by Taylor in their bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio. The propellers had an 80% efficiency rate. The engine was superior to manufactured ones, having a low enough weight-to-power ratio to use on an aeroplane. (The chain used in the engine was a bicycle chain, not surprisingly.)

Then on December 17, 1903, the Wrights took to the air, both of them twice. The first flight, by Orville, of 39 meters (120 feet) in 12 seconds, was recorded in a famous photograph. In the fourth flight of the same day, the only flight made that day which was actually controlled, Wilbur Wright flew 279 meters (852 ft) in 59 seconds. [1].

The flights were witnessed by 4 lifesavers and a boy from the village, making it arguably the first public flight. A local newspaper reported the event, inaccurately. Only one other newspaper, the Cincinnati Enquirer, printed the story the next day.

The Flyer I cost less than a thousand dollars to construct. It had a wingspan of 40 feet (12 m), weighed 750 pounds (340 kg), and sported a 12 horsepower (9 kW), 170 pound (77 kg) engine.

Trouble establishing legitimacy

The Wrights established a flying field at Huffman Prairie, near Dayton, and continued work in 1904, building the Flyer II and using a catapult take-off system to compensate for the lack of wind in this location. By the end of the year, the Wright Brothers had sustained 105 flights, some of them of 5 minutes, circling over the prairie, which is now part of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. In 1905, they built an improved aeroplane, the Flyer III.

In 1904 and 1905, the Wright Brothers conducted over 105 flights from Huffman Prairie in Dayton, inviting the press and friends and neighbors. Here they completed the first aerial circle and by October 5, 1905 Wilbur set a record of over 39 minutes in the air and 24 1/2 miles (39 km), circling over Huffman Prairie.

The press was not sympathetic to the Wright Brothers. When a large contingent of journalists arrived at the field in 1904, for instance, the Wrights were experiencing mechanical difficulties, and were unable to correct them within two days. As a result, the first local report of the flights appeared in a beekeeping magazine. The news was not widely known outside of Ohio, and was often met with skepticism. The Paris edition of the Herald Tribune headlined a 1906 article on the Wrights "FLYERS OR LIARS?"

This was reinforced by the fact that the Wright Brothers, wary of the competition stealing their plans, refused to make public demonstrations of their machines or take part in air shows before signing firm contracts with the military. They attempted to sign contracts with the US army, the French army, the English army, and even the German army, but all refused as they had not been shown the flying machine in operation. Thus, ridiculed by the press, the Wright brothers continued their work in semi-obscurity, while other pilot pioneers like Franco-Brazilian pioneer Santos-Dumont or US pioneer Glenn Curtiss were occupying the limelight.

Santos-Dumont received a world triumph after succeeding with the first public take-off, flight, and landing in the history of aviation, flying 60 meters with his Oiseau de proie aircraft during a public demonstration at Bagatelle, on the outskirts of Paris, on October 23, 1906. On November 12 he flew 220 meters. It was a very pale performance compared to the 39 kilometers flown by the Wright Brothers the year before, but at the time the October 23, 1906 flight in Paris was thought to be the first flight of an airplane in human history, as people were unaware or doubtful of the previous flights of the Wright Brothers. As for Glenn Curtiss, he succeeded with America's first public and official airplane flight on July 4, 1908.

Acceptance

Demonstrating flight to the U.S. Army, September 17, 1908.

It is only after they signed a contract with the US Army and a French company that the Wright Brothers accepted to take part in public demonstrations and flying contests. Their first public demonstration was held on August 8, 1908, on the racing track of Le Mans, Sarthe département, France, where Wilbur Wright took the command of the Wright Flyer model A and made a series of technically challenging flights, demonstrating to the world his skills as a pilot as well as the potential of his flying machine, far surpassing all other pilot pioneers. The Wright Brothers became world famous overnight.

Orville Wright followed his brother's success by demonstrating the flyer to the United States Army at Fort Myer, Virginia on September 17, 1908. Thomas Selfridge became the first person killed in a powered airplane on that day (Charlie Furnas had become the first air passenger on May 14), when a propeller failure caused the crash of the passenger-carrying plane Orville was piloting. Orville broke a leg and two ribs. (This was the only serious accident the Wrights suffered.) In late 1908, Madame Hart O. Berg became the first woman to fly when she flew with Wilbur Wright in Le Mans, France.

The French public was thrilled by the feat of Wilbur Wright, and the Wright Brothers were offered the direction of a flying school in the Sarthe département, and later in Pau, southern France, which they accepted. Later, they returned to the United States. On September 29, 1909, one million New-Yorkers witnessed the extraordinary flight of Wilbur Wright above the Hudson River and around the Statue of Liberty, which solidly established the fame of the Wright Brothers in America.

Also in 1909, the Wrights won the first US military aviation contract when they built a machine that met the requirements of a two-seater, capable of flights of an hour's duration, at an average of 40 miles per hour (64 km/h) and land undamaged. $30,000 of the federal budget was reserved for military aviation. That year the Wrights were also building Wright Flyers in factories in Dayton and in Germany.

On October 25, 1910, the Wright Brothers were engaged by Max Moorehouse of Columbus, Ohio to undertake the first commercial air cargo shipment. Moorehouse, owner of Moorehouse-Marten's Department store in Columbus, asked if the Wright Brothers could carry a shipment of silk ribbon from a wholesaler in Dayton to Columbus. The Wright brothers agreed to the proposal, adding that their pilot and airplane would put on an exhibition once the cargo was delivered to the Driving Park landing area on the east side of Columbus. Moorehouse, in turn, agreed to pay the Wrights $5,000 for the service, which was more an exercise in advertising than a simple delivery. The actual flight occurred on November 7, 1910, with the Model "B" Wright Flyer piloted by Phil Parmalee. The 62 mile (100 km) flight took 62 minutes, with Parmalee overtaking the Big Four express train in London, Ohio. In addition to carrying the first air-freight, Parmalee's speed of 60 miles an hour (97 km/h) set a world record for in-flight speed. For the return trip, however, the Wright Flyer was loaded on a train the night of the world record flight, and Parmalee returned to Dayton on the same Big Four Express train that he overtook in the air the day before.

The Wrights took over 300 photographs of flights and many other events of those pioneer days of aviation.

The Wrights were involved in several patent battles, which they won in 1914. Wilbur died from typhoid fever in 1912, an event Orville never completely recovered from. Orville sold his interests in the airplane company in 1915 and died thirty-three years later from a heart attack while fixing the doorbell to his home, Hawthorne Hill, in Oakwood, Ohio. Neither brother married. The Flyer I is now on display in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C..

Earlier and later flying craft

There are many claims of earlier flights made by other flying machines in various categories and qualifications. See First flying machine.

Lighter-than-air balloons, dirigibles, airships had been taking people into the sky for much of the 18th century before the Wrights, and several people had been working on heavier-than-air flying machines as well. Numerous claims before the Wrights aspire to the title of being the first powered, controlled, and self-sustaining flight (or minor variations of this classification). Several claims are actually after the Wrights, and lay claim by discounting the Wrights' attempt either on the basis of its authenticity (that it's valid enough), on some technical basis of the flyer in relation to the technical details to the title, or sometimes both. (Note that claims earlier than the Wrights are often criticized on similar grounds.)

The Wrights' flights have what is usually considered to be reasonable proof, including photos and multiple eyewitnesses. However, some of the strongest claims lie in the design qualities of the craft itself and the spread of those features to other pioneers. The ability of the Wrights to demonstrate the source of, and in many cases explain, the features that they combined and developed into the first working airplane (aeroplane), along with the ability to see these same features turn up in later craft is among the most powerful evidence of what they accomplished.

Many earlier attempts featured powerful powerplants or very light powerplants. Many had wing designs of some effectiveness. Many had the ability to glide (translate forward speed into lift), and some had control mechanisms. The Wright Brothers' patented three-axis system of control, using wing warping (later supplanted by other 3-axis control systems), an effective wing design for the craft's weight, a light enough motor with power to maintain steady flight, an effective system to turn the engine power into thrust (the propeller), and some other features allowed it to be significantly better than any previous manned flying machine. The careful balance between all these areas are seen in any craft capable of sustained flight, and they first happened in the flyer.

Still, controversy in the credit for invention of the airplane has been fuelled by the Wrights' secrecy while their patent was prepared, by the pride of nations, by the number of firsts made possible by the basic invention, and other assorted issues.

There has also been much debate about whether the Wright Brothers' early flights (as well as those of earlier claims) flew high enough to be out of ground effect.

Another source of attack is that some of the recreations of the Wright Flyer do not fly. The reasons for failures of recreations usually stem from an inability to know exactly the Wrights' design and to duplicate the conditions of the flight. Things that even the Wrights do not know about the Flyer I that enabled it to fly are lost to history, such as things like the octane of the fuels used, and the small details of aerodynamics that can have disproportionate effect on the ability of planes to fly. The Wrights' initial troubles with their own recreation, the Flyer II, makes the matter even harder. Regardless, some recreations do fly, and the Flyer II's impressive performance and flights largely vindicate the design.

After their Kitty Hawk flights, which used a rail but no mechanical assistance in windy conditions, the Wrights developed a weight-powered catapult in Ohio to aid initial acceleration. This method of launching has been the source of controversy for some attacks on the Wrights' claim. Some consider that a plane incapable of taking off using its own power could not be a true aircraft, but choosing a non-standard definition does not necessarily exclude the Wrights.

Just as many aircraft do not have enough power to take off in certain conditions, the Flyer's trouble with achieving its take off speed on land is not a real issue. The Flyer did manage to get off the ground under its own power in some instances, and its powered and controlled flights after it was aided in achieving its take-off speed by the catapult largely redeem it. Furthermore, if an aircraft does not have enough peak power to overcome the extra drag from being in contact with the ground, some other means must be found to overcome it. This is done in a number of ways. In modern aircraft a landing gear and long runways enable them to build up to take-off speed. This important advancement would have to wait till Alberto Santos-Dumont and the flight of the 14-Bis to be implemented in aircraft. This machine used the Wright's essential developments. Catapults do remain in use on aircraft carriers where planes cannot build enough speed to take off, and these still make use of landing gear.

Most counter-claims to having the 'first plane' often have some truth to them. Many heavier-than-air aircraft became airborne before the Wrights, but lacked control. Endlessly more advanced machines came after. But the Wright Flyer stands out as the first practical flying machine (airplane/aeroplane) with a combination of features not used before, but included in all that came later, to this day (effective wings, 3-axis control, an effective system to generate power and turn into thrust, and an effective takeoff system).

The Smithsonian issue

In the early 1900s professor Samuel P. Langley was secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. He had a claim to being "father of flight" as he had for many years worked on gliders and successful powered models, and his assistant C. M. Manley was actually employed by the US government to construct aircraft for military use. His full-sized planes, however, were complete failures at flight. When the Smithsonian proposed a display that would not have made this clear, Orville Wright responded by loaning the Flyer I to the London Science Museum. Orville stated it wouldn't be returned until he and his brother were acknowledged as the "Fathers of Powered Flight". The Smithsonian eventually agreed, but the Flyer remained at Kensington in London until 1948. On November 23, 1948 the executors of the estate of Orville Wright wrote a contract with the Smithsonian Institute regarding the display of the aircraft, stating that "Neither the Smithsonian Institution or its successors, nor any museum or other agency, bureau or facilities administered for the United States of America by the Smithsonian Institution or its successors shall publish or permit to be displayed a statement or label in connection with or in respect of any aircraft model or design of earlier date than the Wright Aeroplane of 1903, claiming in effect that such aircraft was capable of carrying a man under its own power in controlled flight." If this wasn't fulfilled the Flyer would be returned to the heir of the Wright brothers.

Effect on Dayton

See Dayton for city history. The Wrights' contributions to the city of Dayton were and remain immeasurable. From their use of local materials, when Requarth Lumber Company wood was used to construct the Flyer I and other airplanes, to the encouragement of local arts and sciences, as with Paul Laurence Dunbar, to their financial and political contributions, as with the massive Air Force base and museum, the Wright Brothers changed the city's history.

Ohio/North Carolina dispute

The states of Ohio and North Carolina both take credit for the Wright Brothers and their world-changing invention - Ohio because the brothers developed and built their design in Dayton, and North Carolina because Kitty Hawk was the site of the first flight. With a spirit of friendly rivalry, Ohio has adopted the informal slogan "Birthplace of Aviation" (later "Birthplace of Aviation Pioneers", with a tip of the hat to not only the Wrights, but also John Glenn and Neil Armstrong, both Ohio natives.) North Carolina has also adopted the slogan "First In Flight" and includes the theme on state license plates.

As the positions of both states can be factually defended, and both states play a significant role in the history of flight, neither state truly has a complete claim to the Wrights' accomplishment. It was in Ohio, however, where the Wright Brothers' many inventions were made, and where the 1903 Wright Flyer was manufactured prior to its partial disassembly and shipment to North Carolina.

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. He is of Manx descent, as evidenced by his surname. It was in Ohio, however, where the Wright Brothers' many inventions were made, and where the 1903 Wright Flyer was manufactured prior to its partial disassembly and shipment to North Carolina. He particularly enjoys watching his children as they participate in team sports. As the positions of both states can be factually defended, and both states play a significant role in the history of flight, neither state truly has a complete claim to the Wrights' accomplishment. Quayle enjoys golf, tennis, basketball, skiing, horseback riding, fly fishing, and reading. With a spirit of friendly rivalry, Ohio has adopted the informal slogan "Birthplace of Aviation" (later "Birthplace of Aviation Pioneers", with a tip of the hat to not only the Wrights, but also John Glenn and Neil Armstrong, both Ohio natives.) North Carolina has also adopted the slogan "First In Flight" and includes the theme on state license plates. They are the parents of three children: Tucker, Benjamin, and Corinne.

The states of Ohio and North Carolina both take credit for the Wright Brothers and their world-changing invention - Ohio because the brothers developed and built their design in Dayton, and North Carolina because Kitty Hawk was the site of the first flight. In November 1972, Quayle married the former Marilyn Tucker of Indianapolis. From their use of local materials, when Requarth Lumber Company wood was used to construct the Flyer I and other airplanes, to the encouragement of local arts and sciences, as with Paul Laurence Dunbar, to their financial and political contributions, as with the massive Air Force base and museum, the Wright Brothers changed the city's history. He is the son of Jim and Corinne Quayle of Huntington, Indiana. The Wrights' contributions to the city of Dayton were and remain immeasurable. Quayle, the oldest of four children, has two brothers and a sister: Chris, Mike, and Martha. See Dayton for city history. The former vice president also writes a nationally syndicated newspaper column, serves on a number of corporate boards, chairs several business ventures, and was chairman of Campaign America, a national political action committee.

On November 23, 1948 the executors of the estate of Orville Wright wrote a contract with the Smithsonian Institute regarding the display of the aircraft, stating that "Neither the Smithsonian Institution or its successors, nor any museum or other agency, bureau or facilities administered for the United States of America by the Smithsonian Institution or its successors shall publish or permit to be displayed a statement or label in connection with or in respect of any aircraft model or design of earlier date than the Wright Aeroplane of 1903, claiming in effect that such aircraft was capable of carrying a man under its own power in controlled flight." If this wasn't fulfilled the Flyer would be returned to the heir of the Wright brothers. His second book, The American Family: Discovering the Values that Make Us Strong, came out in the spring of 1996 and Worth Fighting For came out in 1999. The Smithsonian eventually agreed, but the Flyer remained at Kensington in London until 1948. Dan Quayle is the author of Standing Firm, a vice-presidential memoir that became a nationwide bestseller. Orville stated it wouldn't be returned until he and his brother were acknowledged as the "Fathers of Powered Flight". He is an Honorary Trustee Emeriti of the Hudson Institute. When the Smithsonian proposed a display that would not have made this clear, Orville Wright responded by loaning the Flyer I to the London Science Museum. Former Vice President Dan Quayle is an advisor to the firm Cerberus Capital Management and president of Quayle and Associates.

His full-sized planes, however, were complete failures at flight. He is sometimes mentioned as a possible presidential candidate in 2008. Manley was actually employed by the US government to construct aircraft for military use. He withdrew from the race the following month. M. In the first contest among the Republican candidates, the Iowa straw poll of August 1999, he finished 8th. He had a claim to being "father of flight" as he had for many years worked on gliders and successful powered models, and his assistant C. In April 1999 he announced his candidacy for the Republican nomination for the 2000 Presidential Election.

Langley was secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. However, it was ultimately a minor factor in the election, which Bush and Quayle went on to lose. In the early 1900s professor Samuel P. Republicans were largely relieved and pleased, and Quayle's camp hailed his performance as an upset triumph against a veteran debater. But the Wright Flyer stands out as the first practical flying machine (airplane/aeroplane) with a combination of features not used before, but included in all that came later, to this day (effective wings, 3-axis control, an effective system to generate power and turn into thrust, and an effective takeoff system). Quayle faced off against Gore in the vice-presidential debate, and, due in part to exceeding low expectations and staying on the offensive by tactics such as criticizing passages in Gore's book Earth in the Balance [During planning negotiations for the upcoming televised debates, Vice-President Quayle's team insisted that he be able to hold a copy of Gore's book for dramatic effect- the Gore team retorted that Gore ought to be able to hold up a potato.] Quayle was generally seen to have at least tied Gore, faring much better than he had against Bentsen four years earlier. Endlessly more advanced machines came after. Al Gore.

Many heavier-than-air aircraft became airborne before the Wrights, but lacked control. Bill Clinton and Sen. Most counter-claims to having the 'first plane' often have some truth to them. During the 1992 election, Bush and Quayle were challenged in their bid for reelection by Democrats Gov. Catapults do remain in use on aircraft carriers where planes cannot build enough speed to take off, and these still make use of landing gear. In 2002, Candice Bergen, the actress, made the comment, "I never have really said much about the whole episode, which was endless, but his speech was a perfectly intelligent speech about fathers not being dispensable and nobody agreed with that more than I did.". This machine used the Wright's essential developments. In the 1992-93 season premiere of Murphy Brown, Brown, the character, watched Quayle's comments on television and responded on the show.

This important advancement would have to wait till Alberto Santos-Dumont and the flight of the 14-Bis to be implemented in aircraft. The "Murphy Brown speech" and the resulting media coverage damaged the Republican ticket in the 1992 presidential election and became one of the most memorable incidents of the 1992 campaign. In modern aircraft a landing gear and long runways enable them to build up to take-off speed. In an aside, he specifically cited the fictional title character in the television program Murphy Brown as an example of how popular culture contributes to this "poverty of values", saying: "[i]t doesn't help matters when primetime TV has Murphy Brown—a character who supposedly epitomizes today's intelligent, highly paid, professional woman—mocking the importance of fathers, by bearing a child alone, and calling it just another 'lifestyle choice.'" Quayle drew a firestorm of criticism from feminist and liberal organizations and was widely ridiculed by late night talk show hosts for this remark. This is done in a number of ways. on a decay of moral values and family structure in American society. Furthermore, if an aircraft does not have enough peak power to overcome the extra drag from being in contact with the ground, some other means must be found to overcome it. In this speech Quayle blamed the violence in L.A.

The Flyer did manage to get off the ground under its own power in some instances, and its powered and controlled flights after it was aided in achieving its take-off speed by the catapult largely redeem it. On May 19, 1992 Quayle gave a speech to the Commonwealth Club of California on the subject of the Los Angeles riots. Just as many aircraft do not have enough power to take off in certain conditions, the Flyer's trouble with achieving its take off speed on land is not a real issue. The misspelling remains a source of intense criticism of Quayle's leadership abilities. Some consider that a plane incapable of taking off using its own power could not be a true aircraft, but choosing a non-standard definition does not necessarily exclude the Wrights. It was widely lambasted by comedians and commentators, and purportedly demonstrated defective execution of official duties. This method of launching has been the source of controversy for some attacks on the Wrights' claim. The event became the single most memorable and lasting part of Quayle's career.

After their Kitty Hawk flights, which used a rail but no mechanical assistance in windy conditions, the Wrights developed a weight-powered catapult in Ohio to aid initial acceleration. Quayle was allegedly relying on a spelling-bee card on which the word had been misspelled by the teacher. Regardless, some recreations do fly, and the Flyer II's impressive performance and flights largely vindicate the design. Most famous was his correcting a student's spelling of potato as potatoe at an elementary school spelling bee in Trenton, New Jersey on June 15, 1992. The Wrights' initial troubles with their own recreation, the Flyer II, makes the matter even harder. Other critics facetiously remarked that he was a good reason for even Bush's critics to pray for his health and that he was only Vice President to make Bush "impeachment-proof". Things that even the Wrights do not know about the Flyer I that enabled it to fly are lost to history, such as things like the octane of the fuels used, and the small details of aerodynamics that can have disproportionate effect on the ability of planes to fly. He received the satirical Ig Nobel Prize for "demonstrating, better than anyone else, the need for science education" in 1991.

The reasons for failures of recreations usually stem from an inability to know exactly the Wrights' design and to duplicate the conditions of the flight. Bush. Another source of attack is that some of the recreations of the Wright Flyer do not fly. [1] Some of the comments he actually did make have been attributed to other politicians, such as George W. There has also been much debate about whether the Wright Brothers' early flights (as well as those of earlier claims) flew high enough to be out of ground effect. One reason was that he sometimes made confused or garbled statements, although this tendency led to his being "credited" with apocryphal quotations. Still, controversy in the credit for invention of the airplane has been fuelled by the Wrights' secrecy while their patent was prepared, by the pride of nations, by the number of firsts made possible by the basic invention, and other assorted issues. Throughout his time as Vice President, Quayle was widely ridiculed in the media and by some of the general public as a mental lightweight.

The careful balance between all these areas are seen in any craft capable of sustained flight, and they first happened in the flyer. On February 9, 1989, President Bush named Quayle head of the Council on Competitiveness. The Wright Brothers' patented three-axis system of control, using wing warping (later supplanted by other 3-axis control systems), an effective wing design for the craft's weight, a light enough motor with power to maintain steady flight, an effective system to turn the engine power into thrust (the propeller), and some other features allowed it to be significantly better than any previous manned flying machine. As Vice President, Quayle was the first chairman of the National Space Council, a space policy body reestablished by statute in 1988. Many had the ability to glide (translate forward speed into lift), and some had control mechanisms. Quayle was the 44th Vice President of the United States from January 20, 1989, to January 20, 1993. Many had wing designs of some effectiveness. Although Republicans were trailing by up to 15 points in public opinion polls taken prior to the convention, the Bush/Quayle ticket went on to win the November election by a convincing 54-46 margin, sweeping 40 states and capturing 426 electoral votes.

Many earlier attempts featured powerful powerplants or very light powerplants. The ads, however, seemed to have little effect. The ability of the Wrights to demonstrate the source of, and in many cases explain, the features that they combined and developed into the first working airplane (aeroplane), along with the ability to see these same features turn up in later craft is among the most powerful evidence of what they accomplished. Ads supporting Michael Dukakis and Bentsen showed a beeping heart monitor and an announcer saying, "Quayle: just a heartbeat away," with the implication that Quayle was not up to the job of the presidency should he have to assume it. However, some of the strongest claims lie in the design qualities of the craft itself and the spread of those features to other pioneers. Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy." Quayle sheepishly responded, "That was uncalled for, Senator," in one of the defining moments of the 1988 campaign. The Wrights' flights have what is usually considered to be reasonable proof, including photos and multiple eyewitnesses. Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine.

(Note that claims earlier than the Wrights are often criticized on similar grounds.). I knew Jack Kennedy. Several claims are actually after the Wrights, and lay claim by discounting the Wrights' attempt either on the basis of its authenticity (that it's valid enough), on some technical basis of the flyer in relation to the technical details to the title, or sometimes both. Democratic candidate Lloyd Bentsen said in rebuttal, "Senator, I served with Jack Kennedy. Numerous claims before the Wrights aspire to the title of being the first powered, controlled, and self-sustaining flight (or minor variations of this classification). This came to a head in the 1988 vice-presidential debate, in which Quayle compared his experience to that of John Kennedy when he became president. Lighter-than-air balloons, dirigibles, airships had been taking people into the sky for much of the 18th century before the Wrights, and several people had been working on heavier-than-air flying machines as well. Many in the media also portrayed him as a lightweight unable to handle the job.

See First flying machine. Questions were raised about Quayle's apparent use of family connections to get into the Indiana National Guard and thus avoid possible combat service in the Vietnam War. There are many claims of earlier flights made by other flying machines in various categories and qualifications. This decision was criticized by many who felt that Quayle did not have enough experience to be president should something happen to Bush. The Flyer I is now on display in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.. Bush called on Quayle to be his running mate in the general election. Neither brother married. W.

Orville sold his interests in the airplane company in 1915 and died thirty-three years later from a heart attack while fixing the doorbell to his home, Hawthorne Hill, in Oakwood, Ohio. In August 1988, at the 1988 Republican National Convention in New Orleans, Louisiana, George H. Wilbur died from typhoid fever in 1912, an event Orville never completely recovered from. The nomination was later withdrawn. The Wrights were involved in several patent battles, which they won in 1914. It was later revealed that Manion was a member of the John Birch Society and that the American Bar Association had evaluated him as unqualified. The Wrights took over 300 photographs of flights and many other events of those pioneer days of aviation. In 1986, Quayle received much criticism from his fellow Senators for championing the cause of Daniel Manion, who was a candidate to be a federal judge.

For the return trip, however, the Wright Flyer was loaded on a train the night of the world record flight, and Parmalee returned to Dayton on the same Big Four Express train that he overtook in the air the day before. This was the only major legislation that ever bore Quayle's name the entire time he served in both the House and the Senate. In addition to carrying the first air-freight, Parmalee's speed of 60 miles an hour (97 km/h) set a world record for in-flight speed. In 1982, working with Senator Edward Kennedy, Quayle authored the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). The 62 mile (100 km) flight took 62 minutes, with Parmalee overtaking the Big Four express train in London, Ohio. With his service on the Armed Services Committee, the Budget Committee, and the Labor and Human Resources Committee, he became an effective Senator, respected by colleagues on both sides of the aisle. The actual flight occurred on November 7, 1910, with the Model "B" Wright Flyer piloted by Phil Parmalee. Senate, Quayle became widely known for his legislative work in the areas of defense, arms control, labor, and human resources.

Moorehouse, in turn, agreed to pay the Wrights $5,000 for the service, which was more an exercise in advertising than a simple delivery. During his tenure in the U.S. The Wright brothers agreed to the proposal, adding that their pilot and airplane would put on an exhibition once the cargo was delivered to the Driving Park landing area on the east side of Columbus. Making Indiana political history again, Quayle was reelected to the Senate in 1986 with the largest margin ever achieved to that date by a candidate in a statewide Indiana race. Moorehouse, owner of Moorehouse-Marten's Department store in Columbus, asked if the Wright Brothers could carry a shipment of silk ribbon from a wholesaler in Dayton to Columbus. Senate from the State of Indiana, defeating three-term incumbent Democrat Birch Bayh. On October 25, 1910, the Wright Brothers were engaged by Max Moorehouse of Columbus, Ohio to undertake the first commercial air cargo shipment. In 1980, at age 33, Quayle became the youngest person ever elected to the U.S.

That year the Wrights were also building Wright Flyers in factories in Dayton and in Germany. He won reelection in 1978 by the greatest percentage margin ever achieved to that date in the northeast Indiana district. $30,000 of the federal budget was reserved for military aviation. Congress from Indiana's Fourth Congressional District, defeating an eight-term incumbent Democrat. Also in 1909, the Wrights won the first US military aviation contract when they built a machine that met the requirements of a two-seater, capable of flights of an hour's duration, at an average of 40 miles per hour (64 km/h) and land undamaged. In 1976, Quayle was elected to the U.S. On September 29, 1909, one million New-Yorkers witnessed the extraordinary flight of Wilbur Wright above the Hudson River and around the Statue of Liberty, which solidly established the fame of the Wright Brothers in America. Upon receiving his law degree, Quayle worked as associate publisher of his family's newspaper, the Huntington Herald-Press, and practiced law with his wife in Huntington.

Later, they returned to the United States. From 1973-1974, he was the Director of the Inheritance Tax Division of the Indiana Department of Revenue. The French public was thrilled by the feat of Wilbur Wright, and the Wright Brothers were offered the direction of a flying school in the Sarthe département, and later in Pau, southern France, which they accepted. Later that year, he became an administrative assistant to Governor Edgar Whitcomb. Berg became the first woman to fly when she flew with Wilbur Wright in Le Mans, France. Quayle's public service began in July 1971 when he became an investigator for the Consumer Protection Division of the Indiana Attorney General's Office. (This was the only serious accident the Wrights suffered.) In late 1908, Madame Hart O. While serving in the Guard, he earned a Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree in 1974 at Indiana University School of Law Indianapolis through an experimental program intended to offer "equal opportunity" to minorities, the economically disadvantaged and other students of different viewpoints and backgrounds.

Orville broke a leg and two ribs. After receiving his degree, Quayle joined the Indiana National Guard and served from 1969-1975. Thomas Selfridge became the first person killed in a powered airplane on that day (Charlie Furnas had become the first air passenger on May 14), when a propeller failure caused the crash of the passenger-carrying plane Orville was piloting. degree in political science in 1969, and where he was a member of the fraternity Delta Kappa Epsilon. Orville Wright followed his brother's success by demonstrating the flyer to the United States Army at Fort Myer, Virginia on September 17, 1908. He then matriculated at DePauw University, where he received his B.A. The Wright Brothers became world famous overnight. After spending much of his youth in Arizona, he graduated from Huntington High School in Huntington, Indiana in 1965.

Their first public demonstration was held on August 8, 1908, on the racing track of Le Mans, Sarthe département, France, where Wilbur Wright took the command of the Wright Flyer model A and made a series of technically challenging flights, demonstrating to the world his skills as a pilot as well as the potential of his flying machine, far surpassing all other pilot pioneers. Quayle moved his family to Arizona in 1955 to run a branch of family's publishing empire. It is only after they signed a contract with the US Army and a French company that the Wright Brothers accepted to take part in public demonstrations and flying contests. James C. As for Glenn Curtiss, he succeeded with America's first public and official airplane flight on July 4, 1908. Pulliam, was a wealthy and influential publishing magnate who founded Central Newspapers, Inc., owner of over a dozen major newspapers such as the Arizona Republic and The Indianapolis Star. It was a very pale performance compared to the 39 kilometers flown by the Wright Brothers the year before, but at the time the October 23, 1906 flight in Paris was thought to be the first flight of an airplane in human history, as people were unaware or doubtful of the previous flights of the Wright Brothers. His maternal grandfather, Eugene C.

On November 12 he flew 220 meters. In his memoirs, Dan Quayle points out that his birth name was simply James Danforth Quayle. Santos-Dumont received a world triumph after succeeding with the first public take-off, flight, and landing in the history of aviation, flying 60 meters with his Oiseau de proie aircraft during a public demonstration at Bagatelle, on the outskirts of Paris, on October 23, 1906. He has often been incorrectly referred to as James Danforth Quayle III. Thus, ridiculed by the press, the Wright brothers continued their work in semi-obscurity, while other pilot pioneers like Franco-Brazilian pioneer Santos-Dumont or US pioneer Glenn Curtiss were occupying the limelight. Quayle and Corrine Pulliam Quayle. They attempted to sign contracts with the US army, the French army, the English army, and even the German army, but all refused as they had not been shown the flying machine in operation. Quayle was born in Indianapolis, Indiana to James C.

This was reinforced by the fact that the Wright Brothers, wary of the competition stealing their plans, refused to make public demonstrations of their machines or take part in air shows before signing firm contracts with the military. . The Paris edition of the Herald Tribune headlined a 1906 article on the Wrights "FLYERS OR LIARS?". In 2000, he was an unsuccessful candidate to win the Republican nomination for President of the United States. The news was not widely known outside of Ohio, and was often met with skepticism. Bush (1989-1993). As a result, the first local report of the flights appeared in a beekeeping magazine. W.

When a large contingent of journalists arrived at the field in 1904, for instance, the Wrights were experiencing mechanical difficulties, and were unable to correct them within two days. James Danforth Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. The press was not sympathetic to the Wright Brothers. hardcover, ISBN 0060177586; mass market paperback, May, 1995; ISBN 0061093904; Limited edition, 1994, ISBN 0060176016. Here they completed the first aerial circle and by October 5, 1905 Wilbur set a record of over 39 minutes in the air and 24 1/2 miles (39 km), circling over Huffman Prairie. Dan Quayle, Standing Firm: A Vice-Presidential Memoir, Harper Collins, May 1994. In 1904 and 1905, the Wright Brothers conducted over 105 flights from Huffman Prairie in Dayton, inviting the press and friends and neighbors.

In 1905, they built an improved aeroplane, the Flyer III. By the end of the year, the Wright Brothers had sustained 105 flights, some of them of 5 minutes, circling over the prairie, which is now part of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The Wrights established a flying field at Huffman Prairie, near Dayton, and continued work in 1904, building the Flyer II and using a catapult take-off system to compensate for the lack of wind in this location. It had a wingspan of 40 feet (12 m), weighed 750 pounds (340 kg), and sported a 12 horsepower (9 kW), 170 pound (77 kg) engine.

The Flyer I cost less than a thousand dollars to construct. Only one other newspaper, the Cincinnati Enquirer, printed the story the next day. A local newspaper reported the event, inaccurately. The flights were witnessed by 4 lifesavers and a boy from the village, making it arguably the first public flight.

[1]. In the fourth flight of the same day, the only flight made that day which was actually controlled, Wilbur Wright flew 279 meters (852 ft) in 59 seconds. The first flight, by Orville, of 39 meters (120 feet) in 12 seconds, was recorded in a famous photograph. Then on December 17, 1903, the Wrights took to the air, both of them twice.

(The chain used in the engine was a bicycle chain, not surprisingly.). The engine was superior to manufactured ones, having a low enough weight-to-power ratio to use on an aeroplane. The propellers had an 80% efficiency rate. In 1903, they built the Wright Flyer -- later the Flyer I (today popularly known as the Kitty Hawk), carved propellers and had an engine built by Taylor in their bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio.

By 1903, the Wright Brothers were perhaps the most skilled glider pilots in the world. patent number 821,393, "Flying-Machine", on May 23, 1906) for the novel technique of controlling lateral movement and turning by "wing warping". On March 23, 1903 they applied for a patent (granted as U.S. Their last glider, the Wright Glider of 1902, applied many important innovations in flight, and the brothers made over a thousand flights with it.

They experimented with gliders at Kitty Hawk from 1900 through 1902, each year constructing a new glider. In 1900 they went to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina to continue their aeronautical work, choosing Kitty Hawk (specifically a sand dune called Kill Devil Hill) on the advice of a National Weather Service meterologist because of its strong and steady winds and because its remote location afforded the brothers privacy from prying eyes in the highly competitive race to invent a successful heavier-than-air flying machine. The warping was then controlled by wire running through the wings, which led to sticks the flyer held, and he could pull one or the other to make it turn left or right. To allow warping in the first gliders, they had to keep the front and rear posts that hold up the glider unbraced.

If they could control how the gliders' wings warped, then it would make flying much easier. To that end, they first made gliders (beginning in 1899), using an intricate system called “wing warping.” If one wing bent one way, it would receive more lift, which would make the plane lift. The Wright Brothers were noted for placing the emphasis of their aviation research on navigational control rather than simply lift and propulsion which would make sustained flight practical. During their research, the Wrights always worked together, and their contributions to the aeroplane's development are inseparable.

Their work and projects with bicycles, gears, bicycle motors, and balance (while riding a bicycle), were critical to their success in creating the mechanical airplane. The Wrights had researched and initially relied upon the aeronautical literature of the day, including Lilienthal's tables; but finding that the Smeaton Coefficient (a variable in the formula for lift and the formula for drag) was wrong, had a wind tunnel built by their employee, Charlie Taylor, and tested over two hundred different wing shapes in it, eventually devising their own tables relating air pressure to wing shape. They developed three-axis control and established principles of control still used today. The brothers extended the technology of flight by emphasizing control of the aircraft (instead of increased power) for taking off into the air.

Drawing on the work of Sir George Cayley, Octave Chanute, Otto Lilienthal and Samuel Pierpont Langley, they began their mechanical aeronautical experimentation in 1899. They used the occupation to fund their growing interest in flight. The Wright brothers grew up in Dayton, where they opened a bicycle repair, design and manufacturing company (the Wright Cycle Company) in 1892. Both received high school educations but no diplomas.

Wilbur Wright was born in Millville, Indiana in 1867, Orville in Dayton, Ohio in 1871. . However, their accomplishments have been subject to many counter-claims by some people and nations at their start, and through to the present day. The Wright brothers, Orville Wright (August 19, 1871 - January 30, 1948) and Wilbur Wright (April 16, 1867 - May 30, 1912), are generally credited with the design and construction of the first practical aeroplane, and making the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones.

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