Wright brothers

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The Wright brothers, Orville Wright (August 19, 1871 - January 30, 1948) and Wilbur Wright (April 16, 1867 - May 30, 1912), are generally credited with the design and construction of the first practical aeroplane, and making the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones. However, their accomplishments have been subject to many counter-claims by some people and nations at their start, and through to the present day.

Early career and research

Wilbur Wright was born in Millville, Indiana in 1867, Orville in Dayton, Ohio in 1871. Both received high school educations but no diplomas.

The Wright brothers grew up in Dayton, where they opened a bicycle repair, design and manufacturing company (the Wright Cycle Company) in 1892. They used the occupation to fund their growing interest in flight. Drawing on the work of Sir George Cayley, Octave Chanute, Otto Lilienthal and Samuel Pierpont Langley, they began their mechanical aeronautical experimentation in 1899. The brothers extended the technology of flight by emphasizing control of the aircraft (instead of increased power) for taking off into the air. They developed three-axis control and established principles of control still used today.

The Wrights had researched and initially relied upon the aeronautical literature of the day, including Lilienthal's tables; but finding that the Smeaton Coefficient (a variable in the formula for lift and the formula for drag) was wrong, had a wind tunnel built by their employee, Charlie Taylor, and tested over two hundred different wing shapes in it, eventually devising their own tables relating air pressure to wing shape. Their work and projects with bicycles, gears, bicycle motors, and balance (while riding a bicycle), were critical to their success in creating the mechanical airplane.

During their research, the Wrights always worked together, and their contributions to the aeroplane's development are inseparable.

Flights

Toward first flight

First flight, December 17, 1903.

The Wright Brothers were noted for placing the emphasis of their aviation research on navigational control rather than simply lift and propulsion which would make sustained flight practical. To that end, they first made gliders (beginning in 1899), using an intricate system called “wing warping.” If one wing bent one way, it would receive more lift, which would make the plane lift. If they could control how the gliders' wings warped, then it would make flying much easier. To allow warping in the first gliders, they had to keep the front and rear posts that hold up the glider unbraced. The warping was then controlled by wire running through the wings, which led to sticks the flyer held, and he could pull one or the other to make it turn left or right.

In 1900 they went to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina to continue their aeronautical work, choosing Kitty Hawk (specifically a sand dune called Kill Devil Hill) on the advice of a National Weather Service meterologist because of its strong and steady winds and because its remote location afforded the brothers privacy from prying eyes in the highly competitive race to invent a successful heavier-than-air flying machine. They experimented with gliders at Kitty Hawk from 1900 through 1902, each year constructing a new glider. Their last glider, the Wright Glider of 1902, applied many important innovations in flight, and the brothers made over a thousand flights with it. On March 23, 1903 they applied for a patent (granted as U.S. patent number 821,393, "Flying-Machine", on May 23, 1906) for the novel technique of controlling lateral movement and turning by "wing warping". By 1903, the Wright Brothers were perhaps the most skilled glider pilots in the world.

USPS stamp depicting the "first flight."

In 1903, they built the Wright Flyer -- later the Flyer I (today popularly known as the Kitty Hawk), carved propellers and had an engine built by Taylor in their bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio. The propellers had an 80% efficiency rate. The engine was superior to manufactured ones, having a low enough weight-to-power ratio to use on an aeroplane. (The chain used in the engine was a bicycle chain, not surprisingly.)

Then on December 17, 1903, the Wrights took to the air, both of them twice. The first flight, by Orville, of 39 meters (120 feet) in 12 seconds, was recorded in a famous photograph. In the fourth flight of the same day, the only flight made that day which was actually controlled, Wilbur Wright flew 279 meters (852 ft) in 59 seconds. [1].

The flights were witnessed by 4 lifesavers and a boy from the village, making it arguably the first public flight. A local newspaper reported the event, inaccurately. Only one other newspaper, the Cincinnati Enquirer, printed the story the next day.

The Flyer I cost less than a thousand dollars to construct. It had a wingspan of 40 feet (12 m), weighed 750 pounds (340 kg), and sported a 12 horsepower (9 kW), 170 pound (77 kg) engine.

Trouble establishing legitimacy

The Wrights established a flying field at Huffman Prairie, near Dayton, and continued work in 1904, building the Flyer II and using a catapult take-off system to compensate for the lack of wind in this location. By the end of the year, the Wright Brothers had sustained 105 flights, some of them of 5 minutes, circling over the prairie, which is now part of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. In 1905, they built an improved aeroplane, the Flyer III.

In 1904 and 1905, the Wright Brothers conducted over 105 flights from Huffman Prairie in Dayton, inviting the press and friends and neighbors. Here they completed the first aerial circle and by October 5, 1905 Wilbur set a record of over 39 minutes in the air and 24 1/2 miles (39 km), circling over Huffman Prairie.

The press was not sympathetic to the Wright Brothers. When a large contingent of journalists arrived at the field in 1904, for instance, the Wrights were experiencing mechanical difficulties, and were unable to correct them within two days. As a result, the first local report of the flights appeared in a beekeeping magazine. The news was not widely known outside of Ohio, and was often met with skepticism. The Paris edition of the Herald Tribune headlined a 1906 article on the Wrights "FLYERS OR LIARS?"

This was reinforced by the fact that the Wright Brothers, wary of the competition stealing their plans, refused to make public demonstrations of their machines or take part in air shows before signing firm contracts with the military. They attempted to sign contracts with the US army, the French army, the English army, and even the German army, but all refused as they had not been shown the flying machine in operation. Thus, ridiculed by the press, the Wright brothers continued their work in semi-obscurity, while other pilot pioneers like Franco-Brazilian pioneer Santos-Dumont or US pioneer Glenn Curtiss were occupying the limelight.

Santos-Dumont received a world triumph after succeeding with the first public take-off, flight, and landing in the history of aviation, flying 60 meters with his Oiseau de proie aircraft during a public demonstration at Bagatelle, on the outskirts of Paris, on October 23, 1906. On November 12 he flew 220 meters. It was a very pale performance compared to the 39 kilometers flown by the Wright Brothers the year before, but at the time the October 23, 1906 flight in Paris was thought to be the first flight of an airplane in human history, as people were unaware or doubtful of the previous flights of the Wright Brothers. As for Glenn Curtiss, he succeeded with America's first public and official airplane flight on July 4, 1908.

Acceptance

Demonstrating flight to the U.S. Army, September 17, 1908.

It is only after they signed a contract with the US Army and a French company that the Wright Brothers accepted to take part in public demonstrations and flying contests. Their first public demonstration was held on August 8, 1908, on the racing track of Le Mans, Sarthe département, France, where Wilbur Wright took the command of the Wright Flyer model A and made a series of technically challenging flights, demonstrating to the world his skills as a pilot as well as the potential of his flying machine, far surpassing all other pilot pioneers. The Wright Brothers became world famous overnight.

Orville Wright followed his brother's success by demonstrating the flyer to the United States Army at Fort Myer, Virginia on September 17, 1908. Thomas Selfridge became the first person killed in a powered airplane on that day (Charlie Furnas had become the first air passenger on May 14), when a propeller failure caused the crash of the passenger-carrying plane Orville was piloting. Orville broke a leg and two ribs. (This was the only serious accident the Wrights suffered.) In late 1908, Madame Hart O. Berg became the first woman to fly when she flew with Wilbur Wright in Le Mans, France.

The French public was thrilled by the feat of Wilbur Wright, and the Wright Brothers were offered the direction of a flying school in the Sarthe département, and later in Pau, southern France, which they accepted. Later, they returned to the United States. On September 29, 1909, one million New-Yorkers witnessed the extraordinary flight of Wilbur Wright above the Hudson River and around the Statue of Liberty, which solidly established the fame of the Wright Brothers in America.

Also in 1909, the Wrights won the first US military aviation contract when they built a machine that met the requirements of a two-seater, capable of flights of an hour's duration, at an average of 40 miles per hour (64 km/h) and land undamaged. $30,000 of the federal budget was reserved for military aviation. That year the Wrights were also building Wright Flyers in factories in Dayton and in Germany.

On October 25, 1910, the Wright Brothers were engaged by Max Moorehouse of Columbus, Ohio to undertake the first commercial air cargo shipment. Moorehouse, owner of Moorehouse-Marten's Department store in Columbus, asked if the Wright Brothers could carry a shipment of silk ribbon from a wholesaler in Dayton to Columbus. The Wright brothers agreed to the proposal, adding that their pilot and airplane would put on an exhibition once the cargo was delivered to the Driving Park landing area on the east side of Columbus. Moorehouse, in turn, agreed to pay the Wrights $5,000 for the service, which was more an exercise in advertising than a simple delivery. The actual flight occurred on November 7, 1910, with the Model "B" Wright Flyer piloted by Phil Parmalee. The 62 mile (100 km) flight took 62 minutes, with Parmalee overtaking the Big Four express train in London, Ohio. In addition to carrying the first air-freight, Parmalee's speed of 60 miles an hour (97 km/h) set a world record for in-flight speed. For the return trip, however, the Wright Flyer was loaded on a train the night of the world record flight, and Parmalee returned to Dayton on the same Big Four Express train that he overtook in the air the day before.

The Wrights took over 300 photographs of flights and many other events of those pioneer days of aviation.

The Wrights were involved in several patent battles, which they won in 1914. Wilbur died from typhoid fever in 1912, an event Orville never completely recovered from. Orville sold his interests in the airplane company in 1915 and died thirty-three years later from a heart attack while fixing the doorbell to his home, Hawthorne Hill, in Oakwood, Ohio. Neither brother married. The Flyer I is now on display in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C..

Earlier and later flying craft

There are many claims of earlier flights made by other flying machines in various categories and qualifications. See First flying machine.

Lighter-than-air balloons, dirigibles, airships had been taking people into the sky for much of the 18th century before the Wrights, and several people had been working on heavier-than-air flying machines as well. Numerous claims before the Wrights aspire to the title of being the first powered, controlled, and self-sustaining flight (or minor variations of this classification). Several claims are actually after the Wrights, and lay claim by discounting the Wrights' attempt either on the basis of its authenticity (that it's valid enough), on some technical basis of the flyer in relation to the technical details to the title, or sometimes both. (Note that claims earlier than the Wrights are often criticized on similar grounds.)

The Wrights' flights have what is usually considered to be reasonable proof, including photos and multiple eyewitnesses. However, some of the strongest claims lie in the design qualities of the craft itself and the spread of those features to other pioneers. The ability of the Wrights to demonstrate the source of, and in many cases explain, the features that they combined and developed into the first working airplane (aeroplane), along with the ability to see these same features turn up in later craft is among the most powerful evidence of what they accomplished.

Many earlier attempts featured powerful powerplants or very light powerplants. Many had wing designs of some effectiveness. Many had the ability to glide (translate forward speed into lift), and some had control mechanisms. The Wright Brothers' patented three-axis system of control, using wing warping (later supplanted by other 3-axis control systems), an effective wing design for the craft's weight, a light enough motor with power to maintain steady flight, an effective system to turn the engine power into thrust (the propeller), and some other features allowed it to be significantly better than any previous manned flying machine. The careful balance between all these areas are seen in any craft capable of sustained flight, and they first happened in the flyer.

Still, controversy in the credit for invention of the airplane has been fuelled by the Wrights' secrecy while their patent was prepared, by the pride of nations, by the number of firsts made possible by the basic invention, and other assorted issues.

There has also been much debate about whether the Wright Brothers' early flights (as well as those of earlier claims) flew high enough to be out of ground effect.

Another source of attack is that some of the recreations of the Wright Flyer do not fly. The reasons for failures of recreations usually stem from an inability to know exactly the Wrights' design and to duplicate the conditions of the flight. Things that even the Wrights do not know about the Flyer I that enabled it to fly are lost to history, such as things like the octane of the fuels used, and the small details of aerodynamics that can have disproportionate effect on the ability of planes to fly. The Wrights' initial troubles with their own recreation, the Flyer II, makes the matter even harder. Regardless, some recreations do fly, and the Flyer II's impressive performance and flights largely vindicate the design.

After their Kitty Hawk flights, which used a rail but no mechanical assistance in windy conditions, the Wrights developed a weight-powered catapult in Ohio to aid initial acceleration. This method of launching has been the source of controversy for some attacks on the Wrights' claim. Some consider that a plane incapable of taking off using its own power could not be a true aircraft, but choosing a non-standard definition does not necessarily exclude the Wrights.

Just as many aircraft do not have enough power to take off in certain conditions, the Flyer's trouble with achieving its take off speed on land is not a real issue. The Flyer did manage to get off the ground under its own power in some instances, and its powered and controlled flights after it was aided in achieving its take-off speed by the catapult largely redeem it. Furthermore, if an aircraft does not have enough peak power to overcome the extra drag from being in contact with the ground, some other means must be found to overcome it. This is done in a number of ways. In modern aircraft a landing gear and long runways enable them to build up to take-off speed. This important advancement would have to wait till Alberto Santos-Dumont and the flight of the 14-Bis to be implemented in aircraft. This machine used the Wright's essential developments. Catapults do remain in use on aircraft carriers where planes cannot build enough speed to take off, and these still make use of landing gear.

Most counter-claims to having the 'first plane' often have some truth to them. Many heavier-than-air aircraft became airborne before the Wrights, but lacked control. Endlessly more advanced machines came after. But the Wright Flyer stands out as the first practical flying machine (airplane/aeroplane) with a combination of features not used before, but included in all that came later, to this day (effective wings, 3-axis control, an effective system to generate power and turn into thrust, and an effective takeoff system).

The Smithsonian issue

In the early 1900s professor Samuel P. Langley was secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. He had a claim to being "father of flight" as he had for many years worked on gliders and successful powered models, and his assistant C. M. Manley was actually employed by the US government to construct aircraft for military use. His full-sized planes, however, were complete failures at flight. When the Smithsonian proposed a display that would not have made this clear, Orville Wright responded by loaning the Flyer I to the London Science Museum. Orville stated it wouldn't be returned until he and his brother were acknowledged as the "Fathers of Powered Flight". The Smithsonian eventually agreed, but the Flyer remained at Kensington in London until 1948. On November 23, 1948 the executors of the estate of Orville Wright wrote a contract with the Smithsonian Institute regarding the display of the aircraft, stating that "Neither the Smithsonian Institution or its successors, nor any museum or other agency, bureau or facilities administered for the United States of America by the Smithsonian Institution or its successors shall publish or permit to be displayed a statement or label in connection with or in respect of any aircraft model or design of earlier date than the Wright Aeroplane of 1903, claiming in effect that such aircraft was capable of carrying a man under its own power in controlled flight." If this wasn't fulfilled the Flyer would be returned to the heir of the Wright brothers.

Effect on Dayton

See Dayton for city history. The Wrights' contributions to the city of Dayton were and remain immeasurable. From their use of local materials, when Requarth Lumber Company wood was used to construct the Flyer I and other airplanes, to the encouragement of local arts and sciences, as with Paul Laurence Dunbar, to their financial and political contributions, as with the massive Air Force base and museum, the Wright Brothers changed the city's history.

Ohio/North Carolina dispute

The states of Ohio and North Carolina both take credit for the Wright Brothers and their world-changing invention - Ohio because the brothers developed and built their design in Dayton, and North Carolina because Kitty Hawk was the site of the first flight. With a spirit of friendly rivalry, Ohio has adopted the informal slogan "Birthplace of Aviation" (later "Birthplace of Aviation Pioneers", with a tip of the hat to not only the Wrights, but also John Glenn and Neil Armstrong, both Ohio natives.) North Carolina has also adopted the slogan "First In Flight" and includes the theme on state license plates.

As the positions of both states can be factually defended, and both states play a significant role in the history of flight, neither state truly has a complete claim to the Wrights' accomplishment. It was in Ohio, however, where the Wright Brothers' many inventions were made, and where the 1903 Wright Flyer was manufactured prior to its partial disassembly and shipment to North Carolina.

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. 42-43). It was in Ohio, however, where the Wright Brothers' many inventions were made, and where the 1903 Wright Flyer was manufactured prior to its partial disassembly and shipment to North Carolina. (Memoirs of RN: pgs. As the positions of both states can be factually defended, and both states play a significant role in the history of flight, neither state truly has a complete claim to the Wrights' accomplishment. Kennedy to debate the Taft-Hartley Act at a public meeting. With a spirit of friendly rivalry, Ohio has adopted the informal slogan "Birthplace of Aviation" (later "Birthplace of Aviation Pioneers", with a tip of the hat to not only the Wrights, but also John Glenn and Neil Armstrong, both Ohio natives.) North Carolina has also adopted the slogan "First In Flight" and includes the theme on state license plates. The first Kennedy-Nixon debate occurred on April 21, 1947, when Democratic Congressman Frank Buchanan selected freshman congressmen Richard Milhous Nixon and John F.

The states of Ohio and North Carolina both take credit for the Wright Brothers and their world-changing invention - Ohio because the brothers developed and built their design in Dayton, and North Carolina because Kitty Hawk was the site of the first flight. On December 28, 1968, Julie Nixon (Richard's daughter) and David Eisenhower (Dwight's grandson) were married. From their use of local materials, when Requarth Lumber Company wood was used to construct the Flyer I and other airplanes, to the encouragement of local arts and sciences, as with Paul Laurence Dunbar, to their financial and political contributions, as with the massive Air Force base and museum, the Wright Brothers changed the city's history. Because of his place in American culture as a controversial President, Richard Nixon has appeared as a character (with varying degrees of verisimilitude), both major and minor, in a variety of fiction. The Wrights' contributions to the city of Dayton were and remain immeasurable.
. See Dayton for city history. Due to disputes over the papers, the library is privately funded and does not, like the other presidential libraries, receive support from the National Archives.

On November 23, 1948 the executors of the estate of Orville Wright wrote a contract with the Smithsonian Institute regarding the display of the aircraft, stating that "Neither the Smithsonian Institution or its successors, nor any museum or other agency, bureau or facilities administered for the United States of America by the Smithsonian Institution or its successors shall publish or permit to be displayed a statement or label in connection with or in respect of any aircraft model or design of earlier date than the Wright Aeroplane of 1903, claiming in effect that such aircraft was capable of carrying a man under its own power in controlled flight." If this wasn't fulfilled the Flyer would be returned to the heir of the Wright brothers. Nixon's attempts to protect his papers and gain tax advantages from them had been one of the important themes of the Watergate affair. The Smithsonian eventually agreed, but the Flyer remained at Kensington in London until 1948. The Nixon Library contains only Nixon's pre- and post-presidential papers, as his presidential papers have been retained as government evidence. Orville stated it wouldn't be returned until he and his brother were acknowledged as the "Fathers of Powered Flight". Nixon was survived by his two daughters Tricia and Julie, along with his four grandchildren. When the Smithsonian proposed a display that would not have made this clear, Orville Wright responded by loaning the Flyer I to the London Science Museum. Bush and their respective first ladies.

His full-sized planes, however, were complete failures at flight. W. Manley was actually employed by the US government to construct aircraft for military use. Also in attendance at Nixon's funeral were former presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H. M. Johnson (a service Nixon himself attended when president) on January 25, 1973. He had a claim to being "father of flight" as he had for many years worked on gliders and successful powered models, and his assistant C. However, President Bill Clinton, former secretary of state Henry Kissinger, Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole, and California Republican Governor Pete Wilson spoke at the April 27 funeral—the first for an American president since that of Lyndon B.

Langley was secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Acting on his family's wishes, Nixon did not receive a state funeral, as customary for former presidents. In the early 1900s professor Samuel P. He was buried beside his wife Pat Nixon (who had died ten months earlier, on June 22, 1993, of lung cancer) on the grounds of the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California. But the Wright Flyer stands out as the first practical flying machine (airplane/aeroplane) with a combination of features not used before, but included in all that came later, to this day (effective wings, 3-axis control, an effective system to generate power and turn into thrust, and an effective takeoff system). On April 22, Nixon passed away at 9:08 PM at the age of 81. Endlessly more advanced machines came after. He might have lived longer had he been resuscitated using extraordinary measures, such as a respirator, but he refused such treatments, as he had stated in his earlier hospital visits.

Many heavier-than-air aircraft became airborne before the Wrights, but lacked control. He was rushed to New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, where his condition deteriorated over the next several days. Most counter-claims to having the 'first plane' often have some truth to them. It was later determined that a blood clot that had formed in his upper heart as a result of his heart condition broke off and traveled to his brain. Catapults do remain in use on aircraft carriers where planes cannot build enough speed to take off, and these still make use of landing gear. On April 18, 1994, at 5:45 PM EDT, Nixon suffered a severe hemorrhagic stroke while preparing to eat dinner in his Park Ridge, New Jersey home. This machine used the Wright's essential developments. He received surgery in 1974 for this problem (Barker et al 1997).

This important advancement would have to wait till Alberto Santos-Dumont and the flight of the 14-Bis to be implemented in aircraft. While generally in good health, he was on lifelong warfarin anticoagulant therapy after multiple episodes of phlebitis or deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism starting in 1965 (these conditions would later contribute to his fatal stroke). In modern aircraft a landing gear and long runways enable them to build up to take-off speed. Nixon wrote many books after his departure from politics, including his memoirs. This is done in a number of ways. Previously the only guilt that was alleged was his role in the cover up of the break-in. Furthermore, if an aircraft does not have enough peak power to overcome the extra drag from being in contact with the ground, some other means must be found to overcome it. In July 2003, Jeb Stuart Magruder, a former Special Assistant to the President, alleged that Nixon had personally ordered the Watergate break-in by phone.

The Flyer did manage to get off the ground under its own power in some instances, and its powered and controlled flights after it was aided in achieving its take-off speed by the catapult largely redeem it. Further tape releases, however, removed all doubt as to Nixon's involvement both in the Watergate cover-up and also the illegal campaign finances and intrusive government surveillance that were at the heart of the scandal. Just as many aircraft do not have enough power to take off in certain conditions, the Flyer's trouble with achieving its take off speed on land is not a real issue. He gained great respect as an elder statesman in the area of foreign affairs, being consulted by both Democratic and Republican successors to the Presidency. Some consider that a plane incapable of taking off using its own power could not be a true aircraft, but choosing a non-standard definition does not necessarily exclude the Wrights. In his later years Nixon worked to rehabilitate his public image, and enjoyed considerably more success than could have been anticipated at the time of his resignation. This method of launching has been the source of controversy for some attacks on the Wrights' claim. Ford issued a pre-emptive pardon, effectively ending any possibility of indictment.

After their Kitty Hawk flights, which used a rail but no mechanical assistance in windy conditions, the Wrights developed a weight-powered catapult in Ohio to aid initial acceleration. Nixon's successor Gerald R. Regardless, some recreations do fly, and the Flyer II's impressive performance and flights largely vindicate the design. Nixon's sense of being persecuted by his "enemies," his grandious belief in his own moral and political excellence, and his committment to utilize ruthless power at all costs led some experts to describe him as having a narcissistic and paranoid personality.[[3]]. The Wrights' initial troubles with their own recreation, the Flyer II, makes the matter even harder. This did not help the public perception, and fed the comedians even more. Things that even the Wrights do not know about the Flyer I that enabled it to fly are lost to history, such as things like the octane of the fuels used, and the small details of aerodynamics that can have disproportionate effect on the ability of planes to fly. Once the transcripts of the White House tapes were released, people were shocked at the amount of swearing and vicious comments about opponents that Nixon issued.

The reasons for failures of recreations usually stem from an inability to know exactly the Wrights' design and to duplicate the conditions of the flight. He also frequently brandished the two-finger V sign (alternately viewed as the "Victory sign" or "peace sign") using both hands, an act which became one of his best-known trademarks. Another source of attack is that some of the recreations of the Wright Flyer do not fly. Nixon tried to shed these perceptions by staging photo-ops with young people, and even cameo appearances on popular TV shows such as Laugh-In and Hee Haw (before he was president). There has also been much debate about whether the Wright Brothers' early flights (as well as those of earlier claims) flew high enough to be out of ground effect. He was also characterized as the very epitome of a "square" and the personification of unpleasant adult authority. Still, controversy in the credit for invention of the airplane has been fuelled by the Wrights' secrecy while their patent was prepared, by the pride of nations, by the number of firsts made possible by the basic invention, and other assorted issues. He was often portrayed by these critics and commentators as a sullen loner, with unshaven jowls, slumped shoulders, and a furrowed, sweaty brow.

The careful balance between all these areas are seen in any craft capable of sustained flight, and they first happened in the flyer. Editorial cartoonists and comedians had fun exaggerating Nixon's appearance and mannerisms, to the point where the line between the human president and the caricature version of him became increasingly blurred. The Wright Brothers' patented three-axis system of control, using wing warping (later supplanted by other 3-axis control systems), an effective wing design for the craft's weight, a light enough motor with power to maintain steady flight, an effective system to turn the engine power into thrust (the propeller), and some other features allowed it to be significantly better than any previous manned flying machine. Nixon's presidency was frequently dogged by Nixon's personality, and the public perception of it. Many had the ability to glide (translate forward speed into lift), and some had control mechanisms. In light of his loss of political support and the near certainty of both his impeachment by the House of Representatives and his conviction by the Senate, he resigned, effective August 9, 1974. listen? During the Watergate Scandal, Nixon's approval rating fell to 25%. Many had wing designs of some effectiveness. Kennedy.

Many earlier attempts featured powerful powerplants or very light powerplants. Haldeman would later claim that when Nixon used the phrase "the Bay of Pigs thing," he was actually referring to the assassination of President John F. The ability of the Wrights to demonstrate the source of, and in many cases explain, the features that they combined and developed into the first working airplane (aeroplane), along with the ability to see these same features turn up in later craft is among the most powerful evidence of what they accomplished. Howard Hunt, and also revealed that Nixon arranged for the blackmailing of the CIA into telling the FBI to stop investigating certain topics because of "the Bay of Pigs thing." Several of the Watergate burglars were involved in the Bay of Pigs operation. However, some of the strongest claims lie in the design qualities of the craft itself and the spread of those features to other pioneers. Despite his efforts, one of the secret recordings, known as the "smoking gun" tape, was released on August 5, 1974 and revealed that Nixon authorized hush money to Watergate burglar E. The Wrights' flights have what is usually considered to be reasonable proof, including photos and multiple eyewitnesses. The House Judiciary Committee opened formal and public impeachment hearings against Nixon on May 9, 1974.

(Note that claims earlier than the Wrights are often criticized on similar grounds.). He lost support from some in his own party as well as much popular support after what became known as the Saturday Night Massacre of October 20, 1973 in which he ordered Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor in the Watergate case fired, as well as firing several of his own subordinates who objected to this move. Several claims are actually after the Wrights, and lay claim by discounting the Wrights' attempt either on the basis of its authenticity (that it's valid enough), on some technical basis of the flyer in relation to the technical details to the title, or sometimes both. Nixon was named by the grand jury investigating Watergate as "an unindicted co-conspirator" in the Watergate Scandal. Numerous claims before the Wrights aspire to the title of being the first powered, controlled, and self-sustaining flight (or minor variations of this classification). Nixon was eventually investigated in relation to the June 17, 1972 burglary of the Democratic Party offices at the Watergate office complex, one of a series of scandals involving the Committee to Re-Elect the President (known as CRP but referred to by outsiders as CREEP), the White House enemies list and assorted "dirty tricks." His secret recordings of White House conversations were subpoenaed, and revealed details of his complicity in the cover-up. Lighter-than-air balloons, dirigibles, airships had been taking people into the sky for much of the 18th century before the Wrights, and several people had been working on heavier-than-air flying machines as well. Nixon appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:.

See First flying machine.
. There are many claims of earlier flights made by other flying machines in various categories and qualifications. On April 3, 1974, Nixon announced he would pay $432,787.13 in back taxes plus interest after a Congressional committee reported that he had inadvertently underpaid his 1969 and 1972 taxes. The Flyer I is now on display in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.. He established the EPA on December 2, 1970. Neither brother married. speed limit to 55 MPH in order to conserve gasoline during the 1973 energy crisis.

Orville sold his interests in the airplane company in 1915 and died thirty-three years later from a heart attack while fixing the doorbell to his home, Hawthorne Hill, in Oakwood, Ohio. On January 2, 1974, Nixon signed a bill that lowered the maximum U.S. Wilbur died from typhoid fever in 1912, an event Orville never completely recovered from. The strongest candidate against Nixon, Edmund Muskie, had been sabotaged by underhanded tactics, probably on Nixon's orders. The Wrights were involved in several patent battles, which they won in 1914. He carried 49 of the 50 states, trailing only in Massachusetts. The Wrights took over 300 photographs of flights and many other events of those pioneer days of aviation. political history, defeating George McGovern and garnering over 60% of the popular vote.

For the return trip, however, the Wright Flyer was loaded on a train the night of the world record flight, and Parmalee returned to Dayton on the same Big Four Express train that he overtook in the air the day before. In 1972 Nixon was re-elected in one of the biggest landslide election victories in U.S. In addition to carrying the first air-freight, Parmalee's speed of 60 miles an hour (97 km/h) set a world record for in-flight speed. At the time, he stated that he was taking this action to "make life harder for the Mafia." His comment drew irate criticism from many Americans of Italian ancestry, who regarded it as an ethnic slur. The 62 mile (100 km) flight took 62 minutes, with Parmalee overtaking the Big Four express train in London, Ohio. currency in 1969 by executive order. The actual flight occurred on November 7, 1910, with the Model "B" Wright Flyer piloted by Phil Parmalee. Nixon halted circulation of high-denomination U.S.

Moorehouse, in turn, agreed to pay the Wrights $5,000 for the service, which was more an exercise in advertising than a simple delivery. efforts to explore and develop space for several decades thereafter. The Wright brothers agreed to the proposal, adding that their pilot and airplane would put on an exhibition once the cargo was delivered to the Driving Park landing area on the east side of Columbus. On January 5, 1972 Nixon approved the development of the Space Shuttle program, a decision that profoundly influenced U.S. Moorehouse, owner of Moorehouse-Marten's Department store in Columbus, asked if the Wright Brothers could carry a shipment of silk ribbon from a wholesaler in Dayton to Columbus. involvement in Vietnam. On October 25, 1910, the Wright Brothers were engaged by Max Moorehouse of Columbus, Ohio to undertake the first commercial air cargo shipment. Ironically it was the Democrat controlled Congress and President Nixon who had wound down the NASA budget and curtailed the Apollo program due to budget pressures caused principally by the vast expense of U.S.

That year the Wrights were also building Wright Flyers in factories in Dayton and in Germany. Along with those of the astronauts, Nixon's name and signature were inscribed on the plaques left behind by Apollo 11 in 1969 and Apollo 17 in 1972. $30,000 of the federal budget was reserved for military aviation. On the morning of July 20, 1969, Nixon addressed Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin during their historic moonwalk, live via telephone. Also in 1909, the Wrights won the first US military aviation contract when they built a machine that met the requirements of a two-seater, capable of flights of an hour's duration, at an average of 40 miles per hour (64 km/h) and land undamaged. [2]. On September 29, 1909, one million New-Yorkers witnessed the extraordinary flight of Wilbur Wright above the Hudson River and around the Statue of Liberty, which solidly established the fame of the Wright Brothers in America. Recently declassified documents reveal the extent of support offered by Nixon to the dictator despite widespread human rights violations.

Later, they returned to the United States. Nixon was also very vocal in supporting General Yahya Khan of Pakistan despite Genocide against Bengalis in East Pakistan. The French public was thrilled by the feat of Wilbur Wright, and the Wright Brothers were offered the direction of a flying school in the Sarthe département, and later in Pau, southern France, which they accepted. forces into Cambodian territory in April 1970) added to the administration's tacit support for the overthrow of the neutralist royal government of Norodom Sihanouk by the rightist military dictator Lon Nol, created chaos, and drove much of the peasant population of that country into the arms of the Khmer Rouge, a Maoist revolutionary movement that would eventually kill 1.7 million Cambodians after taking power. Berg became the first woman to fly when she flew with Wilbur Wright in Le Mans, France. This bombing (and an incursion by U.S. (This was the only serious accident the Wrights suffered.) In late 1908, Madame Hart O. During deliberations over Nixon's impeachment, his unorthodox use of executive powers over the ordering of these bombings were considered as an article of impeachment, but the charge was dropped.

Orville broke a leg and two ribs. Rogers and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Thomas Selfridge became the first person killed in a powered airplane on that day (Charlie Furnas had become the first air passenger on May 14), when a propeller failure caused the crash of the passenger-carrying plane Orville was piloting. Details of the bombing were kept secret even from high ranking officials such as Secretary of State William P. Orville Wright followed his brother's success by demonstrating the flyer to the United States Army at Fort Myer, Virginia on September 17, 1908. He also understood that the war was politically un-winnable due to massive demonstrations. The Wright Brothers became world famous overnight. In ordering the bombings, Nixon realized he would be extending an unpopular war as well as breaching Cambodia's "official" neutrality.

Their first public demonstration was held on August 8, 1908, on the racing track of Le Mans, Sarthe département, France, where Wilbur Wright took the command of the Wright Flyer model A and made a series of technically challenging flights, demonstrating to the world his skills as a pilot as well as the potential of his flying machine, far surpassing all other pilot pioneers. However, NVA communist forces did use Cambodian soil as a supply line to the Vietcong in the south. It is only after they signed a contract with the US Army and a French company that the Wright Brothers accepted to take part in public demonstrations and flying contests. Militarily ineffective, the bombing campaigns killed approximately one hundred thousand Cambodian peasants. As for Glenn Curtiss, he succeeded with America's first public and official airplane flight on July 4, 1908. Congress. It was a very pale performance compared to the 39 kilometers flown by the Wright Brothers the year before, but at the time the October 23, 1906 flight in Paris was thought to be the first flight of an airplane in human history, as people were unaware or doubtful of the previous flights of the Wright Brothers. The bombing campaign was kept secret from the American public and the U.S.

On November 12 he flew 220 meters. Nixon's administration secretly began a massive bombing campaign in Cambodia in March, 1969 (code-named Menu) to destroy what were believed to be the headquarters and large numbers of soldiers of the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam. Santos-Dumont received a world triumph after succeeding with the first public take-off, flight, and landing in the history of aviation, flying 60 meters with his Oiseau de proie aircraft during a public demonstration at Bagatelle, on the outskirts of Paris, on October 23, 1906. troops, fighting was left to the ineffective South Vietnamese army. Thus, ridiculed by the press, the Wright brothers continued their work in semi-obscurity, while other pilot pioneers like Franco-Brazilian pioneer Santos-Dumont or US pioneer Glenn Curtiss were occupying the limelight. After the withdrawal of U.S. They attempted to sign contracts with the US army, the French army, the English army, and even the German army, but all refused as they had not been shown the flying machine in operation. But there would be four more years of strategic bombing, with more bombs dropped than in World War II.

This was reinforced by the fact that the Wright Brothers, wary of the competition stealing their plans, refused to make public demonstrations of their machines or take part in air shows before signing firm contracts with the military. American involvement in the war declined while Nixon was in office. The Paris edition of the Herald Tribune headlined a 1906 article on the Wrights "FLYERS OR LIARS?". military commanders. The news was not widely known outside of Ohio, and was often met with skepticism. During the war, on July 30, 1969, Nixon made an unscheduled visit to South Vietnam, and met with President Nguyen Van Thieu and with U.S. As a result, the first local report of the flights appeared in a beekeeping magazine. He proposed the Nixon Doctrine to establish a strategy of turning over the fighting of the war to the Vietnamese.

When a large contingent of journalists arrived at the field in 1904, for instance, the Wrights were experiencing mechanical difficulties, and were unable to correct them within two days. Still, many voters supported Nixon because they believed he would end the war. The press was not sympathetic to the Wright Brothers. Because of this, Nixon's opponents criticized him for not revealing his secret plan to end the Vietnam War, although Nixon had not used this famous phrase. Here they completed the first aerial circle and by October 5, 1905 Wilbur set a record of over 39 minutes in the air and 24 1/2 miles (39 km), circling over Huffman Prairie. When a reporter pressed Nixon for specifics, he did not reveal any details. In 1904 and 1905, the Wright Brothers conducted over 105 flights from Huffman Prairie in Dayton, inviting the press and friends and neighbors. Nixon also promised "peace with honor," and without claiming to be able to win the war, Nixon claimed that "new leadership will end the war and win the peace in the Pacific".

In 1905, they built an improved aeroplane, the Flyer III. Nixon appealed to what he claimed was the "silent majority" of socially conservative Americans who disliked the "hippie" counterculture and anti-war demonstrators. By the end of the year, the Wright Brothers had sustained 105 flights, some of them of 5 minutes, circling over the prairie, which is now part of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. He was the first Vice-President to be elected President who did not succeed the President under whom he had served. The Wrights established a flying field at Huffman Prairie, near Dayton, and continued work in 1904, building the Flyer II and using a catapult take-off system to compensate for the lack of wind in this location. Humphrey to become the 37th President of the United States, in a campaign where he promised to end the Vietnam War. It had a wingspan of 40 feet (12 m), weighed 750 pounds (340 kg), and sported a 12 horsepower (9 kW), 170 pound (77 kg) engine. In the election of 1968, he completed a remarkable political comeback by defeating Hubert H.

The Flyer I cost less than a thousand dollars to construct. During the 1966 Congressional elections, he traveled the country speaking in support of Republican candidates and preparing for another campaign of his own. Only one other newspaper, the Cincinnati Enquirer, printed the story the next day. Nixon worked as a prominent lawyer, using these so-called "wilderness" years in the private sector to earn more money ($250,000 per year, by some accounts--equivalent to over $1 million today) and to solidify his political base. A local newspaper reported the event, inaccurately. He and his family moved into a 12-room luxury apartment on Fifth Avenue in New York City. The flights were witnessed by 4 lifesavers and a boy from the village, making it arguably the first public flight. Nixon's post-election defeatist mood did not last.

[1]. Nixon spoke to a meeting of Pepsi-Cola bottlers. In the fourth flight of the same day, the only flight made that day which was actually controlled, Wilbur Wright flew 279 meters (852 ft) in 59 seconds. Kennedy was assassinated. The first flight, by Orville, of 39 meters (120 feet) in 12 seconds, was recorded in a famous photograph. Coincidentally, Nixon was in Dallas earlier on November 22, 1963, the day that President John F. Then on December 17, 1903, the Wrights took to the air, both of them twice. He often said that he never regretted his comments at this famous press conference.

(The chain used in the engine was a bicycle chain, not surprisingly.). However, many others praised Nixon for telling the press off. The engine was superior to manufactured ones, having a low enough weight-to-power ratio to use on an aeroplane. In his concession speech, Nixon accused the media of favoring his opponent Pat Brown, and stated that it was his "last press conference" and that "You won't have Dick Nixon to kick around any more." Many mocked Nixon for being a "sore loser" for saying this to the reporters. The propellers had an 80% efficiency rate. On November 7, 1962, he lost a race for Governor of California. In 1903, they built the Wright Flyer -- later the Flyer I (today popularly known as the Kitty Hawk), carved propellers and had an engine built by Taylor in their bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio. Nixon campaigned against Kennedy on the great experience he had acquired in eight years as Vice President, but when Eisenhower was asked to name a decision Nixon had been responsible for in that time, he replied: "Give me a week and I might think of something." Although Eisenhower later said he intended that remark to mean he would discuss Nixon's achievements the following week, this was a severe blow to Nixon, and he blamed Eisenhower for his narrow loss to Kennedy.

By 1903, the Wright Brothers were perhaps the most skilled glider pilots in the world. Also, Eisenhower did not show much support for Nixon, and only reluctantly endorsed him as the Republican candidate at the 1960 Presidential election. patent number 821,393, "Flying-Machine", on May 23, 1906) for the novel technique of controlling lateral movement and turning by "wing warping". It has since been widely suggested, with some support from research, that those who had listened to the debate on radio thought Nixon was more impressive [1], but that the television audience gave the edge to Kennedy. On March 23, 1903 they applied for a patent (granted as U.S. He expected to win voters with his foreign policy expertise, but people only saw a sickly man sweating profusely and wearing a gray suit that blended into the scenery; while his rival, Kennedy, looked comfortable in his position. Their last glider, the Wright Glider of 1902, applied many important innovations in flight, and the brothers made over a thousand flights with it. Nixon likewise was instructed by CBS television producers to wear a grey suit that blended into the backdrop, whereas Kennedy was told by the same producer to wear a black suit which would stand out when black and white television was the standard.

They experimented with gliders at Kitty Hawk from 1900 through 1902, each year constructing a new glider. Despite his five o'clock shadow, Nixon refused television makeup (instead using simple "Lazy Shave" coverup makeup) and was feeling sick, having recently injured his knee while campaigning. In 1900 they went to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina to continue their aeronautical work, choosing Kitty Hawk (specifically a sand dune called Kill Devil Hill) on the advice of a National Weather Service meterologist because of its strong and steady winds and because its remote location afforded the brothers privacy from prying eyes in the highly competitive race to invent a successful heavier-than-air flying machine. Many observers believe that a crucial factor in his loss was the first televised presidential debate. The warping was then controlled by wire running through the wings, which led to sticks the flyer held, and he could pull one or the other to make it turn left or right. Kennedy, ironically a friend of Nixon's (Kennedy, in fact, was one of the first to congratulate Nixon when he was chosen as Eisenhower's running mate). To allow warping in the first gliders, they had to keep the front and rear posts that hold up the glider unbraced. In 1960, he ran for President on his own but lost to John F.

If they could control how the gliders' wings warped, then it would make flying much easier. presidents, Nixon displayed a somewhat anti-intellectual streak during the 1952 campaign, criticizing the extremely intelligent Democratic presidential nominee, Adlai Stevenson, as an "egghead.". To that end, they first made gliders (beginning in 1899), using an intricate system called “wing warping.” If one wing bent one way, it would receive more lift, which would make the plane lift. Although regarded as one of the most intellectual U.S. The Wright Brothers were noted for placing the emphasis of their aviation research on navigational control rather than simply lift and propulsion which would make sustained flight practical. He also proved to be able to quickly think on his feet which was demonstrated on July 24, 1959, at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow where he and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had an impromptu "kitchen debate" about the merits of capitalism versus communism. During their research, the Wrights always worked together, and their contributions to the aeroplane's development are inseparable. Nixon was notable among Vice Presidents in having actually stepped up to run the government three times when Eisenhower was ill: on the occasions of Eisenhower's heart attack on September 24, 1955; his ileitis in June 1956; and his stroke in November 1957.

Their work and projects with bicycles, gears, bicycle motors, and balance (while riding a bicycle), were critical to their success in creating the mechanical airplane. As a result, this speech became known as the "Checkers speech" and it resulted in a flood of support, prompting Eisenhower to keep Nixon on the ticket. The Wrights had researched and initially relied upon the aeronautical literature of the day, including Lilienthal's tables; but finding that the Smeaton Coefficient (a variable in the formula for lift and the formula for drag) was wrong, had a wind tunnel built by their employee, Charlie Taylor, and tested over two hundred different wing shapes in it, eventually devising their own tables relating air pressure to wing shape. This speech would, however, become better known for its rhetoric, such as when he stated that his wife Pat did not wear mink, but rather "a respectable Republican cloth coat," and that although he had been given a cocker spaniel named "Checkers" in addition to his other campaign contributions, he was not going to give it back because his daughters loved it. They developed three-axis control and established principles of control still used today. He went on TV and defended himself in an emotional speech, where he provided an independant third-party review of the fund's accounting along with a personal summary of his financies, which he cited as exonerating him from wrongdoing, and he charged that the Democratic Presidential candidate, Adlai Stevenson, also had a slush fund (see Memoirs of Richard Nixon, page 99). The brothers extended the technology of flight by emphasizing control of the aircraft (instead of increased power) for taking off into the air. Nixon was accused by nameless sources of misappropriating money out of a business fund for personal use.

Drawing on the work of Sir George Cayley, Octave Chanute, Otto Lilienthal and Samuel Pierpont Langley, they began their mechanical aeronautical experimentation in 1899. One notable event of the campaign was Nixon's innovative use of television. They used the occupation to fund their growing interest in flight. Eisenhower's ticket, although he was only 39 years old. The Wright brothers grew up in Dayton, where they opened a bicycle repair, design and manufacturing company (the Wright Cycle Company) in 1892. In 1952 he was elected Vice President on Dwight D. Both received high school educations but no diplomas. Upon Nixon's election to the vice-presidency, Governor Earl Warren appointed Thomas Kuchel to succeed him in his Senate seat.

Wilbur Wright was born in Millville, Indiana in 1867, Orville in Dayton, Ohio in 1871. As with Voorhis, Nixon used the tactic of "guilt by association," printing an attack against Douglas on pink paper, listing a number of votes in Congress in which she voted the same as a left-wing Congressman from New York, Vito Marcantonio. . Nixon was elected to the United States Senate in 1950, defeating actress turned congresswoman Helen Gahagan Douglas, whom Nixon accused during the campaign of having communist sympathies, calling her the "Pink Lady." In the campaign the Independent Review newspaper tagged Nixon with a nickname he would never shake: "Tricky Dick". However, their accomplishments have been subject to many counter-claims by some people and nations at their start, and through to the present day. In 1948, Nixon won both the Republican and Democratic nomination for re-election to the House. The Wright brothers, Orville Wright (August 19, 1871 - January 30, 1948) and Wilbur Wright (April 16, 1867 - May 30, 1912), are generally credited with the design and construction of the first practical aeroplane, and making the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones. Whether Hiss was guilty or not is still in dispute, although evidence from Soviet archives released in the 1990s tends to point to his guilt.

He became a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee and was instrumental in the trial of State Department Undersecretary and General Secretary of the United Nations Charter meeting Alger Hiss for perjury after the exposure of his alleged activities as an Soviet spy. Nixon climbed the political ladder swiftly, making his name as an anti-Communist and a rough, no-holds-barred campaigner. He proposed a bill to facilitate servicemen's voting that was passed by both houses and signed into law. He also helped in the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act which set up controls over labor unions.

In the House, Nixon served on a committee that helped to implement the Marshall Plan which aided war-torn Europe. Kennedy of Massachusetts. The 80th Congress was the first with a Republican majority since the Hoover administration and its freshman class was filled with fellow war veterans, including Nixon's future rival John F. Many voters allegedly received phone calls in the middle of the night telling them that Voorhis was a Communist.

Nixon said "they're basically the same, if their members are the same..." Although Nixon's allegations were untrue, they succeeded and Voorhis was booed by the crowd. Then he held up a list of members from a Left-Wing PAC with Communist affiliations, and said that there were a few people who were in both Committees. During a debate with Voorhis he held up a list of members of a Political Action Committee (PAC) from which Voorhis received substantial campaign donations. The campaign he ran against Voorhis highlighted the aggressive campaigning style of whom Nixon was one of the pioneers.

Nixon was elected to the United States House of Representatives from California in 1946 by beating Jerry Voorhis, in a campaign which some charge was a result of underhanded political skullduggery. Rogers. It was in the Navy he met his future friend and Secretary of State William P. One interesting footnote about Nixon's naval career is that he learned to play poker (another taboo under Quakerism) and quickly became known as the best poker player in the Navy, having apparently won almost $10,000 by war's end.

He rose to the rank of Lieutenant Commander and his superiors praised him as an excellent officer and leader. Nixon served as a Cargo Officer in the South Pacific theater and put his shopkeeper's skills to work operating "Nick's Snack Shack," where military personnel could pick up hamburgers and fruit juice. He later stated he hated Hitler and was horrified by the attack on Pearl Harbor. Reportedly, his mother burst into tears when she first saw him in uniform.

He could have been exempt from military service because of his status as a birthright Quaker, but volunteered anyway. During World War II, Nixon served in the United States Navy. They were married at the Mission Inn in Riverside, California on June 21, 1940. At first, Pat displayed little interest in Nixon, who nonetheless pursued her so doggedly that he even drove her around on dates she had with other men.

They became acquainted at a community Little Theater group when they were cast in the same play. She had accepted a position as a high-school teacher in Whittier. It was during this period that he met his wife Pat. He later wrote that family law cases caused him particular discomfiture, since his reticent Quaker upbringing was severely at odds with the idea of discussing intimate marital details with strangers.

The work was mostly routine, and Nixon generally found it to be dull, although he was entirely competent. As a result, Nixon returned to California, passed the bar exam, and began working in the small-town law office of a family friend in nearby La Mirada. The partner who had met Nixon opined that the future president came across as "shifty.". Around the time of Watergate, one of the senior partners at White & Case found notes from the original interview.

Some writers have agreed with Nixon's own explanation--that he lacked the requisite Ivy League pedigree and family connections--but it is also possible that he interviewed poorly. For a variety of reasons, he had no luck. Graduating third in his class, Nixon hoped to secure a job with one of the prestigious "white-shoe" law firms in New York City. Years later, this incident came to light, and the press trumpeted it as "Nixon's first break-in.".

He was not punished. At one point, he was so overwrought about his grade results that he persuaded a cohort to help him through the transom door of the Dean's office, so that he could check the files. In order to retain his scholarship, Nixon had to maintain a high grade-point average. In 1934 he graduated second in his class from Whittier and went on to Duke University law school, where he received a full scholarship.

Nixon's chief accomplishment as student body president was organizing Whittier College's first school dance, a practice forbidden by the Quakers. His front teeth were knocked out and replaced by the rather prominent bridgework that later afforded caricaturists a field day. A lifelong football buff, Nixon practiced with the team assiduously but spent most of his time on the bench. Nixon then went on to become the student body president of Whittier College.

In lieu of Harvard, Nixon attended Whittier College, a local Quaker school where he founded the Orthogonian Society, a fraternity that competed with the already established Franklin Society. Some historians and commentators have speculated that Nixon's lifelong antipathy towards the "Eastern Establishment" had its genesis in this initial letdown. The award from Harvard provided him with a full scholarship, but since it did not cover living expenses, Nixon's family was unable to afford to send him away to college. Among other achievements, he had a penchant for Shakespeare and Latin, and could recite long passages by heart.

Nixon attended Fullerton High School, and won an award from the Harvard Club of California as the state's outstanding high school senior. Nixon's early life was marked by tragedy in the deaths of two of his brothers, Arthur and Harold, from tuberculosis. Today, this area is completely built up, but in Nixon's time, it was almost entirely farmland. He often spoke lovingly of his mother as a "Quaker saint," and began his memoirs with the words "I was born in a house my father built." Today, the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace has been erected next to the original house in Yorba Linda, which is open to the public; however, Nixon actually grew up some miles away, in Whittier, California.

Nixon always spoke highly of his parents. His father focused on the family business, a store that sold groceries and ARCO (then Atlantic Richfield) gasoline. His father, known as Frank, was an Irish Catholic who had sincerely converted to Quakerism but never fully absorbed its spirit, retaining instead a volatile temper. His upbringing is said to have been marked by such conservative evangelical Quaker observances as refraining from drinking, dancing and swearing.

He was raised as an evangelical Quaker by his mother, who hoped he would become a Quaker missionary. Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California on January 9, 1913, to Francis Nixon and Hannah Milhous, who was descended from a German family originally called Milhausen. . His resignation came after a loss of support in Congress amidst impending impeachment proceedings related to the Watergate scandal.

President to have ever resigned from office. Nixon is noted for his diplomatic foreign policy and moderate domestic policy, but he is also remembered as the first and only U.S. He is the only man to have been elected twice to the Vice Presidency and twice to the Presidency, and he was the fifth Republican President to be elected to two terms. Eisenhower.

He was also the thirty-sixth Vice President (1953–1961) serving under Dwight D. Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the thirty-seventh President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ISBN 0465044883. Harpercollins.

257-289. Cultural Selection: Why Some Achievements Survive the Test of Time - And Others Don't, pp. The birth of culture. (1997).

Taylor, Gary. Victor Gollancz ISBN 0575062436. The Arrogance of Power The Secret World of Richard Nixon. (2000).

Summers, Anthony. ISBN 0803738579. Penguin. It Didn't Start With Watergate.

(1977). Lasky, Victor. ISBN 0671447602. Summit Books.

The Price of Power: Kissinger in the Nixon White House. (1983). Hersh, Seymour M. ISBN 1558493328.

Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. Vietnam and Other American Fantasies. (2000). Bruce.

Franklin, H. ISBN 1891620002. Public Affairs. When the War Was Over: Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge Revolution.

(1986). Becker, Elizabeth. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon 1136 pages - Simon & Schuster; SBN: 0671707418. Nixon, RM.

PMID 9236996. Nixon. Ann Vasc Surg 1997;11:387-90. Venous interruption for pulmonary embolism: the illustrative case of Richard M. Barker WF, Hickman EB, Harper JA, Lungren J.

ISBN 0671691880. Simon & Schuster. Nixon: Ruin and Recovery 1973–1990. (1991).

Ambrose, Stephen E. ISBN 0671528378. Simon & Schuster. Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician, 1962–1972.

(1989). Ambrose, Stephen E. ISBN 067152836X. Simon & Schuster.

Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913–1962. (1991). Ambrose, Stephen E. ISBN 0679433236.

Random House. Beyond Peace. (1994). Nixon, Richard.

ISBN 0671743430. Simon & Schuster. Seize The Moment: America's Challenge In A One-Superpower World. (1992).

Nixon, Richard. ISBN 0671723189. Simon & Schuster. In the Arena: A Memoir of Victory, Defeat, and Renewal.

(1990). Nixon, Richard. ISBN 0671627120. Simon & Schuster.

1999: Victory Without War. (1988). Nixon, Richard. ISBN 0877956685.

Arbor House Publishing. No More Vietnams. (1987). Nixon, Richard.

ISBN 0446512494. Random House. Leaders. (1982).

Nixon, Richard. ISBN 0283986506. Sidgwich Jackson. Real War.

(1980). Nixon, Richard. ISBN 0385001258. Doubleday.

Six Crises. (1962). Nixon, Richard. ISBN 0671707418.

Simon & Schuster. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (Reprint). (1978). Nixon, Richard.

Dick Tuck. Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California. History of the United States (1964–1980). presidential election, 1972.

U.S. presidential election, 1968. U.S. presidential election, 1960.

U.S. presidential election, 1956. U.S. presidential election, 1952.

U.S. The Richard Nixon mask is a popular costuming item. "The Love of Richard Nixon" is a song by Manic Street Preachers. Neil Young's song Campaigner has a refrain discussing a place "where even Richard Nixon has got soul".

Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young song Ohio about the Kent State Massacre, attributes blame to Nixon. The "alternative 1985" in Back to the Future Part II has Nixon as the long-serving President (newspaper states that he "seeks fifth term"). Watchmen, set in an alternative reality in which Nixon is still President in the mid-1980s. Futurama, where Nixon's preserved head is elected President of Earth.

The Simpsons. Secret Honor. Hot Shots! Part Deux. Forrest Gump.

Elvis Meets Nixon. Dick. The Cayman Triangle. The Assassination of Richard Nixon.

Most interesting are many generally little-known details about Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward's earlier background as a Navy communications intelligence officer and aide to Admiral Thomas Moorer, who had served as Chief of Naval Operations from 1967 to 1970. The authors point to a Navy/Pentagon conspiracy that reached into the White House, one intended to dethrone Nixon as the Pentagon had been displeased with Nixon's desire to "open" China. Authors Robert Gettlin and Len Colodny offer a fascinating and well-researched alternative explanation about Watergate in Silent Coup: The Removal of a President. Nixon in China is an opera dealing with Nixon's visit there.

The movie Nixon directed by Oliver Stone. Haldeman also provides an insider's perspective in the books The Ends of Power and The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House. H.R. Chuck Colson gives an insider account of the Watergate affair in Born Again.

The book points out that past presidents may have used wiretaps and engaged in other activities that Nixon was accused of, but were never pursued by the press or the subject of impeachment hearings. Conservative author Victor Lasky published a book in 1977 called It Didn't Start With Watergate. The detailed accounts were mostly favorably regarded by both liberal and conservative reviewers. Best-selling historian-author Stephen Ambrose wrote a three-volume biography (Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913-1962, Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician, 1962-1972, Nixon: Ruin and Recovery 1973-1990) considered the definitive work among many Nixon biographies.

The book and movie All the President's Men tell Woodward and Bernstein's story of the Watergate affair. "I know that you believe you understand what you think I said, but I'm not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant.". "We did not live on the wrong side of the tracks, but we could hear the whistle real loud!". I have never been a quitter.".

"In all the decisions I have made in my public life, I have always tried to do what was best for the nation. "We are all Keynesians now.". "McCarthy goes after Communists with a shotgun; I go after them with a rifle.". Foreign Service.

"cookie pushers and faggots in striped pants", referring to the Peace Corps and the State Dept. "Let me say this about that.". "I would have made a good pope.". "Solutions are not the answer.".

"I don't know a lot about politics, but I do know a lot about baseball.". "Sock it to me?" (cameo on the television comedy series Laugh-In). "The greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker." (From his 1969 inaugural; later used as Nixon's epitaph). "Any nation that decides the only way to achieve peace is through peaceful means is a nation that will soon be a piece of another nation." (from his book No More Vietnams).

Still, I think some people get a little carried away when they take out their proctoscopes." (regarding the intense scrutiny which he was forced to endure.). "I think that the ability of the American people to review all that there is to know about their president using a microscope is wonderful. And then you destroy yourself." Farewell to White House staff August 8, 1974. Those who hate you don't win unless you hate them.

Always remember, others may hate you. "The greatness comes not when things go always good for you, but the greatness comes and you are really tested, when you take some knocks, some disappointments, when sadness comes, because only if you have been in the deepest valley can you ever know how magnificent it is to be on the highest mountain.. "Well, I screwed it all up real good, didn't I?". "I was under medication when I made the decision not to burn the tapes.".

"When the President does it, that means that it's not illegal." (explaining his interpretation of Executive Privilege to interviewer David Frost). "I recognize that this additional material I am now furnishing may further damage my case," (after the ordered release of the White House tapes August 5, 1974). We're going to protect our people if we can." (to Haldeman, tapes ordered released for the trial of Haldeman, Ehrlichman and Mitchell). That's the whole point.

I want you all to stonewall it, let them plead the Fifth Amendment, cover up or anything else, if it'll save it, save this plan. "I don't give a shit what happens. I've earned everything I've got." November 17, 1973 Televised press conference with 400 Associated Press Managing Editors at Walt Disney World, Florida, Nixon summarized his responses to journalists' questions regarding speculation and criticism of his personal finances and the Watergate scandal. Well, I'm not a crook.

And I think, too, that I can say that in my years of public life, that I welcome this kind of examination because people have got to know whether or not their President's a crook. And in all of my years of public life, I have never obstructed justice. I have earned every cent. I made my mistakes, but in all of my years of public life, I have never profited, never profited from public service.

"I want to say this to the television audience. Kennedy. Haldeman would later write that Nixon used the expression 'the Bay of Pigs thing' when he was referring to the assassination of President John F. Nixon was telling Haldeman to tell the CIA to stop the FBI investigation, by telling the CIA that it would 'open the whole Bay of Pigs thing.' Haldeman did give Nixon's order to the CIA's Richard Helms, who exploded into a rage of fury when told, according to Haldeman.

And, ah because these people are plugging for, for keeps and that they should call the FBI in and say that we wish for the country, don't go any further into this case", period!" The 'smoking gun tape' on June 23, 1972. don't, don't lie to them to the extent to say there is no involvement, but just say this is sort of a comedy of errors, bizarre, without getting into it, "the President believes that it is going to open the whole Bay of Pigs thing up again. "When you get in these people when you...get these people in, say: "Look, the problem is that this will open the whole, the whole Bay of Pigs thing, and the President just feels that" ah, without going into the details.. "This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the Creation, because as a result of what happened in this week, the world is bigger, infinitely." (concerning the Apollo Moon landing).

Because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference." 1962 after losing the race for Governor of California. "You won't have Dick Nixon to kick around anymore. Space Shuttle program started. Release of the dollar from the fluctuating gold standard that had controlled its worth since the Bretton Woods Conference, allowing its value to float in world markets.

troops from Vietnam while dramatically increasing the scale of bombing. "Vietnamization": the slow withdrawal of U.S. SALT I, or Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, led to the signing of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Post Office Department abolished as a federal department and reorganized as the U.S Postal Service.

Establishment of the Office of Minority Business Enterprise. Establishment of the Supplemental Security Income program. Establishment of the Drug Enforcement Administration. Establishment of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency. Détente The beginning of the end of the cold war. In the short term Nixon was successful in playing the "China card" against the Soviet Union and its client state North Vietnam. Normalizing of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and partially abandoning the Republic of China on Taiwan as part of Realpolitik, a foreign policy eschewing moral considerations.

William Rehnquist - 1972. - 1972. Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. Harry Andrew Blackmun - 1970.

Burger - Chief Justice - 1969. Warren E.

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