Nostradamus

Nostradamus

Nostradamus, (December 14, 1503 – July 2, 1566) born Michel de Nostredame, is one of the world's most famous authors of prophecies. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, which consists of one unrhymed and 941 rhymed quatrains, grouped into nine sets of 100 and one of 42, called 'Centuries'. Interest in the work of this prominent figure of the French Renaissance is still considerable, especially in the media and in popular culture.

Life

Childhood

Born in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence (see map) in the south of France in December 1503 (his claimed birthplace still exists), Michel de Nostredame was one of at least eight children of Reynière de St-Rémy and grain dealer Jaume de Nostredame, who was also a prosperous home-grown notary. The latter's family had originally been Jewish, but Jaume's father, Guy Gassonet, had converted to Catholicism circa 1455, taking the Christian name 'Pierre' and the surname 'Nostredame' (the latter apparently from the saint's-day on which his conversion was solemnized). In this, he was merely following the example of thousands of others, thanks to increasing official French persecution of Jews, many of whom were the descendants of former refugees from Spain, where they were known as the Marranos. The names of Nostredame's known forebears seem to reflect this. While practice of the ancestral religion was apparently continued in secret, nobody knows whether this applied to Nostredame's family, or whether it still applied to him two generations later. His adult religious leanings suggest, however, that his upbringing was devoutly Catholic.

His known siblings included Delphine, Jehan (c.1507-77), Pierre, Hector, Louis (b.1522), Bertrand, Jean and Antoine (b.1523).

Student years

Little is known about Nostredame's childhood, although there is a persistent tradition that he was educated by his maternal great-grandfather Jean de St-Rémy – which is vitiated by the equally persistent tradition that the latter died when the child was only one year old. It is known, however, that at the age of fifteen Nostredame entered the University of Avignon to study for his baccalaureate. After little more than a year (when he would have studied the regular Trivium of grammar, rhetoric and logic, rather than the later Quadrivium of geometry, arithmetic, music and astronomy/astrology) he was forced to leave Avignon when the university closed its doors in the face of an outbreak of the plague. In 1529, after some years as an apothecary, he entered the University of Montpellier to study for a doctorate in medicine. He was promptly expelled again shortly afterwards, though, when it was discovered that he had been an apothecary, which was a 'manual' trade expressly banned by the university statutes. The hand-written expulsion document (BIU Montpellier, Register S 2 folio 87 – see facsimile on p. 25 of Lemesurier [2] under Sources) still exists in the faculty library. After his expulsion, Nostredame continued working, presumably as an apothecary (though some of his publishers and correspondents would later call him 'Doctor'), and became famous for creating a "rose pill" that was widely believed (not least by himself) to protect against the plague.

Marriage and healing work

In 1531 he was invited by Jules-César Scaliger, a leading Renaissance scholar, to come to Agen. There Nostredame married a woman whose name is still in dispute (possibly Henriette d'Encausse), but who bore him two children. In 1534, however, his wife and children died, presumably from the plague. After their death he continued to travel, passing through France and possibly Italy.

On his return in 1545, he assisted the prominent physician Louis Serre in his fight against a major plague-outbreak in Marseille, and then tackled further outbreaks of disease on his own in Salon-de-Provence and in the regional capital, Aix-en-Provence. Finally, in 1547, he settled down in Salon-de-Provence in the house which is still there today, and where he married a rich widow named Anne Ponsarde (nicknamed Gemelle, or 'Twinny') and eventually had six children – three daughters (Madeleine, Anne and Diane) and three sons (César, Charles and André). Between 1556 and 1567, Nostredame and his wife would in due course acquire a one-thirteenth share in a huge canal project organized by Adam de Craponne to irrigate largely waterless Salon and the nearby Désert de la Crau from the river Durance. Parts of the network remain today: thanks to much larger supplementary canals, there is even a hydroelectric station in Salon itself.

The seer

After a further visit to Italy, Nostredame began to move away from medicine and towards the occult. Following popular trends, he wrote an almanac for 1550, for the first time Latinizing his name to 'Nostradamus'. He was so encouraged by its success that he decided to write one or more annually. Taken together, they are known to have contained at least 6,338 prophecies (most of them, in the event, failed predictions – see Chevignard and Lemesurier [2] under Sources), as well as at least eleven annual calendars, all of them starting on January 1 (and not, as is sometimes supposed, in March). It was mainly in reaction to the almanacs that nobility and other prominent persons from far and wide soon started asking for horoscopes and advice from him, though he generally expected them to supply the birth-charts on which the horoscopes would be based.

He then began his project of writing a book of one thousand quatrains, which constitute the largely undated prophecies for which he is most famous today. Feeling vulnerable to religious fanatics, however, he devised a method of obscuring his meaning by using "Virgilianized" syntax, word games and a mixture of languages such as Provençal, Greek, Latin and Italian. For technical reasons connected with their publication in three installments, the last fifty-eight quatrains of the seventh 'Century', or book of 100 verses, have not survived into any extant edition.

The quatrains, published in a book titled Les Propheties ('The Prophecies'), received a mixed reaction when they were published. Some people thought Nostradamus was a servant of evil, a fake, or insane, while many of the elite thought his quatrains were spiritually inspired prophecies. Catherine de Médicis, the queen consort of King Henri II of France, was one of Nostradamus' greatest admirers. After reading his almanacs for 1555, which hinted at unnamed threats to the royal family, she summoned him to Paris to explain them, and to draw up horoscopes for her children. At the time, he feared that he would be beheaded, but by the time of his death in 1566, Catherine had made him Counselor and Physician-in-Ordinary to the King.

Some biographical accounts of Nostradamus' life state that he was afraid of being persecuted for heresy by the Inquisition, but neither prophecy nor astrology fell under this bracket, and he would have been in danger only if he had practiced magic to support them. In fact, his relations with the Church as a prophet and healer were always excellent. His brief imprisonment at Marignane in late 1561 came about purely because he had published his 1562 almanac without the prior permission of a bishop, contrary to a recent royal decree.

Final years and death

By 1566 Nostradamus' gout, which had plagued him painfully for many years and made movement very difficult, turned into dropsy. In late June he summoned his lawyer to draw up an extensive will bequeathing his property plus 3444 crowns (around $300,000 today) – minus a few debts – to his wife pending her remarriage, in trust for her sons pending their twenty-fifth birthdays and her daughters pending their marriages. This was followed by a much shorter codicil. On the evening of July 1 he is alleged to have told his secretary Jean de Chavigny, "You will not find me alive by sunrise." The next morning he was reportedly found dead, lying on the floor between his bed and a makeshift bench. He was buried in the local Franciscan chapel (part of it now incorporated into the restaurant La Brocherie'), but re-interred in the Collégiale St-Laurent at the French Revolution, where his tomb remains to this day.

Methods

Nostradamus claimed to base his predictions on judicial astrology – the assessment of the 'astrological quality' of expected future events – but was heavily criticized by professional astrologers of the day such as Laurens Videl for his incompetence and for assuming that 'comparative horoscopy' (comparison of future planetary configurations with the astrology of known past events) could predict the actual events themselves.

Recent research (Brind'Amour [1], Prévost, Gruber, Lemesurier [2] and [3]) has suggested that most of his prophetic work was in fact based on paraphrasing collections of ancient end-of-the-world prophecies (mainly Bible-based – the end of the world was expected at the time to occur in either 1800 or 1887, or possibly in 2242, depending on the system adopted) and supplementing their insights by projecting known historical events and identifiable anthologies of omen-reports into the future with the aid of comparative horoscopy. It is thanks to this that his work contains so many predictions involving ancient figures such as Sulla, Marius, Nero, Hannibal and so on, as well as descriptions of "battles in the clouds" and "frogs falling from the sky". Astrology itself is mentioned only twice in Nostradamus' Preface, and 41 times in the Centuries themselves, though rather more in his famously baffling dedicatory Letter to King Henri II.

His historical sources include easily identifiable passages from Livy, Suetonius, Plutarch and a range of other classical historians, as well as from the chronicles of medieval authors such as Villehardouin and Froissart. Many of his broader astrological references, by contrast, are taken almost word-for-word from the Livre de l'estat et mutations des temps of 1549/50 by Richard Roussat. Even the planetary tables, already published by professional astrologers, on which he based the birth-charts that he was unable to avoid preparing himself are easily identifiable by their detailed figures, even where (as is usually the case) he gets some of them wrong. (Refer to the seminal analysis of these charts by Brind'Amour, 1993, under Sources, and compare Gruber's comprehensive critique of Nostradamus’ horoscope for Crown Prince Rudolph Maximilian).

His major prophetic source was evidently the Mirabilis liber of 1522 (Brind'Amour, Lemesurier [2] and [3]), which contained a range of prophecies by Pseudo-Methodius, the Tiburtine Sibyl, Joachim of Fiore, Savonarola and others (his Preface contains no fewer than 24 biblical quotations, all but two of them in exactly the same order as Savonarola). The book had enjoyed considerable success in the 1520s, when it went through half-a-dozen editions (see Links below for facsimiles and translations). The obvious question – why the Mirabilis liber did not sustain its influence in the way that Nostadamus’ writings did – is explained mainly by the fact that the book (like the Bible) was mostly in Latin and in Gothic script and, to make matters even more complicated for the general reader, contained many abstruse scholastic abbreviations. Nostradamus was, in effect, one of the first to present its prophecies (and others) openly in the French vernacular – as was also happening to the Bible at the time – which is no doubt why he has retained all the credit for them. The Mirabilis liber, (some of the predictions of which had already lapsed by the time Nostradamus started writing) was not translated into French until 1831 – and this mainly for scholarly and antiquarian reasons at a time when knowledge of Latin was beginning to die out. See selected Engilsh translations from it here.

Meanwhile, if Nostradamus' many competitors – and he had many – never accused him of copying from it, it was because copying and/or paraphrasing, far from being regarded (as it is today) as mere plagiarism, was regarded at the time as what all good, educated people should do anyway. The whole Renaissance was based on the idea. Copying from the classics in particular, often without acknowledgement, and preferably from memory, was all the rage. Only in the 17th century did people start to be surprised by the fact that much of his output was evidently based on earlier and often classical originals – which was no doubt why, according to the early commentator Théophile de Garencières, his Prophecies started to be used as a classroom-reader at that time. Nostradamus, it should be remembered, denied in writing on several occasions that he was a prophet on his own account. In translation:

This last is presumably why he entitled his book

(which, in French, as easily means 'The Prophecies, by M. Michel Nostradamus' – which is precisely what they were – as 'The Prophecies of M. Michel Nostradamus' – which, except in a few cases, they weren't, other than in the manner of their editing, expression and re-application to the future). Any criticism of Nostradamus for claiming to be a prophet, in other words, would have been for doing what he never claimed to be doing in the first place.

Further material (see Brind'Amour, Gruber, Lemesurier [2] and [3]) was gleaned from the De honesta disciplina of 1504 by Petrus Crinitus, which included extracts from Michael Psellus's De daemonibus and the De Mysteriis Aegyptiorum..." (Concerning the mysteries of Egypt...), a book on Chaldean and Assyrian magic by Iamblichus, a 4th-century neo-Platonist. Latin versions of both had recently been published in Lyon, and extracts from both are paraphrased (in the second case almost literally) in his first two verses. While it is true that Nostradamus claimed in 1555 to have burned all the occult works in his library, no one can say exactly what books were destroyed in this fire. The fact that they reportedly burned with an unnaturally brilliant flame suggests, however, that some of them were manuscripts on vellum, which was routinely treated with saltpeter.

Given that his methodology, clearly, was mainly literary, it is doubtful whether Nostradamus used any particular methods for entering a trance state, other than contemplation, meditation and incubation (i.e. ritually 'sleeping on it'). His sole description of this process is contained in letter 41 of his collected Latin correspondence, as republished by Jean Dupèbe and translated by Lemesurier [2]. The popular legend that he attempted the ancient methods of flame gazing, water gazing or both simultaneously is based on an uninformed reading of his first two verses (see above), which merely liken his own efforts to those of the Delphic and Branchidic oracles. In his dedication to King Henri II Nostradamus describes "emptying my soul, mind and heart of all care, worry and unease through mental calm and tranquility", but his frequent references to the "bronze tripod" of the Delphic rite are usually preceded by the words "as though".

Works

A copy of his Prophecies dated 1672, located at The P.I. Nixon Medical History Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

The Prophecies - In this book he collected his major, long-term divinations. The first edition was published in 1555. The second, with 289 further prophetic verses, was printed in 1557. The third edition, with three hundred new quatrains, was reportedly printed in 1558, but nowadays only survives as part of the omnibus edition that was published after his death in 1568. Given printing practices at the time, no two editions turned out to be identical, and it is relatively rare to find even two copies that are exactly the same.

The Almanacs - By far the most popular of his works, these were published annually from 1550 until his death. Often he published two or even three in a single year, entitled either Almanachs (detailed predictions), Prognostications or Presages (more generalized predictions). See also here.

Nostradamus was not only a diviner, but a professional healer, too. We know that he wrote at least two books on medical science. One was an alleged "translation" of Galen, and in his so-called Traité des fardemens (basically a medical cookbook containing, once again, materials borrowed mainly from others) he included a description of the methods he used to treat the plague – none of which (not even the bloodletting) apparently worked. The same book also describes the preparation of cosmetics.

A manuscript normally known as the Orus Apollo also exists in the Lyon municipal library, where upwards of 2000 original documents relating to Nostradamus are stored under the aegis of Michel Chomarat. It is a purported translation of an ancient Greek work on Egyptian hieroglyphs based on later, Latin versions, all of them unfortunately ignorant of the true meanings of the ancient Egyptian script, which was not in fact deciphered until the advent of Champollion in the 19th century.

Since his death, only the Prophecies have continued to be popular, but in this case they have been quite extraordinarily so. Indeed, they have seldom, if ever, been out of print. This may be due partly to popular unease about the future, partly to people's desire to see their lives in some kind of over-all cosmic perspective and so to give meaning to them – but above all, possibly, to their vagueness and lack of dating, which enables them to be wheeled out after every major dramatic event and retrospectively claimed as 'hits'.

Hazards of interpretation

Skeptics of Nostradamus state that his reputation as a prophet is largely manufactured by modern-day supporters who shoehorn his words into events that have either already occurred or are so imminent as to be inevitable, a process known as "retroactive clairvoyance". It has been stated, probably correctly, that no Nostradamus quatrain has ever been interpreted as predicting a specific event before it occurred beyond a very general level (e.g., a fire will occur, a war will start).

A good demonstration of this flexible predicting is to take lyrics written by modern songwriters (e.g., Bob Dylan) and show that they are equally "prophetic". (For Dylan see Masters Of War , As I Went Out One Morning, Gates Of Eden, A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall, It's Alright, Ma (I'm Only Bleeding), etc.)

Some scholars believe that Nostradamus wrote not to be a prophet, but to comment on events that were happening in his own time, writing in his elusive way – using highly metaphorical and cryptic language – in order to avoid persecution. This is similar to the Preterite interpretation of the Book of Revelation; John (the Divine) intended to write only about contemporary events, but over time his writings became seen as prophecies.

The well-known prophecy that "a great and terrifying leader would come out of the sky" in 1999 and 7 months "to resuscitate the great King from Angoumois" has been much over-stated. The phrase d'effraieur (of terror) in fact occurs nowhere in the original printing, which merely uses the word deffraieur (defraying, hosting). On the basis of Nostradamus's by-now well known technique of projecting past events into the future, Lemesurier [3] suggests that X.72 therefore refers back to the restoration to health of the captive Francis I of France (who was Duke of Angoulême) following a surprise visit to his cell by his host, the then Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1525. No fewer than five of the planets were in the same signs on both occasions.

The bulk of the quatrains deal with disasters of various sorts. The disasters include plagues, earthquakes, wars, floods, invasions, murders, droughts, battles and many other related themes. Some quatrains cover these in over-all terms; others concern a single person or small group of persons. Some cover a single town, others several towns in several countries. All of them are presented in the context of the supposedly imminent end of the world – a conviction that sparked numerous collections of end-time prophecies at the time, not least an unpublished collection by Christopher Columbus.

Misquotes and hoaxes

Nostradamus enthusiasts have credited him with predicting numerous events in world history, including the French Revolution, the atom bomb, the rise of Adolf Hitler and the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center. Indeed, they regularly make similar claims regarding each new world crisis as it comes along, for the most part shamelessly twisting either the words or the events to fit (see specific examples below). The tradition goes right back to Nostradamus' own day, and naturally does the seer himself no favors.

Nostradamus does not in fact mention any of the above specifically, not even Hitler: the name Hister, as he himself explains in his Presage for 1554, is merely the classical name for the Lower Danube, while Pau, Nay, Loron – often claimed to be an anagram of 'Napaulon Roy'– evidently refers simply to three neighboring towns in south-western France close to the seer's one-time home territory. This linguistic sleight of hand is particularly easy to carry out when the would-be commentator knows no French to start with, especially in its 16th-century form – to say nothing of French geography. Not surprisingly, then, detractors see such 'edited' predictions as examples of vaticinium ex eventu, retroactive clairvoyance and selective thinking, which find non-existent patterns in ambiguous statements. Because of this, it has been claimed that Nostradamus is "100% accurate at predicting events after they happen", while the seer has acquired even more disrepute than he possibly deserves.

Certainly, there is a persistent tendency to claim that 'Nostradamus predicted whatever has just happened'. As mentioned above, this applied most recently to the September 11, 2001 attacks on New York City. Almost as soon as the event had happened, the relevant Internet sites were deluged with enquiries into whether Nostradamus had predicted the event. In response, Nostradamus enthusiasts started searching for a Nostradamus quatrain that could be said to have done so. The nearest that they could come up with was quatrain VI.97, which in the original 1557 edition ran:

With instant evidently a version of the Latin instanter ('violently, vehemently'), a reasonable English translation would thus appear to be:

The various ways in which the enthusiasts chose to interpret the text, however, were almost universally panned by experts on the subject (compare the relevant sections of the Snopes and Lemesurier websites listed under External Links below, and see Gruber p.419 and Lemesurier [2] pp. 145-6 under Sources). 'Five and forty degrees' was said to be the latitude of New York City (this being incorrect in itself), or was interpreted as '40.5 degrees' (even though the decimal point had not yet come into use in the Europe of Nostradamus' day); the 'New City' was claimed to be New York (even though Nostradamus refers in this way to various 'New Cities' whose names, unlike 'New York', literally mean 'New City', and especially Naples – from Greek Neapolis, 'new city'); and most of the attempts to fit in the 'Normans' seemed contrived at best. After the factual nature of these claims was widely denied, some suggested instead that the first line might refer to the actual angle at which one of the hijacked airliners hit the World Trade Center (which seemed unlikely, even if the rest had fitted).

Lemesurier ([3], pp. 246-7; but compare Clébert) suggests that the verse is merely an undated projection into the future of the capture of Naples by the Normans in 1139 during a year marked by a notably violent eruption of nearby Mount Vesuvius that is recorded in the contemporary Annales Cassini. In this case, the first expression may simply be a version of

– which is indeed the latitude of Naples.

Perhaps in frustration, the searchers now turned to quatrain I.87, which in the original 1555 edition (Albi copy) ran:

or, in a possible English translation:

Here, once again, the cité neufve was claimed to be New York; au tour de had to refer to the Twin Towers (even though, in French, the word tour in the masculine – as it is here – has absolutely nothing to do with towers); the Deux grands rochiers had to be the Twin Towers themselves; and Arethusa was (naturally!) an anagram of 'the USA'. Once again, however, rather more sober investigation by Brind'Amour ([2, p. 170) had already revealed (bearing in mind that, in French, faire la guerre aux rochers, or 'to make war on the rocks', simply means 'to struggle fruitlessly') that the reference was probably to Naples and its nearby volcano. Subsequent investigation by Lemesurier ([3], pp. 40-41) and his colleagues suggested that it applied particularly to the Annales Cassini's report of its lava eruption of 1036, at a time when the Lombards of Capua and the Byzantine dukes of Naples were constantly at war over the city prior to the decisive intervention of the Normans. For 968, similarly, Leo Marsicanus had reported in the same annals that ‘Mount Vesuvius exploded into flames and sent out huge quantities of sticky, sulfurous matter that formed a river rushing down to the sea’. Thus, given that Arethusa was the classical nymph of springs and rivers, with a well-known 'spring of Arethusa' still visible today in the Sicilian port of Syracuse, the case for a '9/11' interpretation was evidently unfounded.

Meanwhile the following spoof text was already being circulated on the Internet, along with many more elaborate variants (one of them signed 'Nostradamus 1654' – when he would, of course, have been just 150 years old!):

As it turns out, the first four lines were indeed written before the attacks, but by a Canadian graduate student named Neil Marshall as part of a research paper in 1997. Ironically enough, the research paper included this poem as an illustrative example of how the validity of prophecies is often exaggerated. For example, the phrases "City of God" (why is New York City the City of God?), "great thunder" (this could apply to just about any disaster), "Two brothers" (many things come in pairs), and "the great leader will succumb" are so ambiguous as to be meaningless. The fifth line was added by an anonymous Internet user, completely ignoring the fact that Nostradamus wrote his Propheties in rhymed four-line decasyllables called quatrains. Nostradamus also never referred to a "third big war".

To verify the authenticity of a purported Nostradamus quatrain, compare the identifying number (e.g.: C1, Q25 or 'I.25' means Century 1, Quatrain 25) against an authoritative version of Nostradamus' works, which will probably also contain the original old French – or click on the appropriate External Links below to see facsimiles of the originals.

Nostradamus in popular culture

Film

He is the subject of many films and videos, including:

  • Nostradamus: The Man Who Saw Tomorrow at The Internet Movie Database (1981)
  • Nostradamus at The Internet Movie Database (2000)
  • Nostradamus at The Internet Movie Database (1994) Depicts Nostradamus's rise in influence, because of success in treating plague and his predictions, culminating in his appointment as court physician to Charles IX of France.

None of them can be regarded as factual or reliable.

Television

The television series Alias prominently features the character Milo Rambaldi, a fictional Nostradamus-like prophet. In the science fiction series First Wave, the protagonists use the quatrains of Nostradamus to fight back against an alien invasion. Nostradamus has also been parodied on Comedy Central's Chappelle's Show as Negrodamus.

Music

Composer Robert Steadman has twice used Nostradamus' prophecies in pieces of music: in the 1987's quatrains by Nostradamus were juxtaposed with the Latin Requiem Mass text and poems on environmental issues. And in 1999, he set what was thought by some to be Nostradamus's prediction of the end of the world for soprano and chamber ensemble in The Final Prophecy.

In 2005, Dutch band Kayak released a rock opera called Nostradamus - Fate of Man. English singer/songwriter Al Stewart wrote a song called "Nostradamus", concerning the prophecies, for his 1973 album Past, Present, and Future.

Rapper Nas referred to himself as Nastradamus.

Maksim, the cross-over piano player, plays a song entitled Nostradamus on his third CD. It is composed by Tonci Huljic.

Comics

In an Italian Mickey Mouse story, Mickey and Goofy travel back in time and by accident a young boy followed them back to the present. The boy had to go back to his own time and his memory of the future was erased, but before that he grabbed pieces of books. The boy of course became Nostradamus and the ripped pages from books explained his visions of the future. The story was made by Massimo Marconi and Massimo De Vita.

A Phantom story from 1983 by Ulf Granberg and Jaime Vallvé featured an appearance by Nostradamus.

In the DC Comics Universe, Nostradamus was an ancestor of Zatara and Zatanna.

In Scott Adams's comic strip Dilbert, "Nostradogbert" is a pseudonym of Dogbert.

Games

In Castlevania: Aria of Sorrow, the prophecy of 1999 was used as the ressurection of Dracula and added that all born of the day of Dracula's demise are "Dark Candidates" meaning that that they'll be next in line to be Dark Lord.


This page about Nostradamus includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Nostradamus
News stories about Nostradamus
External links for Nostradamus
Videos for Nostradamus
Wikis about Nostradamus
Discussion Groups about Nostradamus
Blogs about Nostradamus
Images of Nostradamus

In Castlevania: Aria of Sorrow, the prophecy of 1999 was used as the ressurection of Dracula and added that all born of the day of Dracula's demise are "Dark Candidates" meaning that that they'll be next in line to be Dark Lord. First included in Super Robot Wars F Final, characters and mecha from Evangelion have since become extremely popular parts of the series, and have appeared in Super Robot Wars Alpha, Alpha 3, MX, and other releases. In Scott Adams's comic strip Dilbert, "Nostradogbert" is a pseudonym of Dogbert. Aspects of Evangelion have made numerous appearances in the Super Robot Wars series by Banpresto. In the DC Comics Universe, Nostradamus was an ancestor of Zatara and Zatanna. Currently, there is no definitive information on what the movie will focus on.[3]. A Phantom story from 1983 by Ulf Granberg and Jaime Vallvé featured an appearance by Nostradamus. Hideaki Anno, the director of the anime, will not be directing this live-action film, and a director has yet to be chosen.

The story was made by Massimo Marconi and Massimo De Vita. It is estimated to be released as late as 2010. The boy of course became Nostradamus and the ripped pages from books explained his visions of the future. Production of a live action version of Evangelion was announced in May 2003 by the American company ADV Films (which holds world-wide rights to the series outside of Asia and Australia), and will be made by ADV, Gainax, and Weta Workshop Ltd. The boy had to go back to his own time and his memory of the future was erased, but before that he grabbed pieces of books. This later inspired a manga, which uses most of the Evangelion characters in a "normal" schoolyard drama series. In an Italian Mickey Mouse story, Mickey and Goofy travel back in time and by accident a young boy followed them back to the present. While Girlfriend of Steel was shoehorned into the original plot, the sequel to the game, Girlfriend of Steel 2, takes place in a complete alternate universe.

It is composed by Tonci Huljic. The series has also spawned various computer games, including Girlfriend of Steel. Maksim, the cross-over piano player, plays a song entitled Nostradamus on his third CD. A large deal of the merchandise has an amusingly detached or hilarious non-relation to the dark nature of the series, which is why Hideaki Anno is so opposed to them. Rapper Nas referred to himself as Nastradamus. Merchandise for Evangelion still comes out fairly regularly despite the fact that it is a decade old. English singer/songwriter Al Stewart wrote a song called "Nostradamus", concerning the prophecies, for his 1973 album Past, Present, and Future. The manga is also translated into Brazilian Portuguese by Conrad Editora, Mexican Spanish by Editorial Vid, Argentinian Spanish by Editorial Ivrea and French by Glénat, Swedish by Bonnier Carlsen and Polish by Rafal Rzepka.

In 2005, Dutch band Kayak released a rock opera called Nostradamus - Fate of Man. The manga is translated into English in North America by VIZ Media and in Singapore by Chuang Yi, and the Singaporean translation is imported to Australia by Madman Entertainment. And in 1999, he set what was thought by some to be Nostradamus's prediction of the end of the world for soprano and chamber ensemble in The Final Prophecy. In Japan, the manga is serialized in the magazine Shonen Ace. Composer Robert Steadman has twice used Nostradamus' prophecies in pieces of music: in the 1987's quatrains by Nostradamus were juxtaposed with the Latin Requiem Mass text and poems on environmental issues. The manga is currently still in production, though its first volume was actually released prior to the airing of Evangelion's first episode. Nostradamus has also been parodied on Comedy Central's Chappelle's Show as Negrodamus. Other changes include a decrease in the number of Angels and the ealier arrival of Kaworu Nagisa.

In the science fiction series First Wave, the protagonists use the quatrains of Nostradamus to fight back against an alien invasion. It covers a similar story as the series, but from the perspective of Shinji Ikari, whose personality is altered to be somewhat more decisive than his anime incarnation. The television series Alias prominently features the character Milo Rambaldi, a fictional Nostradamus-like prophet. A manga of the series, drawn by series character designer Yoshiyuki Sadamoto, was published by Kadokawa Shoten. None of them can be regarded as factual or reliable. "N² mine", as translated by ADV, is technically not an error since Japanese word heiki (兵器) is a term that means weapon; but fails a semantic test as mines are not used in the same manner they are used in the series (for example, being dropped from planes and being used in suicide missions). He is the subject of many films and videos, including:. Furthermore, the word "Angel" can be seen appearing on video screens in NERV HQ during Angel attacks, and this was the case in the original version of the series as broadcast in Japan; it is not an alteration to the ADV release.

To verify the authenticity of a purported Nostradamus quatrain, compare the identifying number (e.g.: C1, Q25 or 'I.25' means Century 1, Quatrain 25) against an authoritative version of Nostradamus' works, which will probably also contain the original old French – or click on the appropriate External Links below to see facsimiles of the originals. Unlike the translation of "Children" into "Child", which was altered by ADV, the use of "Angel" in the English dub was specified by Anno and Gainax. Nostradamus also never referred to a "third big war". It should be noted, however, that the English angel is derived from the Greek for "messenger" (ἄγγελος, ου, ὁ). The fifth line was added by an anonymous Internet user, completely ignoring the fact that Nostradamus wrote his Propheties in rhymed four-line decasyllables called quatrains. The Japanese word used to refer to the Angels is shito (使徒), which literally means "messenger" or "apostle." The usual Japanese word for "angel" is tenshi (天使). For example, the phrases "City of God" (why is New York City the City of God?), "great thunder" (this could apply to just about any disaster), "Two brothers" (many things come in pairs), and "the great leader will succumb" are so ambiguous as to be meaningless. The English language dub produced by ADV, however, uses the word "Child" instead of "Children.".

Ironically enough, the research paper included this poem as an illustrative example of how the validity of prophecies is often exaggerated. Shinji is the "Third Children," not the "Third Child.") This is intentional, and not a translation error. As it turns out, the first four lines were indeed written before the attacks, but by a Canadian graduate student named Neil Marshall as part of a research paper in 1997. "Children," the plural of "Child," is used to refer to each of the Eva pilots in the singular (i.e. Meanwhile the following spoof text was already being circulated on the Internet, along with many more elaborate variants (one of them signed 'Nostradamus 1654' – when he would, of course, have been just 150 years old!):. Nerv is the German term for "nerve". Thus, given that Arethusa was the classical nymph of springs and rivers, with a well-known 'spring of Arethusa' still visible today in the Sicilian port of Syracuse, the case for a '9/11' interpretation was evidently unfounded. Seele is the German term for "soul".

For 968, similarly, Leo Marsicanus had reported in the same annals that ‘Mount Vesuvius exploded into flames and sent out huge quantities of sticky, sulfurous matter that formed a river rushing down to the sea’. The term Gehirn is German for "brain". 40-41) and his colleagues suggested that it applied particularly to the Annales Cassini's report of its lava eruption of 1036, at a time when the Lombards of Capua and the Byzantine dukes of Naples were constantly at war over the city prior to the decisive intervention of the Normans. There are frequent allusions to the biblical Adam and Eve throughout the series, as well as to the Evangelion's relationship with the Tree of Life. Subsequent investigation by Lemesurier ([3], pp. Additionally, the term "Eva", a frequent abbreviation of Evangelion used in the anime, is the name of the biblical Eve in Greek, coming from the Hebrew name "Chavva" meaning "breath" or "life". 170) had already revealed (bearing in mind that, in French, faire la guerre aux rochers, or 'to make war on the rocks', simply means 'to struggle fruitlessly') that the reference was probably to Naples and its nearby volcano. This dual meaning may be the reason both the series itself and the "mecha" are called Evangelion.

Once again, however, rather more sober investigation by Brind'Amour ([2, p. It only came to mean "good message" or "good news" over time and eventually became most commonly associated with the Christian gospels. Here, once again, the cité neufve was claimed to be New York; au tour de had to refer to the Twin Towers (even though, in French, the word tour in the masculine – as it is here – has absolutely nothing to do with towers); the Deux grands rochiers had to be the Twin Towers themselves; and Arethusa was (naturally!) an anagram of 'the USA'. Initially, the word meant "good messenger", the prefix "eu" meaning "good" and "angelion" meaning "messenger" (from the same word that means "angel") and was used to describe the runners who brought news in ancient Greece. or, in a possible English translation:. Evangelion is an anglicised version of the Greek "εὐαγγέλιον" (euangelion) for "good news", and is typically translated "gospel" in the Bible. Perhaps in frustration, the searchers now turned to quatrain I.87, which in the original 1555 edition (Albi copy) ran:. The Japanese term for the first book in the Bible is "Souseiki," perhaps a wordplay (with two different beginning and ending kanji) with "Shin Seiki" in the Japanese title.

– which is indeed the latitude of Naples. Genesis (γένεσις, εωσ, ἡ) means "origin, source" or "birth, race" and is also the Greek title for the first book of the Hebrew Scriptures, describing the creation of the universe and early Hebrew history. In this case, the first expression may simply be a version of. Neon, the neuter form of the word "Neos" (νέον, νέα, νέον), literally means "new" or "young". 246-7; but compare Clébert) suggests that the verse is merely an undated projection into the future of the capture of Naples by the Normans in 1139 during a year marked by a notably violent eruption of nearby Mount Vesuvius that is recorded in the contemporary Annales Cassini. It literally translates to "New Beginning Gospel" and is read in two parts. Lemesurier ([3], pp. The title, Neon Genesis Evangelion (νέον γένεσις εὐαγγέλιον), appears to be wholly Greek.

After the factual nature of these claims was widely denied, some suggested instead that the first line might refer to the actual angle at which one of the hijacked airliners hit the World Trade Center (which seemed unlikely, even if the rest had fitted). The decision to call the series Neon Genesis Evangelion in English was originally made by Gainax, and not, as some fans have believed, by translators. 'Five and forty degrees' was said to be the latitude of New York City (this being incorrect in itself), or was interpreted as '40.5 degrees' (even though the decimal point had not yet come into use in the Europe of Nostradamus' day); the 'New City' was claimed to be New York (even though Nostradamus refers in this way to various 'New Cities' whose names, unlike 'New York', literally mean 'New City', and especially Naples – from Greek Neapolis, 'new city'); and most of the attempts to fit in the 'Normans' seemed contrived at best. The two translate literally from Japanese and a borrowed term from Greek, respectively, as "New Era/Century" and "Gospel". 145-6 under Sources). The Japanese title for the series, Shin Seiki Evangelion, is composed of two parts: "Shin Seiki" and "Evangelion". The various ways in which the enthusiasts chose to interpret the text, however, were almost universally panned by experts on the subject (compare the relevant sections of the Snopes and Lemesurier websites listed under External Links below, and see Gruber p.419 and Lemesurier [2] pp. Some of these more confusing lines were re-recorded for the 'Platinum Edition' DVD in 2004.

With instant evidently a version of the Latin instanter ('violently, vehemently'), a reasonable English translation would thus appear to be:. In some aspects they can be misleading, and even contradictary to the original, causing increased confusion towards the show, and increasing the likelihood of outrightly wrong interpretations for numerous English-speaking audiences. The nearest that they could come up with was quatrain VI.97, which in the original 1557 edition ran:. The translated dubbed versions of the series and movies of Evangelion were done by ADV Films and Manga Entertainment. In response, Nostradamus enthusiasts started searching for a Nostradamus quatrain that could be said to have done so. Numerous webcomics, such as Okashina Okashi, Tsunami Channel and Punks and Nerds have featured Evangelion tributes. Almost as soon as the event had happened, the relevant Internet sites were deluged with enquiries into whether Nostradamus had predicted the event. English image board 4chan has a meme ("zOMG! It's Rei!") based on the character Rei Ayanami.

As mentioned above, this applied most recently to the September 11, 2001 attacks on New York City. In the online community, Eva is a common source of parody. Certainly, there is a persistent tendency to claim that 'Nostradamus predicted whatever has just happened'. Anno is believed to be featured as a guest voice in the piece, taking on the roles of the "Space God" and "Black Space God". Because of this, it has been claimed that Nostradamus is "100% accurate at predicting events after they happen", while the seer has acquired even more disrepute than he possibly deserves. The drama is set after episode 26 and has the characters discussing a sequel to the show, clearly breaking the fourth wall. Not surprisingly, then, detractors see such 'edited' predictions as examples of vaticinium ex eventu, retroactive clairvoyance and selective thinking, which find non-existent patterns in ambiguous statements. In the Eva soundtrack Addition, a twenty minute audio drama was included that reunited the entire voice acting cast, titled "After the End".

This linguistic sleight of hand is particularly easy to carry out when the would-be commentator knows no French to start with, especially in its 16th-century form – to say nothing of French geography. Even Anno himself decided to poke fun at his work. Nostradamus does not in fact mention any of the above specifically, not even Hitler: the name Hister, as he himself explains in his Presage for 1554, is merely the classical name for the Lower Danube, while Pau, Nay, Loron – often claimed to be an anagram of 'Napaulon Roy'– evidently refers simply to three neighboring towns in south-western France close to the seer's one-time home territory. It is interesting to note that despite EVA 05 being mentioned as a good guy in the film, the series of the toyline is still referred as "Neon Genesis Evangelion" and that the graphics on the blister card (with Japanese writing) are left untouched; some movies and shows usually rename or repackage an existing product with a generic name/graphic logo to save money from royalty fees. The tradition goes right back to Nostradamus' own day, and naturally does the seer himself no favors. However, Jake rejects the offer after telling him that his parents do not allow him to accept gifts. Indeed, they regularly make similar claims regarding each new world crisis as it comes along, for the most part shamelessly twisting either the words or the events to fit (see specific examples below). In another scene, we see Robin Williams's character, Sy, offering the figure to Jake for free.

Nostradamus enthusiasts have credited him with predicting numerous events in world history, including the French Revolution, the atom bomb, the rise of Adolf Hitler and the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center. The first time we see the figure, is when the York family visits the SavMart (a parody of Walmart) chain store, whereas the character Jake (Dylan Smith) begs his mother to buy him the "Eva" 05 action figure. All of them are presented in the context of the supposedly imminent end of the world – a conviction that sparked numerous collections of end-time prophecies at the time, not least an unpublished collection by Christopher Columbus. In the 2002 movie "One Hour Photo" starring Robin Williams, the "Evangelion" real model action figure by Bandai, can be seen in several parts of the movie. Some cover a single town, others several towns in several countries. Furthermore, "Evangelion" has also been referenced in American media as well. Some quatrains cover these in over-all terms; others concern a single person or small group of persons. Gainax's own His and Her Circumstances and FLCL had a few Eva parodies, as did Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi and even Invader Zim's Christmas Episode had a cameo parody of Evangelion.

The disasters include plagues, earthquakes, wars, floods, invasions, murders, droughts, battles and many other related themes. The same can be said for both WarGrowlmon and Gallantmon Crimson Mode, as they were modeled after EVA-01. The bulk of the quatrains deal with disasters of various sorts. In the Digimon Tamers series, a lot of Evangelion elements were used in the backstories for the three main children, their friends, and D-Reaper. No fewer than five of the planets were in the same signs on both occasions. Evangelion has also been explicitly referenced and parodied. On the basis of Nostradamus's by-now well known technique of projecting past events into the future, Lemesurier [3] suggests that X.72 therefore refers back to the restoration to health of the captive Francis I of France (who was Duke of Angoulême) following a surprise visit to his cell by his host, the then Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1525. Evangelion also introduced a new wave of fans who are far less interested in the technical aspects of science fiction anime and more interested in analyzing the metaphysical symbolism that they perceived, in contrast to Gundam and many previous anime which were presented as hard science.

The phrase d'effraieur (of terror) in fact occurs nowhere in the original printing, which merely uses the word deffraieur (defraying, hosting). Indeed, the style set and created by Evangelion has become the standard for most mecha shows since the late 90s. The well-known prophecy that "a great and terrifying leader would come out of the sky" in 1999 and 7 months "to resuscitate the great King from Angoumois" has been much over-stated. Evangelion however changed this with its fast and sleek Evas, making a noticeable contrast to the arguably bulky and cumbersome looking Patlabors and Transformers of the past. This is similar to the Preterite interpretation of the Book of Revelation; John (the Divine) intended to write only about contemporary events, but over time his writings became seen as prophecies. Previously, almost all mecha or giant robot shows took their "mechanical suit" designs from Gundam, Mazinger, and other similar shows from the 60s, 70s and 80s. Some scholars believe that Nostradamus wrote not to be a prophet, but to comment on events that were happening in his own time, writing in his elusive way – using highly metaphorical and cryptic language – in order to avoid persecution. Evangelion also dramatically changed the design of giant robots in many animated works.

(For Dylan see Masters Of War , As I Went Out One Morning, Gates Of Eden, A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall, It's Alright, Ma (I'm Only Bleeding), etc.). Some feel that RahXephon is another work that bears strong influence from this series. A good demonstration of this flexible predicting is to take lyrics written by modern songwriters (e.g., Bob Dylan) and show that they are equally "prophetic". While many find that the video game Xenogears (1998) shows obvious and major signs of being heavily influenced by Evangelion, its creators (Xenogears co-creator/co-writer Soraya Saga in particular) have denied this vehemently. It has been stated, probably correctly, that no Nostradamus quatrain has ever been interpreted as predicting a specific event before it occurred beyond a very general level (e.g., a fire will occur, a war will start). More superficially, "Evangelion" started a wave of using Christian symbolism in other anime and related fields. Skeptics of Nostradamus state that his reputation as a prophet is largely manufactured by modern-day supporters who shoehorn his words into events that have either already occurred or are so imminent as to be inevitable, a process known as "retroactive clairvoyance". The show "His and Her Circumstances" (1999) which was also directed by Hideaki Anno shares many of the techniques (the experimental 'ripping-apart' of the animation and use of real photographs) and portrayed psychological conflicts in much the same way.

This may be due partly to popular unease about the future, partly to people's desire to see their lives in some kind of over-all cosmic perspective and so to give meaning to them – but above all, possibly, to their vagueness and lack of dating, which enables them to be wheeled out after every major dramatic event and retrospectively claimed as 'hits'. The psychological nature of the show influenced later works such as Revolutionary Girl Utena (1997) and Serial Experiments Lain (1997), both of which, like Eva, center around an ambiguous world-changing event to come. Indeed, they have seldom, if ever, been out of print. However, as much as Evangelion owes to the past, it also has a large influence on a variety of anime shows in the present as well. Since his death, only the Prophecies have continued to be popular, but in this case they have been quite extraordinarily so. This is a direct echoing of Jean Paul Sartre's assertion in his book Being and Nothingness, in which he views consciousness as the ultimate factor in determining reality - it is a power which can negate certain things, and create a new subjective reality in the process. It is a purported translation of an ancient Greek work on Egyptian hieroglyphs based on later, Latin versions, all of them unfortunately ignorant of the true meanings of the ancient Egyptian script, which was not in fact deciphered until the advent of Champollion in the 19th century. In other words, he is absolutely free to create the world as he wants, to negate only what he wishes, and leave only what he knows will give him happiness.

A manuscript normally known as the Orus Apollo also exists in the Lyon municipal library, where upwards of 2000 original documents relating to Nostradamus are stored under the aegis of Michel Chomarat. To view it another way, only by negating certain possibilities does Shinji's reality form. The same book also describes the preparation of cosmetics. Through Shinji's own free will, he is able to create the ground, rules, in fact the whole world around him. One was an alleged "translation" of Galen, and in his so-called Traité des fardemens (basically a medical cookbook containing, once again, materials borrowed mainly from others) he included a description of the methods he used to treat the plague – none of which (not even the bloodletting) apparently worked. It is depicted as a simple white background in which the only drawn figure is Shinji, floating about in absolute nothingness. We know that he wrote at least two books on medical science. As well, in the very final televised episode, Shinji is shown a world in which there is absolute possibility.

Nostradamus was not only a diviner, but a professional healer, too. Rei has no soul of her own, and loses her "self" in each reincarnation; Shinji is desperately trying to overcome a lack of self confidence; and Asuka covers up her own despair and inner turmoil by acting overconfident and giving the appearance that she is self-assured. See also here. Viewers will note that Rei, Shinji, and Asuka can each be seen to resemble a different kind of Despair. Often he published two or even three in a single year, entitled either Almanachs (detailed predictions), Prognostications or Presages (more generalized predictions). Namely, that Despair comes in three forms: Despair at not being conscious of having a self; Despair at not willing to be oneself; and even Despair at willing to be oneself. The Almanacs - By far the most popular of his works, these were published annually from 1550 until his death. The Sickness Unto Death is a book written by Søren Kierkegaard (one of the first, and most religiously-oriented Existentialists) regarding the human condition as a type of Despair.

Given printing practices at the time, no two editions turned out to be identical, and it is relatively rare to find even two copies that are exactly the same. For instance, episode 16's title was translated as "Sickness Unto Death, And..." in the English subtitled version. The third edition, with three hundred new quatrains, was reportedly printed in 1558, but nowadays only survives as part of the omnibus edition that was published after his death in 1568. However, there are more specific instances of Existentialism's influence on Evangelion. The second, with 289 further prophetic verses, was printed in 1557. Though open to speculation, this is evident in both the televised and Movie endings of the series. The first edition was published in 1555. As such, the Human Instrumentality Project of Evangelion is an attempt to break down the barriers that separate mankind, and Shinji's ultimate decision is whether or not the limitations and inherent freedoms of the human condition as individual creatures are good things, or whether they should be denied.

The Prophecies - In this book he collected his major, long-term divinations. However, according to Existentialism, human beings, partly because of their isolation, are uniquely free to choose their own interpretations of events, to create their own realities and most importantly, to own these realities as true expressions of their world and themselves. In his dedication to King Henri II Nostradamus describes "emptying my soul, mind and heart of all care, worry and unease through mental calm and tranquility", but his frequent references to the "bronze tripod" of the Delphic rite are usually preceded by the words "as though". Essentially human beings are alone, without any sort of method by which to break away from such loneliness. The popular legend that he attempted the ancient methods of flame gazing, water gazing or both simultaneously is based on an uninformed reading of his first two verses (see above), which merely liken his own efforts to those of the Delphic and Branchidic oracles. Because human beings are physically trapped within their own bodies, their thoughts and actions are trapped within their own realm of knowledge, never to be shared in their most personal form with anyone else. His sole description of this process is contained in letter 41 of his collected Latin correspondence, as republished by Jean Dupèbe and translated by Lemesurier [2]. The core tenet of Existentialism is that human beings ultimately influence their own reality, through the choices they make.

ritually 'sleeping on it'). Its central themes are heavily based on Freudian Psychoanalysis mentioned above as it concerns the characters and general plot creation, as well as Existentialism, which itself owes much to Psychoanalysis. Given that his methodology, clearly, was mainly literary, it is doubtful whether Nostradamus used any particular methods for entering a trance state, other than contemplation, meditation and incubation (i.e. Evangelion is a work with a variety of different source materials for its core composition. The fact that they reportedly burned with an unnaturally brilliant flame suggests, however, that some of them were manuscripts on vellum, which was routinely treated with saltpeter. The only major edits that viewers have noticed is the deletion of when Mistao and Asuka curse; it was replaced with a censor bleep. While it is true that Nostradamus claimed in 1555 to have burned all the occult works in his library, no one can say exactly what books were destroyed in this fire. At this point, the rumors were supressed, and to everyone's suprise, Evangeleion aired with mostly no edits.

Latin versions of both had recently been published in Lyon, and extracts from both are paraphrased (in the second case almost literally) in his first two verses. Also, at the time Evangelion was airing on The Anime Network, and many guessed that Evangelion wouldn't air because it was already on TAN. Further material (see Brind'Amour, Gruber, Lemesurier [2] and [3]) was gleaned from the De honesta disciplina of 1504 by Petrus Crinitus, which included extracts from Michael Psellus's De daemonibus and the De Mysteriis Aegyptiorum..." (Concerning the mysteries of Egypt...), a book on Chaldean and Assyrian magic by Iamblichus, a 4th-century neo-Platonist. Many speculated that this wouldn't happen, because of what had happened to ADV and CN over Evangelion and Giant Robot Week. Any criticism of Nostradamus for claiming to be a prophet, in other words, would have been for doing what he never claimed to be doing in the first place. This surfaced again with the rumors that Evangelion would air on Adult Swim. Michel Nostradamus' – which, except in a few cases, they weren't, other than in the manner of their editing, expression and re-application to the future). Some believed that ADV Films were very disatified of the airings, and had put Evangelion on a "black list," along with (rumored) the rest of the ADV library.

Michel Nostradamus' – which is precisely what they were – as 'The Prophecies of M. When Neon Genesis Evangelion aired on Toonami's Giant Robot Week in 2003, it was obvious that much of the episode that was aired (Episodes 1 and 2) were heavily edited, including edits to Misato's binge drinking and, for some odd reason, the absense of Pen-Pen, Evangelion's Mascot. (which, in French, as easily means 'The Prophecies, by M. It can be argued also that the wide distribution of his series through ADV Films and television in Europe, Australia, and the Americas has also contributed to his standing. This last is presumably why he entitled his book. This general opinion changed somewhat when the twin Evangelion movies came out in the late 90's, bringing Anno more respect and recognition as a filmmaker as well as fair amounts of fans of his work. In translation:. It can also be argued that the show's content was, in the end, more influenced by Anno than by Bandai, though despite creative conflicts between the sponsors and the director, the series was not widely perceived during its run (1995-96) as being the work of a visionary director or auteur such as Hayao Miyazaki.

Nostradamus, it should be remembered, denied in writing on several occasions that he was a prophet on his own account. In response to this, fans argue that the show reveals an extremely complex understanding of psychological theory and that if the show was strictly a commercial venture, it would not have such an uncommercial ending. Only in the 17th century did people start to be surprised by the fact that much of his output was evidently based on earlier and often classical originals – which was no doubt why, according to the early commentator Théophile de Garencières, his Prophecies started to be used as a classroom-reader at that time. Additionally, the primary corporate backers were toy companies Bandai and Sega, giving rise to the criticism that the series was simply intended as a strictly commercial venture. Copying from the classics in particular, often without acknowledgement, and preferably from memory, was all the rage. Despite being generally highly regarded, the series has received criticism due to the many religious and psychological references, which some viewers saw as being superficial. The whole Renaissance was based on the idea. He made his live-action debut with "Love and Pop" in 1998 (posters were designed by longtime collaberator Yoshiyuki Sadamoto), then went back to animation with the 26-episode "His and Her Circumstances", then made the live-action "Shiki-Jistu" in 2001 (which used brief pieces of animation in key scenes), and was uninvolved with animation until his participation in supervising (but not directing) the 2004 Cutey Honey OAV Project.

Meanwhile, if Nostradamus' many competitors – and he had many – never accused him of copying from it, it was because copying and/or paraphrasing, far from being regarded (as it is today) as mere plagiarism, was regarded at the time as what all good, educated people should do anyway. The shift in tone and style corresponded with a shift in Anno's worldview that would lead him to abandon the "otaku lifestyle" and temporarily leave anime for live action film making. See selected Engilsh translations from it here. (It is also worth noting here that in this episode the Angels were going to speak to Shinji, but the creative team dropped this in favor of a more original concept in which the Angel shows Shinji various images within his mind, while he 'talks' to himself.) Several sources (interview with Kazuya Tsurumaki, interview with Hiroki Azuma) seem to indicate that although Evangelion was sketchily pre-planned, the story details were open to alteration, possibly for the purpose of adapting to audience demands or more likely (regarding Anno's tastes and fights with sponsors) free directorial decision making. The Mirabilis liber, (some of the predictions of which had already lapsed by the time Nostradamus started writing) was not translated into French until 1831 – and this mainly for scholarly and antiquarian reasons at a time when knowledge of Latin was beginning to die out. On the other hand there is some evidence that Anno's frustrations began earlier than End of Evangelion, and that this film was the culmination of a growing anger as evidenced by the sudden shift in tone around episode 16. Nostradamus was, in effect, one of the first to present its prophecies (and others) openly in the French vernacular – as was also happening to the Bible at the time – which is no doubt why he has retained all the credit for them. In addition, the plot of End of Evangelion does seem to match that of the TV series, providing closure to things such as the Instrumentality Project, the true purpose of NERV, and the private agenda of Gendou Ikari.

The obvious question – why the Mirabilis liber did not sustain its influence in the way that Nostadamus’ writings did – is explained mainly by the fact that the book (like the Bible) was mostly in Latin and in Gothic script and, to make matters even more complicated for the general reader, contained many abstruse scholastic abbreviations. The deaths of these two characters correspond to events in End of Evangelion and would tend to disprove the theory that the tragic and violent end of various characters in End of Evangelion is due to Anno's frustration towards some fans. The book had enjoyed considerable success in the 1520s, when it went through half-a-dozen editions (see Links below for facsimiles and translations). The theory of a pre-planned ending in addition to episodes 25 and 26 is backed up by some evidence, including a still in the intro depicting Unit 01 with wings and still-frame shots of the deaths of Misato and Ritsuko which appeared in the TV ending. His major prophetic source was evidently the Mirabilis liber of 1522 (Brind'Amour, Lemesurier [2] and [3]), which contained a range of prophecies by Pseudo-Methodius, the Tiburtine Sibyl, Joachim of Fiore, Savonarola and others (his Preface contains no fewer than 24 biblical quotations, all but two of them in exactly the same order as Savonarola). Others have argued that Anno intended End of Evangelion to be the proper climax all along but that he was unable to show it because of budget restraint and television content laws. (Refer to the seminal analysis of these charts by Brind'Amour, 1993, under Sources, and compare Gruber's comprehensive critique of Nostradamus’ horoscope for Crown Prince Rudolph Maximilian). Some believe that it was a manifestation of Anno's frustrations with the fan culture that attacked his original ending, and used End of Evangelion as revenge against those.

Even the planetary tables, already published by professional astrologers, on which he based the birth-charts that he was unable to avoid preparing himself are easily identifiable by their detailed figures, even where (as is usually the case) he gets some of them wrong. Despite the success of End of Evangelion, its ending was considered controversial by many fans. Many of his broader astrological references, by contrast, are taken almost word-for-word from the Livre de l'estat et mutations des temps of 1549/50 by Richard Roussat. (Blockbusters in Japan usually make $40-60 million, and a movie is considered to have done well if it makes more than $10 million). His historical sources include easily identifiable passages from Livy, Suetonius, Plutarch and a range of other classical historians, as well as from the chronicles of medieval authors such as Villehardouin and Froissart. The film made around $12 million at the Japanese box office. Astrology itself is mentioned only twice in Nostradamus' Preface, and 41 times in the Centuries themselves, though rather more in his famously baffling dedicatory Letter to King Henri II. End of Evangelion.

It is thanks to this that his work contains so many predictions involving ancient figures such as Sulla, Marius, Nero, Hannibal and so on, as well as descriptions of "battles in the clouds" and "frogs falling from the sky". The project was completed later in the year, and contained the complete section of Rebirth, i.e. Recent research (Brind'Amour [1], Prévost, Gruber, Lemesurier [2] and [3]) has suggested that most of his prophetic work was in fact based on paraphrasing collections of ancient end-of-the-world prophecies (mainly Bible-based – the end of the world was expected at the time to occur in either 1800 or 1887, or possibly in 2242, depending on the system adopted) and supplementing their insights by projecting known historical events and identifiable anthologies of omen-reports into the future with the aid of comparative horoscopy. Due to scheduling difficulties, they released Death and Rebirth consisting of a character-based recap of the entire series (Death) and half of the "proper" ending to Evangelion (Rebirth). Nostradamus claimed to base his predictions on judicial astrology – the assessment of the 'astrological quality' of expected future events – but was heavily criticized by professional astrologers of the day such as Laurens Videl for his incompetence and for assuming that 'comparative horoscopy' (comparison of future planetary configurations with the astrology of known past events) could predict the actual events themselves. Prompted by these responses, Gainax launched the project to create a movie with a "proper" ending for the series in 1997. He was buried in the local Franciscan chapel (part of it now incorporated into the restaurant La Brocherie'), but re-interred in the Collégiale St-Laurent at the French Revolution, where his tomb remains to this day. Among these were death threats and letters of disappointment from fans who thought Anno had ruined the series for them.

On the evening of July 1 he is alleged to have told his secretary Jean de Chavigny, "You will not find me alive by sunrise." The next morning he was reportedly found dead, lying on the floor between his bed and a makeshift bench. After the ending of the TV series, Gainax and Hideaki Anno received numerous letters and emails from fans, both congratulating and criticizing the last two episodes. This was followed by a much shorter codicil. However, when aired again in a time slot more suitable for adults, its popularity exploded and rekindled many adults' interest in anime. In late June he summoned his lawyer to draw up an extensive will bequeathing his property plus 3444 crowns (around $300,000 today) – minus a few debts – to his wife pending her remarriage, in trust for her sons pending their twenty-fifth birthdays and her daughters pending their marriages. When first aired in Japan at a time slot intended for teenagers, Evangelion was not especially popular. By 1566 Nostradamus' gout, which had plagued him painfully for many years and made movement very difficult, turned into dropsy. For example, we can see in a paragraph, circa 1990, from literary theorist Victor Burgen which might be described as "Eva in a nutshell":.

His brief imprisonment at Marignane in late 1561 came about purely because he had published his 1562 almanac without the prior permission of a bishop, contrary to a recent royal decree. Though the religious and biological concepts are sometimes (perhaps intentionally) used in ways different from how contemporary Christianity or biology used them, Anno's use of Freudian jargon and psychoanalytical theory is fairly up to date with what was contemporary theory at the time. In fact, his relations with the Church as a prophet and healer were always excellent. Evangelion is thick with allusions to biological, military, religious, and psychological concepts. Some biographical accounts of Nostradamus' life state that he was afraid of being persecuted for heresy by the Inquisition, but neither prophecy nor astrology fell under this bracket, and he would have been in danger only if he had practiced magic to support them. The feeling of constant anxiety in Evangelion can be seen as a reflection of the constant anxiety Japan felt after the attacks destroyed the image of Japan as a clean, violence-free society. At the time, he feared that he would be beheaded, but by the time of his death in 1566, Catherine had made him Counselor and Physician-in-Ordinary to the King. The series started broadcast after the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995, and production occurred around the period of the attack.

After reading his almanacs for 1555, which hinted at unnamed threats to the royal family, she summoned him to Paris to explain them, and to draw up horoscopes for her children. It fully embraced the style of mecha anime, and in particular shows a large influence from Yoshiyuki Tomino's Space Runaway Ideon; particularly, there are scenes in End of Evangelion which are clear homages to the last movie for the Ideon series. Catherine de Médicis, the queen consort of King Henri II of France, was one of Nostradamus' greatest admirers. Evangelion, however, shows the reversal of this trend. Some people thought Nostradamus was a servant of evil, a fake, or insane, while many of the elite thought his quatrains were spiritually inspired prophecies. Mamoru Oshii had been quoted as saying that nobody wanted to watch "simple anime-like works" anymore. The quatrains, published in a book titled Les Propheties ('The Prophecies'), received a mixed reaction when they were published. For example, Miyazaki's My Neighbor Totoro (1988), and Kiki's Delivery Service (1989) were both low-key works, and Akira (1988) took most of its influence from American comic books.

For technical reasons connected with their publication in three installments, the last fifty-eight quatrains of the seventh 'Century', or book of 100 verses, have not survived into any extant edition. From the period from 1984 to the release of Evangelion, most highly acclaimed anime had a style somehow distanced from the usual styles of anime. Feeling vulnerable to religious fanatics, however, he devised a method of obscuring his meaning by using "Virgilianized" syntax, word games and a mixture of languages such as Provençal, Greek, Latin and Italian. The list goes on and on, with multiple equally plausible interpretations existing, and references to areas other than Judeo-Christian concepts also appear, most notably concepts held by Freudian psychology. He then began his project of writing a book of one thousand quatrains, which constitute the largely undated prophecies for which he is most famous today. (Some fans have also chosen to interpret the triplet nature of the magi to represent the Holy Trinity of Christianity, or—in the field of psychology—the Freudian concept of the Ego, superego, and id of the unconscious mind, among others.) The Tree of Sephiroth (Tree of Life)—an illustration of ten orbs showing the relationship between heaven and earth—is also mentioned. It was mainly in reaction to the almanacs that nobility and other prominent persons from far and wide soon started asking for horoscopes and advice from him, though he generally expected them to supply the birth-charts on which the horoscopes would be based. The Magi supercomputers are collectively named after the "Magi" (wise men, or astrologers) who were mentioned in one of the synoptic Gospels as having visited Jesus at his birth.

Taken together, they are known to have contained at least 6,338 prophecies (most of them, in the event, failed predictions – see Chevignard and Lemesurier [2] under Sources), as well as at least eleven annual calendars, all of them starting on January 1 (and not, as is sometimes supposed, in March). It has been theorized that Kaoru represents Jesus, as he is an Angel in human form (although Christianity actually teaches that Jesus is not an angel, but rather God in human form). He was so encouraged by its success that he decided to write one or more annually. The angels may well be in reference to the angels of God from the Hebrew and Christian texts. Following popular trends, he wrote an almanac for 1550, for the first time Latinizing his name to 'Nostradamus'. The Christian crucifix sign is often shown, frequently as energy beams shooting up skyward. After a further visit to Italy, Nostredame began to move away from medicine and towards the occult. It is clear that Adam and Eve (in other languages, such as Spanish and Portuguese, called Eva) are a direct reference to the first human beings from the book of Genesis.

Parts of the network remain today: thanks to much larger supplementary canals, there is even a hydroelectric station in Salon itself. In assistant director Kazuya Tsurumaki's own words: "We just thought the visual symbols of Christianity looked cool." Whether this mindset changed during the course of making the series, influencing the intended depth of meaning of the symbols, is another question altogether. Between 1556 and 1567, Nostredame and his wife would in due course acquire a one-thirteenth share in a huge canal project organized by Adam de Craponne to irrigate largely waterless Salon and the nearby Désert de la Crau from the river Durance. The staff of the project have said that they originally used Christian symbolism (Christianity is practiced by around only 1% of the population in Japan) only to give the project a unique edge against other giant robot shows. Finally, in 1547, he settled down in Salon-de-Provence in the house which is still there today, and where he married a rich widow named Anne Ponsarde (nicknamed Gemelle, or 'Twinny') and eventually had six children – three daughters (Madeleine, Anne and Diane) and three sons (César, Charles and André). The most prominent symbolism takes its inspiration from Judeo-Christian sources and frequently displays related symbols. On his return in 1545, he assisted the prominent physician Louis Serre in his fight against a major plague-outbreak in Marseille, and then tackled further outbreaks of disease on his own in Salon-de-Provence and in the regional capital, Aix-en-Provence. Their interpretation will vary from individual to individual.

After their death he continued to travel, passing through France and possibly Italy. from outside sources, and the varied meanings that may be found in them. In 1534, however, his wife and children died, presumably from the plague. One of the many intriguing features of Evangelion is its extensive use of symbols, imagery, etc. There Nostredame married a woman whose name is still in dispute (possibly Henriette d'Encausse), but who bore him two children. In the 7th DVD of the Platinum Collection, it is shown that episodes 25 & 26 and End of Evangelion are in fact just two separate endings to the series, such as multiple endings in video games, and have no real connection to one another other than both are separate continuations of episode 24. In 1531 he was invited by Jules-César Scaliger, a leading Renaissance scholar, to come to Agen. Yet another group of fans sees the final two episodes as being a part of the introspective detours from the second half of End of Evangelion.

After his expulsion, Nostredame continued working, presumably as an apothecary (though some of his publishers and correspondents would later call him 'Doctor'), and became famous for creating a "rose pill" that was widely believed (not least by himself) to protect against the plague. The line is sometimes considered to be a reference to the end of Space Runaway Ideon, in which case it ironically implies a pyrrhic victory and death. 25 of Lemesurier [2] under Sources) still exists in the faculty library. Others believe that the characters are congratulating Shinji for finding his own identity, as his realization that he is an individual identity is the deciding factor in whether or not Instrumentality will occur (therefore, the characters are congratulating Shinji because his decision to remain an individual means that they can all remain individuals) -- this interpretation is reconcilable with End of Evangelion. The hand-written expulsion document (BIU Montpellier, Register S 2 folio 87 – see facsimile on p. Some fans believe that the final scene of episode 26 where all of the characters are shown telling Shinji, "Congratulations" is a sign that Shinji accepts the Instrumentality Project and therefore is at odds with End of Evangelion. He was promptly expelled again shortly afterwards, though, when it was discovered that he had been an apothecary, which was a 'manual' trade expressly banned by the university statutes. The highly stylized nature of these episodes leaves them very open to interpretation.

In 1529, after some years as an apothecary, he entered the University of Montpellier to study for a doctorate in medicine. There is some debate as to whether The End of Evangelion is a complement to, or a replacement of the TV episodes 25 and 26. After little more than a year (when he would have studied the regular Trivium of grammar, rhetoric and logic, rather than the later Quadrivium of geometry, arithmetic, music and astronomy/astrology) he was forced to leave Avignon when the university closed its doors in the face of an outbreak of the plague. In End of Evangelion, Shinji is directly involved in the initiation of Instrumentality, but ultimately rejects it at the last moment. It is known, however, that at the age of fifteen Nostredame entered the University of Avignon to study for his baccalaureate. The specifics of Instrumentality are not explored in the series, either. Little is known about Nostredame's childhood, although there is a persistent tradition that he was educated by his maternal great-grandfather Jean de St-Rémy – which is vitiated by the equally persistent tradition that the latter died when the child was only one year old. The ending is left open to interpretation: clearly, Shinji eventually overcomes his issues with others and comes to accept being with them, but whether Instrumentality follows through or if it occurs at all are left unanswered, directly.

His known siblings included Delphine, Jehan (c.1507-77), Pierre, Hector, Louis (b.1522), Bertrand, Jean and Antoine (b.1523). In the series, episodes 25 and 26 consist of abstract introspection by the characters, especially Shinji. His adult religious leanings suggest, however, that his upbringing was devoutly Catholic. The plot of The End of Evangelion and the plot of the series seem to diverge at the end of series episode 24. While practice of the ancestral religion was apparently continued in secret, nobody knows whether this applied to Nostredame's family, or whether it still applied to him two generations later. When everyone comes to this state, they will no longer feel the pain or loneliness that would typically precipitate from interaction between humans; it is comparable, but not equal, to death. The names of Nostredame's known forebears seem to reflect this. This causes their bodies to revert to LCL.

In this, he was merely following the example of thousands of others, thanks to increasing official French persecution of Jews, many of whom were the descendants of former refugees from Spain, where they were known as the Marranos. This artificial evolution strives to merge all human souls into one by disposing the individuals of their AT-Fields that separate egos from each other. The latter's family had originally been Jewish, but Jaume's father, Guy Gassonet, had converted to Catholicism circa 1455, taking the Christian name 'Pierre' and the surname 'Nostredame' (the latter apparently from the saint's-day on which his conversion was solemnized). SEELE is the main driving force behind this project, for reasons unknown, but they mention that humanity must evolve or it will die, thus the need for a forced evolution. Born in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence (see map) in the south of France in December 1503 (his claimed birthplace still exists), Michel de Nostredame was one of at least eight children of Reynière de St-Rémy and grain dealer Jaume de Nostredame, who was also a prosperous home-grown notary. Considering the religious implications of the term "evangelion", this event was said to bring about the salvation of mankind in the context of a newly created Earth and humanity's becoming one with God. . The secret second task, the Human Instrumentality Project, intends to start an artificial evolution of mankind.

Interest in the work of this prominent figure of the French Renaissance is still considerable, especially in the media and in popular culture. While Ritsuko does mention at the beginning of the series that the Evas do have some biological components to them, the extent to which the Evas are biological is not immediately apparent; it is finally revealed, towards the end of the series, that Eva's are essentially Angels (made from Adam, the first Angel, except unit 01 which is almost certainly made from Lilith, the second Angel) onto which mechanical components are incorporated during its creation — part of the reason being to restrain and control them. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, which consists of one unrhymed and 941 rhymed quatrains, grouped into nine sets of 100 and one of 42, called 'Centuries'. It is later apparent that the Evas are not really "robots" but rather living, biomechanical organisms, in contrary to the popular belief of the general public. Nostradamus, (December 14, 1503 – July 2, 1566) born Michel de Nostredame, is one of the world's most famous authors of prophecies. That is not to say that it is impossible to synchronize in such a situation, as is shown in an experiment in Episode 14, in which Rei and Shinji synchronize with each other's Evas. Nostradamus at The Internet Movie Database (1994) Depicts Nostradamus's rise in influence, because of success in treating plague and his predictions, culminating in his appointment as court physician to Charles IX of France. Each Eva has its own designated pilot, due to the bond between the pilot's soul and the soul of the Eva; otherwise, any other person who tries to synchronize (simply put, to technically work as one mind) with the Eva is more likely to be refused.

Nostradamus at The Internet Movie Database (2000). Though unit 02 does not ever go truly berserk, Asuka says in "The End of Evangelion" that she feels the presence of her mother protecting her in the Eva. Nostradamus: The Man Who Saw Tomorrow at The Internet Movie Database (1981). Unit 00 goes berserk and lashes out at the tormentors of Ritsuko Akagi's mother, apperently attempting to kill Rei. One example is when Unit 01 goes "berserk," acts without control of its pilot or NERV and refuses to shut down (or in one instance, to start without Shinji). The Evas also appear to behave under the influence of the soul inside it.

It is frequently speculated that qualifying pilots must have lost a mother, whose soul is used as the soul of the Eva. Pilots are selected by the Marduk Institute, which is later discovered to be composed of about 108 ghost companies, (108 is the number of sins in Japanese Buddhism, and the number of beads on a typical Buddhist rosary/mala) but Gendou Ikari and Ritsuko Akagi are actually in charge of selecting pilots. The Evas have the outward appearance of massive humanoid robots and can apparently be piloted only by children conceived after the Second Impact. NERV carries out two tasks: to defend the Earth from Angel attack with a small number of Evangelions (Evas), and the Human Instrumentality Project, which, according to Gendou, is the path to becoming one with God.

NERV is, in theory, under the control of SEELE, but NERV has its own agenda, driven by its commander Gendou Ikari. In the conflict with Angels, mankind is represented by the mysterious organizations NERV, GEHIRN (which started out as the investigation team for the Second Impact but became NERV later on), SEELE, and the Marduk Institute. The true nature of the Second Impact was concealed from the general public, who was led to believe that the devastation was caused by a small meteorite, traveling close to the speed of light, impacting in Antarctica. On September 13 an attempt was made to capture it which ended in apparent failure when it proceeded to self-destruct, creating what would be called the Second Impact.

In 2000, a group of scientists conducted an expedition in Antarctica where a large being of light, deemed by them as the first Angel, Adam, was discovered. Other designs, such as the sleek Evangelions, created a great counterbalance to the bulky super robots of old. The attractive designs of the three main female leads, Asuka, Rei, and Misato have been immortalized in the dōjinshi community and in subsequent anime. The character designs have also contributed to the popularity of Evangelion.

There have also been many hypotheses on the nature of the relationships between the characters, including:. The characters' personalities reflect their tactics, and their interactions reveal the nature of each in respect to each other. A commonly held theory (also supported within the series itself) as to the meaning behind the characters is that Rei, Asuka, Shinji, and Misato all represent different methods people use to validate their own existence/individuality and separate themselves from their fellow human beings (analogous to the concept of AT-Fields). Most characters are, in their own way, socially maladjusted, and the patterns of relationships between the characters are complex.

Fellow pilots Rei Ayanami, a silent girl frequently mistaken for being unemotional; and Asuka Langley Soryu, a fiery, proud, red-headed girl; are also primary characters, as well as Shinji's father and NERV commander Gendo Ikari, NERV's head of strategy and tactics Misato Katsuragi, and NERV's head scientist, Ritsuko Akagi. For many years he had lived away from his father with one of his teachers until he was summoned mysteriously at the start of the series. The main character of Evangelion is Shinji Ikari, a shy, dour adolescent boy and Eva pilot.
.

For the rest of Latin America, and between 2000 and 2003 (in numerous occasions) Neon Genesis Evangelion was broadcast on the Argentinian-based, anime and animation satellite channel Locomotion (which later, on August of 2005, became Animax).. The series was also internationally broadcast in Latin America by cable channel I-Sat during 2003 and 2004. Neither of the movies have been broadcast. None of the airings have suffered censorship and/or cuts.

After the series ended was re-broadcast twice. In Chile, the television series was broadcast by Chilevision during the time slot between 6:00 and 6:30 PM in 2004 with episodes dubbed into Latin American Spanish. DVDs and manga are available in major stores. At the same time, the now-extinct Locomotion channel aired the series in Brazillian Portuguese language.

The series was dubbed in Portuguese. It was soon moved to after midnight. Many believed the schedule a mistake, since the timing meant that many small children could watch it. It started on the 8th of December 1997.

In Portugal, the series is fairly popular, since it was originally aired weekend mornings on the most popular channel in Portugal (SIC). There never had been a completely and professionally synchronised German version until the release of the Platinum Edition DVD set in 2005 by ADV Films. the original Japanese version subtitled with more or less correct German translations. e.

In Germany NGE was broadcast in 1998 and again in December 2000/January 2001 by VOX once a week after midnight as a subtitled version, i. The Evangelion movies were never broadcast on TV, but were released in 2005 on DVD by Panini Video, changing a few voice actors. The manga, also translated in Italian, was released by Panini Comics (previously called Planet Manga). Dynamic Italia didn't cut or censor the series in any way: they also put in the Italian version the unreleased scenes from Japanese Home Video edition.

It enjoyed great success. In Italy, the series was first released on VHS/DVD by Dynamic Italia (now called Dynit) and was then broadcast, dubbed in Italian, on the local MTV. The entire series and the two movies are now available on DVD through Madman Entertainment[1], along with a new "Platinum" edition of the series, remastered from a fully restored video source. The success of Evangelion prompted SBS to gain the rights to several other anime series and many anime features, including the two Evangelion movies, which it later broadcast in their entirety, with both Death and Rebirth and The End of Evangelion screened again in 2005.

As a result, SBS broadcast Evangelion twice a week, with the original run shown on Saturdays at 8:30pm, beginning on the 2nd of January 1999, and the second run shown on Mondays at 8:30pm, beginning on the 22nd of March, 1999. Consequently, SBS decided to rebroadcast the entire series, despite the fact that it had not yet fully completed the original run. News of the broadcast slowly spread, and as a result, there was an upsurge of viewers midway through the season. This was the first anime series to be broadcast on SBS, and in prime time.

In Australia, the series was broadcast by SBS Television. This ended around episode 16 when the block that aired the two shows was canceled and the shows themselves moved to 5 a.m. In these showings the show had no edits to the episode's content but occasionaly sped up the ending in favor of airing the next episode preview alongside the ending theme. Later Evangelion and Nadesico were repeated on the channel.

In the United Kingdom, the show and its accompanying films were released on VHS and DVD by ADV Films and Manga Entertainment's UK divisions and has aired on the UK's Sci-Fi Channel along with Martian Successor Nadesico and Blue Gender during the Summer of 2002 and finished its run in the January of 2003. This second showing was edited considerably less than the previous showing, though, allegedly due to its poor time slot, the series has not fared as well as it has in some other countries. It is also shown on Saturday nights at 1:00 a.m. starting October 20, 2005.

The entire series began airing on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim block Thursday nights at 12:30 a.m. The first two episodes were aired on Cartoon Network's Toonami block as part of a special called "Giant Robot Week" in 2003 (albeit in very heavily edited forms which, among other edits, hid Misato's mass consumption of beer and omitted the character Pen-Pen altogether). The series was one of a small number of anime to have the honor of being broadcast on San Francisco Bay Area PBS member station KTEH (in Japanese with English subtitles,) and has also been broadcast on The Anime Network. Most of the voice actors used in the English dubbed versions are the same in each version.

In the United States, the television series debuted on VHS and later on DVD by ADV Films, while the movies are distributed by Manga Entertainment.
. The two movies were subsequently re-edited and re-released as a single movie, Revival of Evangelion (1998). Death and Rebirth is essentially a highly condensed re-edit of the series (Death) plus the first half of The End of Evangelion (Rebirth), while The End of Evangelion is a fully developed extension to the end of episode 24, intended as an alternate presentation of the series ending.

Evangelion consists of 26 television episodes which were first aired on TV Tokyo from October 4, 1995, to March 27, 1996, and was followed by two movies: Death and Rebirth and The End of Evangelion, each first screened in 1997. . The unedited/DVD versions are recommended only for ages 16 and up due to disturbing scenes of violence, emotional trauma, and upsetting sexual themes. The first two episodes were also shown once on Toonami, albeit in a highly edited form.

The show premiered on Adult Swim on Thursday, October 20, 2005, although it had been previously debuted in the United States on KTEH, a PBS station located in San Jose, California. The television series aired in Japan from 1995 to 1996, ran for 26 episodes, and was released on VHS and DVD in North America and the UK by ADV Films. As a result, characters in the anime display a variety of mood disorders and problems with emotional health, especially depression, trauma, and separation anxiety disorder. The creator/director, Hideaki Anno, suffered from a long period of depression prior to creating Evangelion; much of the show is based on his own experiences in dealing with depression and in psychoanalytic theory he learned from his psychotherapy.

Although the series starts as a regular mecha anime, the focus tends to shift from action to flashbacks and analyses of the primary characters, particularly the main character Shinji Ikari. Conventional weapons are useless against the Angels, and the only known defense against them are the biomechanical mechas created by the paramilitary organization NERV, the Evangelions (Evas). Just as humanity is finishing its recovery from this disaster, Tokyo-3 began suffering attacks by strange monsters referred to as Angels. It takes place in 2015, fifteen years after the catastrophic Second Impact, reportedly caused by a meteor strike, which wiped out half of Earth's population and tilted its axis.

Neon Genesis Evangelion (新世紀エヴァンゲリオン Shin Seiki Evangerion?) is a Japanese animated television series, begun in 1995, directed and written by Hideaki Anno, and produced by Gainax. New York: Routledge. 104–123). Benjamin (Ed.), Abjection, Melancholia, and Love: The Work of Julia Kristeva (pp.

Fletcher and A. In J. Geometry and Abjection. (1990).

^  Burgen, V. Madman's Homepage. ^  Madman Entertainment(2006). Cruel Angel's Thesis (musical theme).

List of Neon Genesis Evangelion topics. List of Neon Genesis Evangelion media. Neon Genesis Evangelion Official Expanded Universe. Neon Genesis Evangelion Timeline.

Neon Genesis Evangelion glossary. Characters in Neon Genesis Evangelion. Evangelion (mecha). Angel (Neon Genesis Evangelion).

Truman and Douglas MacArthur. Toji and Kensuke are a parody on Harry S. Toji and Kensuke represent pacifism and militarism. Ritsuko represents the industrialised and technocratic north, while Misato stands for the rural south.

Ritsuko and Misato represent the Antagonism of intellect and emotion. Shinji and Asuka represent Orient and Occident. Gendo, Shinji, and Rei represent the three parts of the Christian Trinity. The five children each represent the 5 stages of Death: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and Acceptance.

Rei, Shinji, and Asuka represent the three categories of Despair according to Søren Kierkegaard. Shinji, Rei, and Asuka are respective archetypes of three personality disorders: avoidant (cluster C), schizoid (cluster A), and narcissistic (cluster B). Shinji, Rei, and Asuka represent the Japanese gods Susanoo, Amaterasu, and Ama-no-Uzume. Rei and Asuka represent the Thanatos and Eros drives in Shinji's psyche, Shinji himself represents the Destrudo.

Shinji, Rei, and Asuka represent the Ego, Superego and Id.

07-31-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory Move your favorite Unsigned Artist to the Top of the List Bet Real Money Heads-Up Against Other Users