Nikon Corporation

Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies.

The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon.

Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below).

Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus.

Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays.

In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments.

In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. [1]

Shareholders

Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731.

(As of September 2004)

  • The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd. (8.5%)
  • Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%)
  • The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. (3.3%)
  • Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%)
  • Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. (2.7%)
  • State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %)
  • The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%)
  • Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%)
  • The Joyo Bank, Ltd. (1.8%)
  • JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%)

Holdings

The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group

Partial list of Nikon products

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Cameras

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Nikon cameras

In January 2006 Nikon announced [2] that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. [3]

Film 35 mm SLR cameras without autofocus

  • Nikon FM3A
  • Nikon FM10
  • Nikon FE10
  • Nikon FA
  • Nikon FE
  • Nikon FE2
  • Nikon FG
  • Nikon FG20
  • Nikon FM
  • Nikon FM2
  • Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor)
  • Nikon F2 series
  • Nikon F3 series
  • Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat)
  • Nikkorex series
  • Nikon EL2
  • Nikon EM
  • Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000)

Film 35 mm SLR cameras with autofocus

  • Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. as the N50)
  • Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N60)
  • Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N70)
  • Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N4004)
  • Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004s)
  • Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N5005)
  • Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020)
  • Nikon F601 (known in the U.S. as the N6006)
  • Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. as the N8008)
  • Nikon F801S (known in the U.S. as the N8008s)
  • Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. as the N90)
  • Nikon F90x (known in the U.S. as the N90s)
  • Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. as the N55)
  • Nikon F65 (known in the U.S. as the N65)
  • Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. as the N75)
  • Nikon F80 (known in the U.S. as the N80)
  • Nikon F100
  • Nikon F4
  • Nikon F5
  • Nikon F6


Film APS SLR cameras

  • Nikon Pronea S (1997) [4]
  • Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) [5]

Rangefinder cameras

Nikon F5 Nikon F6 Nikon D70
  • Nikon I (1948)
  • Nikon M (1949)
  • Nikon S (1951)
  • Nikon S2 (1954)
  • Nikon SP (1957)
  • Nikon S3 (1958)
  • Nikon S4 (1959)
  • Nikon S3M (1960)
  • Nikonos line of underwater cameras

Digital compact cameras

  • Nikon Coolpix series

Digital SLR cameras

  • Nikon D1
  • Nikon D1H
  • Nikon D1X
  • Nikon D100
  • Nikon D200
  • Nikon D50
  • Nikon D70
  • Nikon D70s
  • Nikon D2H
  • Nikon D2X
  • Nikon D2Hs

Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon."

Lenses

Lens acronyms

Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). These help consumers know what features the lens has. Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each.

  • AF - Autofocus.
  • AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. First introduced in 1996.
  • AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996.
  • ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass. Reduces chromatic aberration. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced.
  • IF - Internal Focus. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing.
  • DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings.
  • VR - Vibration Reduction. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera).
  • D - Distance/Dimension. Indicated after the f-stop number. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject.
  • G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. It has the same characteristics with the D lens.
  • Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor.
  • PC - Perspective Control. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor.
  • IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies. [6]
  • DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh.
  • AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S.

AF Prime lenses

  • 14 mm f/2.8D ED AF
  • 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye
  • 18 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 20mm f/2.8D AF
  • 24 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 28 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 28 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 35 mm f/2D AF
  • 50 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 50 mm f/1.8D AF
  • 85 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 85 mm f/1.8D AF
  • 105 mm f/2D AF DC
  • 135 mm f/2D AF DC
  • 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF
  • 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S
  • 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II

Consumer AF zoom lenses

  • 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF
  • 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX
  • 24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF
  • 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S
  • 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF
  • 28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF
  • 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF
  • 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF
  • 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF
  • 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF

Professional AF zoom lenses

  • 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S
  • 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S
  • 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF
  • 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR
  • 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR


DX (Digital APS-C sized sensor cameras only) Lenses

  • 10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX
  • 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX
  • 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX
  • 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX

Micro AF Lenses (also known as Macro)

  • 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro
  • 105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro
  • 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro
  • 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro


Currently Produced Manual Focus Lenses

  • 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor

Lenses for other camera models

  • Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras
  • Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras
  • Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras
  • Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera

Flash guns

Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. Models offered include:

  • SB-800,
  • SB-600,
  • SU-800 (slave trigger),
  • SB-R200 (remote flash),
  • R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,
  • R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),
  • SB-80DX,
  • SB-50DX,
  • SB-30,
  • SB-29s,
  • SB-24,
  • SB-22s,
  • SB-23,
  • SB-27,
  • SB-16B, and
  • SB-16A.

External links

  • Official websites:
    • Nikon Corp. website
    • Nikon Corp. USA website
    • Nikon Precision Inc. - Semiconductor Photolithography USA website
    • NIKON NEWS - Magazine on Nikon products and photography published by Nikon Switzerland in German and French
  • Data:
    • Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves
    • Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile
    • Nikon Historical Society
    • Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com
    • Photography in Malaysia - Nikon Pictorial History
  • Fansites and forums:
    • Nikonians - see also Nikonian
    • Photosapien Photography Forum
    • Nikon mailing list

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Models offered include:. The true folk-astronomical definitions of east and west are "the directions, a right angle from the prime direction, that are closest to the rising and setting, respectively, of the sun (or moon). Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. Reasonably accurate folk astronomy, such as is usually attributed to Stone Age Celts, would arrive at east and west by noting the directions of rising and setting (preferably more than once each) and choosing as prime direction one of the two mutually opposite directions that lie halfway between those two.
. Except on the Equator, however, these definitions, taken together, would imply that.
. Their folk definitions are, respectively, "where the sun rises" and "where it sets".

Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each. It is worth noting that while the choice of north over south as prime direction reflects quite arbitrary historical factors, east and west are not nearly as natural alternatives as first glance might suggest. These help consumers know what features the lens has. "Perhaps this was because the better-known places in his world were in the northern hemisphere, and on a flat map these were most convenient for study if they were in the upper right-hand corner," historian Daniel Boorstin. Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). The notion that north should always be up and east at the right was established by the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy (90-168 AD). The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon.". On the contrary, it is of interest that Chinese culture ever considered south as the proper top end for maps.
In Western culture (unless making a point about harmful effects, or the arbitrary nature, of boreocentrism):.

Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. Thus the choice of the north as corresponding to up in the northern hemisphere, or of south in that role in the southern, is, prior to world-wide communication, anything but an arbitrary one.
. The visible rotation of the night sky about the visible celestial pole provides a vivid metaphor of that direction corresponding to up. [3]. But simple generalizations on the subject should be treated as unsound, and as likely to reflect popular misconceptions about terrestrial magnetism. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. For many purposes and physical circumstances, the error in direction that results from ignoring the distinction is tolerable; in others a mental or instrument compensation, based on assumed knowledge of the applicable declination, can solve all the problems.

In January 2006 Nikon announced [2] that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. The difference between it and true north is called the magnetic declination (or simply the declination where the context is clear). The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group. Magnetic north is of interest because it is the direction indicated as north on a properly functioning (but uncorrected) magnetic compass. (As of September 2004). (Presumably a natural primitive description of its concept is "to the left of the rising sun".). Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731. The word north is traced to the Old High German nord, and the Proto-Indo-European unit ner-, meaning "left" (or "under").

. North can mean:. [1]. . In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. North is one of the four cardinal directions, specifically the direction that, in Western culture, is treated as the primary direction: north is used (explicitly or implicitly) to define all other directions; the (visual) top edges of maps usually correspond to the northern edge of the territory represented, unless explicitly stated otherwise or landmarks are considered more useful for that territory than specific directions. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments. they would each move slightly from day to day and, in the temperate zones, markedly over the course of the year.

In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. east and west would not be 180 degrees apart, but instead would differ from that by up to twice the degrees of latitude of the location in question, and. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. occasionally with a compass rose, but if so, usually on a map with north at the top and usually with north decorated more prominently than any other compass point. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. occasionally with a single arrow oriented to the map's representation of magnetic north, or two arrows oriented to true and magnetic north respectively,. In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. usually with a single arrow oriented to the map's representation of true north,.

Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays. Maps are usually labelled to indicate which direction on the map corresponds to a direction on the earth,

    . By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Globes of the earth have the North Pole at the top, or if the earth's axis is represented as inclined from vertical (normally by the angle it has relative to the axis of the earth's orbit), in the top half. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. Maps tend to be drawn for viewing with either true north or magnetic north at the top (page layout). During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. Up is a metaphor for north.

    Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. pertaining to the part of a route mainly or exclusively used by northbound traffic, where southbound traffic is separated by barriers, or where both are encouraged to stay mostly in one portion by rules of the road; often termed "northbound". Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. the orientation of a traveller with respect to a visible or otherwise definite continuous two-way route, such that sustained travel over the whole of the route produces a change of position to a location further north, even if that involves travelling a part of the route in another direction, even straight south; often termed "northbound". Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus. a loosely specified direction, usually within half a right angle of true north, especially when stating travel instructions in an area where directions of travel are constrained by an approximately rectangular grid of streets, hallways, etc.; this is often called 'grid north' or 'plan north'. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below). magnetic north, the direction along the earth's surface in which horizontal magnetic field strength has its most positive value (but see Flipping of planetary magnetic poles for an eventual event, so rare as to make unlikely any advance agreement on whether one or two retronyms would be involved in the replacement terminology).

    Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. true north, the direction along the earth's surface toward one pole of the earth's rotation, namely the pole that is clearly on one's left when standing at the Equator while facing the rising sun. The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees.

    It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Nikon mailing list.

    Photosapien Photography Forum. Nikonians - see also Nikonian. Fansites and forums:

      . Photography in Malaysia - Nikon Pictorial History.

      Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com. Nikon Historical Society. Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile. Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves.

      Data:

        . NIKON NEWS - Magazine on Nikon products and photography published by Nikon Switzerland in German and French. - Semiconductor Photolithography USA website. Nikon Precision Inc.

        USA website. Nikon Corp. website. Nikon Corp.

        Official websites:

          . SB-16A. SB-16B, and. SB-27,.

          SB-23,. SB-22s,. SB-24,. SB-29s,.

          SB-30,. SB-50DX,. SB-80DX,. R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),.

          R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,. SB-R200 (remote flash),. SU-800 (slave trigger),. SB-600,.

          SB-800,. Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera. Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras. Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras.

          Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras. 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro. 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro.

          105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX. 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX.

          18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX. 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX. 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX. 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX.

          10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX. 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR. 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR. 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF.

          70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF. 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S. 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S.

          70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF. 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF. 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF. 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF.

          28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF. 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF. 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR. 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S.

          24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX. 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF. 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II.

          500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S. 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II.

          300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR. 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF. 135 mm f/2D AF DC.

          105 mm f/2D AF DC. 85 mm f/1.8D AF. 85 mm f/1.4D AF. 50 mm f/1.8D AF.

          50 mm f/1.4D AF. 35 mm f/2D AF. 28 mm f/2.8D AF. 28 mm f/1.4D AF.

          24 mm f/2.8D AF. 20mm f/2.8D AF. 18 mm f/2.8D AF. 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye.

          14 mm f/2.8D ED AF. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture.

          AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh. [6]. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies.

          IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. PC - Perspective Control.

          Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor. It has the same characteristics with the D lens. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body.

          The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. Indicated after the f-stop number. D - Distance/Dimension.

          Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera). Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. VR - Vibration Reduction.

          Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing.

          IF - Internal Focus. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced. Reduces chromatic aberration. ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass.

          Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. First introduced in 1996.

          Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. AF - Autofocus. Nikon D2Hs.

          Nikon D2X. Nikon D2H. Nikon D70s. Nikon D70.

          Nikon D50. Nikon D200. Nikon D100. Nikon D1X.

          Nikon D1H. Nikon D1. Nikon Coolpix series. Nikonos line of underwater cameras.

          Nikon S3M (1960). Nikon S4 (1959). Nikon S3 (1958). Nikon SP (1957).

          Nikon S2 (1954). Nikon S (1951). Nikon M (1949). Nikon I (1948).

          Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) [5]. Nikon Pronea S (1997) [4]. Nikon F6. Nikon F5.

          Nikon F4. Nikon F100. as the N80). Nikon F80 (known in the U.S.

          as the N75). Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. as the N65). Nikon F65 (known in the U.S.

          as the N55). Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. as the N90s). Nikon F90x (known in the U.S.

          as the N90). Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. as the N8008s). Nikon F801S (known in the U.S.

          as the N8008). Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. as the N6006). Nikon F601 (known in the U.S.

          Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020). as the N5005). Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N4004s).

          Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004). Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N70).

          Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N60). Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N50).

          Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000). Nikon EM. Nikon EL2.

          Nikkorex series. Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat). Nikon F3 series. Nikon F2 series.

          Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor). Nikon FM2. Nikon FM. Nikon FG20.

          Nikon FG. Nikon FE2. Nikon FE. Nikon FA.

          Nikon FE10. Nikon FM10. Nikon FM3A. JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%).

          (1.8%). The Joyo Bank, Ltd. Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%). The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%).

          State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %). (2.7%). Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%).

          (3.3%). The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%). (8.5%).

          The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd.

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