Nikon Corporation

Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies.

The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon.

Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below).

Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus.

Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays.

In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments.

In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. [1]

Shareholders

Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731.

(As of September 2004)

  • The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd. (8.5%)
  • Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%)
  • The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. (3.3%)
  • Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%)
  • Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. (2.7%)
  • State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %)
  • The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%)
  • Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%)
  • The Joyo Bank, Ltd. (1.8%)
  • JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%)

Holdings

The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group

Partial list of Nikon products

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Cameras

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Nikon cameras

In January 2006 Nikon announced [2] that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. [3]

Film 35 mm SLR cameras without autofocus

  • Nikon FM3A
  • Nikon FM10
  • Nikon FE10
  • Nikon FA
  • Nikon FE
  • Nikon FE2
  • Nikon FG
  • Nikon FG20
  • Nikon FM
  • Nikon FM2
  • Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor)
  • Nikon F2 series
  • Nikon F3 series
  • Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat)
  • Nikkorex series
  • Nikon EL2
  • Nikon EM
  • Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000)

Film 35 mm SLR cameras with autofocus

  • Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. as the N50)
  • Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N60)
  • Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N70)
  • Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N4004)
  • Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004s)
  • Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N5005)
  • Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020)
  • Nikon F601 (known in the U.S. as the N6006)
  • Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. as the N8008)
  • Nikon F801S (known in the U.S. as the N8008s)
  • Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. as the N90)
  • Nikon F90x (known in the U.S. as the N90s)
  • Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. as the N55)
  • Nikon F65 (known in the U.S. as the N65)
  • Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. as the N75)
  • Nikon F80 (known in the U.S. as the N80)
  • Nikon F100
  • Nikon F4
  • Nikon F5
  • Nikon F6


Film APS SLR cameras

  • Nikon Pronea S (1997) [4]
  • Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) [5]

Rangefinder cameras

Nikon F5 Nikon F6 Nikon D70
  • Nikon I (1948)
  • Nikon M (1949)
  • Nikon S (1951)
  • Nikon S2 (1954)
  • Nikon SP (1957)
  • Nikon S3 (1958)
  • Nikon S4 (1959)
  • Nikon S3M (1960)
  • Nikonos line of underwater cameras

Digital compact cameras

  • Nikon Coolpix series

Digital SLR cameras

  • Nikon D1
  • Nikon D1H
  • Nikon D1X
  • Nikon D100
  • Nikon D200
  • Nikon D50
  • Nikon D70
  • Nikon D70s
  • Nikon D2H
  • Nikon D2X
  • Nikon D2Hs

Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon."

Lenses

Lens acronyms

Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). These help consumers know what features the lens has. Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each.

  • AF - Autofocus.
  • AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. First introduced in 1996.
  • AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996.
  • ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass. Reduces chromatic aberration. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced.
  • IF - Internal Focus. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing.
  • DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings.
  • VR - Vibration Reduction. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera).
  • D - Distance/Dimension. Indicated after the f-stop number. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject.
  • G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. It has the same characteristics with the D lens.
  • Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor.
  • PC - Perspective Control. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor.
  • IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies. [6]
  • DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh.
  • AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S.

AF Prime lenses

  • 14 mm f/2.8D ED AF
  • 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye
  • 18 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 20mm f/2.8D AF
  • 24 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 28 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 28 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 35 mm f/2D AF
  • 50 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 50 mm f/1.8D AF
  • 85 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 85 mm f/1.8D AF
  • 105 mm f/2D AF DC
  • 135 mm f/2D AF DC
  • 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF
  • 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S
  • 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II

Consumer AF zoom lenses

  • 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF
  • 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX
  • 24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF
  • 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S
  • 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF
  • 28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF
  • 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF
  • 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF
  • 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF
  • 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF

Professional AF zoom lenses

  • 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S
  • 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S
  • 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF
  • 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR
  • 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR


DX (Digital APS-C sized sensor cameras only) Lenses

  • 10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX
  • 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX
  • 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX
  • 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX

Micro AF Lenses (also known as Macro)

  • 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro
  • 105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro
  • 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro
  • 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro


Currently Produced Manual Focus Lenses

  • 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor

Lenses for other camera models

  • Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras
  • Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras
  • Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras
  • Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera

Flash guns

Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. Models offered include:

  • SB-800,
  • SB-600,
  • SU-800 (slave trigger),
  • SB-R200 (remote flash),
  • R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,
  • R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),
  • SB-80DX,
  • SB-50DX,
  • SB-30,
  • SB-29s,
  • SB-24,
  • SB-22s,
  • SB-23,
  • SB-27,
  • SB-16B, and
  • SB-16A.

External links

  • Official websites:
    • Nikon Corp. website
    • Nikon Corp. USA website
    • Nikon Precision Inc. - Semiconductor Photolithography USA website
    • NIKON NEWS - Magazine on Nikon products and photography published by Nikon Switzerland in German and French
  • Data:
    • Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves
    • Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile
    • Nikon Historical Society
    • Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com
    • Photography in Malaysia - Nikon Pictorial History
  • Fansites and forums:
    • Nikonians - see also Nikonian
    • Photosapien Photography Forum
    • Nikon mailing list

This page about Nikon includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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Models offered include:. For example, some Restorationist Christian denominations, such as Jehovah's Witnesses and Mennonites, refuse to participate in patriotic acts and ceremonies and refuse to wear patriotic attire. Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. While patriotism often appeals to religion, not all religions countenance patriotism.
. The idea would be that the other side is in fact fighting against God’s will, and thus can be considered to be engaged in a false kind of patriotism.
. Under any of these circumstances, religion can provide a satisfactory account to its believers for what otherwise would be a paradox, namely, that both sides in a conflict can feel patriotic at the same time.

Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each. This view often characterized the beliefs of the European powers during the colonialist period, when their armies often fought against pagan opponents. These help consumers know what features the lens has. Yet another version of religious patriotism is the belief that a god or set of gods is on one’s side, and that the god or gods of the other side simply do not exist. Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). This may have characterized the conflicts between the ancient Israelites and their Canaanite opponents, as narrated in the Old Testament. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon.". Another variant is for each side to worship different gods, acknowledge that the other side’s god exists, and believe that their own god is superior.

Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. This is perhaps a fair characterization of the attitude of many of the participants in the American Civil War or most of the fronts of the First World War.
. In one variant, patriotic participants in a war acknowledge that the enemy worships the same god, but judge that this god is on their own side, thus providing the external justification for patriotism noted just above. [3]. At various points in history, particularly in time of war, various relations of religion and patriotism have prevailed. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. Throughout history, patriotic feeling has often been linked to religion.

In January 2006 Nikon announced [2] that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. Depending on whether they see patriotism as good or bad, they would attribute it to a free will choice for good or evil. The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group. For them, their religious beliefs explain why the human character is the way it is. (As of September 2004). Others would reject the kin selection theory of patriotism, simply because they reject the theory of evolution on religious grounds. Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731. They would emphasise the great malleability of the human character, including the apparent possibility of creating patriotism through the instruction of youth, as in the Hitler Youth example above.

. Some people accept the theory of evolution in general but reject efforts to invoke it in the explanation of human behaviour. [1]. Hamilton that govern kin selection. In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. D. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments. The controversy hinges on what numerical values are to be plugged into the (generally accepted) equations of W.

In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. Some evolutionary biologists believe that the quantitative conditions needed to make kin selection effective in small human societies were simply not met. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. Both kin selection theory, and its use to explain patriotism, are disputed. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. In the kin-selection account of patriotism, this kind of metaphor might be viewed as seeking to focus the natural feelings people have towards kin, onto the political community as a whole. In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. The political rhetoric associated with patriotism often compares the nation to a family, as in, for instance, the terms Fatherland and ‘Mother Russia’ or the Shakespearian expression ‘band of brothers’, from the play Henry V.

Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays. Speculatively, there was nothing to stop the feeling of group loyalty from carrying over, without biological purpose, from small groups to large. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Yet the forces believed to have created human nature, and hence these feelings, were in effect over a period of many millennia, during which time all human societies were very small. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. Today, of course, the feelings of intense patriotism that grip (for example) many Americans cannot possibly be supported in the evolutionary sense by kin selection, since Americans form a huge and genetically very diverse population. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. Gene-centric theories imply that members of such groups have an evolutionary interest in the long-term success of each other's genetic endowment.

Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. Frequently, animals in such species have been observed taking actions that risk their own lives but benefit the safety of the group as a whole (an example is the issuance of a warning call against predators, an act which directs the predator's attention to the individual who gave it). Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. Since Darwin's time, evidence for kin selection has been observed among many species that live in small groups. Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus. Loyalty to the group might have led individuals to take actions that were poorly justified on grounds of self-interest, but helped the group as a whole: this is the analogy with kin altruism. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below). This idea was expressed by Charles Darwin in 1871 as follows:.

Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Since genes tended to be shared by the entire group, and cooperation likely was critical to group survival, a propensity to experience feelings of loyalty to the group was probably favoured by natural selection. The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon. Our ancestors certainly lived in small groups of genetically related individuals. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies. To explain patriotism, it would have to apply to a group. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. Kin altruism, in its simplest form, implies that one animal would sacrifice itself to ensure survival of more than one other genetically related individuals, for instance siblings.

It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. This explanation is speculative and disputed, and no explicit genetic basis for patriotism has been evidenced. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. Why do so many people experience intense patriotic feelings? An evolutionary biology explanation is that patriotism is a form of kin altruism, which is both posited and explained by the theory of kin selection. Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Patriotism can also be seen as one of the greatest psychological barriers to civil war because a feeling of duty common to all citizens can give democratic politics a legitimacy lacking in those states that contain a much more fragmented citizenry. Nikon mailing list. Nevertheless, some states combined tyrannical systems of government with high levels of patriotism, including later Napoleonic France, after Napoleon had made himself emperor.

Photosapien Photography Forum. Similarly, it is often thought that the French Revolution, by eliminating monarchy, set off a great surge of patriotism that led to the great success of the French armies in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Nikonians - see also Nikonian. For instance, it could be imagined that the military forces of Ancient Greece succeeded in fending off much larger numbers of attacking Persians because ancient Persia was a despotism, whereas many of the Greeks lived in democracies, which gave them a sense of solidarity and hence of patriotism. Fansites and forums:

    . On the other hand, some people suggest that democratic government is a cause of patriotism. Photography in Malaysia - Nikon Pictorial History. Adolf Hitler condemned the democratic politicians who approved the November 1918 armistice (which ended the First World War) as the ‘November criminals’.

    Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com. In some democracies, the claimed treason of the political elite became a central issue, notably in Germany itself. Nikon Historical Society. In the view of many, the nature of these comments harm political discussion and provide less opportunity for deliberative democracy to flourish, because it appeals only to a visceral negative emotion (mistrust and angry patriotism), rather than to voters’ reasoned views on policy. Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile. Politicians often appeal to patriotic emotions in attacking their opponents, implicitly or explicitly accusing them of betraying the country. Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves. Presumably, for such individuals, it would be quite coherent to claim that Lafayette was an American patriot, since he fought on behalf of (what are held to be) American virtues.

    Data:

      . For example, there exist Americans who profess to be patriots and yet claim that their patriotism is not an arbitrary preference for their paticular political community, but is rather is based on special virtues (for instance, "freedom"), that happen to be uniquely defended by that community. NIKON NEWS - Magazine on Nikon products and photography published by Nikon Switzerland in German and French. Others conceive of those ideals in more abstract terms. - Semiconductor Photolithography USA website. Charles Blattberg's conception of patriotism, however, is more nuanced: to him, a patriot can be critical of his or her country for failing to live up to its ideals. Nikon Precision Inc. For MacIntyre, patriotism by definition can only be a preference for one's own country, not a preference for the ideals that a country is believed to stand for.

      USA website. Under this view, Lafayette was only devoted to the ideals of political liberty that underlay the American Revolution, but was not specifically patriotic for America. Nikon Corp. Alasdair MacIntyre would claim that they were not; that these and similar cases are instances of idealism, but not of patriotism. website. Such cases call into question what we mean by "patriotism": for instance, was Lafayette an American patriot, or the Philhellenes Greek patriots?. Nikon Corp. The "Philhellenes," western Europeans who fought in the Greek War of Independence, are another example; as are the Americans who fought on the Allied side before the entry of their country into the First World War.

      Official websites:

        . For example, the Marquis de Lafayette was a Frenchman who fought for the independence of the thirteen British colonies in America. SB-16A. History includes many cases of individuals who acted with impassioned selflessness on behalf of countries not their own. SB-16B, and. Charles Blattberg, in his book From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics (2000), has developed a similar conception of patriotism into a full-blown political philosophy. SB-27,. MacIntyre goes on, however, to construct a sophisticated alternative conception of morality that would be compatible with patriotism.

        SB-23,. In his influential article "Is patriotism a virtue?" (1984), the philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre notes that most contemporary conceptions of morality insist on a kind of impartial blindness to accidental traits like local origin in the just treatment of our fellow humans - and therefore, that patriotism is inevitably not moral under these conceptions. SB-22s,. Yet citizenry does not have to be indexed to race. SB-24,. For this reason it has often been compared to racism, most notably in a 2002 paper by Paul Gompert, Patriotism is like racism. SB-29s,. Patriotism seems to ethically condone these distinctions.

        SB-30,. Immigration law is based on that principle: merely by accident of birth in a country, some people have an automatic entitlement to live in it, but foreigners do not. SB-50DX,. All patriots favour their own citizens above those of other political communities. SB-80DX,. The 'Ode to Joy' is the official anthem of the European Union and the phrase is regarded with deep distrust by many patriots in Europe. R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),. Many people have promoted the alternative concept of a universal human community, as expressed for instance in the idealistic phrase "Alle Menschen werden Brüder" ("all people become brothers") of the Ode to Joy, part of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony.

        R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,. This selectivity is the most ethically controversial aspect of patriotism. SB-R200 (remote flash),. Patriotism implies that citizens - members of the civic or political community - owe a greater allegiance to each other than to foreigners. SU-800 (slave trigger),. The wartime example of patriots fighting each other, illustrates the point that even self-sacrificing patriotism is selective in its altruism. SB-600,. Some people, according to their prejudices, might well admire the second soldier more than the first, even though he could be considered the less patriotic of the two.

        SB-800,. The second cares nothing for the Dutch country as such, but has carefully studied Fascism and has a deep commitment to save the world from its perceived evils. Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera. The first soldier is motivated by a patriotic preference for his country's independence. Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras. We can imagine two soldiers, equally brave and self-sacrificing. Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras. In other words, there is a distinction between a non-egoistic act which benefits the community, and one that is specifically motivated by patriotic feelings.

        Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras. Some certainly fought because they hated Fascism, and many soldiers fight because they do not want to appear to be cowards. 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. We can ask whether any particular self-sacrificing Dutch soldier acted out of devotion to the Dutch national state in 1940. 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro. Self-sacrifice is inevitable on the battlefield, the question is how much it is inspired by patriotic emotions. 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro. Even if battlefield self-sacrifice is considered virtuous, it can be difficult to determine whether a particular act is admirable for its ’’patriotism’’.

        105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. Throughout history, governments have invoked patriotic as well as nationalism feelings to support military aggression, arbitrary imprisonment of foreigners, and even murder, acts considered evil by most individuals. 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. It is now generally accepted (also in Germany) that the invasion had no justification, and to the extent that patriotism facilitated it, then in that case it should not be considered a virtue. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX. Many of them had been indoctrinated in a form of unquestioning nationalism during their teenage years, while they were members of the Hitler Youth. 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX. Yet many of the invading Nazi soldiers doubtless felt, too, that they were engaged in a patriotic act, in this case on behalf of a German Reich that has been conflated with the nation.

        18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX. The near-hopeless defence of the Netherlands against the May 1940 invasion by Nazi Germany provided an example of military patriotism - Dutch soldiers giving their lives to defend their country. 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX. One of the challenges of treating patriotism as a virtue, is that specific patriotisms conflict. 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX. In the United States, explicitly patriotic history has been consistently criticised for its de-emphasising the post-Colombian depopulation, the Atlantic slave trade, the population expulsions and the wars of conquest against Native Americans. 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX. The 'black armband' view of our history reflects a belief that most Australian history since 1788 has been little more than a disgraceful story of imperialism, exploitation, racism, sexism and other forms of discrimination..

        10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX. Conservative Prime Minister John Howard, who would undoubtedly describe himself as an Australian patriot, said of it in 1996:. 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR. It concentrates on the suffering of Indigenous Australians during the British colonisation of Australia. 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR. The Australian political conflict about the Black arm band theory of history is a classic example. 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF. In some countries such disputes are driven by the fact that a minority feels excluded from the whole and so asserts that there is no reason to be proud of it.

        70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. Patriots can certainly argue amongst themselves, proffering different interpretations of the common good. 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF. Thinkers such as Habermas, however, have advocated a European-wide patriotism. 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S. In the European Union, patriotism usually coincides with Euroscepticism, and may therefore be rejected on pro-European grounds. 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S. The loyalty of the Muslim, they say, can only be to the Ummah, the community of all Muslims.

        70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF. For example, like cosmopolitans, some Islamists despise patriotism as un-Islamic. 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF. Others reject such communities, however, given their specificity. 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF. Patriotism consists of a both rational and emotional support for the civic or political community. 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF. In much of eastern Europe, for instance in the Baltic States, patriotism is indistinguishable from politicised nationalism.

        28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF. However, in the zone of the most recent wars, in the states of former Yugoslavia, patriotic emotions are still intense. 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF. Patriotism in western Europe often has specific anti-immigration connotations, and the historical perspective on nationalism and war is shaped by the destruction in World War II. 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR. Although many forms of symbolic patriotic expression originated in older western European nations, they are now less pervasive there. 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S. In the United States, personal patriotic expression is ubiquitous.

        24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF. Typically, patriotic intensity is higher when the state is under external threat. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX. Levels of patriotism vary across time, and among political communities. 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF. Saluting the flag is considered equally patriotic, if it is done every morning at a government office, or under enemy fire on the battlefield. 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. Peacetime patriotism can not be so easily linked to a measurable gain for the state, but the patriot does not see it as inferior.

        500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. Symbolic patriotism in wartime is intended to raise morale, in turn contributing to the war effort. 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. Patriotism relies heavily on symbolic acts, such as displaying the flag, singing the national anthem, participating in a mass rally, placing a patriotic bumper sticker on one's vehicle, or any other way of publicly proclaiming allegiance to the state. 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S. For various reasons, the government may also launch a ‘patriotism campaign’, to promote identification with the state and its symbols. 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. National monuments, and veterans days and commemoration ceremonies are typical examples.

        300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. It is a logical consequence of the state itself, which derives legitimacy from being the expression of the common good of the political community. 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR. In any case, governments always promote an official patriotism which has a high symbolic and ceremonial content. 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF. Two proposed amendments to the United States Constitution illustrate the similarity: one enforces Christian values and would effectively prohibit same-sex marriage, one enforces patriotic values and would forbid flag-burning. 135 mm f/2D AF DC. The political expression, in both cases, consists of campaigns to legally enforce the values in question.

        105 mm f/2D AF DC. It is structurally similar to other values ideologies and movements, such as the family values movement. 85 mm f/1.8D AF. However, patriots often insist that the entire citizenry shares adherence to these values. 85 mm f/1.4D AF. The patriot in this sense adheres to certain patriotic values, such as respect for the flag. 50 mm f/1.8D AF. The first is personal patriotism, which is emotional and voluntary.

        50 mm f/1.4D AF. Three forms of patriotism can be distinguished. 35 mm f/2D AF. In wartime they can be directly correlated to military necessity: the home front supports the army, and individual effort contributes to military success. 28 mm f/2.8D AF. Less dramatic forms of patriotism include a wide range of attitudes, expressions, and acts. 28 mm f/1.4D AF. Death in battle for the homeland is the archetype of extreme patriotism.

        24 mm f/2.8D AF. In practice, many patriots would see treason as the 'opposite of patriotism'. 20mm f/2.8D AF. The opposite of patriotism consists of the corruption often referred to by such classical republican thinkers as Aristotle and Machiavelli, in which citizens are more concerned with their personal and group interests than with the common good of the political community as a whole. 18 mm f/2.8D AF. In Belgium, pro-Belgian patriotism is weak, while the nationalism of the country`s nations are strong. 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye. In Northern Ireland two parallel national cultures co-exist, one Irish-Republican and one pro-British unionist.

        14 mm f/2.8D ED AF. What often then arises are national liberation movements, such as Irish Republicanism, Basque and Québécois seperatism. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S. National movements are also concerned with the state, however, especially when it is felt that the national community has not been sufficiently recognized by the state, with the consequence that the nation cannot be considered wholly free. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. National sentiments often dovetail with the patriotic, but they should not be confused, since national communities are unlike civic or political ones in that they are, for the most part, located within civil society rather than in and around the state. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture. It can be voluntary and emotional empathy, and it can be officially promoted by the government - usually both.

        AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. The term patriotism is generally used in the context of an already existing political community. DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh. There is no specific name for this doctrine, but there is for its opposite: ethical cosmopolitanism is the doctrine that no distinction should be made among humans, in the degree of moral obligation. [6]. The primary implication of patriotism in ethics is that a person has more moral duties to fellow members of the political community, as distinct from non-members. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies. The expression my country right or wrong - a misquotation of the American naval officer Stephen Decatur (but actually attributable to Carl Schurz, a nineteenth century German revolutionary who later immigrated to the United States)- is the extreme form of this belief.

        IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. As such, patriotism has ethical connotations: it implies that the political community is in some way a moral standard or moral value in itself. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. Others, however, associate patriotism with the common good, with the aim of responding to conflicts in ways which ensure that everyone benefits. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. In this context patriotism is seen as an explanation for the apparent suspension of the instinct for self-preservation, which implies that all humans would avoid a battlefield. PC - Perspective Control. In wartime, patriotism as so understood is assumed to be the main driving force for participation in military operations, certainly if it is voluntary.

        Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor. To some, patriotism has connotations of self-sacrifice, implying that the individual should place the interests of the community above their personal interests, and in extreme cases their lives. It has the same characteristics with the D lens. Positive attitudes and actions towards other countries, or to non-civic groups, are not generally described as 'patriotic', and they may be referred to by a specific name, such as pro-Greek philhellenism. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. The word patriotism is used to describe emotions and attitudes, political views, symbolism, and specific acts, with respect to a political community - its territory, history, culture, values, and symbols. G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body. .

        The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject. Patriotism is often conflated with nationalism, but the two should be distinguished, as political philosophers such as Jürgen Habermas and Charles Blattberg have increasingly argued. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. The word is derived from the Latin patria, fatherland, which has a much broader meaning than a geographical territory. Indicated after the f-stop number. Patriotism denotes positive attitudes by individuals to their own civic or political community, to its culture, its members, and to its interests. D - Distance/Dimension.

        Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera). Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. VR - Vibration Reduction.

        Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing.

        IF - Internal Focus. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced. Reduces chromatic aberration. ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass.

        Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. First introduced in 1996.

        Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. AF - Autofocus. Nikon D2Hs.

        Nikon D2X. Nikon D2H. Nikon D70s. Nikon D70.

        Nikon D50. Nikon D200. Nikon D100. Nikon D1X.

        Nikon D1H. Nikon D1. Nikon Coolpix series. Nikonos line of underwater cameras.

        Nikon S3M (1960). Nikon S4 (1959). Nikon S3 (1958). Nikon SP (1957).

        Nikon S2 (1954). Nikon S (1951). Nikon M (1949). Nikon I (1948).

        Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) [5]. Nikon Pronea S (1997) [4]. Nikon F6. Nikon F5.

        Nikon F4. Nikon F100. as the N80). Nikon F80 (known in the U.S.

        as the N75). Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. as the N65). Nikon F65 (known in the U.S.

        as the N55). Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. as the N90s). Nikon F90x (known in the U.S.

        as the N90). Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. as the N8008s). Nikon F801S (known in the U.S.

        as the N8008). Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. as the N6006). Nikon F601 (known in the U.S.

        Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020). as the N5005). Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N4004s).

        Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004). Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N70).

        Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N60). Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N50).

        Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000). Nikon EM. Nikon EL2.

        Nikkorex series. Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat). Nikon F3 series. Nikon F2 series.

        Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor). Nikon FM2. Nikon FM. Nikon FG20.

        Nikon FG. Nikon FE2. Nikon FE. Nikon FA.

        Nikon FE10. Nikon FM10. Nikon FM3A. JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%).

        (1.8%). The Joyo Bank, Ltd. Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%). The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%).

        State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %). (2.7%). Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%).

        (3.3%). The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%). (8.5%).

        The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd.

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