Neon

For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation).
General Name, Symbol, Number neon, Ne, 10 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 2, p Appearance colorless
Atomic mass 20.1797(6) g/mol Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.9002 g/L Melting point 24.56 K
(-248.59 °C, -415.46 °F) Boiling point 27.07 K
(-246.08 °C, -410.94 °F) Heat of fusion 0.335 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 1.71 kJ/mol Heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786 J/(mol·K) Atomic properties Crystal structure cubic face centered Oxidation states no data Ionization energies
(more) 1st: 2080.7 kJ/mol 2nd: 3952.3 kJ/mol 3rd: 6122 kJ/mol Atomic radius (calc.) 38 pm Covalent radius 69 pm Van der Waals radius 154 pm Miscellaneous Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic Thermal conductivity (300 K) 49.1 mW/(m·K) Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 435 m/s CAS registry number 7440-01-9 Notable isotopes References

Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts.

Notable characteristics

Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases.

Applications

Neon is often used in signs

The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. Other uses:

History

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898.

Occurrence

Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere.

Compounds

The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate.

Isotopes

Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). 21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites.

Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth.

References


This page about Neon includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Neon
News stories about Neon
External links for Neon
Videos for Neon
Wikis about Neon
Discussion Groups about Neon
Blogs about Neon
Images of Neon

Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth. The American Maxima is known for a balance between sport and luxury; other models tend to focus more on comfort. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. It is built on the standard FF-L platform of the Altima, rather than the stretched FF-L used on the American-market Maximas. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. In some markets, it is sold as the Nissan Cefiro. Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. A smaller Maxima, from 2003, is sold in the Asia-Pacific region and based on the Nissan Teana.

This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites. up). By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. Despite the tuned engine and the sportier positioning, it is slower than the Altima, thanks largely to its heavier weight (200 lb. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. The rear independent suspension returns, this time using a multilink setup similar to the Altima. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. A six-speed manual is still standard on some models.

The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. However, SEs in the US can be had with an optional five-speed automatic transmission. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The Australian version only comes with a four-speed automatic transmission. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. Interestingly, in Australia, the Maxima has the same engine, but Nissan has set the maximum power to only 170 kW. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. It is also present in the Nissan Murano, Infiniti G35 (Nissan Skyline sedan), Infiniti G35 coupe, Quest, Infiniti FX35, Infiniti M35, and the Altima.

21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. The VQ35DE is also used in the 350Z Track, Touring and 35th Anniversary Edition where in new models, it yields 221 kW. Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). However, all Maximas in North America right now are built in Smyrna, Tennessee, where the Altima is also built. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate. The VQ35DE and its predecessor, the VQ30DE, have won Wards 10 Best Engines award every year since the competition's inception in 1995. The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. In the US, it comes with the venerable VQ35DE, a DOHC V6 engine that now produces 265 hp (198 kW).

Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere. The latest generation Maxima shares its platform with the Nissan Altima. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. The last generation Maxima GLE was the basis for the Infiniti I35. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. In 2003, there was a special edition called the Titanium Edition with special wheels and interior treatment as well as a new color (Polished Titanium). Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. In addition, the model got a slight refresh with a larger grille opening, headlamps with high-intensity discharge (HID) low beams, a six-speed manual transmission with optional helical limited-slip differential, revised 17" six-spoke wheels on the SE models, new 17 inch seven spoke rims on the GLE models, clear taillights, and some interior and exterior refinements over the 2000 to 2001 models.

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898. In 2002, the engine was replaced for the whole lineup with a 3.5 L VQ35DE that produced 255 hp (190 kW) and 246 ft·lb of torque. Other uses:. A 2001 20th Anniversary edition got an increase of 5 hp (4 kW), different interior treatment, body kit, special wheels and other tweaks,. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. The GLE was the basis for the Infiniti I30. The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. The GLE was the "luxury" variant and had 16" wheels.

Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases. The GXE was the "base" Maxima. In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. In this variation, there were three models (GXE, GLE, and SE). Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). This variant of the VQ30DE was referred to the VQ30DE-K. . The engine was a 222 hp (166 kW) 3.0 L VQ30DE V6.

A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts. The 2000 Maxima (designated A33) was a refresh of the previous car, designed at Nissan's La Jolla, California design studio. Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. The Cefiro was sold in the US as the Infiniti I30. Los Alamos National Laboratory – Neon. For the Japanese market, a Cefiro-badged station wagon was available. Liquefied neon is commercially used as an economical cryogenic refrigerant. This particular generation was sold in Japan as the Nissan Cefiro, which previously was a separate rear wheel drive car.

Neon and helium are used to make a type of gas laser. In addition, this version of the Maxima is the most popular with tuners or modders because of its low price and performance parts availability. television tubes. The Maxima SE again made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1995 and 1996. wave meter tubes. This Maxima was Motor Trend's Import Car of the Year for 1995. lightning arrestors. The 4th generation Maxima was highly appraised for its roomy interior.

high-voltage indicators. The North American 1995 Maxima included a Bose sound system on the GLE (optional on the SE) which had a 6 speaker sound system. vacuum tubes. There were also structural modifications to improve crash worthiness for the 1997 to 1999 models. The independent rear suspension was replaced with a cheaper torsion bar solid axle. Front seat-mounted side impact airbags were added as an option for 1998 and 1999 models.

Among interior changes were a different steering wheel and CD player. The exterior was refreshed for 1997, with clear-lens headlights, a slightly different rear fascia with new taillights, and a chrome grille insert (body color for SE models) was added. The car was redesigned to compete with Toyota's new Avalon. Its smooth, powerful acceleration and long-term durability helped the Maxima earn its first "top ten engine of the year" award which it has now been recognized 10 years in a row.

A new VQ30DE 190 hp (142 kW) 3.0 L V6 was the only engine option. The car was redesigned again in 1995 as the A32. By many Maxima enthusiasts, the J30 model is considered to be the best looking Maxima to date. Unlike later models, the J30 had an independent rear suspension that was absent from the Maxima until the 2004 models.

The Maxima SE was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1990. All options were available with an automatic transmission only. It was made available as a choice of three models, the 3.0, 3.0S and 3.0SE. During this year, the Maxima was first introduced to the UK market.

The automatic transmission on all GXE's and optional on SE's was an innovative compact unit from Jatco, featuring four-speed electronic control and adaptive 'sport' and 'comfort' modes that shift at different points. The SE models can be further distinguished from the GXE by their white-faced guages, twisted spoke turbine wheels, firmer sport suspensions, and optional 5-speed manual transmissions, which weren't offered on the GXE models after 1992. The VE30DE engine, plus a limited-slip differential, became standard on the SE models in 1992. In the United States, the VG30E engine was used on all 1989-1994 GXE models, and the 1989-1991 SE models.

The VG30E was a unit that had been used in the previous line of Maxima, as well as the second-generation Nissan 300ZX. It now featured a 160 hp (119 kW) 3.0 L V6, with a 190 hp VE30DE engine available starting in 1992. It was called the '4DSC' by Nissan (4-Door Sports Car) and even had a window decal showing this. This is the third generation of the Maxima.

The Maxima was redesigned in 1989 as the J30 model. Automatic lapbelts were new options on both the sedan and wagon. In late 1986, the 1987 Maxima was introduced with a freshened exterior and interior. 1988 was the last year for the Maxima station wagon, which had been offered since the Datsun 810 days.

This Maxima was available with a 157 hp (117 kW) 3.0 L V6 VG30E engine and a 4-speed automatic or 5-speed manual transmission. In the fall of 1984, the first front wheel drive Maxima was introduced. This was the second Nissan to use US-sourced parts besides the Borg-Warner T-5 transmission used in the Datsun 280ZX Turbo. The power steering pump was sourced from General Motors' Saginaw Gear division.

Powered by the same 2.4 L I6 engine as the Datsun 810 and Datsun 240Z, the car was still rear wheel drive. An episode of the MTV show Pimp My Ride featured a Maxima station wagon that Xzibit (the show's host and rapper) referred to as the "identity crisis" since the vehicle sported both Datsun and Nissan badges. That was also the year that American Datsuns began carrying the "Nissan" badge as well. The car was offered as the 810 Deluxe or 810 Maxima that first year, and all 810s became Maximas for 1982.

It was essentially a Japanese-market 910 with a 3.9 in longer nose. The first car to wear the Maxima name was introduced in 1981. In the film 1980 film Gloria, an 810 was seen as a getaway vehicle after Gena Rowlands murders four hitmen. Datsun's new 280ZX shared the 810's chassis, though the 810 did not get that car's larger 2.8 L engine.

The 2-door coupe version was introduced in 1979 along with an exterior refresh, and was available in the Maxima lineup in the Datsun 810 only. The station wagon variant had the rear live axle for load carrying reasons. These cars were rear wheel drive and had had a semi-trailing arm rear suspension. The 2.0 L engine was good for 122 PS JIS (90 kW), while the bigger American engine could reach 125 hp SAE (93 kW).

The Bluebird Maxima used a carburetor for the base model and fuel injection for the sporty version. It was powered by two versions of the SOHC L-series I6 engine, a 2.0 L displacement for the Japanese market and a 2.4 L (as found in the Datsun 240Z) for the US market. The Maxima model line began with the Nissan Bluebird Maxima, which was available in the US as Datsun 810 from February 1977. .

The Maxima debuted in 1976 as an upscale version of the Bluebird and was spun into its own line in 1980, having been made continuously since then. The Nissan Maxima is a car manufactured by Nissan that is in a line of upper midsize executive and sports sedans. URL accessed on March 25, 2005.. Edmunds.com.

Datsun 810 and Nissan Maxima.

03-30-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Google+ Directory