Neon

For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation).
General Name, Symbol, Number neon, Ne, 10 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 2, p Appearance colorless
Atomic mass 20.1797(6) g/mol Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.9002 g/L Melting point 24.56 K
(-248.59 °C, -415.46 °F) Boiling point 27.07 K
(-246.08 °C, -410.94 °F) Heat of fusion 0.335 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 1.71 kJ/mol Heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786 J/(mol·K) Atomic properties Crystal structure cubic face centered Oxidation states no data Ionization energies
(more) 1st: 2080.7 kJ/mol 2nd: 3952.3 kJ/mol 3rd: 6122 kJ/mol Atomic radius (calc.) 38 pm Covalent radius 69 pm Van der Waals radius 154 pm Miscellaneous Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic Thermal conductivity (300 K) 49.1 mW/(m·K) Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 435 m/s CAS registry number 7440-01-9 Notable isotopes References

Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts.

Notable characteristics

Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases.

Applications

Neon is often used in signs

The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. Other uses:

History

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898.

Occurrence

Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere.

Compounds

The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate.

Isotopes

Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). 21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites.

Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth.

References


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Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth. Certainly it may be difficult to bend over in a new pair of overalls, but the wool soon stretches and becomes more comfortable. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Stories are told of officers being fitted into their trousers by two friends lifting them into the air by the waistband and bouncing, though in truth this is rare and more likely the result of weight gain some years after finishing training (most military tailors allow plenty of room to "let out" clothing over the years). The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. Essentially all regular officers have their mess dress tailored for them, along with their other formal uniform (the Sandhurst timetable includes time for this, and an allowance is paid for the cost) but donning the overalls for the first few times can still sometimes be difficult. Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. These are properly known as "overalls".

This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites. In the British Army, male Officers' mess dress in most regiments includes a pair of very tight wool trousers which extend above the waist and are worn with braces. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. Navy" on the chest, and rank insignia on the collar points. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. Navy, with the owner's name and "U.S. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. They are often issued by factories to their workmen, with the firm's badge on.
The French police unit called CRS use boilersuits as uniforms.
A dark blue coverall is the current working uniform of the U.S.

The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. This fastening can be:. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. It usually has a front fastening extending the whole length of the front of the body up to the throat, with no lapels. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. It often has a long thin pocket down the outside of the right thigh to hold long tools. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. Its main feature is that it has no gap between jacket and trousers and no loose jacket tails.

21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. It is a one-piece garment with full-length sleeves and legs like a jumpsuit, but usually less tight-fitting and worn as protective clothing over "street" clothes at work. Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). In American English, it is nearly always referred to as coveralls. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate. This is sometimes called a coverall. The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research.
.

Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere. {http://fecolumnists.expressindia.com/full_column.php?content_id=116540}. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. It was used by sailors and cut to suit them. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. The jeans of today are traceable to the export of a thick cotton cloth known as ‘dungaree’, dyed in indigo, which was sold near the Dongarii Fort near Mumbai in the 16th century. Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. The hisotry of the Dungaree [and therefore in a sense of the modern denim jeans] can be traced to India.

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898. Since the 1960s, different colors and patterns of bib overalls have been increasingly worn by young people of both sexes, often with one of the straps worn loose or unfastened along the side and under the arm. Other uses:. They are often worn with long johns or a red union suit underneath, or with a T-shirt or no shirt at all in warmer weather. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. South and Midwest, especially farmers and railroad workers. The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. Bib overalls have long been associated with rural men in the U.S.

Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases. Bib overalls are generally made of blue denim and often have riveted pockets, similar to those on blue jeans. In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. In British English such a garment is usually referred to as a pair of dungarees. Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). Some people use the word "overall" for this garment only and not for a boilersuit. . These are trousers with an attached front patch covering the chest and with attached braces (or suspenders in the US) which go over the shoulders.

A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts. There are two sorts of protective garment called an overall. Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. . Los Alamos National Laboratory – Neon. The word "overall" is also an adjective meaning "above everything". Liquefied neon is commercially used as an economical cryogenic refrigerant. Some people call an overall a "pair of overalls" by analogy with "pair of trousers".

Neon and helium are used to make a type of gas laser. An overall is usually used as protective clothing when working, but they have sometimes been items of fashion, especially in the 1990s. television tubes. Snap fasteners or press-studs. wave meter tubes. Velcro, as nowadays in the British Royal Air Force (RAF). lightning arrestors. A zipper.

high-voltage indicators. Buttons. vacuum tubes.

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