Neon

For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation).
General Name, Symbol, Number neon, Ne, 10 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 2, p Appearance colorless
Atomic mass 20.1797(6) g/mol Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.9002 g/L Melting point 24.56 K
(-248.59 °C, -415.46 °F) Boiling point 27.07 K
(-246.08 °C, -410.94 °F) Heat of fusion 0.335 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 1.71 kJ/mol Heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786 J/(mol·K) Atomic properties Crystal structure cubic face centered Oxidation states no data Ionization energies
(more) 1st: 2080.7 kJ/mol 2nd: 3952.3 kJ/mol 3rd: 6122 kJ/mol Atomic radius (calc.) 38 pm Covalent radius 69 pm Van der Waals radius 154 pm Miscellaneous Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic Thermal conductivity (300 K) 49.1 mW/(m·K) Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 435 m/s CAS registry number 7440-01-9 Notable isotopes References

Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts.

Notable characteristics

Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases.

Applications

Neon is often used in signs

The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. Other uses:

History

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898.

Occurrence

Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere.

Compounds

The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate.

Isotopes

Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). 21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites.

Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth.

References


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Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth. American Idol singing competition finalist Jon Peter Lewis was mocked by judge Simon Cowell as looking like a pen salesman, a moniker that stuck on him throughout the competition. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. After a failed break in the music career, Hollywood actor Johnny Depp became a pen salesman. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. However, a special "space pen" is not necessary write; the average ball point pen will work just as well in micro-gravity as mentioned by astronaut Pedro Duque. Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. Prior to its discovery by NASA, American space missions did rely on lead pencils, but they tended to break, creating dangerous floating debris that could get in an astronaut's eye or create a short circuit, and they were prone to burning in a high-oxygen atmosphere.

This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites. In truth, the pen was developed long before the space program, by folks that wanted a pen that would write upside down. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. According to urban legend, NASA spent millions of dollars during the 1960s to develop a space pen, which could work in the absence of gravity and air pressure, and in extreme temperatures (The usual, comedic punch-line is "The Soviets used a 50¢ pencil"). This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. It was originally invented for the British RAF, as problems occurred with fountain pens due to the low air pressure aboard planes in flight. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. The word used for ballpoint pens in Argentina is birome because Laszlo Biro lived there for many years; also, biro can be used to refer to a ballpoint pen in British English.

The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Biro developed a new tip consisting of a ball that was free to turn in a socket. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The typical ball point pen was invented in 1938 by the Hungarian journalist Laszlo Biro. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. A mechanical pencil that was very similar or the same as the ballpoint pen was first patented on January 24, 1906 by the Croatian scientist Slavoljub Penkala. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. There are two basic types of the ballpoint pen: disposable and refillable.

21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. This word was invented by the author Andrew Clements in his novel Frindle, the premise of which is that a schoolboy decides to call pens "frindles" and the usage becomes common throughout America. Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). Pen is also used as a verbal expression of "to create" or "to write"; for example, "Today, I think I'll pen the Great Canadian Novel." Pens may also be known, although not very commonly, as frindles. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate. This is because early pens were made from goose feathers by carving the feather with a penknife. The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. Originally the word meant quill, and is derived from penna, which is Latin for feather.

Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere. . Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. Ballpoints, fountain pens and Gel Pens are sometimes erasable: their ink may be erased. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. The main modern types are:. Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. Pens may be categorized by the kind of tip on them.

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898. A pen is a writing instrument which applies ink to some surface. Other uses:. marker pens. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. fountain pens, and. The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. ballpoint pens.

Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases. In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). .

A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts. Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. Los Alamos National Laboratory – Neon. Liquefied neon is commercially used as an economical cryogenic refrigerant.

Neon and helium are used to make a type of gas laser. television tubes. wave meter tubes. lightning arrestors.

high-voltage indicators. vacuum tubes.

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