Neon

For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation).
General Name, Symbol, Number neon, Ne, 10 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 2, p Appearance colorless
Atomic mass 20.1797(6) g/mol Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.9002 g/L Melting point 24.56 K
(-248.59 °C, -415.46 °F) Boiling point 27.07 K
(-246.08 °C, -410.94 °F) Heat of fusion 0.335 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 1.71 kJ/mol Heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786 J/(mol·K) Atomic properties Crystal structure cubic face centered Oxidation states no data Ionization energies
(more) 1st: 2080.7 kJ/mol 2nd: 3952.3 kJ/mol 3rd: 6122 kJ/mol Atomic radius (calc.) 38 pm Covalent radius 69 pm Van der Waals radius 154 pm Miscellaneous Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic Thermal conductivity (300 K) 49.1 mW/(m·K) Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 435 m/s CAS registry number 7440-01-9 Notable isotopes References

Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts.

Notable characteristics

Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases.

Applications

Neon is often used in signs

The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. Other uses:

History

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898.

Occurrence

Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere.

Compounds

The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate.

Isotopes

Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). 21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites.

Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth.

References


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Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth. Some examples of this would be parties for singles (people who are unmarried) and the Bachelor party or the Bachelorette party, a final celebration of a man or woman, respectively, before marriage. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. As a result, they tend to reinforce cultural and/or counter-cultural standards, though sometimes this is simply by providing a semi-acceptable social context for violating some of those standards. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. Parties provide numerous opportunities for social interaction of various kinds, depending on the participants and their understanding of the accepted behavior for a given occasion. Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. Some varieties of party stress a particular form of entertainment, such as the bridge party, which is focused around the card game of bridge, the pool party, usually an outdoor affair centered on a swimming pool, or the costume party, an offshoot of the masquerade ball, where the costumes of the participants provide the theme for the event.

This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites. At the other end of the spectrum are such events as the rave party, which are generally counter-cultural in nature and tend to challenge concepts of what is "proper", corporate and business events are also on the spectrum taking place in high class venues. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. Some parties, such as the traditional English tea party or the modern cocktail party, are social gatherings within a fairly formal, or at least stylized, atmosphere. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. A holiday often provides the pretext for smaller parties as well as broader festival activities. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. Such parties are usually associated with family and close friends.

The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Some are held to mark a particular joyous occasion, such as a birthday, wedding, or coming of age. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. Reasons for parties, and the style in which they are held, are as diverse as the activities which people find enjoyable. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. While having some things in common with religious and seasonal festivals, the term "party" usually denotes a smaller gathering for a personal, rather than cultural, occasion even when the occasion is simply that of enjoyment. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. A party is a social gathering intended primarily for celebration and recreation.

21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate. The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research.

Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom.

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898. Other uses:. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs.

Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases. In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). .

A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts. Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. Los Alamos National Laboratory – Neon. Liquefied neon is commercially used as an economical cryogenic refrigerant.

Neon and helium are used to make a type of gas laser. television tubes. wave meter tubes. lightning arrestors.

high-voltage indicators. vacuum tubes.

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