Neon

For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation).
General Name, Symbol, Number neon, Ne, 10 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 2, p Appearance colorless
Atomic mass 20.1797(6) g/mol Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.9002 g/L Melting point 24.56 K
(-248.59 °C, -415.46 °F) Boiling point 27.07 K
(-246.08 °C, -410.94 °F) Heat of fusion 0.335 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 1.71 kJ/mol Heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786 J/(mol·K) Atomic properties Crystal structure cubic face centered Oxidation states no data Ionization energies
(more) 1st: 2080.7 kJ/mol 2nd: 3952.3 kJ/mol 3rd: 6122 kJ/mol Atomic radius (calc.) 38 pm Covalent radius 69 pm Van der Waals radius 154 pm Miscellaneous Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic Thermal conductivity (300 K) 49.1 mW/(m·K) Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 435 m/s CAS registry number 7440-01-9 Notable isotopes References

Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts.

Notable characteristics

Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases.

Applications

Neon is often used in signs

The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. Other uses:

History

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898.

Occurrence

Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere.

Compounds

The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate.

Isotopes

Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). 21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites.

Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth.

References


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Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth. A website with many such panoramas can be found here. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. With the advent of digital mapping and the SRTM data becoming available, it has become possible to use a computer to calculate the panorama from a given point. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. There are a large number of lesser Panoramic system, for example Cinerama which used a curved screen, as well as the IMAX dome system. Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. Within the gap between each screen is the lens of a movie projector that displays an image on its specific screen, which is diametrically opposite across the room.

This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites. The projection system consists of an odd number of screens arranged in a circle with a gap between each, which avoids minor disruputive discontinuities by introducing major discontinuities that can easily be overlooked. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. There is no seating but there are rails to lean against and to hold on to in case of vertigo induced by camera motion. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. This allows viewers to enter and exit through doors in the lower part of the cylinder and view the presentation without visual interference from other viewers. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. The theater is a large cylindrical space with an arrangement of screens whose bottom is several meters above the floor.

The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Another 360° system was shown at the Swiss Transport Museum in Lucerne, Switzerland. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The first Circle-Vision 360° installation was at Disneyland in Anaheim, California. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. Extreme panoramic formats in cinema are also possible, but require special projection rooms and projection systems. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. Portions of an image such as that above may be rendered into an undistorted view in response to user control in an image-based form of virtual reality, such as QuickTime VR.

21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. However, the most common method of producing panoramic photos is to simply crop away the top and bottom portions an exceptionally wide angle photograph taken on a standard camera (such as 35mm or medium format) so that the aspect ratio of the remaining image is between 2:1 and 3:1. Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). Panoramic images such as the above may be taken using specialized cameras or they may be pieced together from multiple digitized photographs in a process called stitching. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate. Especially in panoramic photography, the panoramic format can be taken to extremes, as in this example showing Riddarfjärden in Stockholm:. The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. The painting measures about 10 metres in height with a circumference of more than 100 metres.

Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere. The Bourbaki Panorama in Lucerne, Switzerland still exhibits a circular painting of 1881 painted by Edouard Castres. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. Panoramic paintings were patented by Robert Barker in 1787 and became at 1792 London a very popular way to represent landscapes and historical events. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. . Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. Today "panorama" signifies any high aspect ratio or wide screen image or film format, especially suitable for landscapes, where a lot of scenery can be taken in at a glance.

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898. The word panorama was coined by the Scottish painter Robert Barker in 1792 to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh shown on a cylindrical surface viewed from the inside, which he soon was exhibiting in London, as "The Panorama". Other uses:. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs.

Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases. In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). .

A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts. Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. Los Alamos National Laboratory – Neon. Liquefied neon is commercially used as an economical cryogenic refrigerant.

Neon and helium are used to make a type of gas laser. television tubes. wave meter tubes. lightning arrestors.

high-voltage indicators. vacuum tubes.

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