Neon

For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation).
General Name, Symbol, Number neon, Ne, 10 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 2, p Appearance colorless
Atomic mass 20.1797(6) g/mol Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.9002 g/L Melting point 24.56 K
(-248.59 °C, -415.46 °F) Boiling point 27.07 K
(-246.08 °C, -410.94 °F) Heat of fusion 0.335 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 1.71 kJ/mol Heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786 J/(mol·K) Atomic properties Crystal structure cubic face centered Oxidation states no data Ionization energies
(more) 1st: 2080.7 kJ/mol 2nd: 3952.3 kJ/mol 3rd: 6122 kJ/mol Atomic radius (calc.) 38 pm Covalent radius 69 pm Van der Waals radius 154 pm Miscellaneous Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic Thermal conductivity (300 K) 49.1 mW/(m·K) Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 435 m/s CAS registry number 7440-01-9 Notable isotopes References

Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts.

Notable characteristics

Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases.

Applications

Neon is often used in signs

The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. Other uses:

History

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898.

Occurrence

Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere.

Compounds

The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate.

Isotopes

Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). 21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites.

Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth.

References


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Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth.
. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. . The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. Norton Healthcare, a healthcare system in Louisville, Kentucky. Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. Norton AntiVirus computer software, owned by Symantec.

This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites. A character played by Art Carney in The Honeymooners. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. Norton, a major American publishing corporation. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. W. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. W.

The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Norton (grape), a variety of grape also known as Cynthiana. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. Norton (motorcycle), a British motorcycle manufacturer. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. Norton Sound, an inlet of the Bering Sea. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. William Norton, an Irish politician and one-time Labour Party leader.

21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. Thomas Norton, a 16th century English writer and politician. Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). Scott Norton, a retired professional wrestler. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate. Peter Norton, software engineer and founder of Peter Norton Computing. The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. Patrick Norton, an American writer and editor specializing in the high tech industry.

Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere. Ken Norton, an American heavyweight boxer (or his son, Ken Norton Jr. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. Norton, who declared himself Emperor of the United States of America. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. Joshua A. Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. Jim Norton (actor), an Irish actor.

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898. James Norton, founder of the Norton Motorcycle Company. Other uses:. Sir Gregory Norton, a 17th century English MP. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. Graham Norton, an Irish comedian. The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. Gale Norton, an American lawyer and politician.

Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases. Eleanor Holmes Norton, an American politician best known as the delegate from Washington, D.C. In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. Edward Lawry Norton, an electrical engineer. Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). Edward Norton, an American actor. . Norton, a 19th century American politician.

A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts. Daniel S. Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. Charles Eliot Norton, an American scholar who died in the early 20th century. Los Alamos National Laboratory – Neon. Andre Norton, an American author. Liquefied neon is commercially used as an economical cryogenic refrigerant. Norton, Zimbabwe, a city in Zimbabwe.

Neon and helium are used to make a type of gas laser. Norton, New Brunswick, in Canada. television tubes. Norton, Virginia. wave meter tubes. Norton, Vermont. lightning arrestors. Norton, Ohio.

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