Neon

For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation).
General Name, Symbol, Number neon, Ne, 10 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 2, p Appearance colorless
Atomic mass 20.1797(6) g/mol Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.9002 g/L Melting point 24.56 K
(-248.59 °C, -415.46 °F) Boiling point 27.07 K
(-246.08 °C, -410.94 °F) Heat of fusion 0.335 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 1.71 kJ/mol Heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786 J/(mol·K) Atomic properties Crystal structure cubic face centered Oxidation states no data Ionization energies
(more) 1st: 2080.7 kJ/mol 2nd: 3952.3 kJ/mol 3rd: 6122 kJ/mol Atomic radius (calc.) 38 pm Covalent radius 69 pm Van der Waals radius 154 pm Miscellaneous Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic Thermal conductivity (300 K) 49.1 mW/(m·K) Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 435 m/s CAS registry number 7440-01-9 Notable isotopes References

Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts.

Notable characteristics

Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases.

Applications

Neon is often used in signs

The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. Other uses:

History

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898.

Occurrence

Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere.

Compounds

The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate.

Isotopes

Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). 21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites.

Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth.

References


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Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth. Some manufacturers, notably AMD, have started using a new, slightly more environmentally friendly alternative to expanded plastic packaging made out of paper, known commercially as "paperfoam." The packaging has very similar mechanical properties to some expanded plastic packaging, but is biodegradable and can also be recycled with ordinary paper. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. The type of cotton fibres used for making paper are discarded as unusable waste from the textile industry, and can be manufactured using fewer chemicals and less energy. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. Their reasons for doing this are that the cotton based tissue papers are less abrasive, less likely to cause allergic reactions, and far more environmentally friendly than wood papers, as they are made from renewable materials. Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. However, at least one company (Cloudy Bay Cotton) has recently tried to introduce cotton based tissue papers to westernised countries as an alternative to wood based ones.

This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites. Paper made in the west since the industrial revolution has been almost exclusively wood based, except for a few specialized papers like those used in banknotes. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. The majority of modern book publishers now use acid-free paper. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. Documents written on more expensive rag paper were more stable. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. Unfortunately, the original wood-based paper was more acidic and more prone to disintegrate over time, through processes known as slow fires.

The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. The office worker or the white-collar worker was slowly born of this transformation, which can be considered as a part of the industrial revolution. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. Cheap wood based paper also meant that keeping personal diaries or writing letters ceased to be reserved to a privileged few. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. With the gradual introduction of cheap paper, schoolbooks, fiction, non-fiction, and newspapers became slowly available to nearly all the members of an industrial society. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. Before this era a book or a newspaper was a rare luxury object and illiteracy was the norm.

21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. Together with the invention of the practical fountain pen and the mass produced pencil of the same period, and in conjunction with the advent of the steam driven rotary printing press, wood based paper caused a major transformation of the 19th century economy and society in industrialized countries. Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). Although older machines predated it, the Fourdrinier paper making machine became the basis for most modern papermaking. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate. Paper remained a luxury item through the centuries, until the advent of steam-driven paper making machines in the 19th century, which could make paper with fibres from wood pulp. The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. According to this theory, Chinese culture was less developed than the West in ancient times because bamboo, while abundant, was a clumsier writing material than papyrus; Chinese culture advanced during the Han Dynasty and preceding centuries due to the invention of paper; and Europe advanced during the Renaissance due to the introduction of paper and the printing press.

Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere. Some historians speculate that paper was the key element in global cultural advancement. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. The oldest known paper document in the West is the Missel of Silos from the 11th century. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. They used hemp and linen rags as a source of fiber. Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. After further commercial trading and the defeat of the Chinese in the Battle of Talas, the invention spread to the Middle East, where it was adopted in India and subsequently in Italy in about the 13th century.

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898. The technology was first transferred to Korea in 600 and then imported to Japan by a Buddhist priest, Dam Jing (曇徴) from Goguryeo, around 610, where fibres (called bast) from the mulberry tree were used. Other uses:. Instruction in the manufacturing process was required, and the Chinese were reluctant to share their secrets. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. It spread slowly outside of China; other East Asian cultures, even after seeing paper, could not figure out how to make it themselves. The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. Other sources trace the invention of this type of papermaking to China in 150 BC.

Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases. The Chinese court official Cai Lun described the modern method of papermaking in AD 105; he was the first person to describe how to make paper from cotton rags. In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. Indeed, most of the above materials were rare and costly. Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). Silk was sometimes used, but was normally too expensive to consider. . In China, documents were ordinarily written on bamboo, making them very heavy and awkward to transport.

A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts. Further north, parchment or vellum, made of processed sheepskin or calfskin, replaced papyrus, as the papyrus plant requires subtropical conditions to grow. Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. Papyrus was produced as early as 3000 BC in Egypt, and in ancient Greece and Rome. Los Alamos National Laboratory – Neon. The word paper comes from the ancient Egyptian writing material called papyrus, which was woven from papyrus plants. Liquefied neon is commercially used as an economical cryogenic refrigerant. The heat produced by these can easily dry the paper to less than 6% moisture.

Neon and helium are used to make a type of gas laser. These dryer cans heat to temperatures above 200ºF and are used in long sequences of more than 40 cans. television tubes. On the paper machine, the most common is the steam-heated can dryer. wave meter tubes. In more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used. lightning arrestors. In the earliest days of papermaking this was done by hanging the paper sheets like laundry.

high-voltage indicators. Drying involves using air and or heat to remove water from the paper sheet. vacuum tubes. When making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used. On a paper machine this is called a felt (not to be confused with the traditional felt). Once the water is forced from the sheet, another absorbant material must be used to collect this water.

Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. The methods of doing so vary between the different processes used to make paper, but the concepts remain the same. This is accomplished through pressing and drying. After the paper web is produced, the water must be removed from it in order to create a usable product.

Standard sheet sizes are prescribed by governing bodies such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). When dried, this continuous web may be cut into rectangular sheets by slicing the web vertically and horizontally to the desired size. Most mass-produced paper is made using the continuous Fourdrinier process to form a reel or web of fibers in a thin sheet. The paper may then be removed from the mould, wet or dry, and go on to further processing.

Pressure may be applied to help remove additional water. In the mould process, a quantity of pulp is placed into a form, with a wire-mesh base, so that the fibers form a sheet on the mesh and excess water can drain away. This moving web is pressed and dried into a continuous sheet of paper. A watermark may be impressed into the paper at this stage of the process.

This dilute slurry is drained through a fine-mesh moving screen to form a fibrous web. The pulp mixture is further diluted with water resulting in a very thin slurry. For example, Kaolin (or calcium carbonate) is added to produce the glossy papers typically used for magazines. Once the fibers have been extracted, they may also be bleached, dyed, or have additional ingredients added to alter the appearance of the final product.

These fibres have already been treated once, so instead they need a more gentle process to break the fibers apart while preserving their integrity. Recycled fibres do not need to be pulped in the conventional sense. Removing the lignin from wood chips also serves to break them apart into the fibers that compose pulp. Pulp that is broken down chemically is known as "chemical pulp." The main purpose of a chemical pulping process is to break down the chemical structure of lignin and render it soluble in a liquid (most often water) so it may be washed from the remaining fibers.

However, because the lignin will cause this paper to yellow, mechanical pulp is most often used for newspapers and other non-permanent goods. Since the lignin is not removed from mechanical pulp, yields are relatively high, approximately 90-98%. Pulp that has been broken down mechanically is often known as "groundwood pulp." The mechanical process to break down wood chips into pulp requires no chemicals. If the lignin is retained in the pulp, the paper will yellow when exposed to air and light.

These processes are not needed when breaking down recycled fibers, as the lignin has already been removed from the source material. This is done via a chemical process. When natural materials are used to make paper, it is usually necessary to break down the lignin inside of the plant's cell walls. The source of fiber is often natural (softwood or hardwood trees or other plants) or recycled, such as old corrugated boxes, newsprint, or mixed paper.

The material to be used for making paper is first converted into pulp, a concentrated mixture of fibers suspended in liquid. Whether done by hand or with a paper machine, the paper making process has three simple steps:. . Though generally considered a flexible material, the edges of paper sheets can act as very thin, fine-toothed saws, leading to paper cuts.

A stack of 500 sheets of paper is called a ream. However, other vegetable fiber materials including cotton, hemp, linen, and rice may be used. The most common source of these fibers is wood pulp from pulpwood trees, (largely softwoods) such as spruce. The fibers used are usually natural and composed of cellulose.

Paper was invented in Ancient China by a man named Ts'ai Lun in AD 105.Paper is a thin, flat material produced by the compression of fibers (or fibres). paper machines- paper-engineering. origami. papier-mâché.

For construction

    . cat litter. paper towels. handkerchiefs.

    toilet paper. For cleaning (see also tissue, Kleenex):

      . wallpaper. wrapping tissue.

      envelope. For packaging:

        . newspaper. magazine.

        book. For entertainment:

          . ticket. voucher.

          security. check. bank note. paper money.

          To represent a value:

            . To write or print on: the piece of paper becomes a document; this may be for keeping a record (or in the case of printing from a computer or copying from another paper: an additional record) and for communication; see also reading.

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