Neon

For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation).
General Name, Symbol, Number neon, Ne, 10 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 2, p Appearance colorless
Atomic mass 20.1797(6) g/mol Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.9002 g/L Melting point 24.56 K
(-248.59 °C, -415.46 °F) Boiling point 27.07 K
(-246.08 °C, -410.94 °F) Heat of fusion 0.335 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 1.71 kJ/mol Heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786 J/(mol·K) Atomic properties Crystal structure cubic face centered Oxidation states no data Ionization energies
(more) 1st: 2080.7 kJ/mol 2nd: 3952.3 kJ/mol 3rd: 6122 kJ/mol Atomic radius (calc.) 38 pm Covalent radius 69 pm Van der Waals radius 154 pm Miscellaneous Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic Thermal conductivity (300 K) 49.1 mW/(m·K) Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 435 m/s CAS registry number 7440-01-9 Notable isotopes References

Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts.

Notable characteristics

Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases.

Applications

Neon is often used in signs

The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. Other uses:

History

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898.

Occurrence

Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere.

Compounds

The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate.

Isotopes

Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). 21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites.

Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth.

References


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Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth. A proposed and yet-unrealised development in painting is four dimensional painting. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Painting idioms include:. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. Painting styles. Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. The word 'style' in the latter sense has fallen out of favour in academic discussions about contemporary painting, though it continues to be used in popular contexts.

This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites. This can stem from an actual group that the artist was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art historians have placed the painter. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. It can also refer to the movement or school that an artist is associated with. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. 'Style' is used in two senses: It can refer to the distinctive visual elements, techniques and methods that typify an individual artist's work. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne. Examples include:.

The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. Different types of paint are usually identified by the medium that the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general working characteristics of the paint, such as viscosity, miscibility, solubility, drying time, etc. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. Painting techniques include:. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. You had something in mind, something you wanted to ‘bring out’; but looking at what you have done, I have no certainty that I know what it was..."). In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated. Your painting expresses – for you; but it does not communicate to me.

21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. The text is witty and sometimes caustic in order to make his points ("Let us be brutal: expression is a joke. Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). A painter himself, Bell discusses the development, through history, of the notion that paintings can express feelings and ideas. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate. A recent contribution to thinking about painting was offered by Julian Bell, in his book What is Painting?. The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research. In 1890, the Parisian painter Maurice Denis famously asserted: "Remember that a painting – before being a warhorse, a naked woman or some story or other – is essentially a flat surface covered with colours assembled in a certain order." Thus many twentieth century developments in painting, such as Cubism, were reflections on the business of painting rather than on the external world, nature, which had previously been its core subject.

Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere. However Beauty, a concept of wich Painting is essentialy linked, cannot be defined as an objective matter,purpose or idea.Much aesthetics and theory of art is connected with painting. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. The creator of this discipline, Erwin Panofsky,tries to analyse visual symbols in their cultural,religious, social and philosophical depth to attain a better comprehension of mankind´s symbolic activity. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. Iconography has also something to say about painting. Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom. Kandinsky in its essay sustains that painting has a spiritual value also he attachs primary colours to essential feelings or concepts, something that writters like Goethe had already tried to.

Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898. Painters like Kandinsky or Paul Klee also wrote theory of painting. Other uses:. Hegel recognized the failure of attaining a universal concept of beauty and in his aesthetic essay wrote that Painting is one of the three "romantic" arts, along with Poetry and Music for its symbolic, highly intelectual purpose. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. Kant inditified Beauty with the Sublime,not refering particulary to painting, but this concept was taken by painters like Turner or Caspar David Friedrich. The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs. Leonardo Da Vinci, on the contrary, said that "Pittura est cousa mentale" (painting is an intelectual thing), wich is more accurate in defining the art of Painting, although there is an essential role of craft in it.

Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases. Aesthetics tries to be the "science of beauty" and it was an important issue for 18th and 19th philoshopers like Kant or Hegel.Classical philosophers like Plato and Aristotle also theorized about art and painting in particular; Plato disregarded painters (as well as sculptors) in his philosophical system , sustaining that a painting is a copy of reality (a shadow of the world of ideas so it cannot depict the truth) and is nothing but a craft, similar to shoemaking or iron casting. In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. See also African art.. Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). Contemporary african artist follow western art movements and their paintings have little difference from occidental art works. . Note that Pablo Picasso and other modern artists were influenced by african sculpture in their styles.

A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts. Another pictoral manifestation is body painting, present for example in Maasai culture in their ceremony rituals. Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. However decorative painting is present in african culture often abstract and geometrical. Los Alamos National Laboratory – Neon. African traditonal culture and tribes do not seem to had great interest in two dimensional representations in favour of Sculpture. Liquefied neon is commercially used as an economical cryogenic refrigerant. See also Indian painting..

Neon and helium are used to make a type of gas laser. The Bengal school's influence in India declined with the spread of modernist ideas in the 1920s. television tubes. Tagore later attempted to develop links with Japanese artists as part of an aspiration to construct a pan-Asianist model of art. wave meter tubes. Tagore's best-known painting, Bharat Mata (Mother India), depicted a young woman, portrayed with four arms in the manner of Hindu deities, holding objects symbolic of India's national aspirations. lightning arrestors. Tagore painted a number of works influenced by Mughal art, a style that he and Havel believed to be expressive of India's distinct spirutual qualities, as opposed to the "materialism" of the West.

high-voltage indicators. Havel was supported by the artist Abanindranath Tagore, a nephew of the poet Rabindranath Tagore. vacuum tubes. This caused immense controversy, leading to a strike by students and complaints from the local press, including from nationalists who considered it to be a retrogressive move. Following the widespead influence of Indian spiritual ideas in the West, the British art teacher Ernest Binfield Havel attempted to reform the teaching methods at the Calcutta School of Art by encouraging students to imitate Mughal miniatures. The Bengal school arose as an avant garde and nationalist movement reacting against the academic art styles previously promoted in India, both by Indian artists such as Ravi Varma and in British art schools.

It was associated with Indian nationalism, but was also promoted and supported by many British arts administrators. The Bengal School of Art was an influential style of art that flourished in India during the British Raj in the early 20th century. Finally, dyes are used to add colors to the figures in the paintings. On top of this, the gold foils are pasted.

Laces or threads are also used to decorate the jewellery. After the drawing is made, decoration of the jewellery and the apparels in the image is done with semi-precious stones. To make the base smoother, a mild abrasive is sometimes used. Then chalk powder or zinc oxide is mixed with water-soluble adhesive and applied on the base.

The base consists of a cloth pasted over a wooden base. The first stage involves the making of the preliminary sketch of the image on the base. The process of making a Tanjore painting involves many stages. In modern times, these paintings have become a much sought after souvenir during festive occasions in South India.

The themes for most of these paintings are Hindu Gods and Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology. These paintings are known for their elegance, rich colours, and attention to detail. The art form dates back to the early 9th Century, a period dominated by the Chola rulers, who encouraged art and literature. Tanjore painting is an important form of classical South Indian painting native to the town of Tanjore in Tamil Nadu.

Mughal painting is a particular style of Indian painting, generally confined to illustrations on the book and done in miniatures, and which emerged, developed and took shape during the period of the Mughal Empire 16th -19th centuries). Brushes used were very fine. The preparation of desired colours was a lengthy process, sometimes taking weeks. The colours extracted from certain minerals, plant sources, conch shells, and were even derived by processing precious stones, gold and silver were used.

Miniatures were the preferred medium of Rajput painting, but several manuscripts also contain Rajput paintings, and paintings were even done on the walls of palaces, inner chambers of the forts, havelies, particularly, the havelis of Shekhawait. Rajput paintings depict a number of themes, events of epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, Krishna’s life, beautiful landscapes, and humans. Each Rajput kingdom evolved a distinct style, but with certain common features. Rajput painting, a style of Indian painting, evolved and flourished, during the 18th century, in the royal courts of Rajputana, India.

The origins of Madhubani painting are shrouded in antiquity, and a tradition states that this style of painting originated at the time of the Ramayana, when King Janak commissioned artists to do paintings at the time of marriage of his daughter, Sita, with Hindu god Lord Ram. Madhubani painting is a style of Indian painting, practiced in the Mithila region of Bihar state, India. But, it is believed that some form of art painting was practiced in that time. India’s Buddhist literature is replete with examples of texts which describe that palaces of kings and aristocratic class were embellished with paintings, but they have not survived.

Thereafter, frescoes of Ajanta and Ellora caves appeared. Such works continued and after several millennia, in the 7th century, carved pillars of Ellora, Maharashtra state present a fine example of Indian paintings, and the colors, mostly various shades of red and orange, were derived from minerals. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of pre-historic times, the petroglyphs as found in places like Bhimbetka, and some of them are older than 5500 BC. See also Chinese painting, Japanese painting, Korean painting..

Modern and contemporary oriental painting lost its traditional characteristics and has been influenced by western painting movements with little differences for the loss of variety and richness of this art. Late 19th century artists like the Impressionists, Van Gogh, James Ensor or Whistler admired traditional oriental painters like Hokusai and Hiroshige and their work was influenced by it. Far east traditional painting is different and sometimes the opposite to western painting, for its water based techniques (orientals excell in watercolour use which only happened, barely, in western culture around the Renaissance and 19th century), a less realistic,"elegant" and more stylized, graphical approach to depiction, the importance of white space(or negative space) and a preference for landscape (instead of human figure) as a subject. China, Japan and Korea have a strong tradition in painting which is also highly attached to the art of calligraphy and printmaking (so much that it is commonly seen as painting).

See also Islamic art.. In present days, painting by art students or professional artists in arab countries follow the same tendencies of Western culture art. Escher was influenced by this geometrical and pattern based art. Notable illustrator M.C.

Pictorial activity is reduced to the painting of tiles, mainly abstract, with geometrical configuration and strongly connected to calligraphy and can be widely seen in mosques.In fact abstract art is not an invention of modern art but it is present in pre-classical, barbarian and non-western cultures many centuries before it and is essentialy a decorative or applied art. The depticion of humans, animals or any another figurative subjects is forbidden within Islam to prevent believers from idolatry so there is no painting (or sculpture) tradition within muslim culture. See also Art history.. This painters cannot be attached to the movements described above and can be seen as outsiders.

Modern art tends to undermine or oposite the traditional painting techniques and subjects,however, in the XXth century important painters continued to pratice a figurative, solid technique painting with contemporary subjects like Edward Hopper, Balthus, Francis Bacon or Lucian Freud. Post-second world war painting renewed Abstract art with artist like Jackson Pollock and Vieira da Silva and has a response to this tendence Pop-Art emerged with names like Andy Warhol and Roy Lichenstein, trying to take popular and mass culture into fine art. Van Gogh´s painting had great influence in Expressionism wich can be seen in Die Brücke, a group lead by german painter Ernst Kirchner and in Edvard Munch or Egon Schiele´s work. Modern painting influenced all visual arts, from architecture to design and became a experimental laboratory in wich artists stretched the limits of this medium to his extreme.

After cubism several movements emerged; Futurism (Balla), Abstract (Kandinsky,Blau Reiter, Mondrian), Suprematism (Malevich), Constructivism (Tatlin), Dadaism (Duchamp, Arp) and Surrealism (Dali, Ernst). The heritage of painters like Van Gogh, Cezanne and Gauguin was essential for the development of modern art.Picasso made his firt cubist paintings based in the ideia, created by Cezanne, that all depiction of nature can be reduced to three solids: cube, sphere and cone. Monet was strongly influenced by Turner but without the philosophical depth of him. Impressionism can be taken as an heir of Romanticism, but instead it depicts common landscapes,people in daily or prosaic affairs and has no metaphysics within it.

In the end of century Impressionism and post-Impressionists like Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin and Paul Cezanne lead art to modern era. In the second half of 19th century Realism took place and one of his higher exponents was Courbet. Another major master of this period is Francisco Goya who´s tragic view of the world is in tone with the Romantic feeling and perception. The major painters of this period are Turner, Caspar David Friedrich and Jonh Constable, along with others like Camille Corot and Arnold Böcklin.

Romantic painters turned landscape painting into a major genre, considered until then as minor genre or as a decorative background for compositions in wich human figure took the principal role. This movement tend to previligiate landscape and nature instead of human figure and the supremacy of natural order above mankind´s will.There is a pantheist philosophy(see Spinoza and Hegel) and ideals within this conception and opposes,somehow, Enlightenment ideals by seeing mankind´s destiny in a more tragic or pessimistic view.The idea that human being is not above the forces of Nature is in contradiction to Ancient Greece and Renaissance ideals were mankind was above all things and owned his fate.This thinking also lead romantic artist to review Middle Ages not a a dark age but an age of coincidence between God and Mankind´s will and many pictured cathedrals and churches to accent a religious tone. After the decadence of Rococo and has a response to a poor imaginative neo-classicism that grew in late 18th century, a new generation of painters arose with Romanticism. Fragonard or Jean Baptiste Boucher paintings can be seen as examples of that.

Rococo remains as a decadent subgenre of Baroque, lighter, often frivol and erotic, demanding less technique. Other great masters reveal that like Velázquez or Rubens along with theatrical compositions often highly dramatic. Baroque painting tends to dramatize scenes based in light effects; this can be seen from Caravaggio to Rembrant, Veermer,Le Nain or La Tour. His high contrast paintings along with a realistic and dramatic aproach of human figure, that sometimes are rude in opposite to the idealized figures of Renaissance, shocked his contemporaries and opened a new chapter in the history of painting.

Caravaggio is an heir of the humanist painting of Renaissance, with his dramatic view of the world. Baroque is considered to have three major painters; Caravaggio, Rembrandt and Vermeer. Also the first non religious paintings were made in this period, paintings that depict personal ideas or fantasies of the artist instead of religious imagery or biblical scenes only. In fact easel painting was "invented" in Renaissance and that allowed painting to become independent from architecture and seen as an object with its own value.

Renaissance painting is strongly connected to the revolution of ideas and science (astronomy, geography) that occur in this period, that places human being (instead of God) in the center of thought, the Reformation, and the invention of printing press (Dürer is considered by many to be one of the greatest printmakers ever), and states that painters are not mere artisans but thinkers as well. Flemish and german painters like Albrecht Dürer, Lucas Cranach, Matthias Grünewald, Van Eyck,Hieronymous Bosch or Pieter Brueghel played an essential role in Renassaince art and represent a different aproach to it for their more realistic, less idealized and more influenced by Middle age art (illuminated manuscripts) than their italian coleagues. In Italy artists like Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Donatello, Sandro Boticelli, Paolo Ucello, Raphael, Titian took painting to a higher level with the use of perspective, the study of human anatomy and proportions and excellence in drawing and painting techniques. Renaissance is said to be by many the Golden Age of painting.

An important form of painting in Middle Ages are illuminated manuscripts.This art was widely used until the invention of printing press and is now what is called illustration. He was also the master of Giotto that lead this innovations to a higher level and made the foundations to western painting tradition. Cimabue, within the byzantine tradition, gave a more realistic and dramatic aproach to his art. Cimabue and Giotto are considered to be the two great medieval masters in painting in western culture.

The main form of painting in byzantine art is the icon, usually static religious figures in golden backgrounds.Byzantic painting have a particular hieratic feeling and icons were and still are seen as a "reflexion" of the divine. Byzantine art flourished after the fall the of Constantinople in East Roman Empire in 5th century. Roman painting has no special caracheter and his a resemblance of greek painting and can be taken as a surviving example of what ancient greece´s painting was. Apelles is described to be the greatest painter of Antiquity for its perfect technique in drawing, brilliant colour and modeling.

His paintings are described to be highly realistic so much that Pliny, The Elder wrote birds tried to eat the grapes of his works. Zeuxis lived in V/IV BC and said to be the first using sfumato. Ancient Greece had its great painters like it had great sculptors and architects, unfortunely no example of their work lasted to our days.What remains are written descriptions of their contemporaries or roman copies.However vase painting can be as a surviving example of what Greek painting was.Some famous greek painters who are refered in texts are Apelles, Zeuxis and Parrhasius. Egyptian painting has close connection with his written languange (see pictography) and painting had an essential role in their manuscripts (papyrus).In fact painted symbols are amongst the first forms of written language.

Often graphical, more symbolic than realistic, in wich symmetry is a constant charateristic. Ancient Egypt, a civilization that is strongly connected to architecture and artistic forms, had many mural paintings in his temple and buildings. Above this theories we can say that painting as well as all other forms of art are strongly connected with religious or spiritual consciousness, they seem to remind us of our spiritual essence and existence and the fact that pre-historical men have done it seems like an unarguable proof of it. Some sustain that pre-historical men painted animals to "catch" their soul or spirit in order to hunt them more easily, others refer an animistic vision and homage to sorrounding nature and others the basic need of expression that is innate to human being.

Many theories have been written about this paintings with no objective conclusion. There are examples of cave painting all over the world(France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia etc.). They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo,mammoth or humans often hunting. The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France, claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 years old.

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. However this is a misunderstood situation so this forms of new media have for their content information not knowledge, wich is an essential difference. Some say that artistic painting is among the most important of the art forms although the importance of television, advertising and multimedia tends to take his place.

Drawing is implicit in painting, although is not a synonym. Drawing, by comparison, is the process of making marks on a surface by applying pressure from or moving a tool on the surface.In a wider definition drawing is a graphical representation of reality or ideas.Note that some painters did not have a graphical approach in their work and have not left drawings, like Caravaggio, Velázquez, Turner or Francis Bacon, which does not mean they were not able to. Some say that Artistic painting is considered by many to be among the most important of the art forms. This little and narrowminded concept, based on low discipline or in Duchamp´s (or other radical artists) arguments and works, has been a problem to major public wich often do not understand this academic aproach (or do by fashion,social status or sole financial profit) and tend to see Painting as an art of the past, in wich painters effectevely knew how to draw and paint.

Modern and contemporary art tend tends to despise the craft of painting and drawing (wich are essentialy linked) in favour of concept, this has lead some to say that painting, as an art, is dead. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet or Anselm Kiefer and note that the depicting of texture is an important matter in painting. Some modern painters use non-pictorial materials in their paintings, like sand, cement,straw or wood for their texture value. Collage is also used in painting.This pratice began with Cubism and other modern art movements, it is not painting in strict sense but the artist uses it(photographs, pieces of printed paper, etc.) has a pictorial object in the composition.

Painting seems innate with human being; young children without training, before pigments or any tool than can make a mark or a spot in a surface, tend to express themselves through it, even if it is naif, rough or even incomprehensible.This form of art attracts immense public (so there is a huge crowd of amateur painters, most of them of very low quality) but it is despised often has a professional choice in today´s society. However Painting cannot be reduced to colour in its physical phenomena or as pigment in a surface, like music cannot be reduced to acoustics; it is an universal art form, present in most cultures throught all mankind´s history. Some painters, theoricians, writters and scientists (Goethe, Kandinsky, Newton) have written colour theory. Colour is the matter of painting like in Music is sound.Colour is highly subjective.Even more than sounds so it cannot precisely be explained by words or symbols.For example, the word "red" does not define the countless tones of red and the dubious description of "blood red" or "crimson red" as a tone is far from being univeral and precise as a C or C# in Music.

This is done by a painter; this term is used especially if this is his or her profession.Evidence indicates that humans have been painting for about 6 times as long as they have been using written language. Painting is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier (or medium) and a binding agent (a glue) to a surface (support) such as paper, canvas or a wall, with a drawing, composition or an expressive intention subjacent to it (this is what differs Painting from painting a fence or a room wall).Painting is also used upon objects like pottery, tiles, textile or even human body itself within tribes who paint their bodies with decorative motifs for their rituals. War. Still life.

Portrait. Landscape. Industrial. Illustration.

Figure painting. Botanical. Bodegon. Allegory.

Surrealism. Socialist Realism. Romantic realism. Romanticism.

Realism. Postmodernism. Pop-Art. Pointillism.

Orientalism. Op-Art. Neo-classicism. Naïve art.

Modernism. Mannerism. Impressionism. Hard-edge.

Graffiti. Fauvism. Cubism. Constructivism.

Baroque. Abstract. Watercolor. Tempera.

Spray paint (Graffiti). Pastel, including dry pastels, oil pastels, and pastel pencils. Water miscible oil paints. Heat-set oils.

Oil

    . Ink. Gouache. Fresco.

    Encaustic (wax). Acrylic. Paper. Mural (Walls).

    Panel painting. Canvas. (Partially) destructive techniques like grattage and peinture brulée, with which Joan Miró, among others, experimented. Fingerpainting.

    Brush Painting. Wash. Sumi-e. Sfumato.

    Scumble. Pointillism (aka divisionism, 'stippling'). New materials (painting). Grisaille.

    Glaze. Computer painting (Digital). Impasto.

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