National Lampoon's Animal House

National Lampoon's Animal House (also called Animal House) is a 1978 comedy film in which a misfit group of Delta fraternity boys takes on the system at their college. It stars John Belushi, Tim Matheson, Karen Allen, John Vernon, Thomas Hulce, Cesare Danova, Peter Riegert, Mary Louise Weller, Stephen Furst, James Daughton, Bruce McGill, Mark Metcalf, James Widdoes, Martha Smith, Kevin Bacon (in his film debut) and Donald Sutherland.

The movie was adapted by Douglas Kenney, Christopher Miller and Harold Ramis from stories that had originally been written by Miller and published in National Lampoon magazine. It was directed by John Landis. In 2001 the United States Library of Congress deemed the film "culturally significant" and selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry. Produced on a scanty $3 million budget, the film has turned out to be one of the most profitable of all time; since its initial release, Animal House has garnered an estimated return of more than $200 million in the form of video and DVDs, not to mention merchandising.

Plot summary

Spoiler warning: Plot or ending details follow.

Faber college, 1962. Vietnam and the Civil Rights Movement are but the faintest blips on the horizon. A 1950s mentality prevails on campus, typified by the Omegas--the "nice boy" frat, dominated by Greg Marmalard and Douglas Niedermeyer, the nefarious, strutting head of the ROTC program. At the other end of Fraternity Row, both literally and figuratively, stands the Delta House, a repository for every campus misfit: Eric 'Otter' Stratton, the Playboy-style sex maniac (whose room is an uncannily pristine oasis within the sheer filth of the house); Donald 'Boon' Schoenstein, Otter's best friend who is always deciding between his pals at the Delta House and his girlfriend, Katy; 'Bluto' Blutarsky, an abject, drunken degenerate; Robert Hoover, the affable, reasonably clean-cut president of the fraternity, who desperately struggles to maintain a fašade of normalcy for the Dean; D-Day, a tough biker with a penchant for riding up the stairs; Stork, probably borderline autistic; and the two new pledges, Larry 'Pinto' Kroger, a shy but normal fellow, and Kent 'Flounder' Dorfman, a hopelessly fat, clumsy loser--a "total zero", even by Delta standards.

Dean Vernon Wormer, in cahoots with the Omegas, is constantly intriguing to revoke the Deltas' charter and drive them off campus permanently. The main Omegas include: Gregg Marmalard, the president of Omega House who dates Mandy Pepperidge and suffers from impotence; Sargeant-at-Arms Doug Niedermeyer, who is the head of the ROTC and hates the Deltas with unbridled passion; and Chip Diller, the Omegas newest pledge.

Other characters of importance include: Professor Dave Jennings, who is bored with his job as English teacher; Marion Wormer, the Dean's wife, who becomes the object of Otter's charms; Clorette DePasto, the mayor's underaged daughter, who (possibly) sleeps with Larry; Otis Day, a local singer who is a campus favorite; Mandy Pepperidge, who dates Gregg but secretly loves Otter; and Babs Jansen, a proper southern belle who is turned off by crude Deltas.

Analysis

The film has become known as the ultimate fraternity film; for better or worse, it has promoted many stereotypes and formed a distinct image of fraternities in American culture. Twenty-seven years after its release, Animal House still exerts a powerful influence on today's college students. Despite having been born well after the film was released, students--especially men--on Amercan campuses can often be seen wearing shirts emulating the Belushi character's generic "College" model. Quoting liberally from the film is a popular leisure activity, particularly at social events. In addition, the film is notable for having introduced the toga party to popular college culture. Before the movie's release, toga parties were apparently quite rare, but after 1978 many campuses experienced a massive upsurge of them.

The Deltas in front of their house


Errata

This movie was filmed at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, and features numerous buildings from that campus and the surrounding area; however, the idea for script of the movie derived from Miller's experience at his own fraternity at Dartmouth College, one of the Ivy League colleges, in Hanover, New Hampshire. The film also inspired a short-lived half-hour television sitcom, Delta House, in which the late John Vernon reprised his role as the long-suffering, malevolent Dean Wormer.

The motto of Faber College, supposedly uttered by its eponymous founder, Eberhard Faber (the supposed inventor of the pencil) was "Knowledge is Good."

In one party scene, John Belushi's character, Bluto Blutarsky, smashes an acoustic guitar belonging to a folk singer who is seranading some girls with the song I Gave My Love a Cherry That Had No Stone. Bluto then hands him a splintered piece and says "Sorry." This sight gag has been imitated on TV several times, most memorably by Lt. Commander Worf on Star Trek: The Next Generation.

Surprisingly, the censors allowed through a scene that clearly implies statutory rape, or at least the possibility of it.

Bloopers

Although the action takes place only sixteen years prior to the date the film was made (i.e., as though someone today made a film set in 1990 or thereabouts), the intervening time span had seen much more dramatic change in styles, technological development, politics and social attitudes. As a result, any anachronisms stand out sharply:

  • In the parade scene, numerous extras sporting the long hair and bellbottoms characteristic of the late 1970s are visible among the spectators, as are several automobiles from that period.
  • When hapless Delta pledge Pinto attempts to shoplift from a local grocery store, he meets the mayor's gum-smacking 13-year-old daughter, who is working the cash register and whom he later dates at his peril (see above). The cash register anachronistically features an LED (Light Emitting Diode) display. Interestingly, 1962 was the very year in which Nick Holonyak Jr. created the first practical visible-spectrum LED, but the technology did not come into everyday use until several years later.
  • Similarly, while Boon and Katie are getting stoned at Professor Jennings's apartment, they sing Hey, Paula, which was released in 1963.
  • At the party, the Deltas play the song Louie, Louie, which would in turn become an integral to countless parties staged by U.S. college students seeking to emulate Animal House. The song, however, didn't come out until 1963.
  • Flounder's Lincoln Continental, which the boys eventually convert into the "Deathmobile," was actually a 1964 model, although the "suicide doors" were typical of that period.
  • When actress Karen Allen is shown in a kitchen, she passes a refrigerator decorated with a sticker from the Bicentennial--fourteen years in the future, but two years before the film was actually produced.

Tagline: It was the Deltas against the rules... the rules lost!

  • Film Label: Universal
  • Rated: R

Famous quotes

  • Boon: It's not gonna be an orgy. It's a toga party!
  • Bluto: They took the bar! The whole fucking bar!
  • Boon: They can't do that to our pledges. Only we can do that to our pledges.
  • Dean Wormer: Fat, drunk, and stupid is no way to go through life, son.
  • Bluto: What? Over? Did you say "over"? Nothing is over until we decide it is! Was it over when the...Germans bombed Pearl Harbor? HELL NO!
  • Toga! Toga! Toga! Toga!
  • Otter: You fucked up. You trusted us.
  • Bluto: Christ. Seven years of college down the drain. Might as well join the fuckin' Peace Corps.
  • Wormer: I hate those guys.
  • Bluto: My advice to you . . . is to start drinking heavily.
  • Otter: We are gonna die.
    Pinto: (adding) Boon, we're the only white people here!
  • Boon: We were just. . .Leaving! What a good idea!
  • Wormer: Every Halloween the trees are full of underwear. . .every spring, the toilets. . .explode.
  • Niedermeyer: A pledge pin?! On your uniform?!
  • Mandy: Gregg, is it supposed to be this soft?
  • Mrs. Wormer: People are sensual. . .vegetables are sensuous.
  • Otter: Face it, Flounder. You didn't throw up in front of Dean Wormer, you threw up on Dean Wormer.
  • Bluto: I'm a zit! Get it?
  • Wormer: (to Bluto) Mr. Blutarsky. . .zero-point-zero. No grade-point average.



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. If she can stand it, I can! Play it!". the rules lost!. Play As Time Goes By." Later, Rick requests an encore by saying, "You played it for her, you can play it for me.. Tagline: It was the Deltas against the rules.. At one point, Ilsa says to piano player Sam, "Play it, Sam. As a result, any anachronisms stand out sharply:. The closest lines are as follows:.

Although the action takes place only sixteen years prior to the date the film was made (i.e., as though someone today made a film set in 1990 or thereabouts), the intervening time span had seen much more dramatic change in styles, technological development, politics and social attitudes. The (mis)quote "Play it again, Sam" originates with Casablanca. Surprisingly, the censors allowed through a scene that clearly implies statutory rape, or at least the possibility of it. In 1989 the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, while in 1998 it was ranked by the American Film Institute as the second greatest American film (after Citizen Kane). Commander Worf on Star Trek: The Next Generation. It was also nominated for another five Oscars:. Bluto then hands him a splintered piece and says "Sorry." This sight gag has been imitated on TV several times, most memorably by Lt. Casablanca won three Oscars:.

In one party scene, John Belushi's character, Bluto Blutarsky, smashes an acoustic guitar belonging to a folk singer who is seranading some girls with the song I Gave My Love a Cherry That Had No Stone. Central is the idea of sacrifice: "the myth of sacrifice runs through the whole film". The motto of Faber College, supposedly uttered by its eponymous founder, Eberhard Faber (the supposed inventor of the pencil) was "Knowledge is Good.". However, he argues that it is this inconsistency which accounts for the film's popularity by allowing it to include a whole series of archetypes: unhappy love, flight, passage, waiting, desire, the triumph of purity, the faithful servant, the love triangle, beauty and the beast, the enigmatic woman, the ambiguous adventurer and the redeemed drunkard. The film also inspired a short-lived half-hour television sitcom, Delta House, in which the late John Vernon reprised his role as the long-suffering, malevolent Dean Wormer. He sees the changes the characters undergo as inconsistency rather than complexity: "It is a comic strip, a hotch-potch, low on psychological credibility, and with little continuity in its dramatic effects". This movie was filmed at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, and features numerous buildings from that campus and the surrounding area; however, the idea for script of the movie derived from Miller's experience at his own fraternity at Dartmouth College, one of the Ivy League colleges, in Hanover, New Hampshire. Casablanca is a very mediocre film".


. A dissenting note comes from Umberto Eco, who wrote that "by any strict critical standards.. Before the movie's release, toga parties were apparently quite rare, but after 1978 many campuses experienced a massive upsurge of them. By the end of the film, however, "everybody is sacrificing". In addition, the film is notable for having introduced the toga party to popular college culture. Even Ilsa, the least active of the main characters, is "caught in the emotional struggle" over which man she really loves. Quoting liberally from the film is a popular leisure activity, particularly at social events. not a bad guy": he does what is necessary to get along with the authorities and "sticks his neck out for nobody".

Despite having been born well after the film was released, students--especially men--on Amercan campuses can often be seen wearing shirts emulating the Belushi character's generic "College" model. Rick, according to Behlmer, is "not a hero, .. Twenty-seven years after its release, Animal House still exerts a powerful influence on today's college students. Renault begins the film as a collaborator with the Nazis, who extorts sexual favours from refugees and has Ugarte killed in custody. The film has become known as the ultimate fraternity film; for better or worse, it has promoted many stereotypes and formed a distinct image of fraternities in American culture. The other characters, in Rudy Behlmer's words, are "not cut and dried": they come into their goodness in the course of the film. Other characters of importance include: Professor Dave Jennings, who is bored with his job as English teacher; Marion Wormer, the Dean's wife, who becomes the object of Otter's charms; Clorette DePasto, the mayor's underaged daughter, who (possibly) sleeps with Larry; Otis Day, a local singer who is a campus favorite; Mandy Pepperidge, who dates Gregg but secretly loves Otter; and Babs Jansen, a proper southern belle who is turned off by crude Deltas. As the Resistance hero, Laszlo is ostensibly the most good, although Ebert comments that he is so stiff that he is hard to like.

The main Omegas include: Gregg Marmalard, the president of Omega House who dates Mandy Pepperidge and suffers from impotence; Sargeant-at-Arms Doug Niedermeyer, who is the head of the ROTC and hates the Deltas with unbridled passion; and Chip Diller, the Omegas newest pledge. Ebert has also said that the film is popular because "the people in it are all so good". Dean Vernon Wormer, in cahoots with the Omegas, is constantly intriguing to revoke the Deltas' charter and drive them off campus permanently. Ebert says that he has never heard of a negative review of the film, even though individual elements can be criticised (he cites the unrealistic special effects and the stiff character/portrayal of Laszlo). At the other end of Fraternity Row, both literally and figuratively, stands the Delta House, a repository for every campus misfit: Eric 'Otter' Stratton, the Playboy-style sex maniac (whose room is an uncannily pristine oasis within the sheer filth of the house); Donald 'Boon' Schoenstein, Otter's best friend who is always deciding between his pals at the Delta House and his girlfriend, Katy; 'Bluto' Blutarsky, an abject, drunken degenerate; Robert Hoover, the affable, reasonably clean-cut president of the fraternity, who desperately struggles to maintain a fašade of normalcy for the Dean; D-Day, a tough biker with a penchant for riding up the stairs; Stork, probably borderline autistic; and the two new pledges, Larry 'Pinto' Kroger, a shy but normal fellow, and Kent 'Flounder' Dorfman, a hopelessly fat, clumsy loser--a "total zero", even by Delta standards. Behlmer also emphasises the variety in the picture: "it’s a blend of drama, melodrama, comedy [and] intrigue". A 1950s mentality prevails on campus, typified by the Omegas--the "nice boy" frat, dominated by Greg Marmalard and Douglas Niedermeyer, the nefarious, strutting head of the ROTC program. Roger Ebert has claimed that the film is "probably on more lists of the greatest films of all time than any other single title, including Citizen Kane", because of its wider appeal; while Citizen Kane is "greater", Casablanca is more loved.

Vietnam and the Civil Rights Movement are but the faintest blips on the horizon. For more errors, see Casablanca's page at Moviemistakes.com (http://www.moviemistakes.com/film241). Faber college, 1962. Other difficulties are the airport searchlight which is pointed at the cafe rather than into the sky; a continuity error at the station in Paris (Rick's wet coat becomes dry when he gets on the train); the supposedly Czech Laszlo's Hungarian name; and Renault's claim that "I was with [the Americans] when they blundered into Berlin in 1918." Curtiz's attitude to these issues was clear, however: "I make it go so fast, nobody notices". Produced on a scanty $3 million budget, the film has turned out to be one of the most profitable of all time; since its initial release, Animal House has garnered an estimated return of more than $200 million in the form of video and DVDs, not to mention merchandising. However "it makes no sense that he could walk around freely" in Casablanca, as Ebert points out: "he would be arrested on sight". In 2001 the United States Library of Congress deemed the film "culturally significant" and selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry. In the film, as Laszlo says, the Nazis cannot arrest him as "we're on free French soil; any violation of neutrality would reflect on Captain Renault".

It was directed by John Landis. Even within the film, Rick suggests to Renault that the letters would not be enough for Ilsa to escape, let alone Laszlo: "people have been held in Casablanca in spite of their legal rights". The movie was adapted by Douglas Kenney, Christopher Miller and Harold Ramis from stories that had originally been written by Miller and published in National Lampoon magazine. A classic MacGuffin, the letters were invented by Joan Allison for the original play and never questioned. National Lampoon's Animal House (also called Animal House) is a 1978 comedy film in which a misfit group of Delta fraternity boys takes on the system at their college. It stars John Belushi, Tim Matheson, Karen Allen, John Vernon, Thomas Hulce, Cesare Danova, Peter Riegert, Mary Louise Weller, Stephen Furst, James Daughton, Bruce McGill, Mark Metcalf, James Widdoes, Martha Smith, Kevin Bacon (in his film debut) and Donald Sutherland. The film has several apparent logical flaws, foremost being the two "letters of transit" which enable anyone to leave for abroad. No grade-point average. Another famous myth is that Bergman asks Dooley Wilson, the piano player to "play it again, Sam," see Quotes.

.zero-point-zero. To add to the confusion the official DVD English subtitles say "de Gaulle", but the official French subtitles say "Weygand". Blutarsky. The latter makes more sense, as he collaborated with the Germans, and appears in early drafts of the script, but would be little known to contemporary American audiences. Wormer: (to Bluto) Mr. The former would be most illogical, since he was the leader of the anti-Vichy Free French Forces. Bluto: I'm a zit! Get it?. It is difficult to discern whether Ugarte tells Rick that the letters are signed by "General de Gaulle" or "General Weygand".

You didn't throw up in front of Dean Wormer, you threw up on Dean Wormer. The letters of transit remain a subject of some confusion. Otter: Face it, Flounder. However, Aljean Harmetz' examination of the scripts has shown that many of the key scenes were shot after Bergman knew how the film would end: any confusion was, in Ebert's words, "emotional", not "factual". .vegetables are sensuous. The confusion was most likely caused by Bergman's later statement that she didn't know which man she was meant to be in love with. Wormer: People are sensual. It was certainly impossible that Ilsa would leave Laszlo for Rick, as the production code forbade showing a woman leaving her husband for another man.

Mrs. During scriptwriting, the possibility was discussed of Laszlo being killed in Casablanca, allowing Rick and Ilsa to leave together, but as Behlmer points out, "there was only one dramatically viable real possibility: Ilsa and Laszlo take the plane". Mandy: Gregg, is it supposed to be this soft?. The original play (set entirely in the cafe) had ended with Rick sending Ilsa and Victor to the airport. Niedermeyer: A pledge pin?! On your uniform?!. The other most famous myth is that the actors did not know until the last day of shooting how the film was to end. .explode. This originates in a press release issued by the studio early on in the film's development, but by that time the studio already knew that he was due to go into the army, and he was never seriously considered.

.every spring, the toilets. Several myths have grown up around the film, one being that Ronald Reagan was originally chosen to play Rick. Wormer: Every Halloween the trees are full of underwear. most of these people were singing out of their own experience as refugees from Nazi Germany". .Leaving! What a good idea!. Finally, part of the emotional impact of the film has been attributed to the large proportion of European exiles and refugees among the extras and in the minor roles. Ebert quotes a witness to the filming of the "duel of the songs" sequence as saying, "half of the extras had real tears in their eyes.. Boon: We were just. Notable uncredited actors were:.

Otter: We are gonna die.
Pinto: (adding) Boon, we're the only white people here!. Also credited were:. is to start drinking heavily. The second-billed actors were:. Bluto: My advice to you . The three top-billed actors were:. Wormer: I hate those guys. The cast is notable for its internationalism: only three of the credited actors were born in the US.

Might as well join the fuckin' Peace Corps. To date the only authorized sequel to Casablanca has been the novel, As Time Goes By, written by Michael Walsh. Seven years of college down the drain. In the 1980s and 1990s media reports occasionally arose about plans to either produce a sequel, or an outright remake of Casablanca, but as of 2005 no studio has seriously put such plans into action. Bluto: Christ. Another series in 1983 starred David Soul as Rick and included Ray Liotta as Sacha and Scatman Crothers as a somewhat elderly Sam. You trusted us. The first aired in 1955 (with Charles McGraw as Rick and Marcel Dalio, who played Emil the croupier in the movie, as Renault).

Otter: You fucked up. There have been two short-lived television series based upon Casablanca, both of which are considered prequels to the movie. Toga! Toga! Toga! Toga!. A sequel entitled Brazzaville (named after the capital city of the Republic of the Congo) was planned, but never produced. Bluto: What? Over? Did you say "over"? Nothing is over until we decide it is! Was it over when the...Germans bombed Pearl Harbor? HELL NO!. Almost from the moment Casablanca became a hit, talk began of producing a sequel to the film. Dean Wormer: Fat, drunk, and stupid is no way to go through life, son. A radio adaptation of the film was broadcast on April 26, 1943, again starring Bogart, Bergman and Henreid, while a second version of January 24, 1944 featured Hedy Lamarr as Ilsa.

Only we can do that to our pledges. The movie was also taken off by Warner Brothers themselves in the 1995 Bugs Bunny cartoon Carrotblanca. Boon: They can't do that to our pledges. The film was parodied in two later movies: the 1946 Marx Brothers film A Night in Casablanca and Woody Allen's 1972 pastiche, Play It Again, Sam (a line which first occurred in the Marx Brothers film). Bluto: They took the bar! The whole fucking bar!. It is also credited with helping the movie remain popular while other famous films of the 1940s have faded away. It's a toga party!. This tradition continues to the present day, and it is emulated by many colleges across the United States.

Boon: It's not gonna be an orgy. During the 1950s, the Brattle Theater of Cambridge, Massachusetts began a long-running tradition of screening Casablanca during the week of final exams at Harvard University. Rated: R. The film has maintained its popularity: Murray Burnett has called it "true yesterday, true today, true tomorrow". Film Label: Universal. However not everyone liked the film including some critics in the French New Wave. When actress Karen Allen is shown in a kitchen, she passes a refrigerator decorated with a sticker from the Bicentennial--fourteen years in the future, but two years before the film was actually produced. And it said it in a very entertaining way".

Flounder's Lincoln Continental, which the boys eventually convert into the "Deathmobile," was actually a 1964 model, although the "suicide doors" were typical of that period. worth making sacrifices for. The song, however, didn't come out until 1963. there were values.. college students seeking to emulate Animal House. As Koch later said, "it was a picture the audiences needed.. At the party, the Deltas play the song Louie, Louie, which would in turn become an integral to countless parties staged by U.S. It was a substantial box-office hit, taking $3.7 million on its initial US release, and went on to win three Oscars, while As Time Goes By spent 21 weeks on the hit parade.

Similarly, while Boon and Katie are getting stoned at Professor Jennings's apartment, they sing Hey, Paula, which was released in 1963. It premiered at the Hollywood Theater in New York City on November 26, 1942. created the first practical visible-spectrum LED, but the technology did not come into everyday use until several years later. Reaction to the film at previews before release was described as "beyond belief". Interestingly, 1962 was the very year in which Nick Holonyak Jr. Other songs include "It Had to Be You" from 1924 with lyrics by Gus Kahn and music by Isham Jones, and "Knock on Wood" with music by M.K. Jerome and lyrics by Jack Scholl. The cash register anachronistically features an LED (Light Emitting Diode) display. Instead, Steiner based the entire score on it (and on the Marseillaise), transforming them to express the changing mood of the movie. Particularly notable is the "duel of the songs", in which the Marseillaise is played by a full orchestra rather than just the small band actually present in Rick's club, competing against the Germans singing "Die Wacht Am Rhein" at the piano.

When hapless Delta pledge Pinto attempts to shoplift from a local grocery store, he meets the mayor's gum-smacking 13-year-old daughter, who is working the cash register and whom he later dates at his peril (see above). The song As Time Goes By by Herman Hupfield had been part of the story from the original play; Steiner wanted to write his own song to replace it, but he had to abandon his plan because Bergman had already cut her hair short for her next role, and could not re-shoot the scenes which mentioned the song. In the parade scene, numerous extras sporting the long hair and bellbottoms characteristic of the late 1970s are visible among the spectators, as are several automobiles from that period. The score was written by Max Steiner, who was best known for the musical score to Gone With the Wind. Dark film noir and expressionist lighting is used in several scenes, particularly towards the end of the picture. Ebert also highlights the use of bars of shadow across the characters and in the background, variously implying imprisonment, the crucifix, the Free French symbol and emotional turmoil.

The whole effect is to make her face "ineffably sad and tender and nostalgic" (Ebert). Particular attention was paid to photographing Bergman: she was shot mainly from her preferred left side, often with a softening gauze filter and with catch lights to make her eyes sparkle. The cinematographer was Arthur Edeson, a veteran who had previously shot The Maltese Falcon and Frankenstein. The second unit montages, such as that showing the invasion of France, were directed by Don Siegel.

he saw it in pictures, and you supplied the stories". However, he had relatively little input into the development of the plot: Casey Robinson said that Curtiz "knew nothing whatever about story.. are memorable as shots", Curtiz being concerned to use images to tell the story rather than for their own sake. Roger Ebert has commented that in Casablanca "very few shots ..

The director, Michael Curtiz, was a Hungarian emigre; he had come to the US in the 1920s, but some of his family were refugees from Nazi Europe. Both, however, are strongly implied in the finished version. The film ran into some trouble from Joseph Breen of the Production Code Administration (the Hollywood self-censorship body), who opposed the suggestions that Captain Renault extorted sexual favours from his supplicants and that Rick and Ilsa had slept together in Paris. But when corn works, there's nothing better.".

Julius Epstein would later note that the screenplay contained "more corn than in the states of Kansas and Iowa combined. Koch later said that it was the tensions between his own approach and that of Curtiz which accounted for this: "surprisingly, these disparate approaches somehow meshed, and perhaps it was partly this tug of war between Curtiz and me that gave the film a certain balance". Critic Andrew Sarris called it "the most decisive exception to the auteur theory". Despite the many different writers, the film has what Ebert describes as a "wonderfully unified and consistent" script.

The final line of the film was written by the producer Hal Wallis after shooting had been completed, and film critic Roger Ebert calls Wallis the "key creative force" for his attention to the details of production (down to insisting on a real parrot in the Blue Parrot bar). One of the most famous lines— "here's looking at you"— is not in the draft screenplays, and has been attributed to the poker lessons Bogart was giving Bergman in between takes. Curtiz seems to have favoured the romantic element, insisting on retaining the flashback Paris scenes. Important scenes were also added by the uncredited Casey Robinson, who contributed the series of meetings between Rick and Ilsa in the cafe.

The other credited writer, Howard Koch, joined later but continued to work in parallel with the Epsteins, despite their differing emphases (Koch highlighting the political and melodramatic elements). The first main writers to work on the script for Warners were the Epstein twins (Julius and Philip), who removed Rick's background and added more elements of comedy. In the play, the Ilsa character was American, and did not meet Laszlo until after her relationship with Rick in Paris had ended; Rick was a lawyer. The original play was inspired by a 1938 trip to Europe by Murray Burnett, during which he visited Vienna and the French south coast, both of which had uneasily coexisting populations of Nazis and refugees.

Bogart was called in a month after shooting was finished to dub in the final line ("Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship.") Later, there were plans for a further scene to be shot (featuring Renault, Rick and a detachment of Free French fighters on a ship), but these were abandoned. The film cost a total of $950,000, which was slightly over budget but an average cost for a film of the time. Bergman's height caused some problems: she was somewhat taller than Bogart, so in their scenes together he sometimes had to be put on boxes or cushions. The fog in the scene was there to mask the unconvincing appearance of the plane.

The final scene includes midget extras as aircraft personnel walking around a model cardboard plane, because of budgetary and wartime rationing constraints. The set for Rick's cafe was built in three unconnected parts, so the internal geography of the building is indeterminate, and in a number of scenes the camera looks through a wall from the cafe area into Rick's office. It remained on the Warners backlot until the 1960s. The street used for the exterior shots had recently been built for another film, The Desert Song, and was redecorated and used again in Casablanca for the Paris flashbacks.

The entire film was shot in the studio, except for the sequence showing the arrival of Major Strasser (filmed at Van Nuys Airport). Shooting began on May 25, 1942 and was completed on August 3, 1942. The project was renamed Casablanca, apparently in imitation of the 1938 hit Algiers. The story analyst at Warner Brothers who read the play called it (approvingly) "sophisticated hokum", and it was agreed to buy the rights for $20,000.

The film was based on Murray Burnett and Joan Alison's unproduced play Everybody Comes to Rick's. Just before making this suggestion, Renault throws a bottle of Vichy water in the bin. Captain Renault is complicit in their escape, and after the couple fly out of Casablanca and Rick has shot Major Strasser, he suggests they both also leave and join the Free French. His own moral code is shown as being strong enough to allow him to do the right thing, regardless of his own feelings for Ilsa, with whom he earlier reconciles.

Despite initially refusing to give the documents to Ilsa, even at gunpoint, Rick eventually chooses to help the couple leave Casablanca. The customers join in and drown out the Germans, who then order the club to be closed. Laszlo, incensed, tells the house band to play La Marseillaise. A group of German officers around the piano sing the Wacht am Rhein, a German patriotic song from the nineteenth century (the producers wanted to use the Nazi Horst Wessel Lied, but it was copyrighted by a German publisher).

Her husband, Victor Laszlo (Henreid), is an important Resistance leader from Czechoslovakia with a massive price on his head, and he needs the letters to escape. In walks the reason for Rick's bitterness, his ex-lover Ilsa Lund (Bergman), who arrives in the club after being told the papers are available for sale. Unbeknowst to Renault or the Nazi command, Ugarte had secretly left the letters with Rick for safe-keeping. However, he murdered their German carriers to get them, and is captured and killed by the local police, under the order of the Chief of Police, Captain Renault (Claude Rains), who is corrupt yet ambivalent about the Nazi presence in Casablanca.

These papers are almost priceless to any of the continual stream of refugees attempting to escape the unoccupied French possession, and Ugarte plans on making his fortune by selling them to the highest bidder, who was due to arrive at the club that night, then buying his way out of Casablanca. The papers are signed by a high-ranking Vichy official, and allow the bearer to travel at will around Nazi-controlled Europe, including to neutral Lisbon, Portugal, whereupon one may catch a clipper to the United States. The plot begins when a petty crook, Ugarte (Peter Lorre), arrives in Rick's club with "letters of transit". Rick is a bitter and cynical man, but he still displays a clear dislike for the fascist part of his clientele.

Humphrey Bogart plays Rick Blaine, the owner of an upscale cafe/bar/gambling den in the Morocco city of Casablanca which attracts a mixed clientele of Vichy French and Nazi officials, refugees and thieves. Critics have praised the charismatic performances of Bogart and Bergman, the chemistry between the two leads, the depth of characterisation, the taut direction, the witty screenplay and the emotional impact of the work as a whole. The film was an immediate hit, and it has remained consistently popular ever since. It focuses on Rick's conflict between, in the words of one character, love and virtue: he must choose between his love for Ilsa and his need to do the right thing by helping her husband, Resistance hero Victor Laszlo, escape from Casablanca and continue his fight against the Nazis.

The film was directed by Michael Curtiz, and stars Humphrey Bogart as Rick and Ingrid Bergman as Ilsa. Casablanca is a 1942 movie set during World War II in the Vichy-controlled Moroccan city of Casablanca. The German Hollywood Connection (http://www.germanhollywood.com/casabl.html). Vincent's Casablanca Homepage (http://www.vincasa.com/).

Casablanca (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0034583/) at the Internet Movie Database. Humphrey Bogart Official Site (http://www.humphreybogart.com/). Ingrid Bergman Official Site (http://www.cmgww.com/stars/bergman/). ISBN 1562827618.

Warner Books Inc. Round Up the Usual Suspects: The Making of Casablanca. Harmetz, Aljean (1993). ISBN 0312259255.

Signs of Life in the USA: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers (Sonia Maasik and Jack Solomon, eds.) Bedford Books. Eco, Umberto (1994). Casablanca (Two-Disc Special Edition DVD) (1942) (with audio commentaries by Roger Ebert and Rudy Behlmer and documentary You Must Remember This). Abbreviated Casablanca Movie Script (http://www.geocities.com/classicmoviescripts/script/casablanca.pdf).

Academy Award for Original Music Score — Max Steiner. Academy Award for Film Editing — Owen Marks. Academy Award for Best Cinematography, black-and-white — Arthur Edeson. Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor — Claude Rains.

Academy Award for Best Actor — Humphrey Bogart. Epstein and Howard Koch. Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay — Julius J. Epstein, Philip G. Academy Award for Directing — Michael Curtiz.

Wallis, producer. Academy Award for Best Picture — Hal B. Helmut Dantine (Jan Brandel), another Austrian, had spent time in a concentration camp after the Anschluss. He also was a key performer in another film with Bogart, To Have and Have Not.

He had been a star in French cinema, appearing in Jean Renoir's La Grande Illusion and La Regle de Jeu, but after he fled the Nazi invasion of France he was reduced to bit-parts in Hollywood. Marcel Dalio (Emil, the croupier). Leonid Kinskey (Sascha) was born in Russia. He appeared in many of John Ford's movies.

John Qualen (Berger) was born in Canada, but grew up in America. He could claim the longest film career of any actor, making his first appearance in 1907 and his last in 1987. Curt Bois (the pickpocket) was a German Jewish actor and another refugee. K.) "Cuddles" Sakall (Carl, the waiter) was a Hungarian actor who fled from Germany in 1939.

(or S. S.Z. Madeleine LeBeau (Yvonne), a French actress, was Marcel Dalio's wife until their divorce in 1942. Joy Page (Annina Brandel, the Bulgarian refugee), the other credited American, was studio head Jack Warner's step-daughter.

Hal Wallis considered also replacing his voice on the songs, but changed his mind. A drummer, he could not play the piano. He was one of the few American members of the cast. Dooley Wilson as Sam.

Caligari (1920) before fleeing from the Nazis and ending his career playing Nazis in US films. He was a German actor who had appeared in The Cabinet of Dr. Conrad Veidt as Major Strasser of the SS. Lorre was an Austro-Hungarian actor who left Germany in 1933.

Peter Lorre as Signor Ugarte. Another Englishman, Greenstreet had made his film debut with Lorre and Bogart in The Maltese Falcon. Sydney Greenstreet as Signor Ferrari. Rains was an English actor, born in London.

Claude Rains as Captain Louis Renault. Henreid, an Austrian actor who had fled Nazi Germany in 1935, was reportedly reluctant to take this unrewarding role (it "cast him as a stiff forever", according to Pauline Kael), until he was promised top-billing with Bogart and Bergman. Paul Henreid as Victor Laszlo. Ebert calls her "luminous", and comments on the chemistry between her and Bogart: "she paints his face with her eyes".

After a well-received Hollywood debut in Intermezzo, her subsequent films had not been major successes— until Casablanca. Bergman's official website calls Ilsa her "most famous and enduring role". Ingrid Bergman as Ilsa Lund. High Sierra (1941) had allowed him to play a character with some warmth, but Rick was his first truly romantic role.

Earlier in his career he had been typecast as a gangster, playing characters called Bugs, Rocks, Turkey, Whip, Chips, Gloves and two Dukes. Bogart became a star with Casablanca. Humphrey Bogart as Rick Blaine.

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