Napster

For Napster, Inc. (formerly Roxio), and the paid Napster music service see Napster (pay service).
Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones.

Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname.

Origins

Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download.

At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer.

Legal challenges

Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it.

Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak)

At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange.

Shutdown

After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here".

Promotional power

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales.

By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power.

Final fate

After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success.

Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay)

In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Grokster, decision currently pending).

The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box.

Cultural references

In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name.

The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw)

References

  1. ^  A & M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Supp. 2d 896 (N.D. Cal. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001)
  2. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999)
  3. ^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000)
  4. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Press Release.
  5. ^  2001 US Dist. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Mar. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. 3d 1091 (9th Cir. 2002).
  6. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002)
  7. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000)
  8. ^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002)
  9. ^  Dube, Ric. (February 2002). MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). Ice Magazine, (179).
  10. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003)
  11. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. Austin, TX. March 16, 2004.

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This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw). Major highways include:. The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. Montana has several ski areas including:. In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name. The Minor League baseball teams are:. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box. Some of the historical cities and towns of Montana are:.

An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. Some of the major cities and towns in Montana are:. The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. Montana's largest city is Billings. Grokster, decision currently pending). Its industrial outputs are mining, lumber and wood products, food processing, and tourism. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Its agricultural outputs are cattle, wheat, barley, sugar beets, hay, and hogs.

Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (http://www.bea.gov/) estimates that Montana's total state product in 2003 was $26 billion. Per capital personal income in 2003 was $25,406, 47th in the nation. In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Several Indian reservations are located in Montana: Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Crow Indian Reservation, Rocky Boys Indian Reservation, Blackfeet Indian Reservation, and the Flathead Indian Reservation. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay). senators are Max Baucus (Democrat) and Conrad Burns (Republican). Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. Its two U.S.

As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success. The capital of Montana is Helena and its current Governor is Brian Schweitzer (Democrat) who was sworn in on January 3, 2005. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. See: List of Montana Governors. After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. It is operated by the National Park Service, but is also a 1900-acre (7.7 kmē) working ranch. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power. The Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site in Deer Lodge Valley is maintained as a link to the ranching style of the late 19th century.

The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. Cattle ranching has long been central to Montana's history and economy. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. Montana was also the location of the final battles of the Nez Perce Wars. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Colonel George Armstrong Custer was fought in Montana near the present day town of Hardin. By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. Army Lt.

As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales. For instance, the last stand of U.S. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. Montana was the scene of the Native Americans' last effort to keep their land. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Montana became a United States territory (Montana Territory) on May 26, 1864 and the 41st state on November 8, 1889. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. The smaller Pend d'Oreille and Kalispel tribes were found around Flathead Lake and the western mountains, respectively.

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. Groups included the Crows in the south-central area, the Cheyenne in the southeast, the Blackfeet, Assiniboine and Gros Ventres in the central and north-central region and the Kootenai and Salish in the western sector. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here". Native Americans were the first inhabitants of modern-day Montana. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. Sagebrush and various species of grass are common plants in the region, and forests cover 1/4 of the state. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. Additionally, flowers native to Montana include asters, bitterroots, daisies, lupines, poppies, primroses, columbine, lilies and dryads.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Vegetation of the area includes pine, larch, fir, spruce, aspen, birch, cedar, ash, and alder trees. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music. The Yellowstone, a tributary of the Missouri, rises in the Yellowstone Park in Wyoming, flows northeast across the state through canyons and gorges, and enters the Missouri a few miles east of the North Dakota boundary. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. The Missouri river, formed by the Jefferson, Madison and Gallatin rivers crosses the northeastern part of the state and enters North Dakota. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. The Clark Fork of the Missouri (not to be confused with the Clarks Fork of the Yellowstone River) rises in the Rocky Mountains near Butte, and after flowing west turns north and forms portion of the Idaho boundary.

Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. The principal river systems in Montana are the Clark Fork of the Columbia, the Missouri, and the Yellowstone. After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. The highest point in the state, Granite Peak, is 12,799 feet high. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange. The mountains are intersected by numerous valleys and canyons, through which flow several beautiful rivers. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Besides the prominent mountain ranges there are many spurs, detached ridges, and smooth, sloping buttes.

These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. In the south near the Yellowstone River the mountains reach an altitude of 10,000 feet and the peaks are perpetually covered with snow. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. East of the Rocky Mountains is a rolling tableland, traversed by several large rivers. At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. Between these ranges is a great basin, forming one-fifth of the entire area. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak). The Bitterroot Mountains from the western boundary line, and east of this the main chain of the Rocky Mountains cross the state.

The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. In the west it is extremely mountainous. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. The surface of the state is highly diverse. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. 275,000 acres (1100 kmē) are administered as state parks and forests. Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. The Federal government administers 36,000,000 acres (146,000 kmē).

Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it. Other sites include the Little Bighorn National Monument, Bighorn Canyon National Recreational Area, Big Hole National Battlefield, and the National Bison Range. There are also a number of National Forests and National Wildlife Refuges. Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. Montana contains Glacier National Park and portions of Yellowstone National Park. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer. Montana is also one of many areas to claim the disputed title of "world's shortest river" (the Roe River). Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. Major rivers in the state include the Missouri, Clark Fork of the Columbia, Milk, Flathead and Yellowstone.

People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). With a land area of 376,978 kmē (145,552 square miles), Montana is the fourth largest in the United States (after Alaska, Texas, and California). Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. In the south is the Wyoming border, and on the west and southwest is the Idaho border, marked by the Bitterroot River. At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. To the east is the border with North Dakota; to the southeast is a short border with South Dakota. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download. The state borders the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan.

Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. Montana and Canada share a 877km (545-mile) northern border. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. Main articles: List of Montana counties, List of Montana rivers. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. The USS Montana was named in honor of the state. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. postal abbreviation is MT.

John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. Its U.S. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. The largest city is Billings. Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. The state capital is Helena. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname. Senator (Max Baucus).

Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. The state is generally regarded as Republican; many are surprised to hear that the state has a Democratic governor (Brian Schweitzer), Democratic-controlled legislature (the Montana State Legislature), and one Democratic U.S. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. Montana's people are largely homogenous, with 89.5 percent of the population white (but with a sizable American Indian representation at 6.2 percent). Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. The state became the first to elect a female member of Congress, Jeannette Rankin. March 16, 2004. Originally inhabited by Native Americans, modern-day Montana became Montana Territory in 1864 and later became the 41st state in 1889.

Austin, TX. The western one-third of the state is primarily mountainous terrain, while the eastern two-third is part of the northern Great Plains. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. The state ranks fourth in size but has a low population and population density, with much of the state being rural. The economy is primarily ranching-based, with some agricultural crops (wheat, barley, sugar beets) and a significant lumber and mineral industry. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. The name probably comes from the Spanish word montaņa ("mountain"). ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003). Montana is a state in the western United States.

Ice Magazine, (179). MacLean, Norman, Young Men and Fire. MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). MacLean, Norman, A River Runs Through It. (February 2002). Doig, Ivan, English Creek. ^  Dube, Ric. Doig, Ivan, Dancing at the Rascal Fair.

^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002). ISBN 0806118903.. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000). University of Oklahoma: 1984. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002). Montana: An Uncommon Land. 2002). Toole, Kenneth Ross.

3d 1091 (9th Cir. ISBN 0295971290.. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. University of Washington: 1991. Mar. Montana: A History of Two Centuries. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. al.

^  2001 US Dist. Lang, William L., et. Press Release. ISBN 0803273398.. Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Bison Books: 2003. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Montana: High, Wide, and Handsome.

^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000). Howard, Joseph Kinsey. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999). Highway 93. 2001). U.S. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. Highway 212.

Cal. U.S. 2d 896 (N.D. Highway 2. Supp. U.S. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Interstate 94.

^  A & M Records, Inc. Interstate 90. Interstate 15. In the movie 'Star Trek: First Contact', Montana is the location of the historical first contact between humans and an alien race, the Vulcans. Shortest river in the world: The Roe River.

State fish: Blackspotted Cutthroat Trout. State bird: Western Meadowlark. State animal: Grizzly Bear. State tree: Ponderosa Pine.

State flower: Bitterroot. Turner near Libby. Showdown Ski Area near White Sulphur Springs. Red Lodge Mountain near Red Lodge.

Moonlight Basin near Bozeman. Discovery near Philipsburg. Bridger Bowl near Bozeman. Blacktail near Lakeside.

Big Sky near Bozeman. Big Mountain near Whitefish. Billings Mustangs. Helena Brewers.

Great Falls White Sox. Missoula Osprey.

09-04-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.