Napster

For Napster, Inc. (formerly Roxio), and the paid Napster music service see Napster (pay service).
Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones.

Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname.

Origins

Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download.

At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer.

Legal challenges

Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it.

Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak)

At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange.

Shutdown

After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here".

Promotional power

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales.

By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power.

Final fate

After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success.

Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay)

In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Grokster, decision currently pending).

The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box.

Cultural references

In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name.

The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw)

References

  1. ^  A & M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Supp. 2d 896 (N.D. Cal. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001)
  2. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999)
  3. ^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000)
  4. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Press Release.
  5. ^  2001 US Dist. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Mar. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. 3d 1091 (9th Cir. 2002).
  6. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002)
  7. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000)
  8. ^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002)
  9. ^  Dube, Ric. (February 2002). MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). Ice Magazine, (179).
  10. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003)
  11. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. Austin, TX. March 16, 2004.

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This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw). Florida also hosts the following minor league baseball teams:. The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. As of 2004, Florida hosts the following major league teams for spring training:. In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name. Florida is an extremely popular location for Major League Baseball spring training, with teams informally organized into the "Grapefruit League". In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box. [2] (http://www.sptimes.com/News/050801/State/Bush_s_trustees_mostl.shtml) In 2002, Democratic Senator Bob Graham started a ballot referendum designed to revert to the Board of Regents system.

An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. This has not been without controversy. The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. As is typical of executive-appointed government boards, the appointees so far have been overwhelmingly Republican. Grokster, decision currently pending). Instead, each public university is now controlled by its own Board of Trustees who are directly appointed by the governor. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. In 2000, Governor Bush and the state legislature acted to abolish the Board of Regents that governed the State University System of Florida.

Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Major testing organizations frequently discount the use of state average test score rankings, or any average of scaled scores, as a valid metric (see psychometrics for more details on scaled test scores). In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Governor Jeb Bush has been criticized by many Florida educators for a program that penalizes underperforming schools (as indicated by standardized tests, such as the FCAT) with fewer funding dollars. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay). It should be noted that many education surveys are not scientific, but do measure prestige. Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. Florida public schools have consistently ranked in the bottom 25% of many national surveys and average test score rankings.

As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success. states. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. Average teacher salaries rank near the middle of U.S. After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. Florida's public school revenue per student and spending per $1000 of personal income usually ranks in the bottom 25% of U.S. states. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power. See complete list of Florida places.

The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. Ranked by per capita income. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. The three largest Protestant denominations in Florida are: Baptist (22% of the total state population), Methodist (8%), Presbyterian (4%). The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Religiously, Florida is mostly Protestant, but with a growing Roman Catholic community due to Hispanic immigration. By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. The five largest ancestries in the state are: African American (14.6%), German (11.8%), Irish (10.3%), English (9.2%), American (8%).

As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales. As of 2003, the state had a population of 17,019,068. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. Today most of the spam businesses appear to be operating out of South Florida. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Historically Florida has also been home to large telemarketing firms. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. Spammers are not the first business men of questionable ethics to use Florida as a home base.

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. In 2005 Spamhaus declared Florida the spam capital of the world [1]  (http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/local/southflorida/sfl-sbspammain08may08,0,7702631.story?coll=sfla-home-headlines). Experts have estimated that Florida is an attractive place of business for Spammers due to the gorgeous weather, low key atmosphere, nearby Internet data centers and the state's reputation as "a good place to do dirty business". bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here". Florida did not have any state minimum wage laws until November 2, 2004, when voters passed a Constitutional Amendment requiring inflationary increases to the minimum wage every six months. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. With the arrival of the space program at Kennedy Space Center in the 1960s, Florida has attracted a large number of aerospace and military industries to the state. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. Other major industries include citrus fruit and juice production, banking, and phosphate mining.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. The large Walt Disney World Resort with four theme parks and over twenty hotels plus countless water parks, shopping centres and other facilities, located in Lake Buena Vista drives the economy of that area, along with more recent entries into the theme park arena such as the Universal Orlando Resort. The great amount of sales tax revenue is what allows the state to be one of the few to not levy a personal income tax. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music. Warm weather most of the year and hundreds of miles of beach provide a thriving vacation spot for travelers from around the world. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Florida's economy is heavily based on tourism. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. The per capita personal income was $30,098, ranking 26th in the nation.

Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. The gross state product of Florida in 2003 was $550 billion. After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. Many other smaller hurricanes have hit or brushed Florida, and many more hurricanes will hit in the future. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange. Among a long list of other infamous hurricane strikes were the Miami Hurricane of 1926, the Lake Okeechobee Hurricane of 1928, the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, Hurricane Donna in 1960 and Hurricane Opal in 1995. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. history, Hurricane Andrew, which cost twenty-five billion dollars when it struck on August 12, 1992.

These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. Hurricanes Charley (August 13), Frances (September 4-5), Ivan (September 16), and Jeanne (September 25-26) cumulatively cost forty-two billion dollars to the state. Florida was also the site of the most costly single weather disaster in U.S. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. Florida saw a slew of destruction in 2004 when it was hit by a record four hurricanes. At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. Hurricanes pose a threat during the summer and fall. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak). Snow flurries fell on Miami Beach for the only time in history.

The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. The most widespread snowfall in Florida history happened in February 1978 with snow falling over much of the state in different times of the month, extending as far south as Homestead. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. The Great Blizzard of 1899, was also the only time the temperature has fallen below 0 degrees Fahrenheit, registering -2f in Tallahassee. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. During that time, the Tampa Bay area had "Gulf effect" snow, similar to Lake effect snowfall. Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. During the Great Blizzard of 1899, Florida experienced blizzard conditions for possibly the first time.

Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it. Snow is a rare occurrence in Florida, although it usually snows somewhere in Florida almost every winter. Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. Florida has more lightning strikes than any other state and also leads the nation in tornadoes per square mile(although the tornadoes in Florida do not get as large as those in the Midwest or Great Plains. Hail is not an uncommon occurrence in some of the more severe thunderstorms. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer. These thunderstorms which are caused by airflow from the Gulf of Mexico seemingly "pop up" in the early afternoon and can often bring heavy downpours, high winds and sometimes tornadoes. Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. Statewide, Florida has the highest average precipitation of any state, due in large part to afternoon thunderstorms which are common throughout most of the state from late spring until the early autumn.

People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). While Florida's nickname is the "Sunshine State", severe weather is a common occurrence in Florida. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. The Gulf stream has a moderating effect on Florida climate and although it is common for much of Florida to see a high summer temperature over 90 degrees Fahrenheit, it is not common for the mercury to go above 100 degrees Fareinheit in Florida. At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. The seasons in Florida often called "Hot and Hotter" are actually determined more by precipitation than by temperature with warm, relatively dry winters and autumns (the dry season) and hot, wet springs and especially the summers (the wet season). The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download. Most of the state has a humid subtropical climate with the extreme tip of Florida and the Florida Keys bordering on a true tropical climate.

Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. The climate of Florida is tempered somewhat by its proximity to water. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. At 345 feet (105 metres) above sea level, Britton Hill is the highest point in Florida (it's also the lowest state highpoint.). It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. It is near the countries of the Caribbean, particularly the Bahamas, Cuba, and Haiti. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. It is bordered on the north by the states of Georgia and Alabama and on the west, at the end of the panhandle, by Alabama.

John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. Florida consists of a panhandle extending along the northern Gulf of Mexico and a large peninsula with the Atlantic Ocean as its eastern border and the Gulf of Mexico as its western border. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. See: List of counties in Florida. Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. The state use tax is 6 percent on purchases made out of state and brought into Florida within 6 months of the purchase date. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname. Local governments may levy a local option sales on top of that, so sales taxes vary by county between 6 and 7.5 percent.

Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. The state sales tax rate is 6 percent. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. Florida is one of the nine states which does not impose personal income tax (list of others). Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. See: List of Florida Governors. March 16, 2004. Outside of liberal Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties, the Florida Democratic Party tends to be socially conservative and heavily associated with the good ol' boy network.

Austin, TX. Tampa, once a hotbed of Democratic union support, is now about 50% both registered Republicans and Democrats making it, and surrounding areas, part of the important I-4 Corridor swing region. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. In Miami, the liberal Democrats vie for control with wealthy Cuban conservative Republicans and their business allies. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. As such, and because of its high population and large number of electoral votes, Florida is considered by political analysts to be a key swing state in Presidential elections. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003). The Presidential election in Florida in 2000 was extremely close.

Ice Magazine, (179). Despite this demographic parity, Republicans control the governorship and most other statewide elected offices; both houses of the state legislature; 18 of the state's 25 seats in the House of Representatives; and one of the state's two senate seats. MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). Though Florida has traditionally been a Democratic state, in recent years explosive population growth has brought with it many Republicans, leaving the state approximately evenly split between the two parties. (February 2002). Bush. ^  Dube, Ric. W.

^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002). Bush and son of former President George H. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000). The current governor is Republican Jeb Bush, brother of President George W. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002). The Florida Legislature has a Senate of 40 members and a House of 120 members. 2002). Today, Florida is the fourth most populous state in the Union.

3d 1091 (9th Cir. After the fall of the Confederacy in 1865, Florida was readmitted into the Union on June 25, 1868. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. Florida joined the CSA on February 10, 1861. Mar. On March 3, 1845, Florida became the 27th state of the United States of America. Florida seceded from the Union on January 10, 1861 and was one of the founding members of the Confederate States of America (CSA, also known as the Confederacy). LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Spain finally ceded Florida to the United States with the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1819, in exchange for the US renouncing any claims on Texas.

^  2001 US Dist. Control of parts of Florida passed among Spanish, British, and American control. Press Release. The area of Florida diminished with the establishment of British colonies to the north and French colonies to the west. Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Over the following century, the Spanish and French both established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Archaelogical finds indicate that Florida had been inhabited for many thousands of years prior to any European settlements. Spaniards first arrived in 1513 and laid claim to a large, imprecisely defined area extending from about modern day Gainesville northward to the Carolinas, which they called La terra florida, "The flowery land".

^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000). Main article: History of Florida. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999). USS Florida was named in honor of this state. 2001). Postal abbreviation is FL. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. The U.S.

Cal. It was discovered by Spanish explorers during the Easter season, which is called Pascua Florida in Spanish. 2d 896 (N.D. "Florida" is a Spanish adjective which means "flowery". Supp. It is known as the Sunshine State. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Florida is a southern state in the United States.

^  A & M Records, Inc. Toronto Blue Jays in Dunedin. Petersburg. Tampa Bay Devil Rays in St. Saint Louis Cardinals in Jupiter.

Pittsburgh Pirates in Bradenton. Philadelphia Phillies in Clearwater. New York Yankees in Tampa. Lucie.

New York Mets in Port St. Washington Nationals in Viera. Minnesota Twins in Fort Myers. Los Angeles Dodgers in Vero Beach.

Houston Astros in Kissimmee. Florida Marlins in Jupiter. Detroit Tigers in Lakeland. Cleveland Indians in Winter Haven.

Cincinnati Reds in Sarasota. Boston Red Sox in Palms Park. Baltimore Orioles in Fort Lauderdale. Atlanta Braves at Walt Disney World.

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