Napster

For Napster, Inc. (formerly Roxio), and the paid Napster music service see Napster (pay service).
Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones.

Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname.

Origins

Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download.

At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer.

Legal challenges

Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it.

Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak)

At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange.

Shutdown

After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here".

Promotional power

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales.

By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power.

Final fate

After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success.

Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay)

In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Grokster, decision currently pending).

The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box.

Cultural references

In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name.

The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw)

References

  1. ^  A & M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Supp. 2d 896 (N.D. Cal. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001)
  2. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999)
  3. ^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000)
  4. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Press Release.
  5. ^  2001 US Dist. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Mar. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. 3d 1091 (9th Cir. 2002).
  6. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002)
  7. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000)
  8. ^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002)
  9. ^  Dube, Ric. (February 2002). MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). Ice Magazine, (179).
  10. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003)
  11. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. Austin, TX. March 16, 2004.

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This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw). Slavery and Louisiana. The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. There is now a Six Flags in New Orleans East. In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name. For almost 20 years there was only one amusement park in Louisiana, called Hamel's Amusement Park near Bossier City. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box. They still maintain contacts with the Canary Islands, and have an annual "Caldo" festival named for a native dish.

An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. Many of their descendants remained insulated from the city, and continued to speak an archaic version of Spanish well into the 20th Century. The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. Bernard Parish, in the river passes east of the city, along an old mouth of the Mississippi River which they named Terre Aux Bouefs (literally "Land of the Cows" for the cattle living there). Grokster, decision currently pending). They settled in what is modern-day St. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. There were intended to help guard the eastern approaches to New Orleans from invasion by the British.

Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. The Islenos are dirrect descendants of Canary Islanders forced to migrate by the Spanish King beginning in the mid-1770s. In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. There is also a distinct Spanish-descended group in Louisiana. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay). Two separate historically Francophone communities exist in Louisiana. Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. For schools see List of school districts in Louisiana.

As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success. Ranked by per capita income. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. See also: List of famous people from Louisiana; List of Louisiana musicians; Music of Louisiana. After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. Its industrial outputs include chemical products, petroleum and coal products, food processing, transportation equipment, paper products, and tourism. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power. The state's principal agricultural outputs include seafood, cotton, soybeans, cattle, sugarcane, poultry and eggs, dairy products, and rice.

The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. Its Per Capita Personal Income was $26,312, 43rd in the nation. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. The total gross state product in 2003 for Louisiana was $140 billion. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Highway 90. By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. Also, Interstate 49 is slated to be expanded north into Arkansas and east along Interstate 10 to New Orleans, replacing part of U.S.

As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales. There are proposed plans to extend Interstate 69 to the Texas/Mexico border, which will go through north-eastern Louisiana. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. State and Federal government efforts to halt or reverse this phenomenon are under way; others are being sought. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Owing to the extensive flood control measures along the Mississippi river and to natural subsidence, Louisiana is now suffering the loss of coastal land area. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. Near the coast, there are many salt domes, where salt is mined and oil is often found.

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. It was originally covered by an arm of the sea, and has been built up by the silt carried down the valley by the great river. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here". A large part of Louisiana is the creation and product of the Mississippi River. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. The underlying strata of the state are of Cretaceous age and are covered by alluvial deposits of Tertiary and post-Tertiary origin. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. The state also has 1,060 square miles of land-locked bays, 1,700 square miles of inland lakes, and a river surface of over 500 square miles.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Besides the navigable rivers already named (some of which are called bayous), there are the Sabine, forming the western boundary, and the Pearl, the eastern boundary, the Calcasieu, the Mermentau, the Vermilion, the Teche, the Atchafalaya, the Boeuf, the Lafourche, the Courtableau, the D'Arbonne, the Macon, the Tensas, the Amite, the Tchefuncta, the Tickfaw, the Matalbany, and a number of other streams of lesser note, constituting a natural system of navigable waterways, aggregating over 4,000 miles in length, which is unequalled in the United States and probably in the world. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music. The elevations above sea-level range from 10 feet at the coast and swamp lands to 50 and 60 feet at the prairie and alluvial lands. In the uplands and hills the elevations rise to Mount Driskoll, the highest point in the state at only 535 feet above sea level, located in northwest Louisiana. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. The uplands and contiguous hill lands have an area of more than 25,000 square miles, and they consist of prairie and woodlands. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. With the maintenances of strong levees these alluvial lands would enjoy perpetual immunity from inundation.

Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. These floods, however, do not occur annually, and they may be said to be exceptional. After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. These alluvial lands are never inundated save when breaks occur in the levees by which they are protected against the floods of the Mississippi and its tributaries. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange. The lands along other streams present very similar features. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. The Mississippi flows upon a ridge formed by its own deposits, from which the lands incline toward the low swamps beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile.

These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, and along the other streams it averages about 10 miles. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. The surface of the state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands, and the alluvial and coast and swamp regions. The alluvial regions, including the low swamps and coast lands, cover an area of about 20,000 square miles; they lie principally along the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 miles and ultimately emptying into the Gulf of Mexico, the Red River, the Ouachita River and its branches, and other minor streams. At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. See: List of Louisiana parishes. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak). See: List of Louisiana Governors, Napoleon Bonaparte.

The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. All other states use the First Past the Post electoral system to elect Senators, Representatives, and statewide officials. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. Therefore it is common for a Democrat to be in a runoff with a fellow Democrat or a Republican to be in a runoff with a fellow Republican. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. This runoff does not take into account party identification. Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. If no candidate has more than 50% of the vote, the two candidates with the highest vote total compete in a runoff election approximately one month later.

Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it. All candidates run in an open primary on Election Day, in which multiple candidates from the same party may be on the ballot. Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. states in using a runoff in state, local, and congressional elections. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer. Louisiana is unique among U.S. Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. Property, contractual, and family law are still mostly based on traditional Roman legal thinking and have little in common with English law.

People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). While most of the differences are now found in verbiage, it is important to note that the "Civilian" tradition is still deeply rooted in all aspects of Louisiana law. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. Great differences still exist between Louisiana Civil Law and the Common Law found in her 49 sister states. At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. Louisiana was never governed by the Napoleonic Code. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download. It is important to note that the Louisiana Civil Code and the French Civil Code, often referred to as the Napoleonic Code, came into existence at roughly the same time.

Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. Technically, it is known as "Civil Law," or the "Civilian System." It is often incorrectly referred to as the "Code Napoleon" or The Napoleonic Code. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. Louisiana is the only state whose legal system is based on Roman, Spanish, and French civil law as opposed to English common law. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. Louisiana has seven U.S. Congressmen, five of which are Republicans, two of which are Democrats. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. senators are Mary Landrieu (Democrat) and David Vitter (Republican).

John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. Its governor is Kathleen Babineaux Blanco (Democrat) and its two U.S. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. The capital of Louisiana is Baton Rouge. Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. throughout the rest of the war. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname. New Orleans was captured by Federal troops on April 25, 1862. As significant portions of the population had Union sympathies, the Federal government took the unusual step of recognizing the areas of Louisiana under Federal control as a state within the Union with elected representatives who were sent to the congress in Washington, D.C.

Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. In the American Civil War Louisiana seceded from the Union on January 26, 1861. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. Donaldsonville, Opelousas, and Shreveport have also briefly served as the seat of governments of Louisiana. Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. In 1849 the capital moved from New Orleans to Baton Rouge. March 16, 2004. There are still remnants of its former status as a possession of France, including: the use of a civil law legal system, based on the Louisiana Civil Code, which is similar to (and often confused with) the Napoleonic Code (like France, and unlike the rest of the United States, which uses a common law legal system derived from England), the term "parishes" being used to describe the state's sub-divisions as opposed to "counties", etc.

Austin, TX. The western boundary of Louisiana with Spanish Texas remained in dispute until the Adams-Ons Treaty in 1819, with the Sabine Free State serving as a neutral buffer zone as well as a haven for criminals. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. The Florida Parishes were annexed from Spanish West Florida by proclamation of President James Madison in 1810. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. In 1803 the United States purchased the French province of Louisiana (see Louisiana Purchase) and divided it into two territories: the Orleans Territory (which became the state of Louisiana in 1812) and the District of Louisiana (which consisted of all the land not included in Orleans Territory). ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003). In 1800 France's Napoleon Bonaparte re-acquired Louisiana from Spain in the Treaty of San Ildefonso, although this was kept secret for some two years.

Ice Magazine, (179). During the period of Spanish rule, several thousand French-speaking refugees from the region of Acadia made their way to Louisiana following British expulsion; settling largely in the southwestern bayous, they became known as the Cajuns. MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). The rest of Louisiana became a colony of Spain by the Treaty of Fountainebleau of 1762. (February 2002). Most of the territory to the east of the Mississippi was lost to Great Britain in the French and Indian War, except for the area around New Orleans and the parishes around Lake Pontchartrain. ^  Dube, Ric. Initially Mobile, Alabama and Biloxi, Mississippi functioned as the capital of the colony; from 1722 on New Orleans fulfilled that role.

^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002). See also: French colonization of the Americas. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000). Most of the settlement concentrated along the banks of the Mississippi and its major tributaries, with trading outposts and mission settlements in the Illinois Country, as far north as Peoria, Illinois and a number of settlements in the area around near present-day Saint Louis, Missouri. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002). The French colony of Louisiana originally claimed a great region of land on both sides of the Mississippi River and north to Canada. 2002). The first permanent settlement was founded by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville in 1699.

3d 1091 (9th Cir. Louisiana was named by the French explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle in honour of Louis XIV in 1682. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. Thereafter the region was long neglected by the Spanish authorities, and the next explorers were French. Mar. Some 13 years later Hernando de Soto's expedition crossed through the region. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. The first European explorers to visit what is now Louisiana was a Spanish expedition in 1528 led by Panfilo de Narvez which located the mouth of the Mississippi River.

^  2001 US Dist. What follows is a partial list, using current parish boundaries as rough approximations of locations.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana#endnote_sturdevent-67). Press Release. The lasting mark of the Native Americans can be seen even today in the names used in Louisiana, such as Atchafalaya, Natchitouches (now spelled Natchitoches), Caddo, Houma, Tangipahoa, and Avoyel (Avoyelles Parish). Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Louisiana was long inhabited by Native American tribes before the arrival of Europeans. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Today, English is by far the main language of everyday life, but traces of French survive in local dialects.

^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000). While the state has no declared "official language", its law recognizes both English and French. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999). Among the states, Louisiana has a unique culture, owing to its French colonial heritage. 2001). The state is bordered to the west by the state of Texas, to the north by Arkansas, to the east by the state of Mississippi, and to the south by the Gulf of Mexico. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. postal abbreviation LA.

Cal. It uses the U.S. 2d 896 (N.D. Louisiana (pronounced /luːˌiːzɪˈnə/ or /ˌluːzɪˈnə/) (French: Louisiane, pronounced /lwizjan/) is a Southern state of the United States of America. Supp. ^ Sturdevent, William C. (1967): Early Indian Tribes, Cultures, and Linguistic Stocks (http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/united_states/early_indian_east.jpg), Smithsonian Institution Map (Eastern United States). v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Many of the freed slaves in Louisiana in turn purchased their own slaves, which led to the state having one of the largest numbers of slave owning blacks in America, if not the largest.

^  A & M Records, Inc. While one would think that this would lead to a dramatic reduction in the amount of slavery in the state, this is not the case. It did, however, have one of the largest free black populations in the United States. Louisiana was a slave state. Most Acadians declined and emigrated from Canada, most of them fleeing to the South Western portion of Louisiana, centered in the region around Lafayette.

When the British won the French and Indian War, the British forced all of the citizens to take a pledge of allegiance. The ancestors of the Cajuns are the Acadians, a French-descended people of what are now New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The ancestors of Creoles generally came to Louisiana directly from France or from the French colonies in the Caribbean and settled in New Orleans or in South Eastern Louisiana. State songs: You Are My Sunshine, Every Man a King, and Give Me Louisiana.

State food: Gumbo. State amphibian: Green Tree Frog. State crustacean : Crawfish. State insect: Honeybee.

State reptile : American Alligator. State wildflower : Louisiana Iris. State mammal : Louisiana Black Bear. State tree : Bald Cypress.

State fossil : Petrified palmwood. State flower : Magnolia. State bird : Eastern Brown Pelican. State dog : Catahoula Leopard Dog.

Bossier-Shreveport Mudbugs - CHL. Louisiana IceGators - ECHL. New Orleans Brass (1997 - 2003) - ECHL. Minor League Hockey

    .

    The Charlotte Hornets moved to New Orleans in 2002 - Now known as The New Orleans Hornets. New Orleans Jazz (1974) team moved to Salt Lake City and became the Utah Jazz in 1979. National Basketball Association:

      . New Orleans Creoles (Negro League) (dates?).

      New Orleans Pelicans (1887-1959). Houma Hawks. Baton Rouge River Bats. Alexandria Aces.

      Shreveport Sports. New Orleans Zephyrs. Minor League baseball teams

        . Slidell Steelsharks - SAFL.

        Central Louisiana Warriors - SAFL. Louisiana (Houma) Blazing Bulldogs - SAFL. Hammond Headhunters - SAFL. Greater New Orleans Gladiators - SAFL.

        Shreveport Steamers - SAFL. Ruston Rage - SAFL. Lafayette Bayou Bulls - SAFL. Minden RoughRiders - SAFL.

        Lake Charles RiverKats - SAFL. Baton Rouge Riverboat Bandits - SAFL. Semi-Pro football Teams

          . Bossier City Battle Wings - AF2.

          Southwest Louisiana (Lake Charles) Swashbucklers - IPFL. Louisiana Bayou Beast - IPFL. Shreveport Bombers - IPFL. New Orleans Spice - NWFL.

          Other football leagues

            . New Orleans VooDoo. Arena Football League
              . New Orleans Saints.

              National Football League

                . Mandeville: $26,420. Prien: $26,537. River Ridge: $27,088.

                Westminster: $28,087. Shenandoah: $29,722. Gilliam: $30,264. Eden Isle: $31,798.

                Elmwood: $34,329. Oak Hills Place: $34,944. Mound: $92,200 (population 12, as of the 2000 census). Interstate 59.

                Interstate 55. Interstate 49. Interstate 20. Interstate 12.

                Interstate 10. The remainder of current day central and north Louisiana was home to a substantial portion of the Caddo nation. The northeastern parishes of Tensas, Madison, and East and West Carroll were occupied by the Tunica tribe. Portions of Avoyelles and Concordia parishes along the Mississippi River were home to the Avoyel, part of the Natchez nation.

                The Houma tribe, was found in East and West Feliciana, and Pointe Coupee parishes; Ironically about 100 miles north of current location of the town named after them. Tammany. Helena, Tangipahoa, Washington, East and West Baton Rouge, Livingston, and St. The Bayougoula, part of the Choctaw nation, were found in points directly north of the Chitimachas, in the parishes of St.

                Bernard, and Plaquemines. Charles, Jefferson, Orleans, St. John the Baptist, St.Bo St. James, St.

                Martin, Terrebone, LaFourche, St. The Chitimachas occupied the southeastern parishes of Iberia, Assumption, St Mary, Lower St. The Atakapa were found in southwestern Louisiana in the parishes of Vermilion, Cameron, Lafayette, Acadia, Jefferson Davis, and Calcasieu.

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