Napster

For Napster, Inc. (formerly Roxio), and the paid Napster music service see Napster (pay service).
Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones.

Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname.

Origins

Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download.

At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer.

Legal challenges

Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it.

Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak)

At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange.

Shutdown

After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here".

Promotional power

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales.

By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power.

Final fate

After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success.

Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay)

In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Grokster, decision currently pending).

The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box.

Cultural references

In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name.

The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw)

References

  1. ^  A & M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Supp. 2d 896 (N.D. Cal. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001)
  2. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999)
  3. ^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000)
  4. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Press Release.
  5. ^  2001 US Dist. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Mar. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. 3d 1091 (9th Cir. 2002).
  6. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002)
  7. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000)
  8. ^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002)
  9. ^  Dube, Ric. (February 2002). MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). Ice Magazine, (179).
  10. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003)
  11. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. Austin, TX. March 16, 2004.

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This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw). Additionally, Missouri has several regional public universities in different parts of the state, the largest being Missouri State University (after heated political debate in Jefferson City, the name was changed from Southwest Missouri State University in spring 2005) having the second largest student enrollment after University of Missouri-Columbia. The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. The University of Missouri is Missouri's statewide public university system, having campuses in Saint Louis, Kansas City, Columbia and Rolla. In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name. Missouri's public school system includes kindergarten to 12th grade and requires all children between the ages of 7-16 inclusive to be enrolled in a school. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box. (see [1] (http://www.virtualtourist.com/m/6d7ce/515/) and [2] (http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/history/slogan.asp)).

An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. People from Missouri have a reputation for being skeptical. The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. There is an idiom "being from Missouri" which relates to the state's unofficial slogan: "show me" (which even appears on their license plates). Grokster, decision currently pending). Springfield is the headquarters of the Assemblies of God. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Independence, outside of Kansas City, is the headquarters for the Community of Christ (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), and the Latter Day Saints group Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Kansas City is the headquarters for the Church of the Nazarene. In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Louis. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay). A number of religious organizations have their headquearters in Missouri, including the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, which has its headquarters in Kirkwood, outside St. Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. Louis.

As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success. Approximately 1 out of 5 Missourians are Roman Catholics; many of those live in central Missouri as well as around Kansas City and St. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. Baptists, Methodists, and Lutherans account for most of those belonging to the Protestant faiths. After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. Two-thirds of Missourians are Protestants. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power. The religious affiliaitions of the people of Missouri are:.

The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. There were 11.7% (637,891) Missourians living below the poverty line in 1999. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. The median household money income for 1999 was $37,934 with the 1999 Per Capita Money Income of $19,936. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. There were 2,194,594 househoulds with 2.48 people per household. By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. The homeownership rate in 2000 was 70.3% with the mean value of the owner occupied dwelling being $89,900.

As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales. The mean commute time to work was 23.8 minutes. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. 81.3% were high school graduates (higher than the national average) while 21.6% had a bachelor's degree or higher. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. The 1997 birth and death rates were:. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. 2.7% of Missourians are foreign-born, and 5.1% speak a language other than English at home.

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. Females made up approximately 51.4% of the population. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here". 6.6% of its population were reported as under 5, 25.5% under 18, and 13.5% were 65 or older. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. The five largest ancestry groups in Missouri are: German (23.5%), Irish (12.7%), American (10.5%), English (9.5%), French (3.5%). Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. The racial makeup of the state is:.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Major cities include Saint Louis and Kansas City. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music. As of 2003, the population of Missouri was 5,704,484. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Tourism, services and wholesale/retail trade follow manufacturing in importance. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. Missouri produces the most lead of all of the states in the Union with most of these mines in the central eastern portion of the state. Missouri also ranks first or near first among the production of lime.

Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. Other minerals mined are lead, coal, portland cement and crushed stone. After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. Missouri has vast quantities of limestone. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange. As of 2001, there were 108,000 farms, the second largest number in any state after Texas. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Missouri is ranked 6th in the nation for the production of hogs and 7th for cattle.

These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. The agriculture products of the state are beef, soybeans, pork, dairy products, hay, corn, poultry, and eggs. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. Major industries include aerospace, transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, printing/publishing, electrical equipment, light manufacturing. At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (http://www.bea.gov/) estimates that Missouri's total state product in 2003 was $195 billion. Per capital personal income in 2003 was $29,464, 27th in the nation. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak). For example, Mark Twain, who grew up in Hannibal, Missouri, in Life on the Mississippi described his upbringing as in "the South".

The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. Although now generally considered part of the Midwest, Missouri was once thought of as Southern. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. The Bootheel area was the focus of the great New Madrid Earthquake of 1811 - 1812. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. It is here that one finds cotton and rice production. Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. It is also the most fertile.

Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it. This region is the lowest, flattest and wettest part of the state. Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. The southeastern part of the state is home to the Bootheel, part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain or Mississippi embayment. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer. Francois Mountains. Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. Southern Missouri is the home of the Ozark mountains, a dissected plateau surrounding the Precambrian igneous St.

People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). Springfield, Missouri in southwestern Missouri lies on the Ozark plateau. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. Oklahoma. At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. E. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download. Kansas, and N.

Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. E. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. The Ozark plateau begins south of the river and extends into Arkansas, S. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. Here, gentle rolling hills remain behind from a glacier that once had extended from the north to the Missouri River. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. North of the Missouri River lie the northern plains that stretch into Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas.

John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. Missouri is bounded on the north by Iowa; on the east, across the Mississippi River, by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee; on the south by Arkansas; and on the west by Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska (the latter two across the Missouri River.). Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. Main Article: Geography of Missouri
. Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. The executive branch is headed by the Governor. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname. Superior and inferior courts are also provided.

Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. The Judicial department consists of a supreme court consisting of 7 judges. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. The Senate consists of 34 members from districts divided such that the population of each district is approximately equal. Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. The House of Representatives has 163 members that are apportioned based on the last decennial census. March 16, 2004. These bodies comprise the General Assembly of the State of Missouri.

Austin, TX. The legislative branch consists of two bodies, the House of Representatives and the Senate. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. The current constitution of Missouri, the fourth constitution for the state, was adopted in 1945 and provides for three branches of government, the legislative, judicial and executive branches. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. House of Representatives. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003). Missouri has nine seats in the U.S.

Ice Magazine, (179). Talent (Republican). MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). "Kit" Bond (Republican) and James M. (February 2002). senators are Christopher S. ^  Dube, Ric. Missouri's two U.S.

^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002). The capital of Missouri is Jefferson City and the current governor of the state is Matt Blunt (Republican). ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000). Main Article: Law and Government of Missouri
See: List of Missouri Governors. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002). Missouri was the starting point for the Lewis and Clark Expedition. 2002). During the Civil War, Missouri, a slave state, was split with portions adhering to the Union, and others seceding with the southern states.

3d 1091 (9th Cir. It earned the nickname "Gateway to the West" because it served as a departure point for settlers heading to the west. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. Originally part of the Louisiana Purchase, Missouri was admitted as a state in 1821 as part of the Missouri Compromise. Mar. Main Article: History of Missouri. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. USS Missouri was named in honor of this state.

^  2001 US Dist. The Mississippi and Missouri rivers are the two large rivers which flow through this state. Press Release. Post Office abbreviation for Missouri is MO and the state public university's main branch is located in Columbia. Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). The state's nickname is the Show-Me (http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/history/slogan.asp) State; the U.S. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Missouri, named after the Missouri Siouan Indian tribe meaning "canoe", is a Midwestern state of the United States with Jefferson City as its capital.

^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000). Springfield Cardinals (Class AA, Texas League). ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999). Baseball:

    . 2001). Soccer: Kansas City Wizards. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. Hockey: Saint Louis Blues.

    Cal. Football: Saint Louis Rams and Kansas City Chiefs. 2d 896 (N.D. Baseball: Saint Louis Cardinals and Kansas City Royals. Supp. Non-Religious – 7%. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Other Religions – 1%.

    ^  A & M Records, Inc. Other Christian – 2%. Roman Catholic – 20%. Protestant – 67%. 1.5% mixed race.

    0.4% American Indian. 1.1% Asian. 2.1% Hispanic. 11.2% Black.

    83.8% White. List of Missouri counties. Missouri National and State Parks. Climate of Missouri.

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