Napster

For Napster, Inc. (formerly Roxio), and the paid Napster music service see Napster (pay service).
Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones.

Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname.

Origins

Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download.

At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer.

Legal challenges

Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it.

Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak)

At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange.

Shutdown

After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here".

Promotional power

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales.

By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power.

Final fate

After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success.

Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay)

In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Grokster, decision currently pending).

The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box.

Cultural references

In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name.

The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw)

References

  1. ^  A & M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Supp. 2d 896 (N.D. Cal. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001)
  2. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999)
  3. ^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000)
  4. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Press Release.
  5. ^  2001 US Dist. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Mar. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. 3d 1091 (9th Cir. 2002).
  6. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002)
  7. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000)
  8. ^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002)
  9. ^  Dube, Ric. (February 2002). MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). Ice Magazine, (179).
  10. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003)
  11. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. Austin, TX. March 16, 2004.

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This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw). Among the publications that deal with it are:. The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. Serious academic work has been done on the show. In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name. It is speculated that there will also be guest stars appearing in large roles or cameos. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box. Just like the series, the movie will be animated (Matt Groening recently turned down a proposal to make a live action film based on the characters, as this would likely ruin the franchise and anger fans) and will star the six main voice actors: Dan Castellaneta, Julie Kavner, Nancy Cartwright, Yeardley Smith, Hank Azaria, Harry Shearer, and most likely Marcia Wallace, Maggie Roswell, Pamela Hayden, and Tress MacNeille.

An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. This was confirmed by 20th Century Fox June 6, 2005. The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. With the series being renewed for nineteen seasons, an estimated premier date was set for the summer of 2008. Grokster, decision currently pending). In that year, producers announced a theatrical movie is in the very early stages of development, and that it will not be released until after the series ends. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Rumors were circulated on the Internet about a movie already being in development, but it was not until 2004 that any were confirmed.

Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. The episode Kamp Krusty was originally going to be a movie, but became a regular episode after difficulties were encountered in trying to expand the script to feature-length. In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Talk about a possible feature-length Simpsons movie has been going on since the early days of the series. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay). And the next "Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family" will be released on October 31, 2005; it will be called The Simpsons One Step Beyond Forever!: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family ...Continued Yet Again. Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. The Simpsons - Classics (Region 2: UK/IE only).

As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success. Individual DVDs. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. Box sets. After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. In particular, these DVDs have been released in North America (Region 1) and Europe (Region 2):
. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power. The five DVD volumes rank as the best-selling television series DVDs of all time.

The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. When the first season DVD was released in 2001, it quickly became the best-selling television DVD in history (although it would later be overtaken by the first season of Chappelle's Show). Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. Many episodes of the show have been released on DVD and VHS over the years. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Perhaps the best known song is "Do the Bartman", that was released as a single and became an international success. By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. Music has been a recurring theme in The Simpsons with virtually all members of the cast breaking into song at least once during the course of the series.

As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales. The Simpsons and Futurama comics are also reprinted in the UK, under the same titles, with various stories from the other Bongo series reprinted in the main Simpsons comic. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. Numerous different Simpsons-related comic book series have been published by Bongo Comics since 1993. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. See also: Made-up words in The Simpsons. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. The show's creators also take pride in having passed on schoolyard rhymes to a new generation of children who otherwise may not have heard them.

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. On SlashDot and Fark, one particular meme: "I for one welcome our new <Insert topic here> overlords" stems from a quote of Kent Brockman from the episode "Deep Space Homer":. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here". The expression "excellent" — drawn out as a raspy "eeeexcelllent..." in the style of Montgomery Burns — has also entered popular use, as have Homer's triumphant "Woohoo!" and Nelson Muntz's mocking "HA-ha!". On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. politicians and publications in 2003, after European and especially French opposition to the proposed invasion of Iraq. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. Groundskeeper Willy's phrase, "cheese-eating surrender monkeys", used to describe the French, was picked up by U.S.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. "D'oh" is the accepted spelling, and is certainly the most common; the closed captions for the program (at least in the U.S.), however, spell it "D-OHH". Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music. The most famous of which is Homer's saying: "D'oh!", which is referred to in scripts, as well as three episode names, as "annoyed grunt". D'oh is now listed in the OED, but without the apostrophe. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Several memes (often neologisms) that started on The Simpsons have now become mainstream words or sayings. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. Originally, the switch was intended to happen during season 12 with the episode "Tennis the Menace", but after seeing the results, Gracie Films decided to hold off for two more seasons. Tennis the Menace, however, being already completed, was broadcast this way.

Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. After season 13, production was switched from traditional cel animation to digital ink and paint. After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. The last episode to be animated by Klasky Csupo was "A Streetcar Named Marge". Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange. During season four, Gracie Films made a decision to switch domestic production to DPS Film Roman, which continues to animate the show to this day. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Toonzone Entertainment - 2 episodes.

These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. U.S. Animation, Inc. - 2 episodes. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. Rough Draft Studios - 111 episodes. At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. Anivision - 55 episodes. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak). The overseas animation studios are:
AKOM - 188 episodes.

The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. Throughout the years, different overseas studios have animated different episodes, even episodes within the same season. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. While character and background layout is done by the domestic studio, inbetweening, coloring and filming is done by the overseas studios. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. Klasky Csupo was also the animation studio during the first three seasons of the half-hour length series, however, due to the increased workload, production was now being subcontracted to overseas studios, usually in Korea, where labor is cheaper. Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. Throughout the run of the animated shorts on The Tracey Ullman Show, the animation was solely produced domestically at Klasky Csupo.

Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it. The Simpsons has been animated by many different studios over the past 18 years, both domestic and overseas. Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. The showrunner is in charge of every aspect of the show for the season(s) he is currently serving as. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer. The series has gone through numerous executive producers, also known as showrunners, throughout its run. Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. The character Professor John Frink was named for writer/producer John Frink.

People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). the Monorail" (9F10), "Homer Goes to College" (1F02) and "Treehouse of Horror IV" (1F04). Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. He wrote "New Kid on the Block" (9F06), "Marge vs. At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. Current late-night talkshow host Conan O'Brien was a writer during the fourth and fifth season. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download. When the restaurant closed down, he bought the booth and had it installed in his house.

Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. According to the DVD commentaries, he used to write episodes while sitting at a booth in his favourite restaurant. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. He has written the most episodes and many of them were the early classics. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. John Swartzwelder is the most famous of the writers on the Simpsons' staff. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. See List of celebrities on The Simpsons.

John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. Many episodes feature celebrity guests contributing their voices to the show, as either themselves or fictional characters. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. Here is a list of all the major voice actors and the characters they voice:. Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. All episodes (with the exception of one) list only the voice actors (not the characters they voice) in keeping with the mystique of having the audience not associate any one character with an actor — this is to discourage the audience from easily identifying exactly which voice actor did what. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname. Another recent episode featured a CGI trailer for a comedy about humanoid playing cards.

Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. This was one of the few times The Simpsons have strayed from their traditional 2D animation, along with a live action cameo by Regis and Kathie Lee in Treehouse of Horror IX, a couple of claymation scenes in 'Tis The Fifteenth Season featuring The California Prunes and Jimmy Stewart, and a live action couch gag consisting of a sketchbook being flipped by a hand to make the characters run towards the couch and sit down. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. In a section of Treehouse of Horror VI called Homer³, Homer and Bart go into a three-dimensional world created by Pacific Data Images, a computer animation company. Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. Another mainstay of the Halloween shows is the appearance of the two space aliens Kang and Kodos, introduced in the second segment of the first "Treehouse of Horror.". March 16, 2004. The names have changed in subsequent seasons.

Austin, TX. This also became a tradition, and has been done in every Halloween episode except I, XII and XIII. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. In Treehouse of Horror II the writers decided to give the cast and crew of the show scary names in the opening and closing credits (like "Mad Matt Groening" and "James Hell Brooks"). ^  Abrams, Jonathan. In later years the series dropped the framing device of characters telling stories, but kept the Treehouse title; for several years the characters broke the fourth wall and introduced their pieces directly to the audience. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003). Neither Bart nor Lisa was scared, but Homer was terrified.

Ice Magazine, (179). The tradition began in the second season episode "Treehouse of Horror", with Bart and Lisa telling scary stories to each other in their treehouse while Homer secretly listened in. MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). Episodes spoofed:. (February 2002). These Halloween segments have parodied many classic horror and science fiction films; often one of the segments spoofs an episode of The Twilight Zone. ^  Dube, Ric. Regular Simpsons characters play humorous special roles, occasionally being killed in gruesome ways by zombies, monsters, or even each other.

^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002). These pieces usually involve the family in some horror, science fiction, or supernatural setting; they always take place outside the normal continuity of the show (and are therefore considered to be non-canon), and completely abandon any pretense of being realistic. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000). An annual tradition is a special Halloween episode consisting of three separate, self-contained pieces. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002). See main article: List of The Simpsons episodes. 2002). See also: Bart chalkboard gags.

3d 1091 (9th Cir. The current arrangement is orchestrated by Alf Clausen. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. The series' distinctive theme tune was composed by musician Danny Elfman. Mar. The first season opening sequence featured a number of differences from the later seasons, including a shot of Lisa riding her bike on the way home and Bart's way home consisting of snatching a bus stop sign, forcing several dazed Springfieldians to chase the bus, rather than just riding past a number of well known characters. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Most couch gags last only about five seconds, but the longest one on record lasted 46 seconds.

^  2001 US Dist. The "couch gag" sequence is frequently used to help show staff make the show longer or shorter, depending on the length of the episode itself. Press Release. In the syndicated version, part or all of the opening sequence is usually cut in order to include more commercials in the show's allotted timeslot. Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). For each episode, the sequence includes four variations: Bart writes something different on the chalkboard, Lisa plays a different solo on her saxophone, Homer screams in a different way (only done in the first couple of seasons), and the family attempts to sit on the couch as something goes awry in an often surreal manner. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Upon entering, they all speed towards the family room couch where, in comedic parallel with the audience, they settle to watch their "must-see" TV show.

^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000). The members of the family weave dangerously through traffic and in between fellow (and, from the second season onward, familiar) Springfield denizens, all miraculously reaching home at the exact same time. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999). Almost every episode opens with a title shot coming through the cumulus clouds and into the school where Bart is writing sentences on the class chalkboard, presumably set as a punishment by one of his teachers for some mischievous deed or wayward comment; Homer is shown leaving the power plant, with Mr Burns and Smithers in the background (second season onwards); Marge and Maggie are shown checking out at the supermarket with Maggie travelling across the scanner, ringing up at $847.63, the then-annual cost of raising a baby (although a 'trivia question' shown as a wraparound for commercials during the episode "The Simpsons 138th Episode Spectacular" claims that the register says "NRA4EVER" — National Rifle Association For Ever); The sequence then introduces Lisa (who leaves a band rehearsal, usually playing a different saxophone solo); the family is then shown on their way to their house at 742 Evergreen Terrace (the address varied in the beginning, but the writers now use 742 Evergreen Terrace exclusively). 2001). The Simpsons opening sequence is one of the show's most memorable trademarks. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. See also: Who's Who in Springfield (http://www.snpp.com/guides/whoiswho.html).

Cal. Other name origins:. 2d 896 (N.D. Many of the characters in the Simpsons take their names from important people and places in Groening's life:. Supp. [2] (http://www.metronews.ca/column_tube_talk.asp?id=2347&cid=650). v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. The universally reported claim that this dispute was in fact a full-blown strike is denied by Harry Shearer.

^  A & M Records, Inc. On May 2, 2004, the actors resolved their dispute with Fox after having their demands met. They asked for $360,000 per episode, or $8 million for a 22-episode season. [1] (http://www.snpp.com/other/interviews/groening99e.html) As the revenue generated by the show continued to increase through syndication and DVD sales, six actors (playing over 50 characters) — Dan Castellaneta, Julie Kavner, Nancy Cartwright, Yeardley Smith, Hank Azaria, and Harry Shearer — stopped showing up for script readings in April 2004 after weeks of unsuccessful negotiations with Fox. The actors were supported in their action by series creator Matt Groening.

In 1998, the voice actors stopped working, forcing 20th Century Fox TV to increase their salary from $30,000 per episode to $125,000. The voice actors have been involved in much-publicized pay disputes with Fox on more than one occasion. On January 14, 2000 the Simpsons were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. The Simpsons has won dozens of awards since it debuted as a series, including 21 Emmy Awards, 22 Annie Awards, a Peabody and numerous others.

Over the years, virtually every Simpsons character has appeared on a magazine cover, ranging from TIME to Christianity Today and even Airliners. Since the series originated as part of The Tracey Ullman Show, it is also considered the longest running and most successful spinoff of all time. He was the only fictional character on the list. In that same issue, Bart Simpson was named to the Time 100, the publication's list of the century's 100 most influential people.

In its 1998 issue celebrating the greatest achievements in arts and entertainment of the 20th Century, TIME magazine named The Simpsons the century's best television series. Some take the view that The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet should continue to be counted as the longest-running sitcom as The Simpsons is animated not live-action although this view is declining as more authorities unambiguously credit The Simpsons as television's longest-running sitcom. In 2004, the series was renewed through its 19th season and if it survives until 2009, it will tie (or will have beaten if The Tracey Ullman Show shorts are counted) Gunsmoke's record as the longest-running prime time series (of any genre) in U.S. television history. In January 2003, it was announced that the show had been renewed by Fox through 2005 — meaning it has replaced The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet (1952 to 1966) as longest-running sitcom (animated or live-action) ever in the United States.

On February 9, 1997 The Simpsons surpassed The Flintstones as the longest-running prime time animated series in America, however it has not yet beaten several Japanese anime series such as Sazae-san (which has been running since 1969) and Doraemon (running since 1979). The writers have shown a love for cameo appearances by celebrities and extended pastiches of contemporary and classic movies, as well as subtle visual jokes. Bush said that America needed to be closer to The Waltons than to The Simpsons, causing Bart to say they were a lot like the Waltons, since they were both praying for an end to depression. In another address, Mr.

One of the Simpsons DVD sets includes a special feature that presents an exchange of letters between the First Lady and show staff. Bush were both portrayed by voice actors. and Mrs. Mr.

Wilson). Six years later, an episode had George and Barbara Bush move to Springfield and leave after George gets involved in a feud with the Simpson family (in a style reminiscent of Dennis the Menace and Mr. In September 1990, Barbara Bush said in an interview for People magazine that The Simpsons was the dumbest thing she had ever seen. and proud of it.".

In this episode, the school counselor quotes the controversial T-shirt by stating, "He is an underachiever.. The outcry against Bart was reflected in the second season opener, featuring an episode called Bart Gets an F where Bart's school wants to make him repeat the fourth grade. When a Simpsons T-shirt was marketed featuring Bart and the logo "Underachiever ('And proud of it, man!')" Simpsons T-shirts and other merchandise was banned from public schools in several areas of the United States. Parents' groups and conservative spokespersons felt that a cartoon character like Bart Simpson provided a poor role model for children.

It also sparked controversy, as Bart Simpson was portrayed as a rebellious troublemaker who caused trouble and got away with it. The Simpsons was the first true TV series hit for Fox; it was the first Fox show to appear in the top twenty highest-rated shows of the time. The Simpsons was converted, by a team of production companies that included what is now the Klasky-Csupo animation house, into a series for the Fox Network in 1989 and has run as a weekly show on that network ever since. The shorts were never aired by the BBC in the UK, though some of them, including "Good Night," were included in a Simpsons anniversary episode.

Matt Groening admits the reason that they were so crudely drawn in the beginning was because he could not draw well and the animators did nothing more than just trace over his drawings. The first short "Good Night" airing on April 19, 1987. The Simpson family first appeared in animated form as shorts on The Tracey Ullman Show. See also: The Springfield Connection (http://www.springfieldconnection.net).

See also: List of The Simpsons episodes by theme. Examples of these stock scenes include:. There are several types of scenes that recur often and have become conventions of the show's storytelling style. Recurring themes in episodes include:.

However the plots have never been very predictable or constant and tend to be very character-driven. The plots of most episodes focus on the adventures of one particular family member, frequently Homer. Viewers also learn that Brockman went by 'Kenny Brockelstein' in the 1960s, but that he anglicized by the time the Simpsons episodes of the 1990s take place. He will endorse any product for a price. Kent Brockman is a self-important, spoiled TV news anchorman with little regard for journalistic ethics possibly thanks to the fact that he won the lottery in one episode.

Krusty the Clown has an enthusiastic following among Springfield's kids, but offstage he is a jaded, cynical hack, in poor health from a long history of overindulgence and substance abuse. The show also routinely mocks and satirizes show business conventions and personalities. As compared with the Simpsons family, the Flanders family is relatively well-off and less dysfunctional, fulfilling certain theories expressed by sociologist Max Weber in his seminal work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. In several episodes, God actually intervenes to protect the Flanders family, invoking such protestant concepts as Predestination.

Social conservatives and some evangelical Christians have also pointed to the positive role-model of devout christian Ned Flanders, though he is portrayed in a less-than-affirming manner. Nevertheless, these affairs never occur, and by the end of every episode, Homer and Marge's marriage is strongly affirmed. The show has toyed with the possibility of extramarital affairs, such as when Homer falls for a female nuclear technician who shares his love of donuts, or when Marge's ex-boyfriend Artie Ziff tries to rekindle their old romance. One of the main explanations of this shift is that the Simpsons portrays a traditional nuclear family among a lineup of television sitcoms that now portray less traditional families.

In a somewhat ironic twist, during the more recent years of Simpsons production, some social conservatives have come to embrace the show. While most of these characters are more incompetent than truly evil there is one true sadist: Montgomery Burns, owner of the Springfield Nuclear Plant and Homer Simpson's boss; he is often compared to Charles Foster Kane in Citizen Kane. Reverend Lovejoy, the pastor of the local church, is judgemental and moralistic (but only regarding other people). He has frequent flashbacks to his capture and imprisonment by the Viet Cong, and he is repeatedly likened to Norman Bates in Psycho.

Seymour Skinner (who sounds like Charles Kuralt), the principal of Springfield Elementary School, is an uptight, humorless bachelor who lives with his domineering mother. Kennedy — is a corrupt, spend-thrift womanizer. Mayor Quimby — who sounds like John F. Robinson-influenced tone) is obese, stupid, lazy, corrupt and not overly concerned with constitutional rights (not to mention that he somewhat resembles a pig).

Springfield police chief Clancy Wiggum (voiced by Hank Azaria in an Edward G. Nearly every authority figure in the show is portrayed unflatteringly: Homer is thoughtless and irresponsible, the antithesis of the ideal 1950s TV father though he always comes through for his family in the end. This negative reaction was most pronounced during the early seasons of the show. This probably explains the often strong negative reaction to the show from social conservatives.

Authority, especially in undeserving hands, is a constant target of the show's often sharp satire. For a comprehensive list, see characters from The Simpsons. Many of these characters have developed a vast cult following of their own. The show also has a vast array of quirky supporting characters, including co-workers, teachers, family friends, extended relatives, and local celebrities.

Some characters' ages have fluctuated throughout the years; this is most likely due to simple oversight on the part of the writers. Despite the fact that numerous years (and birthdays) clearly pass (for example, many Christmas episodes), the Simpsons do not appear to age. Maggie is an eternal baby. Bart, the oldest sibling, is a troublemaker and classroom terror ("a vile burlesque of irrepressible youth" is how Lisa once described him) who thinks of himself as a rebel while Lisa is a brainy student, vegetarian, Buddhist and jazz music fan who dreams of a better future (she is referred to as "the future of the family").

Marge was once intelligent and sophisticated, but has come to conform with the stereotype of housewife/mother. Homer, a safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, is a generally well-meaning buffoon whose short attention span often draws him into outrageous schemes and adventures. Snowball IV survives and is renamed Snowball II to save money on dishes.). In a later episode, Snowball II is killed, along with replacements Snowball III and Coltrane.

(Snowball I was run over and killed earlier in Simpsons history. The show's basic premise centers on the antics of the family: Homer and Marge, and their children Bart, Lisa and Maggie as well as their pets Santa's Little Helper – the dog – and Snowball II – the cat. The cost of having an episode of The Simpsons take place in the mountains, Europe, the city park, or a cruise ship on the ocean (all of which simply use drawn and painted backgrounds) is hardly more than placing the family in the standard "family comedy setting" of a living room, a kitchen, and one or two related settings (the workplace and a favorite social hangout) (which is also no more than drawn and painted backgrounds). This allows for far more flexibility in plot development than a typical live-action sitcom set sound stages. Animation scholars and fans have noted the series uses the medium of animation to its advantage, allowing the show to take place in many settings (indoors and outdoors) and feature a far greater cast of characters than a live-action sitcom.

(See Where Is The Simpsons' Springfield? (http://www.snpp.com/guides/springfield.list.html) for more information on this issue.). Creator Matt Groening has stated that Springfield has much in common with Portland, Oregon, the town he grew up in (see Matt Groening's Portland (http://www.portlandtribune.com/simpsons/)), and the name "Springfield" was chosen because virtually every state has a town or city with that name. In one episode at a graveyard the characters throw dirt that blots out the grave of Adlai Stevenson (either the Vice President or Presidential Candidate of the US) who was a well-known politician based in Illinois, implying Springfield, Illinois. In a later airing the location was changed to "southern Missouri." Also, in the episode "Sweet & Sour Marge", it is mentioned that Tennessee is to the south of Springfield which would put them back in Kentucky or possibly, in Virginia.

For example, in the episode "Behind the Laughter" the Simpsons are described as "a northern Kentucky family". has been both suggested and ruled out by conflicting "evidence" of a location for Springfield, so that the town could theoretically be anywhere. Nearly every state and region in the U.S. However, both the town itself and its location are fictional or a distortion on the real location.

Throughout the show's history fans have tried to determine where Springfield is by taking the town's characteristics, surrounding geography and nearby landmarks as clues. The Simpsons is set in the fictional United States town of Springfield. The characters were originally created by Matt Groening as part of a series of original animated segments for The Tracey Ullman Show. Over the course of the series Groening has used many of the themes present in his long-running comic strip series, Life in Hell. (For instance, the idea of creative school children constantly being persecuted and suppressed by totalitarian grown-ups stems from the strip.). In the Channel 4 programs, the 100 Greatest Cartoons and the 100 Greatest Kids' TV shows, it was voted into first place.

Highly satirical, the show lampoons many aspects of the human condition, but primarily parodies the "Middle American" lifestyle its titular family exhibits and more generally American culture, society and even television itself. The Simpsons is the longest-running animated television series in American television history, with 17 seasons and 356 episodes since its debut on December 17, 1989 on the Fox Network and a spin-off of The Tracey Ullman Show. The Jetsons (1962-1963, 1984-1987). The Flintstones (1960-1966).

King of the Hill (1997-present). Family Guy (1999-2002, 2005-present). South Park (1997-present). Futurama (1999-2003).

List of TV Channels that air The Simpsons. Trivia about The Simpsons. References to Star Trek in The Simpsons. The Simpsons family tree.

Animation. SNUH (Springfieldians for Nonviolence, Understanding, and Helping). The Simpsons episodes by theme. The Simpsons episode list.

List of Songs featured in The Simpsons. Characters from The Simpsons. Truck-o-Saurus. KBBL.

Flying Hellfish squad. Duff Beer. Keller. The Gospel According to Bart: Examining the Religious Elements of The Simpsons by Beth L.

Pinsky ISBN 0664224199. The Gospel According to The Simpsons: The Spiritual Life of the World's Most Animated Family by Mark I. Conard (Editor), Aeon Skoble (Editor) ISBN 0812694333. The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer by William Irwin (Editor), Mark T.

Parvin ISBN 066422590X. Pinsky, Samuel F. The Gospel According to the Simpsons: Leaders Guide for Group Study by Mark I. The Simpsons And Society: An Analysis Of Our Favorite Family And Its Influence In Contemporary Society by Steven Keslowitz ISBN 1587362538.

Leaving Springfield: The Simpsons and the Possibility of Oppositional Culture (Contemporary Film and Television Series) by John Alberti ISBN 0814328490. Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined a Generation by Chris Turner ISBN 0679313184. The Gospel According to the Simpsons: Leaders Guide for Group Study. The Gospel According to The Simpsons: The Spiritual Life of the World's Most Animated Family.

The Bart Book. The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer. The Homer Book. Planet Springfield.

The Simpsons Uncensored Family Album. The Simpsons Guide to Springfield. The Simpsons Beyond Forever!: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family ...Still Continued. The Simpsons Forever!: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family ...Continued.

The Simpsons: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family. Bart Simpson's Guide to Life. The Simpsons Pinball Party - Stern Pinball (2003). The Simpsons Hit & Run - PlayStation 2, GameCube, Xbox, and PC (2003).

The Simpsons Road Rage - Game Boy Advance (2003). Simpsons Skateboarding - PlayStation 2 (2002). The Simpsons Road Rage - PlayStation 2, Xbox, and GameCube (2001). The Simpsons Wrestling - PlayStation (2001).

Night of the Living Treehouse of Horror - Game Boy Color (2001). Virtual Springfield - PC (1997). The Simpsons Cartoon Studio - PC (1996). Bart and the Beanstalk - Game Boy (1994).

Virtual Bart - Sega Genesis and Super NES (1994). The Itchy and Scratchy Game - Sega Genesis, Super NES and Sega Game Gear (1994). Bart's Nightmare - Sega Genesis and Super NES (1993). Krusty's Fun House and Krusty's Super Fun House - NES, Game Boy, IBM PC, Sega Master System, Sega Genesis, SNES (1992–1993).

the Juggernauts - Game Boy (1992). Bart vs. Bart's House of Weirdness - PC (1992). the Space Mutants - NES, Master System, Sega Genesis, Game Gear, Atari ST, Commodore Amiga Spectrum ZX, Amstrad, and PC (1991–1992).

Bart vs. The Simpsons: The Arcade Game - Arcade, IBM PC and Commodore 64 (1991). Bart Simpson's Escape from Camp Deadly - Game Boy (1991). the World - NES and Sega Master System (1991–1993).

Bart vs. The Simpsons Pinball - Data East (1990). Viva Los Simpsons (April 2005). Springfield Murder Mysteries (April 2005).

Raiders of the Lost Fridge (April 2005). The Last Temptation of Homer (April 2005). Crime and Punishment (April 2005). The Simpsons.com (August 2004).

The Simpsons Against the World (August 2004). Sex, Lies and The Simpsons (August 2004). On Your Marks, Get Set, D'Oh! (August 2004). Heaven and Hell (August 2004).

The Simpsons Go to Hollywood (September 2003). Too Hot for TV (September 2003). Greatest Hits (September 2003). Dark Secrets of The Simpsons (September 2003).

Bart Wars (September 2003). Bart Wars (May 2005). The Simpsons Christmas 2 (November 2004). The Simpsons Gone Wild (September 2004).

Christmas with the Simpsons (October 2003). The Simpsons Treehouse of Horror (September 2003). The Complete Sixth Season (to be released on August 16, 2005). The Complete Fifth Season (Region 1: December 2004/Region 2: March 2005).

The Complete Fourth Season (Region 1: June 2004/Region 2: August 2004). The Complete Third Season (Region 1: August 2003/Region 2: October 2003). The Complete Second Season (Region 1: August 2002/Region 2: July 2002). The Complete First Season (Region 1/Region 2: September 2001).

Go Simpsonic with The Simpsons (1999). The Yellow Album (1998). Songs in the Key of Springfield (1997). The Simpsons Sing the Blues (1990).

Futurama Simpsons Infinitely Secret Crossover Crisis (2002). Bart Simpson Comics (2000–present). Bart Simpson's Treehouse of Horror (1995). Lisa Comics (1995).

Krusty Comics (1995). Radioactive Man (1994–present). Itchy and Scratchy Comics (1993–1994). Bartman (1993–1995).

Simpsons Comics (1993–present). Simpsons Comics and Stories (1993). Produced "The Fat and the Furriest" and "She Used to Be My Girl". Produced "The Simpsons 138th Episode Spectacular".

Jointly produced "Radioactive Man" with Anivision. Produced animation for episodes from season four onwards. Produced animation for episodes from seasons 3-10. Produced various episodes throughout the run of the series.

Exclusively produced the first two seasons of the series. Season 13–present: Al Jean. Season 9–12: Mike Scully. Season 7–8: Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein.

Season 5–6: David Mirkin. Season 3–4: Al Jean and Mike Reiss. Brooks, and Sam Simon. Season 1–2: Matt Groening, James L.

Jane Kaczmarek: Judge Constance Harm (2001–present). Charles Napier: Warden, Grant Connor, Officer Krackney (2001–present). Jan Hooks: Manjula Nahasapeemapetilon (1997–present). Frank Welker: Santa's Little Helper and other animals (1991–present).

Kelsey Grammer: Sideshow Bob (1990–present). Albert Brooks: Cowboy Bob, Jacques, Brad Goodman, Hank Scorpio, and Tab Spangler (1990–present). Karl Wiedergott: Various (1998–present). Jon Lovitz: Artie Ziff, Aristotle Amandopolis, Jay Sherman, and others (1991–present).

Joe Mantegna: Anthony "Fat Tony" D'Amico (1991–present). (1989–1995). Doris Grau: Lunchlady Doris; her character also retired after her death. Phil Hartman: Lionel Hutz, Troy McClure; (both characters were "retired" after Hartman's death) (1991–1998).

Glick, Ann Landers, and others. Agnes Skinner, Cookie Kwan, Dolph, Brandine Del Roy, Mrs. Tress MacNeille: Lindsay Naegle, Mrs. Russi Taylor: Sherri, Terri, Martin Prince, and others. (1990–present).

Pamela Hayden: Milhouse van Houten, Rod Flanders, Jimbo "Corky" Jones, and others. (When Maggie Roswell quit the show from 1999–2002). Marcia Mitzman Gaven: Maude Flanders, Helen Lovejoy, Miss Elizabeth Hoover, Luann van Houten, and others. Maggie Roswell: Maude Flanders, Helen Lovejoy, Miss Elizabeth Hoover, Luann van Houten, and others (1990–1999, 2002–present).

Edna Krabappel (1990–present). Marcia Wallace: Mrs. Marvin Monroe, Kang, Kent Brockman, Herman and Charles Montgomery Burns. McBain, Itchy, Dr.

Julius Hibbert (sounds like James Earl Jones), Jasper, Lenny Leonard, Officer Eddie, Rainier Wolfcastle a.k.a. Smithers, Ned Flanders, Principal Seymour Skinner (sounds like Charles Kuralt), Otto Mann, Reverend Timothy Lovejoy, Dr. Harry Shearer: Waylon J. Nick Riviera (sounds like Ricky Ricardo), Snake, Bumblebee Man, Captain McCallister, Akira, Professor John Frink, Cletus Spuckler (or Delroy), Kirk van Houten, Superintendent Chalmers, Drederick Tatum, and others.

Robinson), Comic Book Guy (or Jeff Albertson), Officer Lou (sounds like Sylvester Stallone), Carl Carlson, Dr. Hank Azaria: Apu Nahasapeemapetilon, Moe Szyslak, Chief Clancy Wiggum (sounds like Edward G. Yeardley Smith: Lisa Simpson. Nancy Cartwright: Bart Simpson, Nelson Muntz, Todd Flanders, Ralph Wiggum, Kearney, Database, Jimmy, and others.

Jacqueline "Jackie" Bouvier. Julie Kavner: Marjorie "Marge" Bouvier Simpson , Patty Bouvier, Selma Bouvier, Mrs. Dan Castellaneta: Homer Jay Simpson, Abraham "Grampa" Simpson, Santa's Little Helper, Barney Gumble, Krusty The Clown, Groundskeeper Willy, Mayor Quimby, Gil, Sideshow Mel, Scratchy, Hans Moleman, Scott Christian, Kodos, Arnie Pie, Louie, Bill, Leopold, Luigi, Squeaky-voiced Teen, Crazy Old Man, and others. "Little Girl Lost".

"It's a Good Life". "To Serve Man". "Nightmare at 20,000 feet". Patty and Selma: "Female" olympic gold medal winning track & field athlete Stella Walsh who, following her death, was found to be genetically a man from the autopsy.

Jacqueline Bouvier: Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. Milhouse Van Houten – notorious 1960s figures Richard Milhous Nixon and Manson Family member and convicted murderer Leslie Van Houten (or, far more likely, Van Houten Avenue in Portland, Oregon). Nick. Nichopoulos, was called Dr.

Nick Riviera (enterprising physician) – Elvis Presley's physician, George C. Dr. Troy McClure (actor) – B-movie actors Troy Donohue and Doug McClure. Barney Gumble (Homer's drinking buddy) – Barney Rubble from The Flintstones.

Kang and Kodos (aliens) – In the original Star Trek, Kang is a Klingon, and Kodos ("The Executioner") is a human villain. Maude, Rod and Todd Flanders – they all rhyme with "God" (Maude being pronounced 'Mod' in certain North American accents). Skinner, especially considering his Psychoesque relationship with his mother, or a reference to "see more skin". F.

Seymour Skinner – behavioral psychologist B. Sideshow Bob Terwilliger - Terwilliger curves in Portland. Montgomery Burns - an abbreviated Portland street called West and East Burnside Street, as well as Portland's Montgomery Park neighborhood. C.

Mayor "Diamond" Joe Quimby - NW Quimby Street, another Portland street name, and corrupt former Portland Police Bureau Chief Diamond Joe Purcell. Reverend Lovejoy - NW Lovejoy Street, another Portland street name. Ned Flanders – In northwest Portland, Oregon, Groening's hometown, there is a NE Flanders St. Apu (Kwik-E-Mart owner) – reference to one of his favorite movies.

Moe – Matt Groening's former drug rehab counselor. Miss Hoover (Lisa's teacher) – one of his primary school teachers. Chief Wiggum – Groening's college love's last name was "Wiggum". 742 SW Evergreen Terrace in Portland, Oregon is the address of the place where Matt Groening grew up.

Abraham – picked at random by writers for The Simpsons, but coincidentally was the name of Matt Groening's grandfather. Bart – an anagram for "brat", a reference to Groening himself. Maggie – Maggie Groening (one of his sisters). Homer – Homer Groening (his father and one of his sons).

Marge – Margaret Groening (his mother). Lisa – Lisa Groening (Matt Groening's sister). A fantasy in which one of the Simpsons imagines how something might turn out. Burns, is doing at the time.

Scenes that cut from the main action to show what a secondary character, like Krusty or Mr. TV anchorman Kent Brockman reporting on the events of the plot. Many recurring minor characters appear and speak. A crowd scene, in which the entire town of Springfield convenes to witness some notable event, protest something, attend a civic meeting, or even start a riot.

A scene in which one or more Simpsons are watching a TV program, which the viewer watches along with them. A scene in which Homer is at Moe's Tavern escaping the hassles of work and family to be with his friends. This is often near the start of the episode. A scene in the morning in which Marge is preparing breakfast, and the kids and Homer are eating before going to work or school as they talk about what they are going to do.

Conceptually this is very similar to the "Homer and Marge in bed" scenes, but including Bart and Lisa. A scene in which the family is eating dinner together and talking about the events of the plot. A scene, often near the middle of the show, in which Homer and Marge are in bed together discussing the events of the story so far. After a few minutes there, the main plot begins.

A scene at the very beginning of the show in which the family goes somewhere together, like a cartoon festival or a cider mill. (Because of these vacations and his time as an exchange student in France, Bart has been to every continent on Earth with the exception of Antarctica.). The entire family goes on vacation. Lisa embraces or advocates the merits of a particular political cause or group.

Bart causes a large problem and attempts to fix it. Marge attempts to escape the monotony of keeping house by finding employment or taking up a hobby. Homer gets a new job or attempts to make money in a get-rich-quick scheme.

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