Napster

For Napster, Inc. (formerly Roxio), and the paid Napster music service see Napster (pay service).
Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones.

Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname.

Origins

Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download.

At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer.

Legal challenges

Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it.

Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak)

At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange.

Shutdown

After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here".

Promotional power

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales.

By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power.

Final fate

After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success.

Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay)

In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Grokster, decision currently pending).

The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box.

Cultural references

In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name.

The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw)

References

  1. ^  A & M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Supp. 2d 896 (N.D. Cal. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001)
  2. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999)
  3. ^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000)
  4. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Press Release.
  5. ^  2001 US Dist. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Mar. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. 3d 1091 (9th Cir. 2002).
  6. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002)
  7. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000)
  8. ^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002)
  9. ^  Dube, Ric. (February 2002). MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). Ice Magazine, (179).
  10. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003)
  11. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. Austin, TX. March 16, 2004.

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This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw). Many Pennsylvanians have found success in film, television, and the theater including:. The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. Pennsylvania has given birth to some of the nation's leading popular and rock music groups, including Anti-Flag, Christina Aguilera, Bloodhound Gang, Boyz II Men, Vanessa Carlton, Coolio, Fuel, Hall & Oates, Live, Joan Jett, Pink, Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails, Shanice, Will Smith, and others. In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name. See List of colleges and universities in Pennsylvania. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box. see also: Pennsylvania locations by per capita income.

An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. Top and bottom 10 locations by per capita income:. The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. Major cities:. Grokster, decision currently pending). It is technically incorrect to refer to any location in Pennsylvania other than Bloomsburg as a town. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. All other municipalities are incorparted as cities, villages, boroughs or other similar status.

Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Pennsylvania has only one incorporated town, Bloomsburg, the county seat of Columbia County. In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. The three largest Protestant denominations in Pennsylvania are: Baptist (10% of the total state population), Methodist (9%), Lutheran (9%). The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay). The current religious affiliations of the citizens Pennsylvania are:. Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. In Philadelphia today is the shrine and burial place of Saint John Neumann, himself a Czech immigrant, who worked for the betterment of the new arrivals and who founded the American parochial school system.

As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success. Later, after industrialization, immigrants from the Catholic countries of Europe also were added to this mix. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. This was a fairly diverse group of denominations by Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century standards, and testifies to the benign administration of Penn. After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. Other groups also settled, including the Moravian Bretheren, who founded and named today's large city of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and the Scots-Irish Presbyterians, who settled on the frontier. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power. The Quakers at the founding of Penn's colony pursued a policy of religious toleration, which benefited other older groups, such as Lutherans from the New Sweden settlement, and which also attracted relgious refugees from the European continent, such as Amish and Mennonites.

The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. Females made up approximately 51.7% of the population. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. 5.9% of Pennsylvania's population were reported as under 5, 23.8% under 18, and 15.6% were 65 or older. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. The 5 largest ancestry groups in Pennsylvania are German (25.4%), Irish (16.1%), Italian (11.5%), African American (10%), English (7.9%). By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. The racial makeup of the state is:.

As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales. Many Asian Indians, Arabs, Koreans, Hispanics, and Blacks call Pennsylvania home. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. Pennsylvania is a very diverse state. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Census Bureau, as of 2003, Pennsylvania's population was estimated at 12,365,455 people. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. According to the U.S.

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. On Lake Erie some freshwater commercial fishing exists, the prinicipal catch being yellow perch. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here". Most of these are produced by Amish and Mennonite craftsmen. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. Such items are shipped all over the country (and the world) out of Lancaster County. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. Lancaster County, Pennsylvania is well know for its quality wood products such as furniture, sheds, gazebos and play sets.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Small companies, such as the Pennsylvania Dutch Candies company, also exist in Pennsylvania. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music. Heinz Company in Pittsburgh; and Zippo lighters from Zippo Manufacturing in Bradford. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. J. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. Among these products are Hershey bars from the Hershey Chocolate Company in Hershey, Pennsylvania; Heinz ketchup and Heinz-57 sauce from the H.

Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. Pennsylvania has a large, diverse group of manufacturing companies and within this group are some whose products have come to be household words, symbolic of ordinary American life. After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. Its industrial outputs are food processing, chemical products, machinery, electric equipment, and tourism. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange. Its agricultural outputs are dairy products, poultry, cattle, nursery stock, mushrooms, hogs, and hay. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Pennsylvania's 1999 total gross state product was $383 billion, placing it 6th in the nation and its 2000 Per Capita Personal Income was $29,539, 18th in the nation.

These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. Finally, in 1979 the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Incident near the state capital of Harrisburg, while not as destructive to the community, nevertheless cost close to $1 billion to clean up and changed the national public perception of nuclear power to a much less favorable viewpoint. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. In 1961 an exposed seam of coal at Centralia, Pennsylvania caught fire and forced eventually almost the entire community to abandon their settlement; the coal fire is still burning today and is estimated to last 100 years more. At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. In 1889 the South Fork Dam, impounding a recreational mountain lake for sportsmen, burst after a heavy rain and destroyed the downstream factory town of Johnstown, killing over 2,200 inhabitants in the notorious Johnstown Flood (the town was later rebuilt and is a reasonably large community today in the central mountains). Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak). Pennsylvania has been the site of some of the most horrendous ecological disasters experienced in the USA.

The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. Chester, downstream from Philadelphia, and Erie, the Great Lakes outlet on Lake Erie in the Erie Triangle, are smaller but still important ports. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. In the west the Port of Pittsburgh is also very large and even exceeds Philadelphia in rank by annual tonnage, due to the large volume of bulk coal shipped by barge down the Ohio River. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. (How these two concepts are defined and measured is explained at length in an extended footnote under "Miscellaneous" in the article on New Hampshire.) Definitional niceties notwithstanding, Pennsylvania has one of the largest seaports in the US on its narrow shore, the Port of Philadelphia. Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. However, by a quirk of the official definitions, New Hampshire has the shortest US saltwater "coast" line.

Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it. Pennsylvania's saltwater "shore" line, only 89 miles by official US figures, is the shortest of any US state. Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. Along the shore of Lake Erie in the far northwest are orchards and vinyards. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer. Timber and dairy farming are also sources of livelihood for midstate and western Pennsylvania. Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. These fossil fuels have been an important resource to Pennsylvania.

People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). In the metamorphic (folded) belt, anthracite (hard coal) is mined near Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. Similar rock layers also contain coal to the south and east of the oil and gas deposits. At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. Drake drilled the first oil well in the USA into these sediments. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download. In 1859 near Titusville Edwin L.

Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. The Plateau is underlain by sedimentary rocks of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian age, which bear abundant fossils, as well as natural gas and petroleum. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. This plateau is so dissected by valleys that it also seems mountainous. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. To the northwest of the folded mountains is the Allegheny Plateau, which continues into southwestern and south central New York. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. Pennsylvania is bisected diagonally by ridges of the Appalachian Mountain chain from southwest to northeast.

John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. Other factors, such as a markedly different style of agriculture, the rise of the oil industry, timber exploitation and the old wood chemical industry, and even, in linguistics, the local "yinzer" dialect, all make this large area sometimes seem a virtual "state within a state". Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. Several important, complex factors set Western Pennsylvania apart in many respects from the east, such as the initial difficulty of access across the mountains, an orientation to the Mississippi drainage system of rivers, and above all, the complex economics involved in the rise and decline of the American steel industry centered around Pittsburgh. Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. It sometimes helps to consider the western third of the state a separate large geophysical unit, which is so distinctive that it can often best be described on its own. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname. Pennsylvania is in the Eastern time zone.

Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. Its lowest point is at sea level on the Delaware River. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. The highest point of 3,213 feet (979 m) above sea level is at Mount Davis. Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States. March 16, 2004. The total land area is 44,817 square miles (119,283 kmē), 739,200 acres (2,990 kmē) of which are bodies of water.

Austin, TX. Pennsylvania is 180 miles (290 km) north to south and 310 miles (500 km) east to west. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. The capital is Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. The Youghiogheny River and Oil Creek are smaller rivers which have played an important role in the development of the state. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003). The Delaware, Susquehanna, Monongahela, Allegheny, and Ohio Rivers are the major rivers of the state.

Ice Magazine, (179). It is bordered on the north and northeast by New York, on the east, across the Delaware River by New Jersey, on the south by Delaware, Maryland, and West Virginia, on the west by Ohio, and on the northwest by Lake Erie. MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). Pennsylvania's nickname "The Keystone State" is quite apt, as the state forms a geographic bridge both between the Northeastern states and the Southern states, and between the Atlantic seaboard and the Midwest. (February 2002). See: List of Pennsylvania counties. ^  Dube, Ric. James Carville summed up Pennsylvania politics as "Philadelphia on one end Pittsburgh on the other, with Alabama in the middle.".

^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002). The central part of the state tends to be very conservative. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000). Democrats are the majority in the Philadelphia area, as well as around Allentown and the Poconos in the east and in the southwestern part of the state and the Pittsburgh area in the west and Erie, Pennsylvania in the northwest. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002). The state is divided into heavily left leaning areas along the sides. 2002). Bill Clinton carried the state twice, Al Gore won here in 2000 as did John Kerry in 2004.

3d 1091 (9th Cir. Pennsylvania is considered a swing state in national elections, but usually leans Democratic. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. House Of Representatives, but the Democratic Party holds the governor's seat and their candidate has won four of the last five presidential elections. Mar. As of 2005, the Republican Party holds both houses of the state legislature, both United States Senate seats and a majority of the state's seats in the U.S. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Pennsylvania politics is not dominated by any single party.

^  2001 US Dist. Kanjorski (D, 11th District); John Murtha (D, 12th District); Allyson Schwartz (D, 13th District); Mike Doyle (D, 14th District); Charlie Dent (R, 15th District); Joe Pitts (R, 16th District); Tim Holden (D, 17th District); Tim Murphy (R, 18th District); and Todd Russell Platts (R, 19th District). Press Release. Peterson (R, 5th District); Jim Gerlach (R, 6th District); Curt Weldon (R, 7th District); Michael Fitzpatrick (R, 8th District); Bill Shuster (R, 9th District); Don Sherwood (R, 10th District); Paul E. Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Pennsylvania's 19 representatives in the House are Robert Brady (D, 1st District); Chaka Fattah (D, 2nd District); Phil English (R, 3rd District); Melissa Hart (R, 4th District); John E. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). senators are Rick Santorum (Republican) and Arlen Specter (Republican).

^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000). Pennsylvania's two U.S. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999). The Supreme Court has seven justices chosen by public election; the chief justice is the justice with the most seniority. 2001). It also hears appeals directly from the Courts of Common Pleas in certain cases, including felony murder prosecutions, the right to public office, criminal contempt, and any case in which the Court of Common Pleas ruled that a state law was unconstitutional. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. Pennsylvania's entire judicial system is under the supervision of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, which is also the final appellate court for both the Superior Court and the Commonwealth Court.

Cal. The Commonwealth Court also functions as a trial court in some civil suits, including cases that involve the state or its officers as parties, and cases regarding statewide elections. 2d 896 (N.D. The jurisdiction of the nine-judge Commonwealth Court is limited to appeals from final orders of certain state agencies and certain designated cases from the Courts of Common Pleas. Supp. It also has original jurisdiction to review warrants for wiretap surveillance. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. The fifteen judges of the Superior Court hear all appeals from the Courts of Common Pleas not expressly designated to the Commonwealth Court or Supreme Court.

^  A & M Records, Inc. The state has two intermediate-level appellate courts: the Superior Court and the Commonwealth Court. Each judicial district has at least one, and the Courts of Common Pleas serving the larger Pennsylvania counties have specialized divisions. They also serve as appellate courts to the district judges and for certain agency decisions. The general trial courts in which most criminal and civil cases originate are the Courts of Common Pleas.

As Philadelphia is coterminous with Philadelphia County, the Pittsburgh police magistrate court is the only true city-level court in the state. Pennsylvania is divided into 60 judicial districts[1] (http://www.courts.state.pa.us/Index/CommonPleas/Judicialdistricts.asp), each of which has district judges (formerly called justices of the peace) who mainly preside over minor criminal offenses and small civil claims. The Philadelphia Municipal Court and the Pittsburgh police magistrate court have similar jurisdiction, limited to those cities. Perzel and Senate Minority Appropriations Chairman Vincent Fumo (D). Mellow (D), Speaker of the House of Representatives John M.

Notable General Assembly members include Senate Majority Leader David J. Brightbill (R), Senate Minority Leader Robert J. The Pennsylvania General Assembly consists of a Senate with 50 members and a House of Representatives with 203. Pennsylvania has had a bicameral legislature since 1790. The Governor's cabinet consists of the eighteen appointed heads of Pennsylvania state agencies: the Secretary of the Commonwealth, Adjutant General, Secretary of Education, Insurance Commissioner, Secretary of Banking, Secretary of Agriculture, Secretary of Health, State Police Commissioner, Secretary of Labor and Industry, Secretary of Public Welfare, Secretary of Revenue, Secretary of Commerce, Secretary of Community Affairs, Secretary of Transportation, Secretary of Environmental Resources, Secretary of General Services, Secretary of Aging, and the Secretary of Corrections.

The other elected officials composing the executive branch are the Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Auditor General, and State Treasurer. The head of the executive branch is the Governor, who is currently Democrat Edward G Rendell, a former mayor of Philadelphia. The capital of Pennsylvania is in Harrisburg. Like all American states, the government of Pennsylvania is separated into an executive, a legislature, and a judiciary, the powers and duties of which are established by the Pennsylvania Constitution.

industries during the late 20th century. Pennsylvania was hard-hit by the decline of the steel industry and other heavy U.S. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, Pennsylvania received very large numbers of immigrants from Europe seeking work; dramatic, sometimes violent confrontations took place between organized labor and the state's industrial concerns. Shipbuilding and numerous other forms of manufacturing flourished in the eastern part of the state, and coal mining was also extremely important in many regions.

During the 20th century Pennsylvania's existing iron industries expanded into a major center of steel production. kerosene for years thereafter, and saw the rise and fall of oil boom towns. oil (kerosene) industry was born in western Pennsylvania, which supplied the vast majority of U.S. In the latter half of the 19th century, the U.S.

Dead from this battle rest at Gettysburg National Cemetery, site of Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. Many historians consider this battle the major turning point of the American Civil War. Pennsylvania also saw the Battle of Gettysburg, near Gettysburg. Pennsylvania became the second state on December 12, 1787 (five days after Delaware became the first).

Pennsylvania and Delaware were two of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution of 1776. In 1704 the "three lower counties" of New Castle, Kent, and Sussex gained a separate legislature, and in 1710 a separate executive council, to form the new colony Delaware. The colony's reputation of religious freedom also attracted significant populations of German and Scots-Irish settlers who helped to shape colonial Pennsylvania and later went on to populate the neighboring states further west. The French established numerous fortifications in the area, including the pivotal Fort Duquesne on top of which the city of Pittsburgh was built.

The western portions of Pennsylvania were among disputed territory between the colonial British and French during the French and Indian War. Even today many cities and towns in that area bear the names of Welsh municipalities. A large tract of land north and west of Philadelphia, in Montgomery, Chester, and Delaware Counties, was settled by Welsh Quakers and called the "Welsh Tract". Penn then founded a colony there as a place of religious freedom for Quakers, and named it for the Latin phrase meaning "Penn's woods".

On March 4, 1681, Charles II of England granted a land charter to William Penn for the area that now includes Pennsylvania. In 1643, the southeastern portion of the state, in the vicinity of Philadelphia, was settled by Sweden, but control later passed to the Netherlands, and then to England (later Great Britain). Before the state existed, the area was home to the Delaware (also known as Lenni Lenape), Susquehanna, Iroquois, Eriez, Shawnee and other Native American tribes. Main article: History of Pennsylvania.

The battleship USS Pennsylvania, damaged at Pearl Harbor, was named in honor of this state, as were several other naval vessels. (The term "Dutch" is a misnomer, as none of these groups are of Dutch origin; the German adjective for "German", "Deutsch", was misheard as "Dutch" and the name stuck.). Some adherents eschew modern conveniences and use horse-drawn farming equipment and carriages, while others are virtually indistinguishable from non-Amish or Mennonites. Some of the Old Order Amish have left the area, but many Mennonites remain, particularly in Lancaster County.

Pennsylvania Germans, including the Amish and the Mennonites, dominate the area around the cities of Lancaster, York, and Harrisburg, with smaller numbers extending northeast to the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton area and up the Susquehanna River valley. The so-called "Pennsylvania Dutch" region in south-central Pennsylvania is another favorite of sightseers. It was here that the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were drawn up by the Founding Fathers. Philadelphia is often called the cradle of the American Nation.

Pennsylvania is one of the U.S.'s most historic states. The Pocono Mountains and the Delaware Water Gap provide popular recreational activities. Today, two major cities dominate the state - Philadelphia, home of the Liberty Bell, Independence Hall, and a thriving metropolitan area, and Pittsburgh, a busy inland river port and major center for educational and technological advance. Although Swedes and Dutch were the first European settlers, the Quaker William Penn named Pennsylvania for the Latin phrase meaning "Penn's woodlands", in honor of his father.

Pennsylvania is called the Keystone State. It has given its name to the Pennsylvanian time period in geology. Pennsylvania (the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania) is one of four states of the United States of America that is called a commonwealth. Michael Keaton - Coraopolis.

Fritz Weaver - Pittsburgh. Selznick - Pittsburgh. David O. Fred Rogers - Latrobe.

Jimmy Stewart - Indiana. Night Shyamalan - Philadelphia (immigrated from India as a child). M. Dennis Miller - Pittsburgh.

Jayne Mansfield - Bryn Mawr. Grace Kelly - Philadelphia. Gene Kelly - Pittsburgh. Shirley Jones - Charleroi.

Scott Glenn - Pittsburgh. Bill Cosby - Philadelphia. Charles Bronson - Ehrenfeld. Peter Boyle - Philadelphia.

Lionel Barrymore - Philadelphia. John Barrymore - Philadelphia. Kevin Bacon - Philadelphia. Murray Abraham - Pittsburgh.

F. Deputy Secretary of Education from 2004-2005, and prior to that, Pennsylvania's Secretary of Education from 1995-2001. Hickok, The former U.S. Eugene W.

Prior to that, he was a US Representative from Erie between 1982 and 1995. Department of Homeland Security (1945-), was Governor of Pennsylvania between 1995 and 2003. Tom Ridge, The former Secretary of the U.S. He later served as Secretary of State and authored the Marshall Plan.

Marshall (1880-1959) of Uniontown, lead the United States Army as Chief of Staff during the Second World War. General of the Army George C. He was a major force behind numerous successful efforts to expand educational opportunities in Pennsylvania. Serving 30 years in the Pennsylvania House (1958-1988), 26 of them as an elected Democratic leader, Irvis became the first 20th Century African-American Speaker in 1977.

Fired under pressure after leading a successful boycott of Pittsburgh's department stores for discriminating against African-Americans, Irvis enrolled at the University of Pittsburgh law school, graduated with honors, became Pittsburgh's first black judicial law clerk, then an assistant district attorney, then a state legislator. Leroy Irvis (1918- ) was born near Albany, New York, but came to Pennsylvania to head Pittsburgh's Urban League in the 1940's. K. Angle is one of only two wrestlers in the WWE to have participated in the Olympic's, and is the only one to have won gold medals.

Angle won the Gold Medal in freestyle Roman/Greco wrestling at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, before signing with Vince McMahon's World Wrestling Entertainment, where he has won the WWE Championship on four different occasions. Kurt Angle (1968-) was born and raised in Pittsburgh. The Andy Warhol Museum is located in Pittsburgh's North Side, and he is buried in nearby Bethel Park. Pop artist Andy Warhol (1928-1987) was born Andrew Warhola in Pittsburgh.

She also wrote several books on the role of women including The Business of Being a Woman (1912) and The Ways of Women (1915). In 1906, she joined with Lincoln Steffens and Ray Stannard Baker to establish the radical American Magazine. She was a pioneering "muckraker" journalist and one of the few female journalists in the country during her time. Ida Tarbell (1857-1944) was born in Erie and was educated at the Sorbonne in Paris.

He commanded Union troops during the American Civil War, most notably during the Battle of Gettysburg. Winfield Scott Hancock (1824-1886) was born in Montgomery Square. Rachel Carson (1907-1964) born near Springdale, was a pioneer environmentalist and author of Silent Spring. Constitution, guaranteeing "equal protection of the laws" to all Americans.

Congressman and leading "Radical Republican," he helped draft the 14th Amendment to the U.S. As a U.S. He was a key Pennsylvania state legislator in establishing and maintaining Pennsylvania's early system of public education. Thaddeus Stevens (1792-1868) was born and lived in Pennsylvania until his death.

Minister to Great Britain and Russia, as Mayor of Philadelphia and in the Senate. He also served as U.S. Polk and is the only Pennsylvanian to hold the office. Dallas (1792-1864) of Philadelphia served as the 11th Vice President of the United States under James K.

George M. He was the 15th President of the United States and the only President from that state. James Buchanan (1791-1868) was born and lived in Pennsylvania until his death. He is buried with his wife Deborah in Christ Church Cemetery in Philadelphia.

Constitution. He had the distinction of signing both the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. He founded the University of Pennsylvania in 1742. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was one of the most important figures in Pennsylvania's history, although he was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

State tree: Hemlock. State song: Pennsylvania. State insect: Firefly. State fossil: the trilobite Phacops rana.

State flower: Mountain Laurel. State fish: Brook Trout. State dog: Great Dane. State capital: Harrisburg.

State bird: Ruffed Grouse. State beverage: Milk. State animal: Whitetail Deer. Non-Religious – 6%.

Other Religions – 2%. Other Christian – 1%. Roman Catholic – 33%. Protestant – 53%.

1.2% mixed race. 0.1% American Indian. 1.8% Asian. 3.2% Hispanic.

10.0% Black. 84.1% White. presidential election, 2004, in Pennsylvania. U.S.

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