Napster

For Napster, Inc. (formerly Roxio), and the paid Napster music service see Napster (pay service).
Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones.

Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname.

Origins

Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download.

At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer.

Legal challenges

Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it.

Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak)

At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange.

Shutdown

After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here".

Promotional power

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales.

By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power.

Final fate

After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success.

Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay)

In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Grokster, decision currently pending).

The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box.

Cultural references

In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name.

The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw)

References

  1. ^  A & M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Supp. 2d 896 (N.D. Cal. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001)
  2. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999)
  3. ^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000)
  4. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Press Release.
  5. ^  2001 US Dist. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Mar. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. 3d 1091 (9th Cir. 2002).
  6. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002)
  7. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000)
  8. ^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002)
  9. ^  Dube, Ric. (February 2002). MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). Ice Magazine, (179).
  10. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003)
  11. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. Austin, TX. March 16, 2004.

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This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw). It is also one of the highest scoring states on advanced placement tests. The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. It has one of the lowest high-school dropout rates in the nation and is tied with New Jersey for having the 2nd highest percentage of students who go on to college after high-school. In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name. Massachusetts is known for having one of the best public school systems in the nation. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box. Massachusetts also is home to well-known independent research institutions, including Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Marine Biological Laboratory.

An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. Music schools include Berklee and the New England Conservatory. The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. Other notable Massachusetts colleges include Hampshire College and the flagship campus of the University of Massachusetts). Grokster, decision currently pending). In addition to MIT, technology-oriented universities include Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and University of Massachusetts Lowell, which includes the former Lowell Institute of Technology ("Lowell Tech"). Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Massachusetts is home to one Ivy League university (Harvard) and four of the Seven Sisters (Mount Holyoke, Radcliffe College (now a research institute at Harvard), Smith, and Wellesley).

Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. News & World Report, 10 of the nation's top-50 colleges and universities are located in Massachusetts: Amherst College, Boston College, Brandeis University, Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, Tufts University, Wellesley College and Williams College. In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. According to U.S. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay). Massachusetts hosts more prominent colleges and universities than any other state in the U.S. Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. The population of metropolitan Boston surges noticeably during the school year due to the concentration of colleges and universities in the area (see list of colleges and universities in metropolitan Boston).

As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success. Eight Boston-area institutions (Boston College, Boston University, Brandeis, Harvard, MIT, Northeastern, Tufts, and UMass/Boston) call themselves "research universities;" they became, according to them, "engines of economic growth" following World War II, and currently contribute $7 billion annually to the local economy [3] (http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/nr/2003/econimpact.html). which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. population, but is home to many of its most renowned preparatory schools, colleges, and universities[2] (http://www.utexas.edu/world/univ/state/) (see full list of colleges and universities in Massachusetts). After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. Massachusetts contains only 2.5% of the U.S. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power. Massachusetts cities and towns of historical or cultural importance include.

The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has a total of 50 cities and 301 towns, grouped into 14 counties. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. See also: List of Massachusetts counties; List of cities in Massachusetts. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Barnstable and Dukes Counties have adopted modern county charters, enabling them to act as efficient regional governments. By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. The governments of Bristol, Plymouth, and Norfolk Counties remain substantially unchanged.

As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales. This law was later amended to abolish Hampshire County on January 1, 1999; Essex County on July 1 of that same year; and Berkshire County on July 1, 2000. Chapter 34B of the Massachusetts General Laws (http://www.state.ma.us/legis/laws/mgl/gl-34B-toc.htm) provides that other counties may also vote to abolish themselves, or to reorganize as a "regional council of governments", as Hampshire and Franklin Counties have done. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. The law abolishing Middlesex County also provided for the elimination of Hampden County and Worcester County on July 1, 1998. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Later that year, the Franklin County Commission voted itself out of existence. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. The government of Middlesex County was officially abolished on July 11, 1997.

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. Mismanagement of Middlesex County's public hospital in the mid 1990s left that county on the brink of insolvency, and in 1997 the legislature stepped in by assuming all assets and obligations of the county. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here". The government of Nantucket County, which is geographically coterminous with the Town of Nantucket, is operated along similar lines- the town selectmen (executive branch) act as the county commissioners. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. Thus, residents of the other three Suffolk County communities do not have a voice on the county commission, but all the county expenses are paid by the city of Boston. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. The government of Suffolk County was substantially integrated with the city government of Boston more than one hundred years ago, to the extent that the members of the Boston city council are ex officio the Suffolk County Commissioners, and Boston's treasurer and auditor fulfill the same offices for the county.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. By the 1990s, most functions of county governments (including operation of courts and road maintenance) had been taken over by the state, and most county governments were seen as inefficient and outmoded. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music. However, many residents also identify with neighborhoods, villages, or other districts of their towns. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Census Bureau, which in most data products considers towns to be minor civil divisions, equivalent to townships in other states (usually with much weaker forms of government). In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. This complicates comparisons with other states, as most residents identify strongly with the town or city in which they reside, and not with the "populated places" as defined and used in the U.S.

Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. In contrast, the cities and towns of Massachusetts divide up all of the land between them and there are no "unincorporated" areas or population centers. After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. County governments have significant importance, particularly to those living outside towns, and often perform major functions such as operating airports. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange. In contrast, the state is completely apportioned into counties. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Between the towns are unincorporated areas, usually quite large, which do not belong to any town.

These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. In many states, a town is a compact incorporated area. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. Massachusetts municipalities are subject to a budgetary law known as "Proposition 2", by which they may not increase expenditures by more than 2% per annum without the approval of the voters in a plebiscite. At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. Massachusetts has a very limited home rule mechanism; in order to exercise jurisdiction outside of these bounds, a municipality must petition the General Court for special legislation giving it that authority. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak). These cities are legally styled "the City Known as the Town of X".

The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. There are now a number of municipalities which are legally cities and thus have city councils, but retained the word "town" in their names, including Agawam, Methuen, Watertown, Weymouth, and Westfield. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. This distinction dates to the 1820s; prior to that, all municipalities were governed by Town Meeting. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. Politically, the only difference between a town and a city is that a town is governed under the Town Meeting or Representative Town Meeting form of government, whereas a city has a city council (and may or may not have a mayor, a city manager, or both). Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. Massachusetts law maintains a distinction between "cities" and "towns"; the largest town in population is Framingham.

Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it. Massachusetts shares with the six New England states, plus New York and New Jersey, a governmental structure known as the "New England town.". Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. The three largest Protestant denominations in Massachusetts are: Baptist (4% of total state population), Episcopalian (3%), Methodist & Congregationalist (tied 2%). With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer. The religious affiliations of the people of Massachusetts are:. Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. The five largest ancestries in Massachusetts are Irish (22.5%), Italian (13.5%), English (11.4%), French (8%), German (5.9%).

People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). Historically, the coast has been much more urban than Western Massachusetts, which is very rural, save for the cities of Springfield and Worcester. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. The bulk of this population surrounds Greater Boston, with approximately 5,800,000 people, and the North and South Shores. At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. The population of Massachusetts is 6,433,422 (US Census, 2003). The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download. See the list of Massachusetts places by per capita income.

Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. Other sectors vital to the Massachusetts economy include higher education, health care, financial services and tourism. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. Thanks largely to the Ocean Spray cooperative, Massachusetts is the second largest cranberry producing state in the union (after Wisconsin). It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. Its industrial outputs are machinery, electric equipment, scientific instruments, printing, and publishing. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. Its agricultural outputs are seafood, nursery stock, dairy products, cranberries, and vegetables.

John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. Per capita personal income in 2003 was $39,504, 4th in the nation. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (http://www.bea.gov/) estimates that Massachusetts's total state product in 2003 was $297 billion. Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. See the articles on same-sex marriage in the United States and same-sex marriage in Massachusetts. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname. Following a November 2003 decision of the state's Supreme Court, Massachusetts became the first state to issue same-sex marriage licenses on May 17, 2004.

Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. When informed that the Democratic National Convention would be in Boston, House Majority Leader Dick Armey remarked, "If I were a Democrat, I suspect I'd feel a heck of a lot more comfortable in Boston than, say, America." While campaigning in the western part of the country, President Bush would often jab, "My opponent says he's in touch with the West, but sometimes I think he means Western Massachusetts." The stump speech that he used at many of his campaign stops included many such disparaging remarks directed at Massachusetts and New England in general. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. During the 2004 Presidential Election, Massachusetts was the target of many GOP regionalist attacks along the campaign trail. Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. During the Colonial period, Massachusetts was one of the leading states in the fight for independence. March 16, 2004. The liberal tendencies of Massachusetts extend throughout American history: in the 19th century, Massachusetts was a center of abolitionism, having been the first state to abolish slavery by law.

Austin, TX. Two of these governors, Paul Cellucci and Jane Swift took office when their predecessors resigned to take other positions. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. Although Republicans have held the governor's office continuously from 1991 to the present, many of these (especially William Weld, the first of the recent lineage of Republican governors) are considered among the most moderate or progressive Republicans in the nation. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. Congress. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003). state represented by one party in the U.S.

Ice Magazine, (179). It is the home of the Kennedy family of political fame, and routinely votes for the Democratic Party in federal elections. As of 2004, it is by far the largest U.S. MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). Massachusetts has a reputation as being a politically liberal state, and is often used as an archetype of liberalism in the U.S. (February 2002). The most populated part of western Massachusetts is the "Pioneer Valley", alongside the Connecticut River, which flows across Western Massachusetts from north to south. ^  Dube, Ric. Western Massachusetts is more rural and sparsely populated, especially in the Berkshires, the branch of the Appalachian Mountains which forms the western border of the state.

^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002). Most of the population of the Boston metropolitan area (approximately 5,800,000) does not live in the city; eastern Massachusetts on the whole is fairly densely populated and largely suburban. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000). Boston is the largest city, located at the inmost point of Massachusetts Bay, at the mouth of the Charles River, the longest river entirely within Massachusetts. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002). A few cities and towns on the Massachusetts–Rhode Island border are also adjacent to Narragansett Bay. 2002). Massachusetts is known as the Bay State because of the several large bays that give its coastline its distinctive shape: Massachusetts Bay and Cape Cod Bay on the state's east coast, and Buzzards Bay to the south.

3d 1091 (9th Cir. The islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket lie to the south of Cape Cod. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. At the southeastern corner of the state is a large, sandy, arm-shaped peninsula called Cape Cod. Mar. Massachusetts is bordered on the north by New Hampshire and Vermont, on the west by New York, on the south by Connecticut and Rhode Island, and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Massachusetts is commonly referred to by residents both as "the state" and as "the Commonwealth." For example, on March 22, 2005, one Boston Globe story said that opponents of a proposal saw it as "burdening the state with more law schools than it needs," while another published the same day noted that "the Commonwealth faces difficult spending choices.".

^  2001 US Dist. In his "Life and Works", Adams wrote: "There is, however, a peculiar sense in which the words republic, commonwealth, popular state, are used by English and French writers, who mean by them a democracy, a government in one centre, and that centre a single assembly, chosen at stated periods by the people and invested with the whole sovereignty, the whole legislative, executive and judicial power to be included in a body or by committees as they shall think proper." Source: [1] (http://www.sec.state.ma.us/cis/cismaf/mf1a.htm). Press Release. In this draft, Part Two of the Constitution, under the heading "Frame of Government", states, "that the people...form themselves into a free, sovereign, and independent body politic, or state by the name of The Commonwealth of Massachusetts." The first draft of the Constitution, and all acts and resolves up to 1780, had used the name "State of Massachusetts Bay"; but since the adoption of the second draft of the Constitution the state has always been referred to as The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). The name "Commonwealth" for Massachusetts can be traced to the second draft of the state Constitution, written by John Adams and accepted by the people in 1780. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). There may have been some anti-monarchic sentiment informing the use of the word Commonwealth, which was also used to mean 'republic'.

^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000). In the era leading up to 1780, when the state Constitution was ratified, the word Commonwealth was the preferred term among political writers for a whole body of people constituting a nation or state. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999). federal government's use of the term "commonwealth" to refer to the status of certain insular areas such as Puerto Rico. 2001). states that use the name "Commonwealth"; the others are Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Kentucky; this is distinct from the U.S. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. It is one of four U.S.

Cal. Massachusetts is officially termed "the Commonwealth of Massachusetts" (rather than "State") by its constitution. 2d 896 (N.D. Retrieved March 24, 2005)
* Celebrated only in Suffolk County (Boston, Chelsea, Revere, Winthrop). Supp. Secretary of the Commonwealth Massachusetts web page (http://www.sec.state.ma.us/cis/cismaf/mf1a.htm). v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. (Galvin, William F., (2005).

^  A & M Records, Inc. Whenever a holiday falls on a Sunday it is observed on the following Monday. Constitution, Amendments, Article CXX (November, 1990). Mass. 1.

Massachusetts currently has no death penalty. Felons currently imprisoned, however, may not vote1. Also unlike many other states, Massachusetts does not prohibit ex-felons from voting. Most states distinguish between felonies and misdemeanors.

In Massachusetts, contrary to most states, a felon is any person serving prison time, and a felony is any crime whose convinction carries with it a prison sentence. They are made up of 282 chapters. The laws of Massachusetts are created by the Great and General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the Commonwealth's elected bicameral legislative body, and are interpreted by the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts. The state legislature is formally styled the "Great and General Court of the Commonwealth"; the highest court is the "Supreme Judicial Court".

senators are Edward Kennedy (Democrat) and John Kerry (Democrat); as of the 2001 redistricting, Massachusetts has ten seats in the United States House of Representatives (all Democratic). Massachusetts's two U.S. The state does not maintain an official governor's residence. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston and the governor of the state is Mitt Romney (Republican).

See: Massachusetts Constitution, List of Massachusetts Governors. See also: Basketball, Battle of Lexington and Concord, Battle of Bunker Hill, Christian Science, Moxie, Patriot's Day, Puritanism, Salem Witch Trials, Shays' Rebellion, Siege of Boston, Thanksgiving, Transcendentalism, Volleyball, and Western Massachusetts. Massachusetts contains many historic houses (See Historic houses in Massachusetts for more details). On March 15, 1820 the area of Maine was separated from Massachusetts, of which it had been a non-contiguous part, and entered the Union as a State in its own right.
[Credits (http://www.mass.gov/statehouse/massgovs_credits.htm)].

According to a 1790 census, Massachusetts had a zero population of slaves. On February 6, 1788 Massachusetts became the sixth state to ratify the United States Constitution. John Hancock was the first governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Today, it is the oldest functioning written constitution in the world.

"We, therefore, the people of Massachusetts, acknowledging, with grateful hearts, the goodness of the Great Legislator of the Universe, in affording us, in the course of His Providence, an opportunity, deliberately and peaceably, without fraud, violence or surprize, on entering into an Original, explicit, and Solemn Compact with each other; and of forming a new Constitution of Civil Government, for Ourselves and Posterity, and devoutly imploring His direction in so interesting a design, Do agree upon, ordain and establish, the following Declaration of Rights, and Frame of Government, as the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.". At that time, Adams along with Samuel Adams, and James Bowdoin wrote in the Preamble to the Constitution of the Commonwealth, 1780:. A Constitutional Convention drew up a Constitution drafted in the main by John Adams, and the people ratified it on June 15, 1780. Several early Revolutionary battles took place in Massachusetts, including the Battles of Lexington and Concord, (where the famous shot heard round the world was fired,) the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston.

In Boston on March 5, 1770, an African-American named Crispus Attucks, from Framingham, was killed at an event that became known as the Boston Massacre; Attucks is often considered the first casualty of the American Revolution. On February 9, 1775 the British Parliament declared Massachusetts to be in rebellion, and sent additional troops to restore order to the colony. Massachusetts was the first colony to revolt against British rule, and thus the instigator of the American Revolution. Gage was the last British governor of Massachusetts.

Notable governors during this period were Thomas Hutchinson, Sir Francis Bernard, and Thomas Gage. Andros was exonerated and went on to become Governor of Virginia (1692–98). Andros and his officials were held on Castle Island and then sent back to England as prisoners. At the news of the accession of William and Mary, the Boston colonials rebelled.

He established his authority later in New Hampshire and the King's Province (part of today's Rhode Island), maintaining this position until Sir Edmund Andros arrived to become the Royal Governor of the New England Dominion. Dudley continued on as a member of Governor Andros' council. In May of 1686, the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to an end, as Joseph Dudley became President of New England under a commission of King James II. It took many years for the colonies of southern New England to recover from the effects of the war. King Philip's War (1675-1676), the bloodiest Indian war of the early colonial period, included major campaigns in the Pioneer Valley and Plymouth Colony.

People such as Anne Hutchinson, Roger Williams, and Thomas Hooker left Massachusetts and went South because of the Puritans' lack of religious tolerance. Williams ended up founding the colony of Rhode Island and Hooker founded Connecticut. Although the Puritans came to Massachusetts for religious freedom, they were not tolerant of any other religion than theirs. They were soon followed by the Puritans, who established the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The Pilgrims established their settlement at Plymouth in 1620, arriving on the Mayflower.

Until 1691 when they merged, Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth Colony were separate colonies. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett, whose name means "a large hill place" in reference to a small mountain known today as "Blue Hill" (located in Milton, just south of Boston). Seven ships of the United States Navy have been named USS Massachusetts in honor of this state. The United States Postal Service abbreviation for Massachusetts is MA and its traditional abbreviation is Mass..

On December 18, 1990, the Legislature decided that the people of the Commonwealth would be designated as Bay Staters. Other nicknames are the Old Colony State, and less commonly the Puritan state and the Baked Bean state. Its nickame is the Bay State. Massachusetts (officially, The Commonwealth of Massachusetts) is a state in the New England region of the United States of America.

Worcester Tornadoes. Brockton Rox. North Shore Spirit. Lowell Spinners.

Minor League Baseball

    . Boston Cannons. Major League Lacrosse
      . New England Revolution.

      Major League Soccer

        . Boston Celtics. National Basketball Association
          . Springfield Falcons.

          Lowell Lock Monsters. Worcester IceCats. American Hockey League

            . Boston Bruins.

            National Hockey League

              . New England Patriots. National Football League
                . Boston Red Sox.

                Major League Baseball

                  . Non-Religious – 8%. Other Religions – 5% (Mostly Jewish). Other Christian – 1%.

                  Protestant – 27%. Roman Catholic – 54%. 2.3% Mixed race. 0.2% American Indian.

                  3.8% Asian. 5.4% Black. 6.8% Hispanic. 81.9% White.

                  Dubois. W.E.B. Paul Revere. Kerry, 2004 Democratic presidential candidate.

                  John F. Kennedy, 35th President of the US. John F. Kennedy.

                  Edward M. James Michael Curley, United States House of Representatives, Governor of Massachusetts, Mayor of Boston. Oliver Wendell Holmes, justice of the Supreme Court. John Hancock.

                  Benjamin Franklin. Michael Dukakis, former governor and 1988 Democratic presidential candidate. Calvin Coolidge, 30th President of the US. Bush, 41st President of the US.

                  W. George H. Anthony. Susan B.

                  Samuel Adams. John Quincy Adams, 6th President of the US. John Adams, 2nd President of the US.

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