Napster

For Napster, Inc. (formerly Roxio), and the paid Napster music service see Napster (pay service).
Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones.

Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname.

Origins

Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download.

At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer.

Legal challenges

Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it.

Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak)

At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange.

Shutdown

After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here".

Promotional power

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales.

By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power.

Final fate

After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success.

Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay)

In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Grokster, decision currently pending).

The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box.

Cultural references

In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name.

The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw)

References

  1. ^  A & M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Supp. 2d 896 (N.D. Cal. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001)
  2. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999)
  3. ^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000)
  4. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Press Release.
  5. ^  2001 US Dist. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Mar. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. 3d 1091 (9th Cir. 2002).
  6. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002)
  7. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000)
  8. ^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002)
  9. ^  Dube, Ric. (February 2002). MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). Ice Magazine, (179).
  10. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003)
  11. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. Austin, TX. March 16, 2004.

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This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw). The state hosts the following major league teams (called the Cactus league) for spring training:. The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. Arizona is a popular location for Major League Baseball spring training. In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name. For a complete list, see List of people from Arizona.. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box. Labor leader Cesar Estrada Chavez is from Yuma.

An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. Film director Steven Spielberg grew up in Scottsdale, as did Wonder Woman star Lynda Carter. The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. From the rock and roll world, both Alice Cooper and Stevie Nicks of Fleetwood Mac are from Phoenix; Linda Ronstadt is from Tucson. Grokster, decision currently pending). Famous Arizonans also include Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, author Zane Grey, former Governor and Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt, architect Frank Lloyd Wright, Presidential candidate (1964) and former Senator Barry Goldwater, Presidential candidate (2000) and Senior Republican Senator John McCain, former senator Carl Hayden and former Solicitor General Rex E. Lee . Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs.
.

Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Ranked by per capita income. In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Each city named in bold has a population greater than 100,000. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay). See: List of cities in Arizona, List of cities in Arizona (by population), List of Arizona counties. Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. There is also a significant Mormon population.

As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success. Four in five Arizonans are self-described Christians, with large numbers of both Catholics and Protestants living in the state. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. See also the list of Arizona Natives.. After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. 49.9% of the population is male, 50.1% is female. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power. As of 2000, 74.1% of Arizona residents age 5 and older speak English at home and 19.5% speak Spanish. Navajo is the third most spoken language at 1.9%, followed by Other Native North American languages at 0.6% and German at 0.5%.

The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. In 2003, for the first time, there were more Hispanic births in the state than white non-Hispanic births. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. Arizona is likely to become a minority-majority state by the year 2035 at the latest. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Only California has more Indians than Arizona, and Arizona has slightly more Indians than Oklahoma [1] (http://eire.census.gov/popest/data/states/ST-EST2002-ASRO-03.php). By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. 286,680 reportedly live in Arizona, this represents more than 10% of the country's total Indian population of 2,752,158.

As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales. According to 2003 Census esimates, Arizona has the second highest number of Native Americans of any state in the Union. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. The racial breakdown of the state is as follows:. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. As of 2003, Arizona had a population of 5,580,811 according Census Bureau estimates. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. High-tech employment was led by software and computers, with 34,314; electronics components manufacturing, 30,358; aerospace manufacturing, 25,641; architectural and engineering services, 21,378; telecommunications, 21,224; and instruments manufacturing, 13,056.

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. High-tech payroll in 2001 was $2.2 billion, or 14.7 percent of the private-sector total. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here". In 2001, 161,166 Arizonans were employed in the high-tech sector, accounting for about 8.3 percent of total private-sector employment of more than 1.9 million. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. Arizona lost much of its advantage as a high-technology industry leader between 1990 and 2001, according to a state Department of Commerce (http://www.commerce.state.az.us/) report. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. The state government is the state's largest employer, while Wal-Mart is the state's largest private employer, with 17,343 employees in 2003.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Copper is still produced in abundance from many giant open-pit mines and underground mines. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music. At one point Arizona was the largest producer of cotton in the country. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Its per capita income was $27,232, 39th in the United States. Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "five C's": copper, cotton, cattle, citrus and climate (i.e., tourism). In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. The 2003 total gross state product was $182 billion.

Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. It is rare for tornadoes to occur in Arizona. After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. The monsoons bring lightning, thunderstorms, wind and torrentious, if usually brief, evening downpours. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange. Monsoon season in Arizona is from the end of July through August. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Extreme cold temperatures are not unknown, cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state bringing temperatures below -20C ( subzero Fahrenheit) temperatures in the higher parts of the state.

These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. However, the northern third of Arizona is a plateau at signficantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. Due to the primarily dry climate, large temperature swings often occur between day and night temperatures, with temperature swings as large as 10 C (50 F) in the summer months. At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. The summer months of May through August bring a dry, heat ranging from 35 to 40 degrees Celsius (the high 90-100s), with occasional high temperatures exceeding 50C (125 F) have been observed in the desert area. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak). About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise again with sunny warm days, and cool breezy nights.

The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. November through February are the coldest months with temperatures typically ranging from 4 - 24 degrees Celsius (40-75 degrees Fahrenheit), although occasional frosts are not uncommon. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of 15 degrees Celsius (60 degrees Fahrenheit). This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. In the lower elevations, the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and hot summers. Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. Due to its large area and variations in elevation, the state has a wide variety of climates.

Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it. Several major Hollywood films, such as U-Turn, Waiting to Exhale, and Bill and Ted's Excellent Adventure have been made there (as indeed have many Westerns). Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. Many tourist souvenirs produced in Arizona or by its residents display immediately characteristic images, such as sunsets, coyotes, and desert plants. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer. Sedona and Tubac are known as budding artist colonies, and small arts scenes exist in the larger cities and near the state universities. Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. The state is a recognized center of Native American art, with a number of galleries such as the Heard Museum showcasing historical and contemporary works.

People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). Arizona has witnessed a continuous string of dancing and performing groups of many ethnicities. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. Nearly 2 billion years of the Earth's history has been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateaus have uplifted. At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. The canyon, created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over millions of years, is about 277 mile (446 km) long, ranges in width from 6 to 29 kilometers (4 to 18 miles) and attains a depth of more than 1,6 km (1 mile). The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of the Grand Canyon area, visiting on numerous occasions to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the breathtaking scenery.

Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. The canyon is one of the seven natural wonders of the world and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon National Park - one of the first national parks in the United States. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. The Grand Canyon is a colorful, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River, in northern Arizona. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. The Mogollon Rim, a 600-meters (2000-foot) escarpment, cuts across the central section of the state and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau, where the state experienced its worst forest fire ever in 2002. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. More than half of the state features mountains and plateaus and contains the largest stand of Ponderosa pine in the United States.

John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. Like other states of the Southwest, Arizona has an abundance of topographical characteristics in addition to its desert climes. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. Arizona gained two seats in the House of Representatives due to redistricting based on Census 2000. Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. Hayworth (R-5), Jeff Flake (R-6), Raul Grijalva (D-7), and Jim Kolbe (R-8). The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname. Arizona's representatives in the United States House of Representatives are Rick Renzi (R-1), Trent Franks (R-2), John Shadegg (R-3), Ed Pastor (D-4), J.D.

Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. The two Arizona US Senators are Senator John McCain (Republican) and Senator Jon Kyl (Republican). Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. She has been governor since 2003. See:List of Arizona Governors. Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. The current Governor of Arizona is Janet Napolitano, a Democrat. March 16, 2004. The governor may serve any number of terms, though no more than two in a row.

Austin, TX. Arizona's executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. However, no more than four terms may be served consecutively. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. Arizona state senators and representatives are elected for two year terms and there are no terms limits. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003). The executive budget has allocated money to previously passed legislation.

Ice Magazine, (179). Besides the money spent on state agencies, money has also been allocated for tax cuts, pay raises for government employees, and health insurance for government employees. MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). The 2002 budget of the Arizona state legislature was $14.3 billion, while the executive budget was $13.8 billion. (February 2002). The majority party is the Republican party, which has held power since 1950. ^  Dube, Ric. Arizona's legislature consists of a thirty-member Senate and a 60-member House of Representatives.

^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002). See: List of Congressmen. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000). Arizona was admitted into the Union on February 14, 1912. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002). The site was purchased after the war by the Maytag family, and is currently the Phoenix Zoo. 2002). Arizona was also the site of a German and Italian prisoner of war camp during WWII.

3d 1091 (9th Cir. With the encouragement of Brigham Young, Mormons went to Arizona from Utah in the mid to late 1800s to the Phoenix Valley (or "Valley of the Sun"), Mesa, Tempe, Prescott, Snowflake, Heber, and many other Arizona towns to settle there. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. Arizona was administered as part of the Territory of New Mexico until it was organized into a separate territory on February 24, 1863. Mar. In 1853 the land below the Gila River was acquired from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. The United States took possession of most of Arizona at the end of the Mexican War in 1848.

^  2001 US Dist. All of what is now Arizona became part of Mexico's northwest frontier upon the Mexican assertion of independence from Spain in 1810. Press Release. Father Kino developed a chain of missions and taught the Indians Christianity in Pimería Alta (now southern Arizona and northern Sonora) in the 1690's and early 1700's. Spain founded fortified towns (presidios) at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Coronado's expedition entered the area in 1540–42 during its search for Cibola. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Beyond its original native inhabitants, Marcos de Niza, a Franciscan, explored the area in 1539.

^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000). USS Arizona was named in honor of this state. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999). Three possible derivations are:. 2001). Historians disagree about the origin of the name "Arizona" and its attachment to the region. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. Besides the Grand Canyon, a number of other National Forests, Parks, Monuments, and Indian reservations are located in the state.

Cal. Its major cities are Phoenix, Tucson, Yuma, and Flagstaff. 2d 896 (N.D. It is also the name of a US Battleship, the USS Arizona. Supp. It is one of the Four Corners states, south and east of the Colorado River, bordering New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California and Mexico, and touching Colorado. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Arizona was the 48th state admitted to the United States and is part of the Southwest United States.

^  A & M Records, Inc. Texas Rangers in Surprise. Seattle Mariners in Peoria. San Francisco Giants in Scottsdale. San Diego Padres in Peoria.

Oakland Athletics in Phoenix. Milwaukee Brewers in Phoenix. Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim in Tempe. Kansas City Royals in Surprise.

Colorado Rockies in Tucson. Chicago White Sox in Tucson. Chicago Cubs in Mesa. Arizona Diamondbacks in Tucson.

Phoenix Suns (National Basketball Association). Phoenix Mercury (Women's National Basketball Association). Phoenix Coyotes (National Hockey League). Arizona Sting (National Lacrosse League).

Arizona Rattlers (Arena Football League). Arizona Diamondbacks (Major League Baseball). Arizona Cardinals (National Football League). Arizona Music Educators Association.

Western International University. University of Phoenix. Thunderbird - The Garvin School of International Management. Southwestern College.

Prescott College. Grand Canyon University. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. DeVry University, Phoenix.

Collins College, Tempe. American Indian College of the Assemblies of God. Northland Pioneer College. Arizona Western College.

South Mountain Community College. Mohave Community College. Cochise College. Prescott College.

Yavapai Community College. Eastern Arizona College. Pima Community College. South Mountain Community College.

Scottsdale Community College. Rio Salado Community College. Phoenix College. Paradise Valley Community College.

Mesa Community College. Glendale Community College. GateWay Community College. Estrella Mountain Community College.

Chandler-Gilbert Community College. Northern Arizona University. University of Arizona. Arizona State University.

18% No Religion. 2% Non-Christian religions. 6% Mormon. 25% Other Protestants.

4% Lutheran. 5% Methodist. 9% Baptist. 43% Protestant

    .

    31% Catholic. 80% Christian

      . 2.9% mixed race. 1.8% Asian.

      3.1% Black. 5% American Indian. 25.3% Hispanic. 63.8% White non-Hispanic.

      Lowest Point: Colorado River - 70 ft. near Flagstaff. Highest Point: Humphreys Peak - 12,633 ft. Largest City: Phoenix.

      In 1736, a small silver-mining camp called "Real Arissona" by the Spanish was established near Arizonac. Nahuatl word "arizuma" ("silver bearing"). Spanish words "árida zona" ("arid zone"). As the maps were republished and circulated in Europe, the name Arizona became attached to the whole northern part of New Spain.

      Later in the mid 18th century Spanish missionaries changed Father Eusebio Francisco Kino's maps of the area; they renamed the town Arizonac as Arizona. The O'odham "l" is a voiced alveolar lateral fricative, which might sound to a Spanish or English speaker like an "r" sound. Historically, it may have been "alĭ son" or even "alĭ sona". Arizonac is a small town about 12 km/eight miles south of the United States-Mexican border.

      O'odham words "alĭ ṣon" ("small spring"), actually the name of a town which is called "Arizonac" in English.

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