Napster

For Napster, Inc. (formerly Roxio), and the paid Napster music service see Napster (pay service).
Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones.

Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname.

Origins

Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download.

At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer.

Legal challenges

Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it.

Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak)

At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange.

Shutdown

After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here".

Promotional power

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales.

By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power.

Final fate

After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success.

Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay)

In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Grokster, decision currently pending).

The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box.

Cultural references

In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name.

The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw)

References

  1. ^  A & M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Supp. 2d 896 (N.D. Cal. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001)
  2. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999)
  3. ^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000)
  4. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Press Release.
  5. ^  2001 US Dist. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Mar. 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. 3d 1091 (9th Cir. 2002).
  6. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002)
  7. ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000)
  8. ^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002)
  9. ^  Dube, Ric. (February 2002). MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). Ice Magazine, (179).
  10. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003)
  11. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. Austin, TX. March 16, 2004.

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This has also been extended to Friendster, a site which vaguely recalls Napster's community-building features.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blogster), [11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_sxsw). Some counties do not have public transport at all, for example Eureka County. The suffix "-ster" has become a popular component of the brand names of many internet products, suggesting a peer-to-peer model, such as Grokster, Aimster (later Madster), Blubster. There are also bus services in Reno/Sparks, and from there to Carson City. In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, a flashback depicts Shawn Fanning stealing the program from a computer expert played by Seth Green while the latter is napping, depicting a humorous folk etymology of the name. McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas is one of the busiest airports in the United States. In a very real sense, Shawn Fanning can be called the man who opened a Pandora's Box. Las Vegas has a bus network, and a monorail system that is being extended.

An emerging and cryptographically strong third generation of P2P protocols will likely be nearly impossible to interdict. Greyhound Lines also provides some bus services. The ever-widening availability of broadband has made file sharing even more prevalent, since with increasing download speeds mean the distribution of entire movies and other large files is possible. Amtrak provides bus services from Las Vegas to Needles, California and Los Angeles ([2] (http://www.amtrak.com/timetable/oct04/P03.pdf)). Grokster, decision currently pending). [1] (http://www.amtrak.com/timetable/oct04/P05.pdf) Burlington Northern Santa Fe has trackage rights to the Union Pacific lines in the north. Designed as decentralized networks, these have been much more challenging for copyright owners to pursue in the courts (see MGM vs. Amtrak's California Zephyr uses one of the northern branches in a daily service from Chicago to Emeryville, CA serving Elko, Winnemucca, Sparks, and Reno.

Unofficial Napster servers proliferated, aided by a program known as "Napigator", and a second generation of P2P protocols (including FastTrack and Gnutella) were quickly developed. Union Pacific Railroad has some railroads in the north and in the south (map (http://www.uprr.com/aboutup/usguide/usa-nv-m.shtml)). In the meantime, the peer-to-peer filesharing (or P2P) trend Napster started soon resumed, with new programs and networks picking up the torch. However, American versions are usually smaller, in part because they must ascend and descend some fairly steep mountain passes. The years between Napster's demise and the emergence of the iTunes Music Store as the first popular pay-service were squandered as the five major labels bickered amongst themselves, launching the user-unfriendly, restrictive, and mutually incompatible subscription services Pressplay and MusicNet.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_musicnetpressplay). The state is one of just a few in the country that allow semi-trailer combinations with three trailers—what might be called a "road train" in Australia. Although the central servers used by Napster made it a convenient legal target, the record industry failed to capitalize on the power vacuum left in its wake. There are also 189 Nevada State Highways.

As of 2005, this new service has met with moderate success. Nevada also is served by several federal highways: US-6, US-50, US-93, US-95 and US-395. which used them to rebrand the Pressplay music service as Napster 2.0. It has a spur route, I-580. After a 2.4 million dollar offer by the Private Media Group, an "adult entertainment company",[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_porn) Napster's brand and logos were acquired at bankruptcy auction by the company Roxio, Inc. Interstate 80 crosses through the northern part of Nevada, reaching from Utah in the east and passing westward through Reno and into California. In the absence of any other force that could account for this success Menta declared this was proof that Napster was a promotional power. It has spur routes I-215 and I-515.

The record beat out the CDs of some of the most heavily marketed artists of the time including Madonna and Eminem. Interstate 15 passes through the southern tip of the state, serving Las Vegas and other communities. Kid A not only broke the top 20, it captured the number one spot on the charts in its debut week. Ranked by per capita income. The record industry braced for the worst, but then came the big surprise. Area 51 is supposedly located in Groom Lake, near Nellis Air Force Base. By the time of the record's release Kid A had been downloaded by millions of people worldwide. Nevada is also the home of Area 51, the top-secret installation the Government has always denied existed.

As Richard Menta of MP3 Newswire described,[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_kida) it was a perfect vehicle to test this theory as the effect of Napster was isolated from other elements that could be credited for driving sales. The largest city is Las Vegas. Furthermore, it was an experimental album that received little promotion and almost no radio airplay. The three largest Protestant denominations in Nevada are: Baptist (8% of the total state population), Methodist (6%), Lutheran (6%). Unlike Madonna, Radiohead never hit the top 20 in the US. The religious affiliations of the citizens of Nevada are:. Proof may have come in April 2000 when tracks from Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the CD's release. Females made up approximately 50.7% of the population.

With all the accusations that Napster was destroying the record industry there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster actually stimulated, rather than hurt, sales. 6.8% of its population were reported as under 5, 26.3% under 18, and 13.6% were 65 or older. bankruptcy laws.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_blocked) Most of the Napster staff were laid off, and the website changed to display "Napster was here". The 5 largest ancestry groups in Nevada are: German (14.1%), Irish (11%), English (10.1%), Italian (6.6%), American (4.8%). On September 3, 2002, an American bankruptcy judge blocked the sale to Bertelsmann and forced Napster to liquidate its assets according to Chapter 7 of the U.S. The racial makeup of the state is:. Pursuant to terms of that agreement, on June 3 Napster filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy laws. According to the Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Nevada was 2,241,154.

On May 17, 2002, Napster announced that its assets would be acquired by German media firm Bertelsmann AG for $8 million. Nevada is the only state with legalized prostitution: see prostitution in Nevada. Napster 3.0 was, according to many former Napster employees, ready to deploy, but it had significant trouble obtaining licenses to distribute major-label music. Large, luxurious casinos in Las Vegas, Lake Tahoe and Reno attract visitors from around the world. A prototype solution was tested in the spring of 2002: the Napster 3.0 Alpha, using audio fingerprinting technology licensed from Relatable. It is well-known for gambling and nightlife. In order to pay those fees, Napster attempted to convert their free service to a subscription system. Its industrial outputs are tourism, mining, machinery, printing and publishing, food processing, and electric equipment.

Napster agreed to pay music creators and copyright owners a $26 million settlement for past, unauthorized uses of music, as well as an advance against future licensing royalties of $10 million. Its agricultural outputs are cattle, hay, dairy products, and potatoes. After a failed appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court, an injunction was issued on March 5, 2001 ordering Napster to prevent the trading of copyrighted music on its network.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_injunction) In July 2001, Napster shut down its entire network in order to comply with the injunction. On September 24, 2001, the case was partially settled. Per capital personal income in 2003 was $31,910, 19th in the nation. Similarly, many supporters of Napster were concerned about the media's constant use of the word "site" to describe the service, a word which seems to imply that Napster was distributing files itself rather than facilitating their exchange. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (http://www.bea.gov/) estimates that Nevada's total state product in 2003 was $88 billion. Many argued that any attempt to shut down Napster would simply lead to people using a different medium to exchange files over the Internet. See also list of mountain ranges of Nevada.
.

These users viewed Napster as a simple search engine. The northern and central portions of Nevada are mostly within the Great Basin Desert, while portions of the southern tip are within the Mojave Desert. To them, it seemed that file sharing was inevitable on the Internet, and it was not Napster's fault that people used the service to share copyrighted files. Nevada is a land of rugged, snow-capped mountains, grassy valleys and sandy deserts. At the time, the lawsuit puzzled Napster users and supporters. It is in a mountain region that includes semiarid grasslands and sandy deserts, and is the most arid (dry) state in the nation. Later that year, Madonna became irate when one of her singles leaked out on to the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_madonna) Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_peak). The border with Arizona includes the Colorado River and Hoover Dam.

The lawsuit was a failure, but 300,000 Napster users were banned from the service for sharing Metallica mp3s. Nevada has borders with Oregon and Idaho to the north, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. The band responded in 2000 by filing a lawsuit against the Napster service. Heterosexuals only have to be 14 while homosexuals must be at least 21. This eventually led to the song being played on several radio stations across America. Nevada is currently the only state that has different ages of consent for homosexuals and heterosexuals. Heavy metal band Metallica discovered that a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the Napster network. Most people outside the state are not familiar with this rivalry.

Soon millions of users, many of them college students, flocked to it. This has fostered resentment as the north sees the south as a potential bully of majority rule and the south sees the north as the "old guard" trying to rule as an oligarchy. Napster's facilitation of illegal activity raised the ire of several major recording companies, who almost immediately — in December 1999 — filed a lawsuit against the popular service,[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_amrecords) already called a "a huge grassroots effort" by MP3 Newswire.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster#endnote_grassroots) The service would only get bigger as the trial, meant to shut down Napster, also gave it a great deal of publicity. The north has long maintained control of key positions in the state government even while the Las Vegas area is many times larger than Washoe County. With the files obtained through Napster, people frequently made their own compilation albums on recordable CDs for free, without paying any royalties to the artist/composer or the estate of the artist/composer. Due to the tremendous growth of Las Vegas in recent years, there is a noticeable divide between politics of Northern Nevada and Southern Nevada. Napster also enabled people to obtain older songs, copies of music they had already paid for in another format, unreleased recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. senators are Harry Reid (Democrat) and John Ensign (Republican).

People praised Napster because it enabled them to obtain hit songs without having to buy an entire album (or indeed, pay at all). Nevada's two U.S. Many people said that albums contained only one or two good songs, along with many low-quality "filler" songs. Nevada's capital is Carson City and its governor is Kenny Guinn (Republican). At the time Napster was released, there was a general perception that the quality of new albums had decreased. A fictional history (with a great deal of fact) titled Nevada was written by Clint McCullough. The result was a system whose popularity generated a large selection of music to download. At the time, the leading proponents of gambling expected that it would be a short term fix until the state's economic base widened to include less cyclical industries, however re-outlawing gambling has never been seriously considered since.

Although there were already media which facilitated the sharing of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Hotline, and USENET, Napster specialized exclusively in music in the form of MP3 files and presented a friendly user-interface. Due to a sharp decline in mining output in the 1920s and the decline of the agricultural sector during the Great Depression, Nevada re-legalized gambling in 1931. This is very similar to how instant messaging systems work. Gambling was common in the early Nevada mining towns, but was outlawed in 1909 as part of a nation-wide anti-gaming crusade. It was the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems, although it was not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines. The deficiencies in the Homestead Act as applied to Nevada were probably due to a lack of understanding of the Nevada environment, although some firebrands (so-called "Sagebrush Rebels") maintain that it was due to pressure from mining interests to keep land out of the hands of common folk. The final documents gave Shawn 30% control of the company, with the rest going to his uncle. Instead, early settlers would homestead land surrounding a water source, and then graze livestock on the adjacent public land, which is useless for agriculture without access to water (this pattern of ranching still prevails).

John Fanning of Hull, Massachusetts, who is Shawn's uncle, helped him incorporate the company. The primary reason for this is that homesteads were not permitted in large enough sizes to be viable in the arid conditions that prevail throughout Nevada. Fanning wanted an easier method of finding music than by searching IRC or Lycos. Despite Nevada being the third oldest western state, it is referred to as the "Permanent Colony" as over 87% of the land is owned by the Federal Government. Shawn Fanning first released the original Napster in the fall of 1999. Congress. The service was named Napster after Fanning's nickname. This deal will require the permission of both the Nevada and Utah legislatures and the U.S.

Its technology allowed music fans to easily share MP3 format song files with each other, thus leading to the music industry's accusations of massive copyright violations. Although the original service was shut down by court order, it paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs, which have been much harder to control. Negotiations are currently underway for Nevada to annex Wendover, Utah, which would be merged with West Wendover, Nevada. Napster was the first widely-used peer-to-peer music sharing service, and it made a major impact on how people, especially college students, used the Internet. This area includes most of what is now Clark County, Nevada. Napster is an online music service which was originally a file sharing service created by Shawn Fanning. The transfer was prompted by the discovery of gold in the area, and it was thought that Nevada would be better able to oversee the expected population boom. March 16, 2004. Nevada achieved its current boundaries on May 5, 1866 when it absorbed the portion of Pah-Ute County in the Arizona Territory west of the Colorado River.

Austin, TX. As Nevada's mining-based economy tied it to the more industrialized Union, it was viewed as politically reliable (as opposed to the more agrarian and Confederate-sympathizing California). SXSW Interactive Keynote Speech (http://blog.fastcompany.com/archives/2004/03/16/what_the_heck_is_social_networking.html#more). South by Southwest Festival. Statehood was rushed through despite Nevada's tiny population to help ensure Abraham Lincoln's reelection and post-Civil War Republican dominance in congress. ^  Abrams, Jonathan. On October 31, 1864, just eight days prior to the presidential election, Nevada became the 36th state in the union. ^  Grimmelmann, James: "Blogster (http://www.laboratorium.net/archives/Blogster.html)", The Laboratorium, (July 18, 2003). On March 2, 1861, Nevada separated from the Utah territory and adopted its current name, shortened from Sierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy range").

Ice Magazine, (179). This discovery brought a flood of miners, prospectors, merchants and others hoping to strike it rich. MusicNet, PressPlay Fall Short (http://www.icemagazine.com/digital/dd_179.shtm). 1859 saw the discovery of the Comstock Lode, a rich outcropping of gold and silver, and Virginia City sprang up. (February 2002). In 1850, the US Congress established the Utah territory which included the present day states of Utah, Idaho and Nevada. ^  Dube, Ric. Several United States Navy ships have been named USS Nevada in honor of the state.

^  "Porn company offers to buy Napster (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-957784.html?tag=fd_top)", CNET News.com, (September 12, 2002). (Residents often regard the pronunciation as a test of whether visitors such as presidential candidates, have informed themselves about the state.). ^  Menta, Richard: "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1? (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/2000/radiohead.html)", MP3 Newswire, (October 28, 2000). Despite the name's derivation from the Spanish word nevada meaning "snowy", the local pronunciation of the state's name is not "Ne-vah-da"; the middle syllable has a short a sound as in cat or hat. ^  Evangelista, Benny: "Napster runs out of lives – judge rules against sale (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/04/BU138263.DTL)", San Francisco Chronicle, (September 4, 2002). The phrase "Battle Born" is on the state flag; "The Battle Born State" is the official state slogan, as Nevada was admitted into the union during the American Civil War. 2002). The state song is "Home Means Nevada" by Bertha Rafetto.

3d 1091 (9th Cir. Nevada's nickname is "The Silver State" and the state's motto is "All for Our Country". 5, 2001), aff’d, 284 F. Between 1990 and 2000, Nevada's population increased 66.3%, while the USA's population increased 13.1%. Mar. Between 2000 and 2003, Nevada's population increased 12.2%, while the USA's population increased 3.3%. LEXIS 2186 (N.D. Cal. Nevada is the fastest growing state in the country.

^  2001 US Dist. The population as of July 2004 was estimated to be 2,334,771, up nearly 17% from the 2000 census figure of 1,998,257. Press Release. Nevada is a state located in the western United States. Global Napster Usage Plummets, But New File-Sharing Alternatives Gaining Ground (http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?id=249). Brandon Flowers vocalist of Indie rock band, The Killers. ^  Jupiter Media Metrix (July 20, 2001). Barry Zito Major League Baseball player.

^  Borland, John: "Unreleased Madonna Single Slips On To Net (http://news.com.com/2100-1023-241341.html?legacy=cnet)", CNET News.com, (June 1, 2000). Steve Wynn casino owner. ^  Menta, Richard: "RIAA Sues Music Startup Napster for $20 Billion (http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/napster.html)", MP3 Newswire, (December 9, 1999). Edna Purviance actress. 2001). Harry Reid Senate Minority Leader. 2000), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. Pat Nixon First Lady.

Cal. Greg Maddux Major League Baseball player. 2d 896 (N.D. Robert Laxalt writer. Supp. Paul Laxalt politician. v. Napster, Inc., 114 F. Jack Kramer tennis player.

^  A & M Records, Inc. Jenna Jameson adult film actress. Michael Chang tennis player. Walter van Tilburg Clark writer. Andre Agassi tennis player.

Las Vegas Wranglers, East Coast Hockey League. Las Vegas 51s, minor league baseball. Las Vegas Gladiators, Arena Football League. Western Nevada Community College.

Truckee Meadows Community College. Great Basin College. Community College of Southern Nevada. Nevada State College at Henderson.

University of Nevada, Reno. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. University and Community College System of Nevada

    . Sierra Nevada College.

    State trees: Single-leaf Piņon and Bristlecone_pine. State tartan: A particular tartan designed for Nevada by Richard Zygmunt Pawlowski. State soil: Orovada series. State rock: Sandstone.

    State reptile: Desert Tortoise. State song: "Home Means Nevada" by Bertha Raffetto. State semiprecious gemstone: Nevada turquoise. State precious gemstone: Virgin Valley black fire opal.

    State motto: "All for our country". State metal: Silver (Ag). State march: "Silver State Fanfare" by Gerald Wills. State grass: Indian ricegrass.

    State fossil: Ichthyosaur. State flower: Sagebrush. State fish: Lahontan Cutthroat Trout. State colors: Silver and Blue.

    State bird: Mountain Bluebird. State artifact: Tule Duck Decoy. State animal: Desert Bighorn Sheep. Laughlin, Nevada $21,097.

    Sparks, Nevada $21,122. Paradise, Nevada $21,258. Winnemucca, Nevada $21,441. Lemmon Valley-Golden Valley, Nevada $21,820.

    Smith Valley, Nevada $21,940. Las Vegas, Nevada $22,060. Goodsprings, Nevada $22,282. Reno, Nevada $22,520.

    Indian Hills, Nevada $23,027. Virginia City, Nevada $23,765. Johnson Lane, Nevada $24,247. Enterprise, Nevada $25,063.

    Spring Valley, Nevada $26,321. Henderson, Nevada $26,815. Spanish Springs, Nevada $26,908. Boulder City, Nevada $29,770.

    Minden, Nevada $30,405. Blue Diamond, Nevada $30,479. Summerlin South, Nevada $33,017. Zephyr Cove-Round Hill Village, Nevada $37,218.

    Verdi-Mogul, Nevada $38,233. Mount Charleston, Nevada $38,821. Kingsbury, Nevada $41,451. Incline Village-Crystal Bay, Nevada $52,521.

    Non-Religious – 15%. Other Religions – 2%. Other Christian – 10% (mostly Mormon). Roman Catholic – 24%.

    Protestant – 45%. 1.4% mixed race. 0.9% American Indian. 1.3% Asian.

    4% Black. 19.7% Hispanic. 65.2% White non-Hispanic.

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