Super Bowl

The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy.

In professional American football, the Super Bowl is the championship game of the National Football League (NFL) in the United States. The game and its ancillary festivities constitute Super Bowl Sunday (sometimes "Super Sunday"), which over the years has almost become a de facto American national holiday.

The game began in January 1967 as the AFL-NFL World Championship Game in which the NFL championship team played against the champion of the younger, rival American Football League (AFL) for the "World Championship of Professional Football". After both leagues merged in 1970, the Super Bowl became the NFL's championship game. Since then, the game has been played annually on a Sunday following the playoffs, originally early to mid-January, then late January, and in 2002, the first Sunday in February.

The Super Bowl is one of the most-watched American television broadcasts of the year, attracting many companies to spend millions of dollars on commercials. This has caused the starting time of the game to be pushed back later and later, to ensure the Sunday night prime time audience on the East Coast. The last true day game (which ended before local sunset) of the series was Super Bowl XI in January 1977.

In addition, many popular singers and musicians have performed during the Super Bowl's pre-game and halftime ceremonies. This is the largest U.S. food consumption day next to Thanksgiving.

History

Origins

The Super Bowl was created as part of the merger agreement between the National Football League (NFL) and its rival, the American Football League (AFL). After its inception in 1920, the NFL fended off several rival leagues before the AFL began play in 1960. The intense competitive war for players and fans led to serious merger talks between the two leagues in 1966.

One of the conditions of the AFL-NFL Merger was that the winners of each league's championship game would meet in a contest to determine the "world champion of football". According to NFL Films President Steve Sabol, Then NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle wanted to call the game "The Big One". [citation needed] During the discussions to iron out the details, AFL founder and Kansas City Chiefs owner Lamar Hunt had jokingly referred to the proposed interleague championship as the "Super Bowl." Hunt thought of the name after seeing his daughter playing with a toy called a Super Ball. The ball is now on display at the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The name was feasible because postseason college football games had long been known as "bowl games" (the term originates from the Rose Bowl Game, which was in turn named for the bowl-shaped stadium in which it is played). Hunt only meant his suggested name to be a stopgap until a better one could be found. Not having thought of one, the owners named the contest the AFL-NFL World Championship Game. Not surprisingly, fans and media tended to use the shorter, unofficial name. Starting with the third contest in January 1969, the name "Super Bowl" became official.

After the NFL's Green Bay Packers convincingly won the first two Super Bowls, some team owners feared for the future of the merger, since many doubted that AFL teams could compete with their NFL counterparts. That all changed with perhaps the biggest upset in American sports history, the AFL's New York Jets defeat of the Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III in Miami. One year later, the American Football League's Kansas City Chiefs defeated the NFL Minnesota Vikings 23-7 and won Super Bowl IV in New Orleans, the last World Championship game played between the champions of two leagues.

When the NFL and AFL merged into one combined league for the 1970 season, three NFL teams joined the 10 AFL teams to form the American Football Conference (AFC), and the other 13 teams became the National Football Conference (NFC). Since then, the Super Bowl has featured the champions of the AFC and NFC. As of Super Bowl XL, former AFL teams have won 11 Super Bowls, pre-1970 NFL teams have won 23 games, and two games have been won by teams created after 1970.

The NFL commissioner at that time, Pete Rozelle, is often considered the mastermind of both the merger and the Super Bowl. His leadership guided them into the merger agreement and cemented the preeminence of the Super Bowl. The game remains his crowning achievement and was an important factor in him being selected by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century.

The winning team gets the Vince Lombardi Trophy, named for the coach of the Green Bay Packers, who won the first two Super Bowl games. Following his death in September 1970, the trophy was named the Vince Lombardi Trophy, first awarded at Super Bowl V in Miami.

Television coverage

By any measure, the Super Bowl is one of the most watched television programs of the year. The game tends to have high Nielsen television ratings which usually come in around a 40 rating and 60 share (i.e., on average, 40 percent of all U.S. households, and 60 percent of all homes tuned into television during the game). This means that on average, 80 to 90 million Americans are tuned into the Super Bowl at any given moment. It is also estimated that 130-140 million tune into some part of the game.

There is a popular urban myth regarding the Super Bowl — that the game is watched in 234 countries by 1 billion people [1], a fact unlikely to be true considering the time of the event, and the lack of popularity American Football has outside of the United States. In actual fact, Super Bowl XXXIX in 2005 was watched by 93 million viewers in total, of which 98 percent were in North America [2]. Approximately half of the remaining 2 million worldwide viewers watched from the United Kingdom. [3]

Given the immense popularity of the Super Bowl, it may be surprising to discover that videotapes of the telecasts of the first two Super Bowls are said not to exist. This is especially shocking for Super Bowl I, which was covered by both NBC and CBS. According to Sports Illustrated, the only footage of the first telecast known to exist is a two minute clip of the first game.[citation needed] From the early days of television into the 1960s, copies of TV broadcasts were routinely erased, mainly because nobody thought anyone would want to watch the same show they had just seen. Another reason was that videotape in those days was prohibitively expensive. (Merv Griffin once said that a ninety-minute blank tape cost $750. [citation needed]) According to Steve Sabol, both networks taped soap operas over the game tapes, which are presumably lost forever. [citation needed] But the NFL has put out a $1,000,000 bounty on either one of the tapes, and experts say that there is still a chance that one of the network affiliates taped the game off the live feed and saved it. [citation needed] According to NFL Films...these are the ultimate Lost Treasures. [citation needed]

The highest rated game according to Nielsen was Super Bowl XVI in 1982 which was watched in 49.1% of households (73 share) or 40,020,000 households at the time. Super Bowl XVI is #4 on Nielsen's list of top-rated programs of all time, and 3 other Super Bowls (XII, XVII, XX) made the top 10. [4] Although the proliferation of cable and satellite television has undercut broadcast ratings somewhat in recent years, the game is still so popular that a number of networks actually schedule original programming, such as independently produced halftime entertainment, during the game, simply to take advantage of a large audience already in front of the television.

Following Apple Computer's 1984 commercial introducing the Apple Macintosh computer, directed by Ridley Scott, the broadcast of the Super Bowl became the premier showcase for high concept or simply extravagantly expensive commercials. Famous commercial campaigns include the Budweiser "Bud Bowl" campaign, and the 1999 and 2000 dot-com ads. Prices have increased each year, with reports citing a record $2.5 million (US) for a 30 second spot during Super Bowl XL in 2006. Many people tune in to the Super Bowl solely to watch the very creative commercials.

In recent years, the NFL has denied the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority the opportunity to run Super Bowl ads for the city as a tourist destination. The ban includes the game, as well as the pre-game and post-game shows. Many groups are denied the chance to run Super Bowl ads on various grounds, but Las Vegas is the only city to be denied in such a fashion; the NFL has stated that it does not want the Super Bowl to be associated with the perception of Las Vegas as a gambling mecca. If the television show Las Vegas stays on the air when NBC gets their next Super Bowl Broadcast (which will be Super Bowl XLIII in 2009), they may not be allowed to promote the series during the entire block of programming. [5]

Coverage by American television networks

The television network showing the game changes from year to year. In the United States it is currently shared among three of the four major television networks: ABC, CBS, and FOX. Super Bowl XXXVIII was shown on CBS, Super Bowl XXXIX was shown on FOX, and Super Bowl XL was shown on ABC, which will be the final NFL game broadcast on that network for the foreseeable future.

With the new television contracts beginning in 2006, NBC, which last telecast Super Bowl XXXII in 1998, will take ABC's place in the network rotation starting with Super Bowl XLIII in 2009.

Entertainment

Because of the large number of viewers that the Super Bowl generates, a number of popular singers and musicians have performed during its pregame ceremonies, the halftime show, or even just singing the national anthem of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner". Super Bowl XL in 2006 featured Stevie Wonder, Joss Stone, and John Legend during the pregame ceremonies; Aaron Neville, Aretha Franklin, and Dr. John performed the national anthem; and The Rolling Stones played during the halftime show.

In 2004, it was during halftime at Super Bowl XXXVIII that Janet Jackson had her now-infamous wardrobe malfunction after Justin Timberlake ripped off a piece of her top, exposing her right breast with a star-like ring surrounding the nipple. Many conspiracy theorists think that this was done intentionally to get everyone's attention, possibly so that Janet could get the attention away from her brother Michael Jackson, who was facing child molestation charges at the time. Timberlake and Jackson have maintained that the incident was unintentional, hence the term "wardrobe malfunction". It also didn't help matters that the game was airing on CBS, and their then-corporate sister company within Viacom, MTV, produced the halftime show. The NFL, embarrassed from the incident, permanently banned MTV from doing another halftime show in any capacity. This also led to the FCC cracking down on indecency and fining CBS $225,000 for the incident, as well as fining each of CBS's then twenty owned and operated stations. The following year, the NFL chose Paul McCartney to perform at halftime of Super Bowl XXXIX. True to the hopes of the NFL and the networks, McCartney turned in an enjoyable but uncontroversial performance.

Venue

The location of the Super Bowl is chosen by the NFL well in advance, usually 3 to 5 years before the game. Cities compete to host the game in a selection bidding process similar to ones used by the Olympic Games and soccer's World Cup.

Over half of the Super Bowls have been played in one of the following three cities: New Orleans, Louisiana (9 times), Miami, Florida (8 times) and the Greater Los Angeles Area (7 total, 5 times at Pasadena's Rose Bowl stadium and twice at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum). Miami has been selected to host two future games: Super Bowl XLI in 2007 and Super Bowl XLIV in 2010. After Hurricane Katrina damaged the Louisiana Superdome and the city, the game might never return to New Orleans. The last time the Los Angeles area hosted the game was Super Bowl XXVII in 1993; the area is currently not considered a possible venue after the league's two teams vacated the city in 1995: the Raiders moved back to Oakland, California, and the Rams moved to St. Louis, Missouri.

Coincidentally, no NFL team has ever played the Super Bowl on its own home turf. However, Super Bowl XIV (which involved the then-Los Angeles Rams) was played at nearby Pasadena's Rose Bowl stadium; and Super Bowl XIX (which involved the San Francisco 49ers) was played at the nearby Stanford Stadium on the Stanford University campus in Palo Alto. Neither of these stadiums has ever been a home to an NFL team.

A potential venue currently must meet these qualifications in order to be a Super Bowl host: [citation needed]

  • Average high temperature of at least 50 degrees in February
  • Stadium with greater than 70,000 seats
  • Space for 10 photo trailers and 40 television trucks
  • 600,000 square feet of exhibit space for fan events
  • Large, high-end hotel for teams and NFL
  • 50,000 square feet of space for news media ("Radio Row")
  • Enough "quality" hotel rooms within a one-hour drive for 35% of the stadium's capacity
  • Separate practice facilities for each team
  • 250 buses for NFL use
  • Three golf courses for the NFL's annual charity golf tournament

Exceptions are at the discretion of the NFL. For instance, cruise ships made up the discrepancy in hotel rooms for Jacksonville in Super Bowl XXXIX and cold-weather cities such as Minneapolis and Detroit have been awarded Super Bowls because the stadium had a roof.

The designated "home team" alternates between the NFC team in odd-numbered years (the Philadelphia Eagles in 2005), and the AFC team in even-numbered years (the Pittsburgh Steelers in 2006). The home team is given the choice of either wearing their colored jerseys or their white ones; this started with Super Bowl XIII. Prior to that, the home team always wore the dark jerseys. The Dallas Cowboys wore their rarely used blue uniform tops in Super Bowl V, and lost to the then-Baltimore Colts, which has led to the widely held belief that the Cowboys do not play well in their blue shirts. While most home teams in the Super Bowl choose to wear their colored jerseys, only the Cowboys in XIII and XXVII, the Washington Redskins in XVII, and the Pittsburgh Steelers in Super Bowl XL have worn white as the home team.

Trivia

  • The Super Bowl uses Roman numerals to identify each game, rather than the year it was held. The NFL season spreads over two calendar years, so identifying the games by the year of the Super Bowl could cause some confusion. For example, the New England Patriots, winners of Super Bowl XXXIX are the champions of the 2004 NFL season, even though the championship game was played in February 2005.
  • In 1994, the 49ers became the first team to wear a throwback jersey during the Super Bowl. Since it was the league's 75th season, every team wore a throwback jersey during the season and San Francisco decided to continue to wear their jerseys all the way through the playoffs and into Super Bowl XXIX. The jerseys they wore paid tribute to the 1957 team.
  • In 2000, the St. Louis Rams were the first NFL team who plays their home games in a fully enclosed stadium, the Edward Jones Dome, to win the Super Bowl.
  • In the months leading up to Super Bowl XXX (or Super Bowl Thirty), some Internet proxy servers were blocking the web site for the upcoming event. Many proxy servers' filters were configured to block the text string "XXX" whenever occurring to prevent access to pornography. As a result, additional settings were necessary to grant exceptions for other uses of "XXX".
  • Super Bowl XXXVI was originally scheduled to be played on January 27, 2002. But the game was moved back one week to February 3, 2002 because of the September 11, 2001 attacks. This was the first Super Bowl to be played in February. With the exception of Super Bowl XXXVII on January 26, 2003, all of the succeeding Super Bowls have been scheduled for February. Also, because of the attacks, the Super Bowl is now a National Special Security Event (NSSE).
  • Super Bowl XXXVI was also the first Super Bowl to be decided by a score on the last play of the game. The winning play was a 48-yard field goal kicked by Adam Vinatieri of the New England Patriots to lift them to a 20-17 victory over the St. Louis Rams.
  • Super Bowl XXXIX was the first such game to be tied after three quarters of play.
  • The Pittsburgh Steelers were the first AFC team to ever win a Super Bowl (XL) that was broadcast on ABC (The NFC is currently 6-1). Previously, the closest an AFC team had come to winning the Super Bowl on that network was when the Buffalo Bills lost to the New York Giants 20-19 in Super Bowl XXV.
  • The NFC won 13 Super Bowls in a row from 1985 to 1997, starting with Super Bowl XIX. The AFC broke the streak in 1998 in Super Bowl XXXII when Denver beat the defending champion Packers.
  • The last Super Bowl to start at 3:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time was Super Bowl XI which was played in Pasadena. This is also the last Super Bowl which was played outside to not end in dusk. Since the early 1980s Super Bowls have been starting at around 6 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. The kickoff has been since moved back to 6:30 p.m. Eastern starting with Super Bowl XXXVII.
  • Overall, nine teams have advanced to the Super Bowl after entering the playoffs as wild card teams (teams that entered the playoffs without winning its division). They include the Kansas City Chiefs in Super Bowl IV, the Dallas Cowboys in Super Bowl X, the Oakland Raiders in Super Bowl XV, the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XX, the Buffalo Bills in Super Bowl XXVII, the Denver Broncos in Super Bowl XXXII, the Tennessee Titans in Super Bowl XXXIV, the Baltimore Ravens in Super Bowl XXXV, and the Pittsburgh Steelers, the only sixth-seeded team to make it, in Super Bowl XL. Wild card teams are 5-4 in the Super Bowl, with the Chiefs, Raiders, Broncos, Ravens, and Steelers winning their respective games.
  • Super Bowl Indicator, an indicator based on the belief that a Super Bowl win for a team from the old AFL (AFC division) foretells a decline in the stock market for the coming year, and that a win for a team from the old NFL (NFC division) means the stock market will be up for the year. This indicator has been surprisingly accurate (around 85% correct) over the past years
  • The infamous "I'm Going to Disney World!" Advertising campaign did not take place at Super Bowl XXXIX for the first time since it started at Super Bowl XXI, although Disney did run an ad several times during the game showing several players from both teams practicing the catch-phrase.

Post-Super Bowl loss jinx

Commentators and sports analysts note a tendency for teams that have made it to the Super Bowl and lost, to collapse the following season. The season after a Super Bowl loss, a team usually returns with a losing, or mediocre at best, record. This effect can be traced to the loss of momentum a team has built up, accumulating injuries, losing successful free agents between seasons, and the aging of talented players.

There are notable exceptions to this pattern, such as the Buffalo Bills who went to the Super Bowl and lost four years in a row, from XXV to XXVIII.

The most recent is the Philadelphia Eagles, who lost Super Bowl XXXIX to the New England Patriots in the 2004 season (played on February 6, 2005), who posted a 6-10 record in the 2005 season. The most glaring example is the Oakland Raiders. Following their 48-21 loss to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in 2003, the Raiders posted a 4-12 record in the 2003 NFL season, the worst post-Super Bowl record, and as of the end of the 2005 NFL season, have not recovered.

Game history

The first Super Bowl was played in 1967, as commemorated by this stamp issued in 1999 by the United States Postal Service featuring the ticket for that first game.

Notable Super Bowl games

The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see discussion on the talk page.
  • Super Bowl I: In the first matchup of the AFL and NFL champions, the NFL's Green Bay Packers, led by coach Vince Lombardi and quarterback Bart Starr, defeat the Kansas City Chiefs, 35-10. The Packers outscore the Chiefs 21-0 in the second half after struggling in the first half. Only 61,946 attend the game at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, making it the only non-sellout Super Bowl. The game is also notable as it was broadcast on both NBC and CBS.
  • Super Bowl III: Speaking to the press in the week before the game, New York Jets quarterback "Broadway" Joe Namath guarantees a victory over the Baltimore Colts. The Jets defeat the Colts, 16-7.
  • Super Bowl VII: Coach Don Shula and the Miami Dolphins complete the only undefeated season in NFL history, defeating the Washington Redskins 14-7.
  • Super Bowl XIII: The Pittsburgh Steelers defeat the Dallas Cowboys 35-31 in the second Super Bowl matchup between the two teams. This game decided which of these two teams would be the first NFL team to win three Super Bowls. It marks one of the Steelers' four Super Bowl titles obtained during the 1970s.
  • Super Bowl XVII: After the spending the entire game trailing the Miami Dolphins, the Washington Redskins were faced with fourth down and one to go on Miami 42 yard line. In the fourth quarter, in one of the most dramatic runs in Super Bowl history, MVP John Riggins ran for the first down, broke a tackle from Miami cornerback Don McNeal and ran 43 yards for a touchdown giving the Redskins a lead they never relinquished
  • Super Bowl XX: After the New England Patriots (in their first Super Bowl) take a 3-0 lead on a field goal, the Chicago Bears (also in their first SB) played dominant offense and defense to take the game 46-10. MVP Richard Dent led a Bears defense that limited New England to 7 rushing yards.
  • Super Bowl XXI: New York Giants quarterback Phil Simms completes 22 of 25 passing attempts, including all 10 of his attempts in the second half as New York defeats Denver 39-20. Simms is the games MVP with a Super Bowl completion record of 88.0%.
  • Super Bowl XXII: Washington Redskins after trailing 10-0 MVP quarterback Doug Williams, the first African-American quarterback to start a Superbowl, throws for 4 touchdowns in one quarter which leads to a 42 unanswered points and a rout of Denver.
  • Super Bowl XXIII: San Francisco 49ers quarterback Joe Montana leads a 92 yard fourth quarter drive, as the 49ers score the game-winning touchdown with 34 seconds left and defeat the Cincinnati Bengals 20-16.
  • Super Bowl XXIV: The San Francisco 49ers defeat the Denver Broncos 55-10, the largest margin of victory in Super Bowl history. The 55 points are the most scored by any team in a Super Bowl. As a result of this game, Joe Montana, San Francisco's quarterback became the first player to ever win three Superbowl MVPs.
  • Super Bowl XXV: As time expires, the Buffalo Bills' Scott Norwood attempts a 47-yard field goal but misses wide to the right, and the New York Giants win 20-19. A game with no turnovers by either team and only one 5 yard penalty, it remains the only Super Bowl to be decided by a single point.
  • Super Bowl XXX: The Dallas Cowboys make a record 8th Super Bowl appearance, winning 27-17 over the Pittsburgh Steelers, and become the first NFL team to win 3 Super Bowls in a 4 year span. The victory also tied the Cowboys with the San Francisco 49ers for the most Super Bowl victories (5). The Cowboys' Charles Haley became the first player to win 5 Super Bowls, after winning two with San Francisco (XXIII and XXIV) and two with Dallas (XXVII and XXVIII). Shades of Super Bowl XIII, this game decided which of these two teams would be the first to win five Super Bowls and thus be the second NFL team to do so.
  • Super Bowl XXXII: After four superbowl losses, the Denver Broncos win their first title, defeating the defending champion Green Bay Packers 31-24 and becoming the first AFC Super Bowl champion in 14 years. Denver will also win the Super Bowl XXXIII against Atlanta.
  • Super Bowl XXXIV: In a classic game, the Tennessee Titans, down 16-0 to the St. Louis Rams, rallied behind quarterback Steve McNair and running back Eddie George to tie the game at 16-16. After the Rams score a 73 yard touchdown to lead 23-16, the Titans drive, and in a close finish, wide receiver Kevin Dyson catches a short pass but is tackled by linebacker Mike Jones at the 1 yard line as he stretches for the end zone with no time left on the clock, and the Rams hold on to win 23-16.
  • Super Bowl XXXVI: Placekicker Adam Vinatieri kicks a 48-yard field goal as time expires to lift the New England Patriots to a 20-17 victory over the Rams, and the first of 3 Super Bowl wins in four years. Two years later, Vinatieri would kick another game-winning field goal at the end of Super Bowl XXXVIII to defeat the Carolina Panthers.
  • Super Bowl XXXIX: The New England Patriots win their third Super Bowl in four years when they defeat the Philadelphia Eagles 24-21 in Jacksonville, Florida. All three of New England's Super Bowl victories have been decided by three points. The Eagles had a chance to win the game on their final drive, but a New England interception ended the game.
  • Super Bowl XL: The Pittsburgh Steelers win over the Seattle Seahawks. This was the first Super Bowl appearance for the Seahawks. Firsts for the Steelers included: first AFC team to win five Super Bowls; first sixth seed to advance to the Super Bowl; first winners not to get a first down in the first quarter; and first AFC team to win a Super Bowl aired by the ABC. Ben Roethlisberger became the youngest quarterback to win a Super Bowl. Completing 9 of 21 passes for 123 yards with 2 interceptions, his passer rating (22.6) was the lowest of any winning quarterback. Steelers head coach, Bill Cowher, won his first Super Bowl.


Trends

Super Bowl wins and losses tend to cluster around a few head coaches. Vince Lombardi's Green Bay Packers won the first two. Don Shula coached two different teams: a loss with the Baltimore Colts and two wins and three losses with the Miami Dolphins. Tom Landry also coached two winners and three losers with the Dallas Cowboys. Chuck Noll won four in the 1970's with the Pittsburgh Steelers. Bill Walsh won three with the San Francisco 49ers. Joe Gibbs also won three Super Bowls with the Washington Redskins. And recently, Bill Belichick won three with the Patriots.

Don Shula, Bill Parcells, Dan Reeves, Dick Vermeil, and Mike Holmgren all took more than one team to the Super Bowl. Bud Grant coached four Vikings losses in the 1970s, Marv Levy coached four consecutive losses with the Buffalo Bills in the 1990s, and Dan Reeves coached four losses between two teams (three with the Denver Broncos and one with the Atlanta Falcons).

Super Bowl appearances

Teams with no Super Bowl appearances

  • NFL league champions prior to Super Bowl I
    • Arizona Cardinals - NFL champions in 1925 and 1947
    • Cleveland Browns - NFL championship in 1950, 1954, 1955, and 1964
      (This refers to the team that the league officially views as one continuous franchise that began in 1946 but suspended operations from 1996-1998, and resumed play in 1999.)
    • Detroit Lions - NFL championship in 1935, 1952, 1953, and 1957
  • Houston Texans
  • Jacksonville Jaguars
  • New Orleans Saints

Super Bowl winners

The Super Bowl ring and ticket for Super Bowl XI. A Super Bowl ring is given to each member of the winning team to commemorate their Super Bowl victory.

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Bud Grant coached four Vikings losses in the 1970s, Marv Levy coached four consecutive losses with the Buffalo Bills in the 1990s, and Dan Reeves coached four losses between two teams (three with the Denver Broncos and one with the Atlanta Falcons). The call for election reform legislation and voting rights protection nonetheless continued from various citizen groups. Don Shula, Bill Parcells, Dan Reeves, Dick Vermeil, and Mike Holmgren all took more than one team to the Super Bowl. Many high-ranking Democrats chose to distance themselves from this debate, including John Kerry, despite Jesse Jackson personally asking Kerry for help. And recently, Bill Belichick won three with the Patriots. This challenge to the Ohio election was rejected by a vote of 1-74 by the Senate and 31-267 in the House. Joe Gibbs also won three Super Bowls with the Washington Redskins. House Committee on the Judiciary Democratic Staff released a 100 page report on the Ohio election.

Bill Walsh won three with the San Francisco 49ers. On January 6, 2005 U.S. Chuck Noll won four in the 1970's with the Pittsburgh Steelers. When asked for evidence, Jackson did not give facts but replied, "Based on distrusting the system, lack of paper trails, the anomaly of the exit polls." [9]. Tom Landry also coached two winners and three losers with the Dallas Cowboys. John Conyers (D-MI) and discovered during a flawed recount of the Ohio presidential vote called for by Green Party candidate David Cobb and Libertarian Party candidate Michael Badnarik, Jackson suggested the Ohio voting machines were "rigged" and some African-Americans were forced to stand in line for six hours in the rain before voting. Don Shula coached two different teams: a loss with the Baltimore Colts and two wins and three losses with the Miami Dolphins. Based on information obtained in hearings held by Rep.

Vince Lombardi's Green Bay Packers won the first two. Bush and Vice-President Dick Cheney to deliver Ohio to the Republican Party. Super Bowl wins and losses tend to cluster around a few head coaches. Jackson has called Ohio Secretary of State Kenneth Blackwell inappropriately partisan and said that Blackwell may have been pressured by President George W.
. presidential election would not have been certified by the international community. Following their 48-21 loss to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in 2003, the Raiders posted a 4-12 record in the 2003 NFL season, the worst post-Super Bowl record, and as of the end of the 2005 NFL season, have not recovered. Jackson compared the voting irregularities of Ohio to that of the recent Ukrainian presidential election, saying if Ohio was Ukraine the U.S.

The most glaring example is the Oakland Raiders. Jackson said he held some hope that the election could be overturned, although he admitted that was very doubtful.[8]. The most recent is the Philadelphia Eagles, who lost Super Bowl XXXIX to the New England Patriots in the 2004 season (played on February 6, 2005), who posted a 6-10 record in the 2005 season. Jackson called for a congressional debate on the matter, asking for a fair count and national voting standards, saying the elections in the United States each run with different standards by different states, with partisan tricks, racial bias, widespread incompetence, and are an open scandal. There are notable exceptions to this pattern, such as the Buffalo Bills who went to the Super Bowl and lost four years in a row, from XXV to XXVIII. presidential election controversy, particularly the voting results in Ohio and its recount. This effect can be traced to the loss of momentum a team has built up, accumulating injuries, losing successful free agents between seasons, and the aging of talented players. Jesse Jackson’s most recent project was gathering information and support to investigate the 2004 U.S.

The season after a Super Bowl loss, a team usually returns with a losing, or mediocre at best, record. [7]. Commentators and sports analysts note a tendency for teams that have made it to the Super Bowl and lost, to collapse the following season. They also point out that Yusef and Jonathan Jackson had no prior experience in alcoholic beverage distribution or any other business. While most home teams in the Super Bowl choose to wear their colored jerseys, only the Cowboys in XIII and XXVII, the Washington Redskins in XVII, and the Pittsburgh Steelers in Super Bowl XL have worn white as the home team. Jackson’s critics, such as Chicago Sun-Times reporter Tim Novak, claim that Jackson had in effect blackmailed Anheuser-Busch into selling the distributorship to Jackson’s sons in exchange for Jackson dropping the boycott. The Dallas Cowboys wore their rarely used blue uniform tops in Super Bowl V, and lost to the then-Baltimore Colts, which has led to the widely held belief that the Cowboys do not play well in their blue shirts. Jackson sued the paper for libel but dropped the suit when a judge ruled that the paper could inspect the finances of Jackson as well as his many organizations in order to prove their case.

Prior to that, the home team always wore the dark jerseys. Louis, reported that Jackson had demanded $500 each from local African American businessmen to help support the Anheuser-Busch boycott campaign. The home team is given the choice of either wearing their colored jerseys or their white ones; this started with Super Bowl XIII. Louis American, a Black-owned paper in St. The designated "home team" alternates between the NFC team in odd-numbered years (the Philadelphia Eagles in 2005), and the AFC team in even-numbered years (the Pittsburgh Steelers in 2006). The St. For instance, cruise ships made up the discrepancy in hotel rooms for Jacksonville in Super Bowl XXXIX and cold-weather cities such as Minneapolis and Detroit have been awarded Super Bowls because the stadium had a roof. Shortly after the sale, Jackson dropped his prior support of the Anheuser Busch boycott campaign.

Exceptions are at the discretion of the NFL. They refuse to publicly disclose how much they paid for the distributor but the business was worth an estimated $25 to $30 million. A potential venue currently must meet these qualifications in order to be a Super Bowl host: [citation needed]. In 1998 the River North distributorship was purchased by two of Jackson’s sons, Yusef and Jonathan Jackson. Neither of these stadiums has ever been a home to an NFL team. Shortly thereafter, Anheuser Busch contributed $10,000 to Jackson’s Citizenship Education Fund, contributed over $500,000 to the Rainbow PUSH coalition, and established a $10 million fund to help non-whites buy distributorships. However, Super Bowl XIV (which involved the then-Los Angeles Rams) was played at nearby Pasadena's Rose Bowl stadium; and Super Bowl XIX (which involved the San Francisco 49ers) was played at the nearby Stanford Stadium on the Stanford University campus in Palo Alto. Jackson came to the aid of the employees in 1997 shortly after the first EEOC blackmail suit was filed.

Coincidentally, no NFL team has ever played the Super Bowl on its own home turf. After languishing for over a decade, the boycott movement received a boost when Budweiser’s River North distributorship was accused by several of its African American employees that they were being denied promotions. Louis, Missouri. In 1982, Jackson launched a "this Bud's a dud" boycott of Anheuser Busch because it had only three Black-owned distributors nationwide. The last time the Los Angeles area hosted the game was Super Bowl XXVII in 1993; the area is currently not considered a possible venue after the league's two teams vacated the city in 1995: the Raiders moved back to Oakland, California, and the Rams moved to St. Critics of Jackson (including the African American Jesse Lee Peterson, founder of BOND) claim that he has exploited poverty stricken African Americans in order to make money and gain political power. After Hurricane Katrina damaged the Louisiana Superdome and the city, the game might never return to New Orleans. However, Jesse Jackson has often been the center of controversy.

Miami has been selected to host two future games: Super Bowl XLI in 2007 and Super Bowl XLIV in 2010. Jackson appeared at several anti-war rallies in opposition to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Over half of the Super Bowls have been played in one of the following three cities: New Orleans, Louisiana (9 times), Miami, Florida (8 times) and the Greater Los Angeles Area (7 total, 5 times at Pasadena's Rose Bowl stadium and twice at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum). During this time, it was suggested by some commentators that Al Sharpton had usurped Jackson's position as the leading figure in the African-American political movement. Cities compete to host the game in a selection bidding process similar to ones used by the Olympic Games and soccer's World Cup. This seriously damaged Jesse Jackson's credibility even among long-time supporters, and for a brief time prompted Jackson to withdraw from activism. The location of the Super Bowl is chosen by the NFL well in advance, usually 3 to 5 years before the game. [6].

True to the hopes of the NFL and the networks, McCartney turned in an enjoyable but uncontroversial performance. Many commentators questioned the legality of these payments and charged that Jackson was paying “hush money” to Stanford. The following year, the NFL chose Paul McCartney to perform at halftime of Super Bowl XXXIX. The Rainbow Push Coalition had paid Stanford, $40,000 to relocate her to Southern California, in addition to a continuing $3,000 a month in support, and $365,000 in funds from Rainbow Push were also used to purchase Stanford’s house. This also led to the FCC cracking down on indecency and fining CBS $225,000 for the incident, as well as fining each of CBS's then twenty owned and operated stations. Shortly afterward, it was revealed that Jackson (married since 1963) had an affair with a young staffer, Karin Stanford, that resulted in the birth of his daughter Ashley. The NFL, embarrassed from the incident, permanently banned MTV from doing another halftime show in any capacity. During the contested election of 2000, Jackson quickly became involved in pro-Democrat demonstrations in the state of Florida.

It also didn't help matters that the game was airing on CBS, and their then-corporate sister company within Viacom, MTV, produced the halftime show. "[Spitting into the food] gave me a psychological gratification," Jackson said. Timberlake and Jackson have maintained that the incident was unintentional, hence the term "wardrobe malfunction". In a 1969 Life Magazine interview, Jackson said that when he worked as a waiter in a Greenville, South Carolina restaurant, he would spit into the soups and salads of white customers. Many conspiracy theorists think that this was done intentionally to get everyone's attention, possibly so that Janet could get the attention away from her brother Michael Jackson, who was facing child molestation charges at the time. Timmerman. In 2004, it was during halftime at Super Bowl XXXVIII that Janet Jackson had her now-infamous wardrobe malfunction after Justin Timberlake ripped off a piece of her top, exposing her right breast with a star-like ring surrounding the nipple. Some of the allegations are covered in the book Shakedown: Exposing the Real Jesse Jackson by Kenneth R.

John performed the national anthem; and The Rolling Stones played during the halftime show. Jackson is seen by his critics as using racial politics to advance himself and his family's financial interests. Super Bowl XL in 2006 featured Stevie Wonder, Joss Stone, and John Legend during the pregame ceremonies; Aaron Neville, Aretha Franklin, and Dr. Although Jackson is known mainly for his works in the civil rights arena, many people have alleged that Jackson uses his influence and reputation primarily to extort businesses for his personal gain. Because of the large number of viewers that the Super Bowl generates, a number of popular singers and musicians have performed during its pregame ceremonies, the halftime show, or even just singing the national anthem of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner". Also in early 2005, Jackson visited the parents of Terri Schiavo and their supporters; he supported their unsuccessful bid to keep the disabled Florida woman alive. With the new television contracts beginning in 2006, NBC, which last telecast Super Bowl XXXII in 1998, will take ABC's place in the network rotation starting with Super Bowl XLIII in 2009. His work involved giving speeches to ethnic audiences.

Super Bowl XXXVIII was shown on CBS, Super Bowl XXXIX was shown on FOX, and Super Bowl XL was shown on ABC, which will be the final NFL game broadcast on that network for the foreseeable future. In 2005, he was enlisted as part of the United Kingdom's "Operation Black Vote", a campaign to encourage more of Britain's ethnic minorities to vote in political elections ahead of the May 2005 General Election. In the United States it is currently shared among three of the four major television networks: ABC, CBS, and FOX. He also writes for "The Progressive Populist.". The television network showing the game changes from year to year. Kucinich, Jackson described Kucinich as "assuming the burden of saying 'you make the most sense, but you can't win.'"[5]. [5]. Although he did not explicitly voice an endorsement of Rep.

If the television show Las Vegas stays on the air when NBC gets their next Super Bowl Broadcast (which will be Super Bowl XLIII in 2009), they may not be allowed to promote the series during the entire block of programming. Instead, Jackson remained largely silent about his preference in the race until late in the primary season, when he allowed Democratic Representative Dennis Kucinich of Ohio, another presidential candidate, to speak at a Rainbow/PUSH forum on March 31, 2004. Many groups are denied the chance to run Super Bowl ads on various grounds, but Las Vegas is the only city to be denied in such a fashion; the NFL has stated that it does not want the Super Bowl to be associated with the perception of Las Vegas as a gambling mecca. In 2003, Jackson surprised many observers by declining to endorse the campaigns of either the Reverend Al Sharpton or former Senator Carol Moseley Braun, the two African-American candidates in the race for the Democratic Party's 2004 presidential nomination. The ban includes the game, as well as the pre-game and post-game shows. Jackson is also known as a passionate orator, in the tradition of Southern US and African American Protestant preaching. In recent years, the NFL has denied the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority the opportunity to run Super Bowl ads for the city as a tourist destination. His son, Jesse Jackson, Jr., also emerged as a political figure, becoming a member of the United States House of Representatives from Illinois.

Many people tune in to the Super Bowl solely to watch the very creative commercials. Clinton awarded Jesse Jackson the Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest honor bestowed on civilians. Prices have increased each year, with reports citing a record $2.5 million (US) for a 30 second spot during Super Bowl XL in 2006. While Jesse Jackson was initially critical of the "third way" or more moderate policies of Bill Clinton, he became a key ally in gaining African American support for Clinton, and eventually became a close advisor and friend of the Clinton family. Famous commercial campaigns include the Budweiser "Bud Bowl" campaign, and the 1999 and 2000 dot-com ads. Reprint of a Washington Post article from 1988. Following Apple Computer's 1984 commercial introducing the Apple Macintosh computer, directed by Ridley Scott, the broadcast of the Super Bowl became the premier showcase for high concept or simply extravagantly expensive commercials. Jackson has adopted an openly pro-choice view, believing the right of a woman to terminate a pregnancy is fundamental and should not be infringed in any way by the government.

[4] Although the proliferation of cable and satellite television has undercut broadcast ratings somewhat in recent years, the game is still so popular that a number of networks actually schedule original programming, such as independently produced halftime entertainment, during the game, simply to take advantage of a large audience already in front of the television. However, since then Rev. Super Bowl XVI is #4 on Nielsen's list of top-rated programs of all time, and 3 other Super Bowls (XII, XVII, XX) made the top 10. Jackson once endorsed the pro-life Hyde Amendment and wrote an article in a 1977 National Right to Life Committee News report:. The highest rated game according to Nielsen was Super Bowl XVI in 1982 which was watched in 49.1% of households (73 share) or 40,020,000 households at the time. Although Jackson was one of most liberal members of the Democratic Party, his views on abortion were originally more in line with pro-life views. [citation needed]. With the exception of a resolution to implement sanctions against South Africa for its Apartheid policies, none of these positions made it into the party's platform in either 1984 or 1988.

[citation needed] According to NFL Films...these are the ultimate Lost Treasures. Declaring that he wanted to create a "Rainbow Coalition" of various minority groups, including African-Americans, Hispanics, the poor and working poor, women, and homosexuals, as well as White progressives who fit into none of those categories, Jackson ran on a platform that included:. [citation needed] But the NFL has put out a $1,000,000 bounty on either one of the tapes, and experts say that there is still a chance that one of the network affiliates taped the game off the live feed and saved it. In both races, Jackson ran on what many considered to be a very liberal platform. [citation needed]) According to Steve Sabol, both networks taped soap operas over the game tapes, which are presumably lost forever. In the end, however, he lost the nomination, coming a close second to Governor Michael Dukakis of Massachusetts, the eventual nominee. (Merv Griffin once said that a ninety-minute blank tape cost $750. Briefly, after he won 55% of the vote in the Michigan primary, he was considered the frontrunner for the nomination, as he surpassed all the other candidates in total number of pledged delegates.

Another reason was that videotape in those days was prohibitively expensive. Although most people didn't seem to believe that he had a serious chance at winning, Jackson once again exceeded expectations as he more than doubled his previous results, capturing 6.9 million votes and winning eleven primaries. According to Sports Illustrated, the only footage of the first telecast known to exist is a two minute clip of the first game.[citation needed] From the early days of television into the 1960s, copies of TV broadcasts were routinely erased, mainly because nobody thought anyone would want to watch the same show they had just seen. This time, his successes in the past made him seem a more credible candidate, and he was both better financed and better organized. This is especially shocking for Super Bowl I, which was covered by both NBC and CBS. Four years later, in 1988, Jackson once again offered himself as a candidate for the nomination. Given the immense popularity of the Super Bowl, it may be surprising to discover that videotapes of the telecasts of the first two Super Bowls are said not to exist. Jackson garnered 3.5 million votes and won five primaries, all in the South.

[3]. In the primaries, Jackson, who had been written off by pundits as a fringe candidate with little chance at winning the nomination, surprised many when he took third place behind Senator Gary Hart and former Vice President Walter Mondale, who eventually won the nomination. Approximately half of the remaining 2 million worldwide viewers watched from the United Kingdom. A major controversy erupted during the early stages of the race, when Jackson was reported making remarks in which he referred to Jews as "hymies" and to New York City as "Hymietown," remarks for which he later issued a perfunctory apology. In actual fact, Super Bowl XXXIX in 2005 was watched by 93 million viewers in total, of which 98 percent were in North America [2]. In 1984, Jackson became the second African American (after Shirley Chisholm) to mount a nationwide campaign for President of the United States, running as a Democrat. There is a popular urban myth regarding the Super Bowl — that the game is watched in 234 countries by 1 billion people [1], a fact unlikely to be true considering the time of the event, and the lack of popularity American Football has outside of the United States. During the 1980s, he achieved wide fame as an African American leader and as a politician, as well as becoming a well-known spokesman for civil rights issues.

It is also estimated that 130-140 million tune into some part of the game. These two groups merged in 1996. This means that on average, 80 to 90 million Americans are tuned into the Super Bowl at any given moment. He started two political organizations, PUSH in 1971, and the Rainbow Coalition in 1984. households, and 60 percent of all homes tuned into television during the game). Later that year, he was authorized as a Baptist minister. The game tends to have high Nielsen television ratings which usually come in around a 40 rating and 60 share (i.e., on average, 40 percent of all U.S. He was present with Martin Luther King in Memphis when he was assassinated, April 4, 1968, the day after making his famous “I’ve been to the Mountaintop” speech given to the Mason Temple, Church of God in Christ.

By any measure, the Super Bowl is one of the most watched television programs of the year. As a graduate student, Jesse studied Divinity at the Chicago Theological Seminary (he did not complete the degree at the time, however, but was later awarded a Master of Divinity in 2000 based on life experience), and he began to organize in the southern Christian Leadership Conference under the auspices of Martin Luther King, Jr. Following his death in September 1970, the trophy was named the Vince Lombardi Trophy, first awarded at Super Bowl V in Miami. Jesse graduated the university of Illinois and North Carolina A&T University. The winning team gets the Vince Lombardi Trophy, named for the coach of the Green Bay Packers, who won the first two Super Bowl games. An athlete, Jesse played football at both of the universities that he attended. The game remains his crowning achievement and was an important factor in him being selected by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. At age 21, he married Jacqueline Lavinia Brown on December 31, 1962.

His leadership guided them into the merger agreement and cemented the preeminence of the Super Bowl. He was born with the name Jesse Louis Burns, in a poor household in Greenville, South Carolina. The NFL commissioner at that time, Pete Rozelle, is often considered the mastermind of both the merger and the Super Bowl. He is known for being an American politician, civil rights activist, and Baptist minister. As of Super Bowl XL, former AFL teams have won 11 Super Bowls, pre-1970 NFL teams have won 23 games, and two games have been won by teams created after 1970. Jesse Jackson was born on October 8th 1941. Since then, the Super Bowl has featured the champions of the AFC and NFC. .

When the NFL and AFL merged into one combined league for the 1970 season, three NFL teams joined the 10 AFL teams to form the American Football Conference (AFC), and the other 13 teams became the National Football Conference (NFC). He was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1984 and 1988. One year later, the American Football League's Kansas City Chiefs defeated the NFL Minnesota Vikings 23-7 and won Super Bowl IV in New Orleans, the last World Championship game played between the champions of two leagues. Jesse Louis Jackson Sr. (born October 8, 1941) is an American politician, civil rights activist, and Baptist minister. That all changed with perhaps the biggest upset in American sports history, the AFL's New York Jets defeat of the Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III in Miami. ". After the NFL's Green Bay Packers convincingly won the first two Super Bowls, some team owners feared for the future of the merger, since many doubted that AFL teams could compete with their NFL counterparts. Mandela.

Starting with the third contest in January 1969, the name "Super Bowl" became official. Schwarzenegger did not learn that lesson from Mr. Not surprisingly, fans and media tended to use the shorter, unofficial name. And somehow, some way, it seems that now Mr. Not having thought of one, the owners named the contest the AFL-NFL World Championship Game. He didn't seek to revenge his -- having been arrested the way he was. Hunt only meant his suggested name to be a stopgap until a better one could be found. Mandela chose redemption over revenge.

The name was feasible because postseason college football games had long been known as "bowl games" (the term originates from the Rose Bowl Game, which was in turn named for the bowl-shaped stadium in which it is played). Mandela because, after 27 years in jail, Mr. The ball is now on display at the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. He was congratulating Mr. [citation needed] During the discussions to iron out the details, AFL founder and Kansas City Chiefs owner Lamar Hunt had jokingly referred to the proposed interleague championship as the "Super Bowl." Hunt thought of the name after seeing his daughter playing with a toy called a Super Ball. Mandela and Governor Schwarzenegger. According to NFL Films President Steve Sabol, Then NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle wanted to call the game "The Big One". And there was a huge picture on the wall of Mr.

One of the conditions of the AFL-NFL Merger was that the winners of each league's championship game would meet in a contest to determine the "world champion of football". I was in South Africa about a month ago, meeting with President Nelson Mandela. The intense competitive war for players and fans led to serious merger talks between the two leagues in 1966. "I feel pain by the governor's decision to choose revenge over redemption and to use "Tookie" Williams as a trophy in this flawed system. After its inception in 1920, the NFL fended off several rival leagues before the AFL began play in 1960. They must know it is not their aptitude but their attitude that will determine their altitude. The Super Bowl was created as part of the merger agreement between the National Football League (NFL) and its rival, the American Football League (AFL). If they can conceive it and believe it, they can achieve it.

. Today's students can put dope in their veins or hope in their brains. food consumption day next to Thanksgiving. I hear that melting-pot stuff a lot, and all I can say is that we haven't melted. This is the largest U.S. 1984 DNC Convention Address. In addition, many popular singers and musicians have performed during the Super Bowl's pre-game and halftime ceremonies. Our mission: to feed the hungry; to clothe the naked; to house the homeless; to teach the illiterate; to provide jobs for the jobless; and to choose the human race over the nuclear race.

The last true day game (which ended before local sunset) of the series was Super Bowl XI in January 1977. Yet, we are called to a perfect mission. This has caused the starting time of the game to be pushed back later and later, to ensure the Sunday night prime time audience on the East Coast. We are not a perfect people. The Super Bowl is one of the most-watched American television broadcasts of the year, attracting many companies to spend millions of dollars on commercials. This is not a perfect party. Since then, the game has been played annually on a Sunday following the playoffs, originally early to mid-January, then late January, and in 2002, the first Sunday in February. 1988 DNC Convention Address.

After both leagues merged in 1970, the Super Bowl became the NFL's championship game. We are all precious in God's sight -- the real rainbow coalition. The game began in January 1967 as the AFL-NFL World Championship Game in which the NFL championship team played against the champion of the younger, rival American Football League (AFL) for the "World Championship of Professional Football". When I look out at this convention, I see the face of America: Red, Yellow, Brown, Black and White. The game and its ancillary festivities constitute Super Bowl Sunday (sometimes "Super Sunday"), which over the years has almost become a de facto American national holiday. Tonight, we pause and give praise and honor to God for being good enough to allow us to be at this place at this time. In professional American football, the Super Bowl is the championship game of the National Football League (NFL) in the United States. May 1999) (resulting from an extramarital affair).

New Orleans Saints. Daughter: Ashley (b. Jacksonville Jaguars. Daughter: Jacqueline Lavinia Jackson, Jr. Houston Texans. Daughter: Sanitita Jackson. Detroit Lions - NFL championship in 1935, 1952, 1953, and 1957. Son: Jonathan Jackson.

Cleveland Browns - NFL championship in 1950, 1954, 1955, and 1964
(This refers to the team that the league officially views as one continuous franchise that began in 1946 but suspended operations from 1996-1998, and resumed play in 1999.). Son: Yusef DuBois Jackson. Arizona Cardinals - NFL champions in 1925 and 1947. March 11, 1965). NFL league champions prior to Super Bowl I

    . (b. Steelers head coach, Bill Cowher, won his first Super Bowl. Son: Jesse Jackson, Jr.

    Completing 9 of 21 passes for 123 yards with 2 interceptions, his passer rating (22.6) was the lowest of any winning quarterback. 1963)

      . Ben Roethlisberger became the youngest quarterback to win a Super Bowl. Wife: Jacqueline Lavinia (Brown) Jackson (m. Firsts for the Steelers included: first AFC team to win five Super Bowls; first sixth seed to advance to the Super Bowl; first winners not to get a first down in the first quarter; and first AFC team to win a Super Bowl aired by the ABC. supporting the formation of a Palestinian state. This was the first Super Bowl appearance for the Seahawks. applying stricter enforcement of the Voting Rights Act, and.

      Super Bowl XL: The Pittsburgh Steelers win over the Seattle Seahawks. increasing federal funding for lower-level public education and providing free community college to all,. The Eagles had a chance to win the game on their final drive, but a New England interception ended the game. ratifying the Equal Rights Amendment,. All three of New England's Super Bowl victories have been decided by three points. creating a single-payer system of universal health care,. Super Bowl XXXIX: The New England Patriots win their third Super Bowl in four years when they defeat the Philadelphia Eagles 24-21 in Jacksonville, Florida. giving reparations to descendants of black slaves,.

      Two years later, Vinatieri would kick another game-winning field goal at the end of Super Bowl XXXVIII to defeat the Carolina Panthers. instituting an immediate nuclear freeze and beginning disarmament negotiations with the Soviet Union,. Super Bowl XXXVI: Placekicker Adam Vinatieri kicks a 48-yard field goal as time expires to lift the New England Patriots to a 20-17 victory over the Rams, and the first of 3 Super Bowl wins in four years. declaring Apartheid-era South Africa to be a rogue nation,. After the Rams score a 73 yard touchdown to lead 23-16, the Titans drive, and in a close finish, wide receiver Kevin Dyson catches a short pass but is tackled by linebacker Mike Jones at the 1 yard line as he stretches for the end zone with no time left on the clock, and the Rams hold on to win 23-16. cutting the budget of the Department of Defense by as much as fifteen percent over the course of his administration,. Louis Rams, rallied behind quarterback Steve McNair and running back Eddie George to tie the game at 16-16. reversing Reaganomics-inspired tax cuts for the richest ten percent of Americans and using the money to finance social welfare programs,.

      Super Bowl XXXIV: In a classic game, the Tennessee Titans, down 16-0 to the St. reprioritizing the War on Drugs to focus less on mandatory minimum sentences for drug users (which he views as racially biased) and more on harsher punishments for money-laundering bankers and others who are part of the "supply" end of "supply and demand,". Denver will also win the Super Bowl XXXIII against Atlanta. creating a WPA-style program to rebuild America's infrastructure and provide jobs to all Americans,. Super Bowl XXXII: After four superbowl losses, the Denver Broncos win their first title, defeating the defending champion Green Bay Packers 31-24 and becoming the first AFC Super Bowl champion in 14 years. Jackson also met representatives from the Afro Venezuela and indigenous communities[4]. Shades of Super Bowl XIII, this game decided which of these two teams would be the first to win five Super Bowls and thus be the second NFL team to do so. After meeting with Chavez and addressing the Venezuelan Parliament, Jackson said there was no evidence that Venezuela posed a threat to the U.S.

      The Cowboys' Charles Haley became the first player to win 5 Super Bowls, after winning two with San Francisco (XXIII and XXIV) and two with Dallas (XXVII and XXVIII). Jackson condemned Robertson's remarks as immoral. The victory also tied the Cowboys with the San Francisco 49ers for the most Super Bowl victories (5). In August 2005 Jackson traveled to Venezuela to meet President Hugo Chavez, following controversial remarks by Televangelist Pat Robertson in which he implied that Chavez should be assassinated. Super Bowl XXX: The Dallas Cowboys make a record 8th Super Bowl appearance, winning 27-17 over the Pittsburgh Steelers, and become the first NFL team to win 3 Super Bowls in a 4 year span. He met with the then-Yugoslav president Slobadan Milosevic who later agreed to release the three men[3]. A game with no turnovers by either team and only one 5 yard penalty, it remains the only Super Bowl to be decided by a single point. POW's captured on the Macedonia border while patrolling with a UN peacekeeping unit.

      Super Bowl XXV: As time expires, the Buffalo Bills' Scott Norwood attempts a 47-yard field goal but misses wide to the right, and the New York Giants win 20-19. In April 1999, during the Kosovo War, Jackson traveled to Belgrade to negotiate the release of three U.S. As a result of this game, Joe Montana, San Francisco's quarterback became the first player to ever win three Superbowl MVPs. In 1997 Jackson traveled to Kenya to meet with Kenyan President Daniel Arap Moi as President Clinton's special envoy for democracy to promote free and fair elections. The 55 points are the most scored by any team in a Super Bowl. In June 1984, Jackson negotiated the release of 22 Americans being held in Cuba after an invitation by Cuban president Fidel Castro[2]. Super Bowl XXIV: The San Francisco 49ers defeat the Denver Broncos 55-10, the largest margin of victory in Super Bowl history. This helped to boost Jackson's popularity as an American patriot and served as a springboard for his 1984 presidential run.

      Super Bowl XXIII: San Francisco 49ers quarterback Joe Montana leads a 92 yard fourth quarter drive, as the 49ers score the game-winning touchdown with 34 seconds left and defeat the Cincinnati Bengals 20-16. However, after Jackson secured Goodman's release, President Reagan welcomed both Jackson and Goodman at the White House on January 4, 1984 [1]. Super Bowl XXII: Washington Redskins after trailing 10-0 MVP quarterback Doug Williams, the first African-American quarterback to start a Superbowl, throws for 4 touchdowns in one quarter which leads to a 42 unanswered points and a rout of Denver. Initially, the Reagan administration was skeptical about Jackson's trip to Syria. Simms is the games MVP with a Super Bowl completion record of 88.0%. After a dramatic personal appeal that Jackson made to Syrian President Hafez al-Assad, Goodman was released. Super Bowl XXI: New York Giants quarterback Phil Simms completes 22 of 25 passing attempts, including all 10 of his attempts in the second half as New York defeats Denver 39-20. Goodman had been shot down over Lebanon while on a mission to bomb Syrian positions in that country.

      MVP Richard Dent led a Bears defense that limited New England to 7 rushing yards. Robert Goodman, who was being held by the Syrian government. Super Bowl XX: After the New England Patriots (in their first Super Bowl) take a 3-0 lead on a field goal, the Chicago Bears (also in their first SB) played dominant offense and defense to take the game 46-10. In 1983 Reverend Jackson traveled to Syria to secure the release of a captured American pilot, Navy Lt. In the fourth quarter, in one of the most dramatic runs in Super Bowl history, MVP John Riggins ran for the first down, broke a tackle from Miami cornerback Don McNeal and ran 43 yards for a touchdown giving the Redskins a lead they never relinquished. Super Bowl XVII: After the spending the entire game trailing the Miami Dolphins, the Washington Redskins were faced with fourth down and one to go on Miami 42 yard line.

      It marks one of the Steelers' four Super Bowl titles obtained during the 1970s. This game decided which of these two teams would be the first NFL team to win three Super Bowls. Super Bowl XIII: The Pittsburgh Steelers defeat the Dallas Cowboys 35-31 in the second Super Bowl matchup between the two teams. Super Bowl VII: Coach Don Shula and the Miami Dolphins complete the only undefeated season in NFL history, defeating the Washington Redskins 14-7.

      The Jets defeat the Colts, 16-7. Super Bowl III: Speaking to the press in the week before the game, New York Jets quarterback "Broadway" Joe Namath guarantees a victory over the Baltimore Colts. The game is also notable as it was broadcast on both NBC and CBS. Only 61,946 attend the game at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, making it the only non-sellout Super Bowl.

      The Packers outscore the Chiefs 21-0 in the second half after struggling in the first half. Super Bowl I: In the first matchup of the AFL and NFL champions, the NFL's Green Bay Packers, led by coach Vince Lombardi and quarterback Bart Starr, defeat the Kansas City Chiefs, 35-10. The infamous "I'm Going to Disney World!" Advertising campaign did not take place at Super Bowl XXXIX for the first time since it started at Super Bowl XXI, although Disney did run an ad several times during the game showing several players from both teams practicing the catch-phrase. This indicator has been surprisingly accurate (around 85% correct) over the past years.

      Super Bowl Indicator, an indicator based on the belief that a Super Bowl win for a team from the old AFL (AFC division) foretells a decline in the stock market for the coming year, and that a win for a team from the old NFL (NFC division) means the stock market will be up for the year. Wild card teams are 5-4 in the Super Bowl, with the Chiefs, Raiders, Broncos, Ravens, and Steelers winning their respective games. They include the Kansas City Chiefs in Super Bowl IV, the Dallas Cowboys in Super Bowl X, the Oakland Raiders in Super Bowl XV, the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XX, the Buffalo Bills in Super Bowl XXVII, the Denver Broncos in Super Bowl XXXII, the Tennessee Titans in Super Bowl XXXIV, the Baltimore Ravens in Super Bowl XXXV, and the Pittsburgh Steelers, the only sixth-seeded team to make it, in Super Bowl XL. Overall, nine teams have advanced to the Super Bowl after entering the playoffs as wild card teams (teams that entered the playoffs without winning its division).

      Eastern starting with Super Bowl XXXVII. The kickoff has been since moved back to 6:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. Since the early 1980s Super Bowls have been starting at around 6 p.m.

      This is also the last Super Bowl which was played outside to not end in dusk. Eastern Standard Time was Super Bowl XI which was played in Pasadena. The last Super Bowl to start at 3:30 p.m. The AFC broke the streak in 1998 in Super Bowl XXXII when Denver beat the defending champion Packers.

      The NFC won 13 Super Bowls in a row from 1985 to 1997, starting with Super Bowl XIX. Previously, the closest an AFC team had come to winning the Super Bowl on that network was when the Buffalo Bills lost to the New York Giants 20-19 in Super Bowl XXV. The Pittsburgh Steelers were the first AFC team to ever win a Super Bowl (XL) that was broadcast on ABC (The NFC is currently 6-1). Super Bowl XXXIX was the first such game to be tied after three quarters of play.

      Louis Rams. The winning play was a 48-yard field goal kicked by Adam Vinatieri of the New England Patriots to lift them to a 20-17 victory over the St. Super Bowl XXXVI was also the first Super Bowl to be decided by a score on the last play of the game. Also, because of the attacks, the Super Bowl is now a National Special Security Event (NSSE).

      With the exception of Super Bowl XXXVII on January 26, 2003, all of the succeeding Super Bowls have been scheduled for February. This was the first Super Bowl to be played in February. But the game was moved back one week to February 3, 2002 because of the September 11, 2001 attacks. Super Bowl XXXVI was originally scheduled to be played on January 27, 2002.

      As a result, additional settings were necessary to grant exceptions for other uses of "XXX". Many proxy servers' filters were configured to block the text string "XXX" whenever occurring to prevent access to pornography. In the months leading up to Super Bowl XXX (or Super Bowl Thirty), some Internet proxy servers were blocking the web site for the upcoming event. Louis Rams were the first NFL team who plays their home games in a fully enclosed stadium, the Edward Jones Dome, to win the Super Bowl.

      In 2000, the St. The jerseys they wore paid tribute to the 1957 team. Since it was the league's 75th season, every team wore a throwback jersey during the season and San Francisco decided to continue to wear their jerseys all the way through the playoffs and into Super Bowl XXIX. In 1994, the 49ers became the first team to wear a throwback jersey during the Super Bowl.

      For example, the New England Patriots, winners of Super Bowl XXXIX are the champions of the 2004 NFL season, even though the championship game was played in February 2005. The NFL season spreads over two calendar years, so identifying the games by the year of the Super Bowl could cause some confusion. The Super Bowl uses Roman numerals to identify each game, rather than the year it was held. Three golf courses for the NFL's annual charity golf tournament.

      250 buses for NFL use. Separate practice facilities for each team. Enough "quality" hotel rooms within a one-hour drive for 35% of the stadium's capacity. 50,000 square feet of space for news media ("Radio Row").

      Large, high-end hotel for teams and NFL. 600,000 square feet of exhibit space for fan events. Space for 10 photo trailers and 40 television trucks. Stadium with greater than 70,000 seats.

      Average high temperature of at least 50 degrees in February.

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