Super Bowl

The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy.

In professional American football, the Super Bowl is the championship game of the National Football League (NFL) in the United States. The game and its ancillary festivities constitute Super Bowl Sunday (sometimes "Super Sunday"), which over the years has almost become a de facto American national holiday.

The game began in January 1967 as the AFL-NFL World Championship Game in which the NFL championship team played against the champion of the younger, rival American Football League (AFL) for the "World Championship of Professional Football". After both leagues merged in 1970, the Super Bowl became the NFL's championship game. Since then, the game has been played annually on a Sunday following the playoffs, originally early to mid-January, then late January, and in 2002, the first Sunday in February.

The Super Bowl is one of the most-watched American television broadcasts of the year, attracting many companies to spend millions of dollars on commercials. This has caused the starting time of the game to be pushed back later and later, to ensure the Sunday night prime time audience on the East Coast. The last true day game (which ended before local sunset) of the series was Super Bowl XI in January 1977.

In addition, many popular singers and musicians have performed during the Super Bowl's pre-game and halftime ceremonies. This is the largest U.S. food consumption day next to Thanksgiving.

History

Origins

The Super Bowl was created as part of the merger agreement between the National Football League (NFL) and its rival, the American Football League (AFL). After its inception in 1920, the NFL fended off several rival leagues before the AFL began play in 1960. The intense competitive war for players and fans led to serious merger talks between the two leagues in 1966.

One of the conditions of the AFL-NFL Merger was that the winners of each league's championship game would meet in a contest to determine the "world champion of football". According to NFL Films President Steve Sabol, Then NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle wanted to call the game "The Big One". [citation needed] During the discussions to iron out the details, AFL founder and Kansas City Chiefs owner Lamar Hunt had jokingly referred to the proposed interleague championship as the "Super Bowl." Hunt thought of the name after seeing his daughter playing with a toy called a Super Ball. The ball is now on display at the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The name was feasible because postseason college football games had long been known as "bowl games" (the term originates from the Rose Bowl Game, which was in turn named for the bowl-shaped stadium in which it is played). Hunt only meant his suggested name to be a stopgap until a better one could be found. Not having thought of one, the owners named the contest the AFL-NFL World Championship Game. Not surprisingly, fans and media tended to use the shorter, unofficial name. Starting with the third contest in January 1969, the name "Super Bowl" became official.

After the NFL's Green Bay Packers convincingly won the first two Super Bowls, some team owners feared for the future of the merger, since many doubted that AFL teams could compete with their NFL counterparts. That all changed with perhaps the biggest upset in American sports history, the AFL's New York Jets defeat of the Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III in Miami. One year later, the American Football League's Kansas City Chiefs defeated the NFL Minnesota Vikings 23-7 and won Super Bowl IV in New Orleans, the last World Championship game played between the champions of two leagues.

When the NFL and AFL merged into one combined league for the 1970 season, three NFL teams joined the 10 AFL teams to form the American Football Conference (AFC), and the other 13 teams became the National Football Conference (NFC). Since then, the Super Bowl has featured the champions of the AFC and NFC. As of Super Bowl XL, former AFL teams have won 11 Super Bowls, pre-1970 NFL teams have won 23 games, and two games have been won by teams created after 1970.

The NFL commissioner at that time, Pete Rozelle, is often considered the mastermind of both the merger and the Super Bowl. His leadership guided them into the merger agreement and cemented the preeminence of the Super Bowl. The game remains his crowning achievement and was an important factor in him being selected by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century.

The winning team gets the Vince Lombardi Trophy, named for the coach of the Green Bay Packers, who won the first two Super Bowl games. Following his death in September 1970, the trophy was named the Vince Lombardi Trophy, first awarded at Super Bowl V in Miami.

Television coverage

By any measure, the Super Bowl is one of the most watched television programs of the year. The game tends to have high Nielsen television ratings which usually come in around a 40 rating and 60 share (i.e., on average, 40 percent of all U.S. households, and 60 percent of all homes tuned into television during the game). This means that on average, 80 to 90 million Americans are tuned into the Super Bowl at any given moment. It is also estimated that 130-140 million tune into some part of the game.

There is a popular urban myth regarding the Super Bowl — that the game is watched in 234 countries by 1 billion people [1], a fact unlikely to be true considering the time of the event, and the lack of popularity American Football has outside of the United States. In actual fact, Super Bowl XXXIX in 2005 was watched by 93 million viewers in total, of which 98 percent were in North America [2]. Approximately half of the remaining 2 million worldwide viewers watched from the United Kingdom. [3]

Given the immense popularity of the Super Bowl, it may be surprising to discover that videotapes of the telecasts of the first two Super Bowls are said not to exist. This is especially shocking for Super Bowl I, which was covered by both NBC and CBS. According to Sports Illustrated, the only footage of the first telecast known to exist is a two minute clip of the first game.[citation needed] From the early days of television into the 1960s, copies of TV broadcasts were routinely erased, mainly because nobody thought anyone would want to watch the same show they had just seen. Another reason was that videotape in those days was prohibitively expensive. (Merv Griffin once said that a ninety-minute blank tape cost $750. [citation needed]) According to Steve Sabol, both networks taped soap operas over the game tapes, which are presumably lost forever. [citation needed] But the NFL has put out a $1,000,000 bounty on either one of the tapes, and experts say that there is still a chance that one of the network affiliates taped the game off the live feed and saved it. [citation needed] According to NFL Films...these are the ultimate Lost Treasures. [citation needed]

The highest rated game according to Nielsen was Super Bowl XVI in 1982 which was watched in 49.1% of households (73 share) or 40,020,000 households at the time. Super Bowl XVI is #4 on Nielsen's list of top-rated programs of all time, and 3 other Super Bowls (XII, XVII, XX) made the top 10. [4] Although the proliferation of cable and satellite television has undercut broadcast ratings somewhat in recent years, the game is still so popular that a number of networks actually schedule original programming, such as independently produced halftime entertainment, during the game, simply to take advantage of a large audience already in front of the television.

Following Apple Computer's 1984 commercial introducing the Apple Macintosh computer, directed by Ridley Scott, the broadcast of the Super Bowl became the premier showcase for high concept or simply extravagantly expensive commercials. Famous commercial campaigns include the Budweiser "Bud Bowl" campaign, and the 1999 and 2000 dot-com ads. Prices have increased each year, with reports citing a record $2.5 million (US) for a 30 second spot during Super Bowl XL in 2006. Many people tune in to the Super Bowl solely to watch the very creative commercials.

In recent years, the NFL has denied the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority the opportunity to run Super Bowl ads for the city as a tourist destination. The ban includes the game, as well as the pre-game and post-game shows. Many groups are denied the chance to run Super Bowl ads on various grounds, but Las Vegas is the only city to be denied in such a fashion; the NFL has stated that it does not want the Super Bowl to be associated with the perception of Las Vegas as a gambling mecca. If the television show Las Vegas stays on the air when NBC gets their next Super Bowl Broadcast (which will be Super Bowl XLIII in 2009), they may not be allowed to promote the series during the entire block of programming. [5]

Coverage by American television networks

The television network showing the game changes from year to year. In the United States it is currently shared among three of the four major television networks: ABC, CBS, and FOX. Super Bowl XXXVIII was shown on CBS, Super Bowl XXXIX was shown on FOX, and Super Bowl XL was shown on ABC, which will be the final NFL game broadcast on that network for the foreseeable future.

With the new television contracts beginning in 2006, NBC, which last telecast Super Bowl XXXII in 1998, will take ABC's place in the network rotation starting with Super Bowl XLIII in 2009.

Entertainment

Because of the large number of viewers that the Super Bowl generates, a number of popular singers and musicians have performed during its pregame ceremonies, the halftime show, or even just singing the national anthem of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner". Super Bowl XL in 2006 featured Stevie Wonder, Joss Stone, and John Legend during the pregame ceremonies; Aaron Neville, Aretha Franklin, and Dr. John performed the national anthem; and The Rolling Stones played during the halftime show.

In 2004, it was during halftime at Super Bowl XXXVIII that Janet Jackson had her now-infamous wardrobe malfunction after Justin Timberlake ripped off a piece of her top, exposing her right breast with a star-like ring surrounding the nipple. Many conspiracy theorists think that this was done intentionally to get everyone's attention, possibly so that Janet could get the attention away from her brother Michael Jackson, who was facing child molestation charges at the time. Timberlake and Jackson have maintained that the incident was unintentional, hence the term "wardrobe malfunction". It also didn't help matters that the game was airing on CBS, and their then-corporate sister company within Viacom, MTV, produced the halftime show. The NFL, embarrassed from the incident, permanently banned MTV from doing another halftime show in any capacity. This also led to the FCC cracking down on indecency and fining CBS $225,000 for the incident, as well as fining each of CBS's then twenty owned and operated stations. The following year, the NFL chose Paul McCartney to perform at halftime of Super Bowl XXXIX. True to the hopes of the NFL and the networks, McCartney turned in an enjoyable but uncontroversial performance.

Venue

The location of the Super Bowl is chosen by the NFL well in advance, usually 3 to 5 years before the game. Cities compete to host the game in a selection bidding process similar to ones used by the Olympic Games and soccer's World Cup.

Over half of the Super Bowls have been played in one of the following three cities: New Orleans, Louisiana (9 times), Miami, Florida (8 times) and the Greater Los Angeles Area (7 total, 5 times at Pasadena's Rose Bowl stadium and twice at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum). Miami has been selected to host two future games: Super Bowl XLI in 2007 and Super Bowl XLIV in 2010. After Hurricane Katrina damaged the Louisiana Superdome and the city, the game might never return to New Orleans. The last time the Los Angeles area hosted the game was Super Bowl XXVII in 1993; the area is currently not considered a possible venue after the league's two teams vacated the city in 1995: the Raiders moved back to Oakland, California, and the Rams moved to St. Louis, Missouri.

Coincidentally, no NFL team has ever played the Super Bowl on its own home turf. However, Super Bowl XIV (which involved the then-Los Angeles Rams) was played at nearby Pasadena's Rose Bowl stadium; and Super Bowl XIX (which involved the San Francisco 49ers) was played at the nearby Stanford Stadium on the Stanford University campus in Palo Alto. Neither of these stadiums has ever been a home to an NFL team.

A potential venue currently must meet these qualifications in order to be a Super Bowl host: [citation needed]

  • Average high temperature of at least 50 degrees in February
  • Stadium with greater than 70,000 seats
  • Space for 10 photo trailers and 40 television trucks
  • 600,000 square feet of exhibit space for fan events
  • Large, high-end hotel for teams and NFL
  • 50,000 square feet of space for news media ("Radio Row")
  • Enough "quality" hotel rooms within a one-hour drive for 35% of the stadium's capacity
  • Separate practice facilities for each team
  • 250 buses for NFL use
  • Three golf courses for the NFL's annual charity golf tournament

Exceptions are at the discretion of the NFL. For instance, cruise ships made up the discrepancy in hotel rooms for Jacksonville in Super Bowl XXXIX and cold-weather cities such as Minneapolis and Detroit have been awarded Super Bowls because the stadium had a roof.

The designated "home team" alternates between the NFC team in odd-numbered years (the Philadelphia Eagles in 2005), and the AFC team in even-numbered years (the Pittsburgh Steelers in 2006). The home team is given the choice of either wearing their colored jerseys or their white ones; this started with Super Bowl XIII. Prior to that, the home team always wore the dark jerseys. The Dallas Cowboys wore their rarely used blue uniform tops in Super Bowl V, and lost to the then-Baltimore Colts, which has led to the widely held belief that the Cowboys do not play well in their blue shirts. While most home teams in the Super Bowl choose to wear their colored jerseys, only the Cowboys in XIII and XXVII, the Washington Redskins in XVII, and the Pittsburgh Steelers in Super Bowl XL have worn white as the home team.

Trivia

  • The Super Bowl uses Roman numerals to identify each game, rather than the year it was held. The NFL season spreads over two calendar years, so identifying the games by the year of the Super Bowl could cause some confusion. For example, the New England Patriots, winners of Super Bowl XXXIX are the champions of the 2004 NFL season, even though the championship game was played in February 2005.
  • In 1994, the 49ers became the first team to wear a throwback jersey during the Super Bowl. Since it was the league's 75th season, every team wore a throwback jersey during the season and San Francisco decided to continue to wear their jerseys all the way through the playoffs and into Super Bowl XXIX. The jerseys they wore paid tribute to the 1957 team.
  • In 2000, the St. Louis Rams were the first NFL team who plays their home games in a fully enclosed stadium, the Edward Jones Dome, to win the Super Bowl.
  • In the months leading up to Super Bowl XXX (or Super Bowl Thirty), some Internet proxy servers were blocking the web site for the upcoming event. Many proxy servers' filters were configured to block the text string "XXX" whenever occurring to prevent access to pornography. As a result, additional settings were necessary to grant exceptions for other uses of "XXX".
  • Super Bowl XXXVI was originally scheduled to be played on January 27, 2002. But the game was moved back one week to February 3, 2002 because of the September 11, 2001 attacks. This was the first Super Bowl to be played in February. With the exception of Super Bowl XXXVII on January 26, 2003, all of the succeeding Super Bowls have been scheduled for February. Also, because of the attacks, the Super Bowl is now a National Special Security Event (NSSE).
  • Super Bowl XXXVI was also the first Super Bowl to be decided by a score on the last play of the game. The winning play was a 48-yard field goal kicked by Adam Vinatieri of the New England Patriots to lift them to a 20-17 victory over the St. Louis Rams.
  • Super Bowl XXXIX was the first such game to be tied after three quarters of play.
  • The Pittsburgh Steelers were the first AFC team to ever win a Super Bowl (XL) that was broadcast on ABC (The NFC is currently 6-1). Previously, the closest an AFC team had come to winning the Super Bowl on that network was when the Buffalo Bills lost to the New York Giants 20-19 in Super Bowl XXV.
  • The NFC won 13 Super Bowls in a row from 1985 to 1997, starting with Super Bowl XIX. The AFC broke the streak in 1998 in Super Bowl XXXII when Denver beat the defending champion Packers.
  • The last Super Bowl to start at 3:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time was Super Bowl XI which was played in Pasadena. This is also the last Super Bowl which was played outside to not end in dusk. Since the early 1980s Super Bowls have been starting at around 6 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. The kickoff has been since moved back to 6:30 p.m. Eastern starting with Super Bowl XXXVII.
  • Overall, nine teams have advanced to the Super Bowl after entering the playoffs as wild card teams (teams that entered the playoffs without winning its division). They include the Kansas City Chiefs in Super Bowl IV, the Dallas Cowboys in Super Bowl X, the Oakland Raiders in Super Bowl XV, the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XX, the Buffalo Bills in Super Bowl XXVII, the Denver Broncos in Super Bowl XXXII, the Tennessee Titans in Super Bowl XXXIV, the Baltimore Ravens in Super Bowl XXXV, and the Pittsburgh Steelers, the only sixth-seeded team to make it, in Super Bowl XL. Wild card teams are 5-4 in the Super Bowl, with the Chiefs, Raiders, Broncos, Ravens, and Steelers winning their respective games.
  • Super Bowl Indicator, an indicator based on the belief that a Super Bowl win for a team from the old AFL (AFC division) foretells a decline in the stock market for the coming year, and that a win for a team from the old NFL (NFC division) means the stock market will be up for the year. This indicator has been surprisingly accurate (around 85% correct) over the past years
  • The infamous "I'm Going to Disney World!" Advertising campaign did not take place at Super Bowl XXXIX for the first time since it started at Super Bowl XXI, although Disney did run an ad several times during the game showing several players from both teams practicing the catch-phrase.

Post-Super Bowl loss jinx

Commentators and sports analysts note a tendency for teams that have made it to the Super Bowl and lost, to collapse the following season. The season after a Super Bowl loss, a team usually returns with a losing, or mediocre at best, record. This effect can be traced to the loss of momentum a team has built up, accumulating injuries, losing successful free agents between seasons, and the aging of talented players.

There are notable exceptions to this pattern, such as the Buffalo Bills who went to the Super Bowl and lost four years in a row, from XXV to XXVIII.

The most recent is the Philadelphia Eagles, who lost Super Bowl XXXIX to the New England Patriots in the 2004 season (played on February 6, 2005), who posted a 6-10 record in the 2005 season. The most glaring example is the Oakland Raiders. Following their 48-21 loss to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in 2003, the Raiders posted a 4-12 record in the 2003 NFL season, the worst post-Super Bowl record, and as of the end of the 2005 NFL season, have not recovered.

Game history

The first Super Bowl was played in 1967, as commemorated by this stamp issued in 1999 by the United States Postal Service featuring the ticket for that first game.

Notable Super Bowl games

The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see discussion on the talk page.
  • Super Bowl I: In the first matchup of the AFL and NFL champions, the NFL's Green Bay Packers, led by coach Vince Lombardi and quarterback Bart Starr, defeat the Kansas City Chiefs, 35-10. The Packers outscore the Chiefs 21-0 in the second half after struggling in the first half. Only 61,946 attend the game at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, making it the only non-sellout Super Bowl. The game is also notable as it was broadcast on both NBC and CBS.
  • Super Bowl III: Speaking to the press in the week before the game, New York Jets quarterback "Broadway" Joe Namath guarantees a victory over the Baltimore Colts. The Jets defeat the Colts, 16-7.
  • Super Bowl VII: Coach Don Shula and the Miami Dolphins complete the only undefeated season in NFL history, defeating the Washington Redskins 14-7.
  • Super Bowl XIII: The Pittsburgh Steelers defeat the Dallas Cowboys 35-31 in the second Super Bowl matchup between the two teams. This game decided which of these two teams would be the first NFL team to win three Super Bowls. It marks one of the Steelers' four Super Bowl titles obtained during the 1970s.
  • Super Bowl XVII: After the spending the entire game trailing the Miami Dolphins, the Washington Redskins were faced with fourth down and one to go on Miami 42 yard line. In the fourth quarter, in one of the most dramatic runs in Super Bowl history, MVP John Riggins ran for the first down, broke a tackle from Miami cornerback Don McNeal and ran 43 yards for a touchdown giving the Redskins a lead they never relinquished
  • Super Bowl XX: After the New England Patriots (in their first Super Bowl) take a 3-0 lead on a field goal, the Chicago Bears (also in their first SB) played dominant offense and defense to take the game 46-10. MVP Richard Dent led a Bears defense that limited New England to 7 rushing yards.
  • Super Bowl XXI: New York Giants quarterback Phil Simms completes 22 of 25 passing attempts, including all 10 of his attempts in the second half as New York defeats Denver 39-20. Simms is the games MVP with a Super Bowl completion record of 88.0%.
  • Super Bowl XXII: Washington Redskins after trailing 10-0 MVP quarterback Doug Williams, the first African-American quarterback to start a Superbowl, throws for 4 touchdowns in one quarter which leads to a 42 unanswered points and a rout of Denver.
  • Super Bowl XXIII: San Francisco 49ers quarterback Joe Montana leads a 92 yard fourth quarter drive, as the 49ers score the game-winning touchdown with 34 seconds left and defeat the Cincinnati Bengals 20-16.
  • Super Bowl XXIV: The San Francisco 49ers defeat the Denver Broncos 55-10, the largest margin of victory in Super Bowl history. The 55 points are the most scored by any team in a Super Bowl. As a result of this game, Joe Montana, San Francisco's quarterback became the first player to ever win three Superbowl MVPs.
  • Super Bowl XXV: As time expires, the Buffalo Bills' Scott Norwood attempts a 47-yard field goal but misses wide to the right, and the New York Giants win 20-19. A game with no turnovers by either team and only one 5 yard penalty, it remains the only Super Bowl to be decided by a single point.
  • Super Bowl XXX: The Dallas Cowboys make a record 8th Super Bowl appearance, winning 27-17 over the Pittsburgh Steelers, and become the first NFL team to win 3 Super Bowls in a 4 year span. The victory also tied the Cowboys with the San Francisco 49ers for the most Super Bowl victories (5). The Cowboys' Charles Haley became the first player to win 5 Super Bowls, after winning two with San Francisco (XXIII and XXIV) and two with Dallas (XXVII and XXVIII). Shades of Super Bowl XIII, this game decided which of these two teams would be the first to win five Super Bowls and thus be the second NFL team to do so.
  • Super Bowl XXXII: After four superbowl losses, the Denver Broncos win their first title, defeating the defending champion Green Bay Packers 31-24 and becoming the first AFC Super Bowl champion in 14 years. Denver will also win the Super Bowl XXXIII against Atlanta.
  • Super Bowl XXXIV: In a classic game, the Tennessee Titans, down 16-0 to the St. Louis Rams, rallied behind quarterback Steve McNair and running back Eddie George to tie the game at 16-16. After the Rams score a 73 yard touchdown to lead 23-16, the Titans drive, and in a close finish, wide receiver Kevin Dyson catches a short pass but is tackled by linebacker Mike Jones at the 1 yard line as he stretches for the end zone with no time left on the clock, and the Rams hold on to win 23-16.
  • Super Bowl XXXVI: Placekicker Adam Vinatieri kicks a 48-yard field goal as time expires to lift the New England Patriots to a 20-17 victory over the Rams, and the first of 3 Super Bowl wins in four years. Two years later, Vinatieri would kick another game-winning field goal at the end of Super Bowl XXXVIII to defeat the Carolina Panthers.
  • Super Bowl XXXIX: The New England Patriots win their third Super Bowl in four years when they defeat the Philadelphia Eagles 24-21 in Jacksonville, Florida. All three of New England's Super Bowl victories have been decided by three points. The Eagles had a chance to win the game on their final drive, but a New England interception ended the game.
  • Super Bowl XL: The Pittsburgh Steelers win over the Seattle Seahawks. This was the first Super Bowl appearance for the Seahawks. Firsts for the Steelers included: first AFC team to win five Super Bowls; first sixth seed to advance to the Super Bowl; first winners not to get a first down in the first quarter; and first AFC team to win a Super Bowl aired by the ABC. Ben Roethlisberger became the youngest quarterback to win a Super Bowl. Completing 9 of 21 passes for 123 yards with 2 interceptions, his passer rating (22.6) was the lowest of any winning quarterback. Steelers head coach, Bill Cowher, won his first Super Bowl.


Trends

Super Bowl wins and losses tend to cluster around a few head coaches. Vince Lombardi's Green Bay Packers won the first two. Don Shula coached two different teams: a loss with the Baltimore Colts and two wins and three losses with the Miami Dolphins. Tom Landry also coached two winners and three losers with the Dallas Cowboys. Chuck Noll won four in the 1970's with the Pittsburgh Steelers. Bill Walsh won three with the San Francisco 49ers. Joe Gibbs also won three Super Bowls with the Washington Redskins. And recently, Bill Belichick won three with the Patriots.

Don Shula, Bill Parcells, Dan Reeves, Dick Vermeil, and Mike Holmgren all took more than one team to the Super Bowl. Bud Grant coached four Vikings losses in the 1970s, Marv Levy coached four consecutive losses with the Buffalo Bills in the 1990s, and Dan Reeves coached four losses between two teams (three with the Denver Broncos and one with the Atlanta Falcons).

Super Bowl appearances

Teams with no Super Bowl appearances

  • NFL league champions prior to Super Bowl I
    • Arizona Cardinals - NFL champions in 1925 and 1947
    • Cleveland Browns - NFL championship in 1950, 1954, 1955, and 1964
      (This refers to the team that the league officially views as one continuous franchise that began in 1946 but suspended operations from 1996-1998, and resumed play in 1999.)
    • Detroit Lions - NFL championship in 1935, 1952, 1953, and 1957
  • Houston Texans
  • Jacksonville Jaguars
  • New Orleans Saints

Super Bowl winners

The Super Bowl ring and ticket for Super Bowl XI. A Super Bowl ring is given to each member of the winning team to commemorate their Super Bowl victory.

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Bud Grant coached four Vikings losses in the 1970s, Marv Levy coached four consecutive losses with the Buffalo Bills in the 1990s, and Dan Reeves coached four losses between two teams (three with the Denver Broncos and one with the Atlanta Falcons). As an alt.* hierarchy group, alt.games.coh may not be available from some news servers. Don Shula, Bill Parcells, Dan Reeves, Dick Vermeil, and Mike Holmgren all took more than one team to the Super Bowl. As with any USENET group, flamewars can and do occur, sometimes lasting for days, but they are relatively seldom. And recently, Bill Belichick won three with the Patriots. alt.games.coh is a low-traffic USENET newsgroup where City of Heroes is discussed. Joe Gibbs also won three Super Bowls with the Washington Redskins. Flamewars seldom occur.

Bill Walsh won three with the San Francisco 49ers. A variety of matters are discussed here in an informal setting, including discussions prohibited on the official forum. Chuck Noll won four in the 1970's with the Pittsburgh Steelers. The LiveJournal community for general discussion of City of Heroes-related issues is city_of_heroes. Tom Landry also coached two winners and three losers with the Dallas Cowboys. Most of these are communities devoted to specific supergroups or servers. Don Shula coached two different teams: a loss with the Baltimore Colts and two wins and three losses with the Miami Dolphins. Over sixty communities on the LiveJournal weblog site list City of Heroes as one of their interests.

Vince Lombardi's Green Bay Packers won the first two. Fan sites listed on the portal are periodically reviewed by NCsoft to ensure that they are up and maintained. Super Bowl wins and losses tend to cluster around a few head coaches. Any person may create a fan site and submit it to NCsoft for publication on the portal, pending review to ensure that the site meets with the guidelines for a fan site submission.
. NCsoft maintains a City of Heroes fan site portal on its official site. Following their 48-21 loss to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in 2003, the Raiders posted a 4-12 record in the 2003 NFL season, the worst post-Super Bowl record, and as of the end of the 2005 NFL season, have not recovered. Numerous City of Heroes fan sites exist with a wide variety of formats and purposes, including roleplaying sites and informational sites.

The most glaring example is the Oakland Raiders. The European version of City of Heroes has its own separate official web board. The most recent is the Philadelphia Eagles, who lost Super Bowl XXXIX to the New England Patriots in the 2004 season (played on February 6, 2005), who posted a 6-10 record in the 2005 season. The official web board is moderated to remove extreme antisocial behavior, discussion of client modification (such as map patches, skin modifications, or disabling certain sounds) prohibited by the EULA, and discussion of moderator decisions. There are notable exceptions to this pattern, such as the Buffalo Bills who went to the Super Bowl and lost four years in a row, from XXV to XXVIII. Reportedly only about 10% of the game's player base actually participates in these boards. This effect can be traced to the loss of momentum a team has built up, accumulating injuries, losing successful free agents between seasons, and the aging of talented players. However, there is also a very vocal faction of disgruntled gamers that produce flamewars and complaints which can cause would-be participants to stay away.

The season after a Super Bowl loss, a team usually returns with a losing, or mediocre at best, record. Some find the presence of the developers, and their willingness to interact with and answer questions from players, to be laudable—especially in comparison to other MMORPGs, which tend not to have this type of developer availability. Commentators and sports analysts note a tendency for teams that have made it to the Super Bowl and lost, to collapse the following season. The value of this forum to the average player is a matter of debate. While most home teams in the Super Bowl choose to wear their colored jerseys, only the Cowboys in XIII and XXVII, the Washington Redskins in XVII, and the Pittsburgh Steelers in Super Bowl XL have worn white as the home team. Currently, the primary forum moderator is CuppaJo. The Dallas Cowboys wore their rarely used blue uniform tops in Super Bowl V, and lost to the then-Baltimore Colts, which has led to the widely held belief that the Cowboys do not play well in their blue shirts. There are forums devoted to announcements, general issues, player guides, questions, suggestions, each archetype, each of the eleven game servers, City of Villains, and other topics.

Prior to that, the home team always wore the dark jerseys. This web board is run by Cryptic and NCSoft themselves, and frequented by various developers and customer service representatives (referred to by site regulars as "red names" because their usernames are highlighted in red on their forum posts) as well as players. The home team is given the choice of either wearing their colored jerseys or their white ones; this started with Super Bowl XIII. The official Internet forum for City of Heroes is the web board found at boards.cityofheroes.com. The designated "home team" alternates between the NFC team in odd-numbered years (the Philadelphia Eagles in 2005), and the AFC team in even-numbered years (the Pittsburgh Steelers in 2006). Some prominent ones include:. For instance, cruise ships made up the discrepancy in hotel rooms for Jacksonville in Super Bowl XXXIX and cold-weather cities such as Minneapolis and Detroit have been awarded Super Bowls because the stadium had a roof. Many on-line communities exist for the discussion of City of Heroes.

Exceptions are at the discretion of the NFL. It should be noted that Time-Warner, owner of DC Comics see the CoH franchise as something which could promote the sales of its comics and doesn't consider the game to be a threat of any kind. A potential venue currently must meet these qualifications in order to be a Super Bowl host: [citation needed]. Also, it's believed that Marvel's reputation of being trigger-happy with lawsuits worked against them. Neither of these stadiums has ever been a home to an NFL team. Although details of the settlement are scarce, it's believed that Marvel's case was floundering because when they launched the suit, the examples of copyrighted characters being replicated by the games character creator cited by Marvel were found to have been made by Marvel's own employees, this led the judge to dismiss these specific examples and ordered that Marvel can never use similar evidence again. However, Super Bowl XIV (which involved the then-Los Angeles Rams) was played at nearby Pasadena's Rose Bowl stadium; and Super Bowl XIX (which involved the San Francisco 49ers) was played at the nearby Stanford Stadium on the Stanford University campus in Palo Alto. [3].

Coincidentally, no NFL team has ever played the Super Bowl on its own home turf. Although the settlement has not been disclosed no changes will be made to the City of Heroes client. Louis, Missouri. As of December 14, 2005 all claims have been settled. The last time the Los Angeles area hosted the game was Super Bowl XXVII in 1993; the area is currently not considered a possible venue after the league's two teams vacated the city in 1995: the Raiders moved back to Oakland, California, and the Rams moved to St. Although Cherry Auction had not been directly selling the infringing items, the court found that it was vicariously or contributorally liable for the infringement. After Hurricane Katrina damaged the Louisiana Superdome and the city, the game might never return to New Orleans. Cherry Auction, Inc., a case in which a company that ran a flea market was successfully sued over intellectual property infringement because a vendor had been selling bootlegged records at that flea market.

Miami has been selected to host two future games: Super Bowl XLI in 2007 and Super Bowl XLIV in 2010. v. Over half of the Super Bowls have been played in one of the following three cities: New Orleans, Louisiana (9 times), Miami, Florida (8 times) and the Greater Los Angeles Area (7 total, 5 times at Pasadena's Rose Bowl stadium and twice at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum). At least one has noted similarities to Fonovisa, Inc. Cities compete to host the game in a selection bidding process similar to ones used by the Olympic Games and soccer's World Cup. Many intellectual property analysts agree, but others have noted that trademark law is structured such that if Marvel believes their properties are being infringed upon, they have little choice but to file a lawsuit, regardless of its outcome. The location of the Super Bowl is chosen by the NFL well in advance, usually 3 to 5 years before the game. Cryptic has replied that the lawsuit is frivolous.

True to the hopes of the NFL and the networks, McCartney turned in an enjoyable but uncontroversial performance. Others have pointed out that the EULA also includes a clause which gives ownership of created characters to Cryptic. The following year, the NFL chose Paul McCartney to perform at halftime of Super Bowl XXXIX. Some have noted that Cryptic already includes in its end-user license agreement (EULA) language forbidding the creation of copyrighted characters and has been known to delete or rename such characters. This also led to the FCC cracking down on indecency and fining CBS $225,000 for the incident, as well as fining each of CBS's then twenty owned and operated stations. The suit seeks unspecified damages and an injunction to force the companies to stop making use of its characters. The NFL, embarrassed from the incident, permanently banned MTV from doing another halftime show in any capacity. In November 2004, Marvel Comics filed a lawsuit against City of Heroes developer Cryptic Studios and publisher NCSoft alleging that the game not only allows, but actively promotes, the creation of characters whose copyrights and trademarks are owned by Marvel, and that Cryptic has intentionally failed to police these infringing characters.

It also didn't help matters that the game was airing on CBS, and their then-corporate sister company within Viacom, MTV, produced the halftime show. Other supplements (Paragon City source book, Monitor's Support Pack, Super-powered Operative's Dossier, etc.) will follow. Timberlake and Jackson have maintained that the incident was unintentional, hence the term "wardrobe malfunction". It will be based on Eden Studio's Unisystem rules and the core book will be called Registration Manual. Many conspiracy theorists think that this was done intentionally to get everyone's attention, possibly so that Janet could get the attention away from her brother Michael Jackson, who was facing child molestation charges at the time. In another press release, Eden Studios, makers of RPGs based on Army of Darkness and Buffy the Vampire Slayer franchises, have been tapped to produce a tabletop role-playing game for City of Heroes. In 2004, it was during halftime at Super Bowl XXXVIII that Janet Jackson had her now-infamous wardrobe malfunction after Justin Timberlake ripped off a piece of her top, exposing her right breast with a star-like ring surrounding the nipple. A recent 16 March 2005 press release announced Alderac Entertainment Group, maker of several collectible card games including Legend of the Five Rings, has been chosen to release a City of Heroes CCG.

John performed the national anthem; and The Rolling Stones played during the halftime show. Artist George Pérez provides the covers for the first three novels. Super Bowl XL in 2006 featured Stevie Wonder, Joss Stone, and John Legend during the pregame ceremonies; Aaron Neville, Aretha Franklin, and Dr. A third novel, The Rikti War, written by Shane Hensley, is due out in August 2006 and will cover the epic transdimensional war between Earth and the Rikti homeworld. Because of the large number of viewers that the Super Bowl generates, a number of popular singers and musicians have performed during its pregame ceremonies, the halftime show, or even just singing the national anthem of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner". A second novel, The Freedom Phalanx, written by Robin Laws, is due for release in May 2006 and will detail the reformation of the hero team the Freedom Phalanx in the 1980s. With the new television contracts beginning in 2006, NBC, which last telecast Super Bowl XXXII in 1998, will take ABC's place in the network rotation starting with Super Bowl XLIII in 2009. The novel chronicles the backstories of The Statesman and Lord Recluse, the central iconic characters in the City of Heroes and City of Villains franchises.

Super Bowl XXXVIII was shown on CBS, Super Bowl XXXIX was shown on FOX, and Super Bowl XL was shown on ABC, which will be the final NFL game broadcast on that network for the foreseeable future. The first City of Heroes novel, The Web of Arachnos, by Robert Weinberg, was published by CDS Books (an imprint of the Perseus Publishing Group) in October 2005. In the United States it is currently shared among three of the four major television networks: ABC, CBS, and FOX. Some have criticized Cryptic for doing this, but many more feel that this is fair considering you never paid for the comic itself in the first place. The television network showing the game changes from year to year. For a small additional fee, you can still get the actual comics sent to your door. [5]. It's belived Cryptic did this not only to compensate for the lack of additional monthly fees for playing both CoH and CoV, but also to solve the problem of comic books getting lost in the mail.

If the television show Las Vegas stays on the air when NBC gets their next Super Bowl Broadcast (which will be Super Bowl XLIII in 2009), they may not be allowed to promote the series during the entire block of programming. As of City of Villains launch, the free comic book deal switched from being an actual comic book being mailed to you to being able to access all existing CoH comic books on the company's website. Many groups are denied the chance to run Super Bowl ads on various grounds, but Las Vegas is the only city to be denied in such a fashion; the NFL has stated that it does not want the Super Bowl to be associated with the perception of Las Vegas as a gambling mecca. This was followed up by Dan Jurgens, who wrote the next three-issue arc named Bloodlines. The ban includes the game, as well as the pre-game and post-game shows. Mark Waid wrote the first three issues of the new Top Cow comic.Starting with issue four, Troy Hickman (who received Eisner Award nominations for Best Short Story and Best Anthology for his Common Grounds comic from Top Cow Productions) wrote a three-issue story arc entitled Smoke and Mirrors. In recent years, the NFL has denied the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority the opportunity to run Super Bowl ads for the city as a tourist destination. Unlike the previous volume, this series will follow the adventures of the city's most illustrious supergroup, the Freedom Phalanx led by The Statesman.

Many people tune in to the Super Bowl solely to watch the very creative commercials. Beginning with the May 2005 issue, the comic book is published by Top Cow Productions, written by noted comic book writer Mark Waid, and illustrated by newcomer David Nakayama. Prices have increased each year, with reports citing a record $2.5 million (US) for a 30 second spot during Super Bowl XL in 2006. It followed the story of the heroes Apex, War Witch, and Horus, who were virtually unmentioned in the game until Issue #5, where War Witch is a trainer in Croatoa. Famous commercial campaigns include the Budweiser "Bud Bowl" campaign, and the 1999 and 2000 dot-com ads. It was written by one of the game's designers, Rick Dakan, art was by Brandon McKinney and coloring was by Moose Bauman. Following Apple Computer's 1984 commercial introducing the Apple Macintosh computer, directed by Ridley Scott, the broadcast of the Super Bowl became the premier showcase for high concept or simply extravagantly expensive commercials. The comic's first volume ran 12 issues from May 2004 to April 2005.

[4] Although the proliferation of cable and satellite television has undercut broadcast ratings somewhat in recent years, the game is still so popular that a number of networks actually schedule original programming, such as independently produced halftime entertainment, during the game, simply to take advantage of a large audience already in front of the television. At times, this rear section has also included comic strips by Scott Kurtz of the PvP webcomic and Tim Buckley of the Ctrl Alt Del webcomic. Super Bowl XVI is #4 on Nielsen's list of top-rated programs of all time, and 3 other Super Bowls (XII, XVII, XX) made the top 10. The comic follows the adventures of fictional Paragon City heroes and ties into the game's plot development at times, as well as featuring a section devoted to fan art, fan fiction, and other miscellany in the back. The highest rated game according to Nielsen was Super Bowl XVI in 1982 which was watched in 49.1% of households (73 share) or 40,020,000 households at the time. North American subscribers to the game receive the City of Heroes monthly comic book in the mail; it is also available in some comic book stores. [citation needed]. As of March 2005 City of Heroes has around 150,000 subscribers worldwide (according to MMMGchart.com [2]).

[citation needed] According to NFL Films...these are the ultimate Lost Treasures. Once purchased, the player inputs a code from the card and their account is updated to allow as many months of play as the card is good for. [citation needed] But the NFL has put out a $1,000,000 bounty on either one of the tapes, and experts say that there is still a chance that one of the network affiliates taped the game off the live feed and saved it. In addition to paying subscription fees via credit card, another option is pre-paid cards that are available at video game retailers. [citation needed]) According to Steve Sabol, both networks taped soap operas over the game tapes, which are presumably lost forever. coh.ogaming.com has an article on why MMORPGs have recurring fees [1]. (Merv Griffin once said that a ninety-minute blank tape cost $750. Portions of the subscription costs go to supporting a full-time "live" team, which develops additional content for the game; other portions support the significant server maintenance and bandwidth costs.

Another reason was that videotape in those days was prohibitively expensive. As in other MMORPGs, players must pay the publisher (NCSoft) a monthly fee to continue playing City of Heroes. According to Sports Illustrated, the only footage of the first telecast known to exist is a two minute clip of the first game.[citation needed] From the early days of television into the 1960s, copies of TV broadcasts were routinely erased, mainly because nobody thought anyone would want to watch the same show they had just seen. To be fair to newer players though, characters on canceled accounts may lose their names to players making new characters, however the character itself is left untouched and should the player return, if their name was taken they are allowed to give the character a new name, if the name was not taken they can still use it. This is especially shocking for Super Bowl I, which was covered by both NBC and CBS. Also, the game is praised because your characters are NEVER deleted even if you leave the game for an extended period of time, unlike most MMORPGs where you character is fair game for deletion after a period of time (usually 3 months after you cancel your account). Given the immense popularity of the Super Bowl, it may be surprising to discover that videotapes of the telecasts of the first two Super Bowls are said not to exist. The communication level between players and developers is such that a player can actually private message Statesman, get their suggestion/question/complaint read, and possibly even responded to.

[3]. The development team will admit mistakes and also implement player suggestions. Approximately half of the remaining 2 million worldwide viewers watched from the United Kingdom. It also is often praised for having a development team that actually communicates with it's playerbase. In actual fact, Super Bowl XXXIX in 2005 was watched by 93 million viewers in total, of which 98 percent were in North America [2]. The launch of City of Heroes was widely reported as one of the most successful MMO launches in the history of the industry. There is a popular urban myth regarding the Super Bowl — that the game is watched in 234 countries by 1 billion people [1], a fact unlikely to be true considering the time of the event, and the lack of popularity American Football has outside of the United States. GameSpy went on to say that City of Heroes has the most flexible character creator to date of any MMORPG and has consistently given the update issues high marks.

It is also estimated that 130-140 million tune into some part of the game. PC Gamer, Game Informer, GameSpy and several other industry magazines critically acclaimed City of Heroes for its foray into the superhero genre and gave the game top or near top scores across the board. This means that on average, 80 to 90 million Americans are tuned into the Super Bowl at any given moment. Computer Gaming World hailed the game saying "City of Heroes blows a superpowered gust of fresh air into an increasingly stale sword-and-sorcery MMO world" in August of 2004. households, and 60 percent of all homes tuned into television during the game). As such, many fans of CoH feel that only Cryptic will be able to keep up a proper Superhero MMORPG whereas SOE and Microsoft will not. The game tends to have high Nielsen television ratings which usually come in around a 40 rating and 60 share (i.e., on average, 40 percent of all U.S. Entertainment, they have been criticized as not doing anything to help the already-troubled game, they are letting it get stagnant).

By any measure, the Super Bowl is one of the most watched television programs of the year. SOE has a repuatation for poorly handling licensed MMO's, such as Star Wars Galaxies (which has undergone several system revamps that have caused thousands of frustrated customers to leave each time) and Matrix Online (which SOE actually bought from Warner Bros. Following his death in September 1970, the trophy was named the Vince Lombardi Trophy, first awarded at Super Bowl V in Miami. There is also a DC Comics MMORPG that is being produced by Sony Online Entertainment. The winning team gets the Vince Lombardi Trophy, named for the coach of the Green Bay Packers, who won the first two Super Bowl games. Finally, the fact that the game will only be for XBox 360 is a heavy factor against it as it not only depends on a player to own the console, but also possibly be subscribed to XBox live Gold (Silver membership is free with ownership of the console and may very well be all that's required by Microsoft) and also have to pay an additional fee (which Marvel's development group would be collecting). The game remains his crowning achievement and was an important factor in him being selected by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. However, it should be noted that currently the only alternatives that are in production are a Microsoft XBox 360-exclusive Marvel online game that may play more like a regular ORPG like Diablo, it should also be known that Microsoft has a shady history when it comes to MMORPG's, they've been held responsible for the death of Asheron's Call 2 and they have announced promising MMORPG's only to end up canceling them such as Mythica and True Fantasy Live Online.

His leadership guided them into the merger agreement and cemented the preeminence of the Super Bowl. Those who feel they have been slighted by changes in the game's mechanics claim they will jump ship at the first alternative game to be released. The NFL commissioner at that time, Pete Rozelle, is often considered the mastermind of both the merger and the Super Bowl. Some players have pointed out that City of Heroes has thus far been able to escape penalties for its shortcomings because, as of now, they have the monopoly on super hero MMORPGs, although that may change as other contenders release similar games. As of Super Bowl XL, former AFL teams have won 11 Super Bowls, pre-1970 NFL teams have won 23 games, and two games have been won by teams created after 1970. Statesman, in a response to a private message sent to him by a forum-goer regarding "SSOCSS" stated that this system is currently shelved for the time being. Since then, the Super Bowl has featured the champions of the AFC and NFC. This is understandable considering that Statesman had mentioned a special "Super Secret Out of Combat Skill System" in the past that has never materialized due to problems developing the system.

When the NFL and AFL merged into one combined league for the 1970 season, three NFL teams joined the 10 AFL teams to form the American Football Conference (AFC), and the other 13 teams became the National Football Conference (NFC). The lead developer stated that it wasn't mentioned before because he didn't want to release the info because they hadn’t worked out the exact system and didn't want to release false information. One year later, the American Football League's Kansas City Chiefs defeated the NFL Minnesota Vikings 23-7 and won Super Bowl IV in New Orleans, the last World Championship game played between the champions of two leagues. They stated that ED had been in the works since March 2005, and that all changes to the game had been made with it in mind. That all changed with perhaps the biggest upset in American sports history, the AFL's New York Jets defeat of the Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III in Miami. Eventually the developers posted the information on the CoH forums. After the NFL's Green Bay Packers convincingly won the first two Super Bowls, some team owners feared for the future of the merger, since many doubted that AFL teams could compete with their NFL counterparts. The changes were originally posted on the City of Villains beta forums, however some testers who were angered by the changes attempted to leak the information on to the City of Heroes forums despite their Non-Disclosure Agreements.

Starting with the third contest in January 1969, the name "Super Bowl" became official. This is causing an even larger outcry than those on the changes in Issue 5. Not surprisingly, fans and media tended to use the shorter, unofficial name. A more recent criticism is against a change in the game's mechanics, called Enhancement Diversification (ED). Not having thought of one, the owners named the contest the AFL-NFL World Championship Game. Other players have also noted that the game does not incorporate the experience suggested in the in-game text written for mission descriptions and historical plaques, or the fictional world's history found on the game's website. Hunt only meant his suggested name to be a stopgap until a better one could be found. Some players say the game lacks an immersive feel and doesn't express fully the superhero comic book genre on which the game is based.

The name was feasible because postseason college football games had long been known as "bowl games" (the term originates from the Rose Bowl Game, which was in turn named for the bowl-shaped stadium in which it is played). Other criticisms are more subjective. The ball is now on display at the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. Other powers are so useful that they are considered essential for every character, such as Hasten, which allows powers to be reactivated more quickly after each use, and Stamina, which increases a character's endurance regeneration rate. [citation needed] During the discussions to iron out the details, AFL founder and Kansas City Chiefs owner Lamar Hunt had jokingly referred to the proposed interleague championship as the "Super Bowl." Hunt thought of the name after seeing his daughter playing with a toy called a Super Ball. Some sets have powers that are rarely taken and are dismissed as useless. According to NFL Films President Steve Sabol, Then NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle wanted to call the game "The Big One". As in all MMORPGs, there are calls to weaken, or nerf, these apparently overpowered sets.

One of the conditions of the AFL-NFL Merger was that the winners of each league's championship game would meet in a contest to determine the "world champion of football". Some players have criticized the game for being improperly balanced, with some power sets far outshining others. The intense competitive war for players and fans led to serious merger talks between the two leagues in 1966. City of Villains was released as both an expansion to City of Heroes and as a standalone game, a concept which has been dubbed "Expanshalone". After its inception in 1920, the NFL fended off several rival leagues before the AFL began play in 1960. The developer continually expands City of Heroes with free downloadable patches/updates. The Super Bowl was created as part of the merger agreement between the National Football League (NFL) and its rival, the American Football League (AFL). This was revealed to the players by Lead Developer Jack "Emmert" Statesman very early on in the City of Heroes beta test period.

. Paragon City is a fictitious city located in Rhode Island. food consumption day next to Thanksgiving. Badges have become, for some players, a greatly needed push for more to do in the game than just fight. This is the largest U.S. As the game has expanded more badges have been added, as well as special "event" badges, the first was for Holloween of 2004, but more such events happen a couple times a year. In addition, many popular singers and musicians have performed during the Super Bowl's pre-game and halftime ceremonies. When a hero has collected specific groups of badges, he is granted an "Accolade"—a badge that includes additional special powers for the hero, such as a maximum health or endurance boost, or an attack.

The last true day game (which ended before local sunset) of the series was Super Bowl XI in January 1977. Plaques do not have to be read in any particular order. This has caused the starting time of the game to be pushed back later and later, to ensure the Sunday night prime time audience on the East Coast. Heroes can obtain certain badges by visiting and reading each plaque in a set, which are often scattered across two or more zones within the city. The Super Bowl is one of the most-watched American television broadcasts of the year, attracting many companies to spend millions of dollars on commercials. Each plaque relates some historical fact about Paragon City's, its heroes', or the world's back story, and they are grouped into sets based on their subject matter. Since then, the game has been played annually on a Sunday following the playoffs, originally early to mid-January, then late January, and in 2002, the first Sunday in February. Also added were a number of historical plaques, placed throughout Paragon City.

After both leagues merged in 1970, the Super Bowl became the NFL's championship game. Thus, if a player finds the name of a badge to be well-suited to his character, or finds some in-game accomplishment especially significant, he can choose to title his character accordingly with that badge. The game began in January 1967 as the AFL-NFL World Championship Game in which the NFL championship team played against the champion of the younger, rival American Football League (AFL) for the "World Championship of Professional Football". These badges may be viewed by other players in the player information dialogue, and may also be worn to add the name of the badge as a title under a hero's publicly-displayed name. The game and its ancillary festivities constitute Super Bowl Sunday (sometimes "Super Sunday"), which over the years has almost become a de facto American national holiday. These badges are obtained by visiting particular areas, achieving a certain security level, completing certain missions or sets of missions, defeating a quantity of specific types of foe, or special in-game achievements like taking a certain amount of damage or earning a certain amount of Influence. In professional American football, the Super Bowl is the championship game of the National Football League (NFL) in the United States. In order to give the game more content, Cryptic introduced a system of collectible badges in its second content update to the game.

New Orleans Saints. Influence can be spent to buy enhancements and inspirations, change the costume and adjust the difficulty level of missions. Jacksonville Jaguars. Especially after a hero defeats a group of villains threatening a civilian on the streets of Paragon City, that civilian will run up to the hero and thank him by giving additional influence. Houston Texans. For completing missions and defeating opponents heroes not only gain experience points, but also receive influence points. Detroit Lions - NFL championship in 1935, 1952, 1953, and 1957. Influence is the currency within City of Heroes.

Cleveland Browns - NFL championship in 1950, 1954, 1955, and 1964
(This refers to the team that the league officially views as one continuous franchise that began in 1946 but suspended operations from 1996-1998, and resumed play in 1999.). Special "gift" inspirations with a random ability (including temporary immunity from experience debt) have also been available upon occasion. Arizona Cardinals - NFL champions in 1925 and 1947. There is also one special inspiration, called ambrosia, used only for the Eden Trial. NFL league champions prior to Super Bowl I

    . The more powerful versions are less common. Steelers head coach, Bill Cowher, won his first Super Bowl. In each of these types there are three specific inspirations, which help the affected area by 25%, 33%, and 50% (with rez, this refers to the amount of hp they have upon resurrecting).

    Completing 9 of 21 passes for 123 yards with 2 interceptions, his passer rating (22.6) was the lowest of any winning quarterback. There is also a type that gives resistance and frees the hero who uses it from most status effects, usually referred to by the name of the weakest version, break free, and a type that resurrects a fallen hero, usually just called a rez or awaken. Ben Roethlisberger became the youngest quarterback to win a Super Bowl. The types are generally referred to by the color they are represented by in the interface: blue (endurance), green (health), red (damage), yellow (accuracy), purple (defense) and the newest, orange (damage resistance). Firsts for the Steelers included: first AFC team to win five Super Bowls; first sixth seed to advance to the Super Bowl; first winners not to get a first down in the first quarter; and first AFC team to win a Super Bowl aired by the ABC. There are usually 8 types of inspirations. This was the first Super Bowl appearance for the Seahawks. Characters gain the ability to hold more inspirations as they gain in level.

    Super Bowl XL: The Pittsburgh Steelers win over the Seattle Seahawks. They can also be traded between player characters and bought from non-player characters. The Eagles had a chance to win the game on their final drive, but a New England interception ended the game. Inspirations can be used quickly and it is common to store some for more difficult battles. All three of New England's Super Bowl victories have been decided by three points. Inspirations are quick powerups that many enemies drop randomly. Super Bowl XXXIX: The New England Patriots win their third Super Bowl in four years when they defeat the Philadelphia Eagles 24-21 in Jacksonville, Florida. An enhancement can only be combined twice with lower leveled enhancement, after that it can only be combined with a higher leveled enhancement.

    Two years later, Vinatieri would kick another game-winning field goal at the end of Super Bowl XXXVIII to defeat the Carolina Panthers. The combination will result in a single enhancement one level higher than the highest leveled enhancement used. Super Bowl XXXVI: Placekicker Adam Vinatieri kicks a 48-yard field goal as time expires to lift the New England Patriots to a 20-17 victory over the Rams, and the first of 3 Super Bowl wins in four years. Two enhancements with the same level can always be combined without failing. After the Rams score a 73 yard touchdown to lead 23-16, the Titans drive, and in a close finish, wide receiver Kevin Dyson catches a short pass but is tackled by linebacker Mike Jones at the 1 yard line as he stretches for the end zone with no time left on the clock, and the Rams hold on to win 23-16. Also the further apart the levels of the two enhancements are, the greater is the chance that the combination fails, thus losing the lower leveled enhancement. Louis Rams, rallied behind quarterback Steve McNair and running back Eddie George to tie the game at 16-16. To combine two enhancements they must have the same origin type and affected stat and one must be slotted.

    Super Bowl XXXIV: In a classic game, the Tennessee Titans, down 16-0 to the St. All enhancements have the following characteristics:. Denver will also win the Super Bowl XXXIII against Atlanta. Once an enhancement is put in, it can only be replaced by a different enhancement, or combined with another enhancement. Super Bowl XXXII: After four superbowl losses, the Denver Broncos win their first title, defeating the defending champion Green Bay Packers 31-24 and becoming the first AFC Super Bowl champion in 14 years. Each slot can hold exactly one enhancement. Shades of Super Bowl XIII, this game decided which of these two teams would be the first to win five Super Bowls and thus be the second NFL team to do so. Every power comes with one slot, and can have up to six slots attached to it.

    The Cowboys' Charles Haley became the first player to win 5 Super Bowls, after winning two with San Francisco (XXIII and XXIV) and two with Dallas (XXVII and XXVIII). At certain levels a character is given new enhancement slots to attach to a power. The victory also tied the Cowboys with the San Francisco 49ers for the most Super Bowl victories (5). Special enhancements can also can be earned by completing missions, trials and task forces. Super Bowl XXX: The Dallas Cowboys make a record 8th Super Bowl appearance, winning 27-17 over the Pittsburgh Steelers, and become the first NFL team to win 3 Super Bowls in a 4 year span. Usually, heroes earn random enhancements and inspirations by defeating enemies, but they can also be bought at stores. A game with no turnovers by either team and only one 5 yard penalty, it remains the only Super Bowl to be decided by a single point. Enhancements and inspirations fill the roles of equipment and items in City Of Heroes, with enhancements being permanent and inspirations being temporary.

    Super Bowl XXV: As time expires, the Buffalo Bills' Scott Norwood attempts a 47-yard field goal but misses wide to the right, and the New York Giants win 20-19. And finally the player chooses a name and can optionally write a background story to add some flavor to the character. As a result of this game, Joe Montana, San Francisco's quarterback became the first player to ever win three Superbowl MVPs. Next the actual avatar with its costume is created. The 55 points are the most scored by any team in a Super Bowl. First the player selects an origin, an archetype and a primary and secondary power set. Super Bowl XXIV: The San Francisco 49ers defeat the Denver Broncos 55-10, the largest margin of victory in Super Bowl history. Creating a character consists of several steps.

    Super Bowl XXIII: San Francisco 49ers quarterback Joe Montana leads a 92 yard fourth quarter drive, as the 49ers score the game-winning touchdown with 34 seconds left and defeat the Cincinnati Bengals 20-16. Players can also form teams with other players to go on missions and fight villains together. Super Bowl XXII: Washington Redskins after trailing 10-0 MVP quarterback Doug Williams, the first African-American quarterback to start a Superbowl, throws for 4 touchdowns in one quarter which leads to a 42 unanswered points and a rout of Denver. Heroes can then enter 'Supergroup Mode' and change the colors and emblem of their normal avatar to those of their supergroup. Simms is the games MVP with a Super Bowl completion record of 88.0%. Supergroups pick a name, a motto, an emblem and two colors. Super Bowl XXI: New York Giants quarterback Phil Simms completes 22 of 25 passing attempts, including all 10 of his attempts in the second half as New York defeats Denver 39-20. Players can form supergroups (similar to other MMORPGs' guilds) reminiscent of classic comic book groups such as the X-Men or Justice League of America.

    MVP Richard Dent led a Bears defense that limited New England to 7 rushing yards. Teamwork is a large part of City of Heroes. Super Bowl XX: After the New England Patriots (in their first Super Bowl) take a 3-0 lead on a field goal, the Chicago Bears (also in their first SB) played dominant offense and defense to take the game 46-10. Several specially-designated Task Forces reward players with an opportunity to "respecify" their characters by choosing a different complement of superpowers or reassigning enhancements. In the fourth quarter, in one of the most dramatic runs in Super Bowl history, MVP John Riggins ran for the first down, broke a tackle from Miami cornerback Don McNeal and ran 43 yards for a touchdown giving the Redskins a lead they never relinquished. Upon completion, both Task Forces and Trials usually (but not always) provide all participants with a badge as well as a reward—either a Single-Origin or a special enhancement. Super Bowl XVII: After the spending the entire game trailing the Miami Dolphins, the Washington Redskins were faced with fourth down and one to go on Miami 42 yard line. Trials are similar to Task Forces but are usually shorter and more challenging; some share the team restrictions of a Task Force but others are taken as individual missions, though teams are still practically required.

    It marks one of the Steelers' four Super Bowl titles obtained during the 1970s. In the case somebody is involuntarily disconnected, then he will return to the Task Force when connected. This game decided which of these two teams would be the first NFL team to win three Super Bowls. If a Task Force member voluntarily leaves the team while the Task Force is in progress, he is unable to rejoin it. Super Bowl XIII: The Pittsburgh Steelers defeat the Dallas Cowboys 35-31 in the second Super Bowl matchup between the two teams. Once a Task Force has been started additional players will not be able to join the team. Super Bowl VII: Coach Don Shula and the Miami Dolphins complete the only undefeated season in NFL history, defeating the Washington Redskins 14-7. Task Forces always require a team, and consist of a series of linked missions that must be run to completion by that same team before its members may take on any additional missions.

    The Jets defeat the Colts, 16-7. For players who can devote a block of several hours to the game, two other types of missions with deeper storylines are available—the Task Force and the Trial. Super Bowl III: Speaking to the press in the week before the game, New York Jets quarterback "Broadway" Joe Namath guarantees a victory over the Baltimore Colts. Once a story arc is completed, the hero is rewarded with experience points, enhancements and for some story arcs, a badge. The game is also notable as it was broadcast on both NBC and CBS. Sometimes, these story arcs affect the player hero directly as well. Only 61,946 attend the game at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, making it the only non-sellout Super Bowl. These are a series of missions which form a larger story, often giving the player new insights into the history and mythos of Paragon City.

    The Packers outscore the Chiefs 21-0 in the second half after struggling in the first half. Amid the missions, story arcs will emerge. Super Bowl I: In the first matchup of the AFL and NFL champions, the NFL's Green Bay Packers, led by coach Vince Lombardi and quarterback Bart Starr, defeat the Kansas City Chiefs, 35-10. Since the release of the Issue 3 content update 'A Council of War', the player is now able to set the difficulty of the missions by visiting a special NPC, the Hero Corps Field Analyst. The infamous "I'm Going to Disney World!" Advertising campaign did not take place at Super Bowl XXXIX for the first time since it started at Super Bowl XXI, although Disney did run an ad several times during the game showing several players from both teams practicing the catch-phrase. The difficulty level and number of the villains is adjusted according to the strength and number of the heroes grouped together. This indicator has been surprisingly accurate (around 85% correct) over the past years. Heroes can venture into mission maps together if they form a team and choose a particular mission as the team's objective.

    Super Bowl Indicator, an indicator based on the belief that a Super Bowl win for a team from the old AFL (AFC division) foretells a decline in the stock market for the coming year, and that a win for a team from the old NFL (NFC division) means the stock market will be up for the year. It is usually possible to tell, by reading its description, whether a mission is timed before accepting it. Wild card teams are 5-4 in the Super Bowl, with the Chiefs, Raiders, Broncos, Ravens, and Steelers winning their respective games. Some missions may be completed at the hero's leisure, but others will have a set time limit which begins counting down as soon as the mission is accepted from the contact. They include the Kansas City Chiefs in Super Bowl IV, the Dallas Cowboys in Super Bowl X, the Oakland Raiders in Super Bowl XV, the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XX, the Buffalo Bills in Super Bowl XXVII, the Denver Broncos in Super Bowl XXXII, the Tennessee Titans in Super Bowl XXXIV, the Baltimore Ravens in Super Bowl XXXV, and the Pittsburgh Steelers, the only sixth-seeded team to make it, in Super Bowl XL. Upon completion, heroes will be rewarded with an XP bonus, influence and occasionally a badge. Overall, nine teams have advanced to the Super Bowl after entering the playoffs as wild card teams (teams that entered the playoffs without winning its division). As heroes venture further into the mission zone, they usually have to confront a Boss villain, rescue hostages, or find a particular clue.

    Eastern starting with Super Bowl XXXVII. When heroes reach approximately level 20, they begin to receive outdoor instanced missions set in fenced-off areas as well. The kickoff has been since moved back to 6:30 p.m. Missions, the City of Heroes equivalent of the quests typically found in other MMORPGs are given by non-playable characters (referred to as "contacts") and consist of either a "hunt" mission, where heroes are given the task of arresting a certain number of villains from one of the villain groups, or a private "instanced" mission map created solely for the player's team which is inhabited by a particular gang. Eastern Standard Time. For instance, Circle of Thorns (a magic using villain group) members can always be found in the hazard zone of Perez Park. Since the early 1980s Super Bowls have been starting at around 6 p.m. Certain gangs are more likely to appear in different zones.

    This is also the last Super Bowl which was played outside to not end in dusk. Groups of villains, all from the same gang and usually all with similar security levels, roam around areas of Paragon City. Eastern Standard Time was Super Bowl XI which was played in Pasadena. There are a variety of different villain organisations and gangs in City of Heroes, each with unique attributes. The last Super Bowl to start at 3:30 p.m. The Power Pools contain the aforementioned travel powers, as well as other generic, non-class specific powers such as Grant Invisibility, Provoke, Recall Friend, and Boxing. The AFC broke the streak in 1998 in Super Bowl XXXII when Denver beat the defending champion Packers. While each archetype (listed below) has its own unique set of powers and abilities, all players have access to the powers from the ten Power Pools at level six.

    The NFC won 13 Super Bowls in a row from 1985 to 1997, starting with Super Bowl XIX. As heroes grow in level and accumulate more powers, they gain the ability to choose one of four traveling powers: teleportation, super speed, super jumping, and flight, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Previously, the closest an AFC team had come to winning the Super Bowl on that network was when the Buffalo Bills lost to the New York Giants 20-19 in Super Bowl XXV. Heroes initially move around the zones by slowly jogging, sprinting or if they bought the deluxe edition of the game, sliding by using the Prestige Power Slide power. The Pittsburgh Steelers were the first AFC team to ever win a Super Bowl (XL) that was broadcast on ABC (The NFC is currently 6-1). Players can also travel to hazard or trial zones and the city's sewer system, which teem with large groups of enemies. Super Bowl XXXIX was the first such game to be tied after three quarters of play. In player terms, this means to go to a different area you have to either use the monorail operated by the Paragon Transit Authority or the roads that are guarded by the Police.

    Louis Rams. In story terms, the walls are used to prevent large scale attacks upon the city and to prevent high level enemies from entering low level areas. The winning play was a 48-yard field goal kicked by Adam Vinatieri of the New England Patriots to lift them to a 20-17 victory over the St. Paragon City, the city in which the game takes place, is divided into different zones by giant energy walls known as "War Walls". Super Bowl XXXVI was also the first Super Bowl to be decided by a score on the last play of the game. Enhancements are power-ups which players can socket onto powers to improve them permanently. Also, because of the attacks, the Super Bowl is now a National Special Security Event (NSSE). As a hero's security level increases by doing missions and defeating foes, they gain benefits such as more health, more powers, more slots for holding temporary power-ups called Inspirations, and more enhancement slots for powers.

    With the exception of Super Bowl XXXVII on January 26, 2003, all of the succeeding Super Bowls have been scheduled for February. Low level heroes always have trouble successfully damaging high level villains. This was the first Super Bowl to be played in February. A hero's chance to hit an enemy is determined by the difference between his level and the enemy's threat level. But the game was moved back one week to February 3, 2002 because of the September 11, 2001 attacks. Players may choose to skip this tutorial if they like and head straight to one of two starting areas (Atlas Park and Galaxy City). Super Bowl XXXVI was originally scheduled to be played on January 27, 2002. It is here they learn about the level system and how to determine which enemies to attack.

    As a result, additional settings were necessary to grant exceptions for other uses of "XXX". They start their adventure in a tutorial zone that teaches them how to play the game. Many proxy servers' filters were configured to block the text string "XXX" whenever occurring to prevent access to pornography. Players begin by using the game's extensive character creation system to select an archetype and Power Sets, design a unique costume, and write a back story for their hero. In the months leading up to Super Bowl XXX (or Super Bowl Thirty), some Internet proxy servers were blocking the web site for the upcoming event. . Louis Rams were the first NFL team who plays their home games in a fully enclosed stadium, the Edward Jones Dome, to win the Super Bowl. Heroes must fight members of various gangs and organizations and complete quests given to them by NPCs in order to accumulate experience points (or "XP") and increase their security level.

    In 2000, the St. In the game, players create superhero player characters who can team up with others to fight various villains in Paragon City and its surrounding areas. The jerseys they wore paid tribute to the 1957 team. Six gratis major updates for City of Heroes have released since its launch, with more on the way for both City of Heroes and City of Villains. Since it was the league's 75th season, every team wore a throwback jersey during the season and San Francisco decided to continue to wear their jerseys all the way through the playoffs and into Super Bowl XXIX. On October 31, 2005 the game's first sequel, City of Villains, was launched, allowing users to play as supervillains. In 1994, the 49ers became the first team to wear a throwback jersey during the Super Bowl. The game was launched in North America on April 28, 2004 and in France, Germany, and the UK (by NCSoft Europe) on 4 February 2005 with Scandinavia, Italy, Spain, and Benelux to follow.

    For example, the New England Patriots, winners of Super Bowl XXXIX are the champions of the 2004 NFL season, even though the championship game was played in February 2005. City of Heroes (CoH) is a massively multiplayer online role-playing computer game based on the superhero comic book genre, developed by Cryptic Studios and published by NCSoft. The NFL season spreads over two calendar years, so identifying the games by the year of the Super Bowl could cause some confusion. 6 months for £44.99 (£7.49 per month). The Super Bowl uses Roman numerals to identify each game, rather than the year it was held. 3 months for £23.99 (£7.99 per month). Three golf courses for the NFL's annual charity golf tournament. 1 month for £8.99.

    250 buses for NFL use. 6 month for €64.99 (€10.83 per month). Separate practice facilities for each team. 3 months for €34.99 (€11.66 per month). Enough "quality" hotel rooms within a one-hour drive for 35% of the stadium's capacity. 1 month for €12.99. 50,000 square feet of space for news media ("Radio Row"). 12 months for $143.40 ($11.95 per month).

    Large, high-end hotel for teams and NFL. 6 months for $77.70 ($12.95 per month). 600,000 square feet of exhibit space for fan events. 3 months for $41.85 ($13.95 per month). Space for 10 photo trailers and 40 television trucks. 1 month for $14.99. Stadium with greater than 70,000 seats. IGN, Best of E3 2002 - Runner Up - Best MMOG.

    Average high temperature of at least 50 degrees in February. Game Critics Awards, Nominee - Best Online Multiplayer - E3 2002. Game Revolution, Best of E3 2003 - Best Online Game. Game Critics Awards, Best Online Multiplayer - E3 2003. GameSpy, Editor’s Choice - May 28, 2004.

    Gamespy, Game of the Month - May 2004. Gamespot, Game of the Month - May 2004. IGN, Editor’s Choice - May 28, 2004. Warcry, Best Expansion - City of Villains - E3 2004.

    Actiontrip, Editor’s Choice - June 3, 2004. The Adrenaline Vault, Seal of Excellence - June 15, 2004. Loadedinc, Hot Property Award - June 30, 2004. Game Informer, PC Game of the Month - July 2004 Issue.

    Computer Gaming World, Editor's Choice - August 2004. Computer Games Magazine, Editor’s Choice - August 2004 Issue. Games Magazine, Game of the Year 2004. Wargamer, Award for Excellence - October 14, 2004.

    Billboard 2004 Digital Entertainment Conference & Awards, Multiplayer Game of the Year - November 5, 2004. Billboard 2004 Digital Entertainment Conference & Awards, PC or Console Game of the Year - November 5, 2004. GameSpy.com, PC Games of the Year - December 24, 2004. Spike TV, MMORPG Game of the Year - December 15, 2004.

    Computer Gaming World, MMORPG Game of the Year - February 2005. Hamidon enhancements are only level 50. For example, a level 6 character can use enhancements level 3 through 9. The difference of the level of the enhancement and the character must be within 3.

    Level is a number on the enhancement that determines what security level a character can be to use it. Hamidon, Crystal Titan, and Hydra enhancements can be used by any origin and give a 33% boost in two or three different categories (for example, it might do both damage and accuracy). Single Origin enhancements can be used by only one origin and give about a 33% boost. Dual Origin enhancements can be used by only two origins and give about a 16.5% boost.

    Training enhancements can be used by any origin and give about an 8.3% boost. Origin type determinates which origins can use a specific enhancement and how large its boost is:

      . Hamidon enhancements affect two or three stats. For example, the damage enhancements increase damage, but the endurance cost enhancements decrease the endurance cost.

      This can either increase or decrease the affected stat. Stat affected is labeled on the enhancement, and shows what stat of a power it will boost.

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