Super Bowl

The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy.

In professional American football, the Super Bowl is the championship game of the National Football League (NFL) in the United States. The game and its ancillary festivities constitute Super Bowl Sunday (sometimes "Super Sunday"), which over the years has almost become a de facto American national holiday.

The game began in January 1967 as the AFL-NFL World Championship Game in which the NFL championship team played against the champion of the younger, rival American Football League (AFL) for the "World Championship of Professional Football". After both leagues merged in 1970, the Super Bowl became the NFL's championship game. Since then, the game has been played annually on a Sunday following the playoffs, originally early to mid-January, then late January, and in 2002, the first Sunday in February.

The Super Bowl is one of the most-watched American television broadcasts of the year, attracting many companies to spend millions of dollars on commercials. This has caused the starting time of the game to be pushed back later and later, to ensure the Sunday night prime time audience on the East Coast. The last true day game (which ended before local sunset) of the series was Super Bowl XI in January 1977.

In addition, many popular singers and musicians have performed during the Super Bowl's pre-game and halftime ceremonies. This is the largest U.S. food consumption day next to Thanksgiving.

History

Origins

The Super Bowl was created as part of the merger agreement between the National Football League (NFL) and its rival, the American Football League (AFL). After its inception in 1920, the NFL fended off several rival leagues before the AFL began play in 1960. The intense competitive war for players and fans led to serious merger talks between the two leagues in 1966.

One of the conditions of the AFL-NFL Merger was that the winners of each league's championship game would meet in a contest to determine the "world champion of football". According to NFL Films President Steve Sabol, Then NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle wanted to call the game "The Big One". [citation needed] During the discussions to iron out the details, AFL founder and Kansas City Chiefs owner Lamar Hunt had jokingly referred to the proposed interleague championship as the "Super Bowl." Hunt thought of the name after seeing his daughter playing with a toy called a Super Ball. The ball is now on display at the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The name was feasible because postseason college football games had long been known as "bowl games" (the term originates from the Rose Bowl Game, which was in turn named for the bowl-shaped stadium in which it is played). Hunt only meant his suggested name to be a stopgap until a better one could be found. Not having thought of one, the owners named the contest the AFL-NFL World Championship Game. Not surprisingly, fans and media tended to use the shorter, unofficial name. Starting with the third contest in January 1969, the name "Super Bowl" became official.

After the NFL's Green Bay Packers convincingly won the first two Super Bowls, some team owners feared for the future of the merger, since many doubted that AFL teams could compete with their NFL counterparts. That all changed with perhaps the biggest upset in American sports history, the AFL's New York Jets defeat of the Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III in Miami. One year later, the American Football League's Kansas City Chiefs defeated the NFL Minnesota Vikings 23-7 and won Super Bowl IV in New Orleans, the last World Championship game played between the champions of two leagues.

When the NFL and AFL merged into one combined league for the 1970 season, three NFL teams joined the 10 AFL teams to form the American Football Conference (AFC), and the other 13 teams became the National Football Conference (NFC). Since then, the Super Bowl has featured the champions of the AFC and NFC. As of Super Bowl XL, former AFL teams have won 11 Super Bowls, pre-1970 NFL teams have won 23 games, and two games have been won by teams created after 1970.

The NFL commissioner at that time, Pete Rozelle, is often considered the mastermind of both the merger and the Super Bowl. His leadership guided them into the merger agreement and cemented the preeminence of the Super Bowl. The game remains his crowning achievement and was an important factor in him being selected by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century.

The winning team gets the Vince Lombardi Trophy, named for the coach of the Green Bay Packers, who won the first two Super Bowl games. Following his death in September 1970, the trophy was named the Vince Lombardi Trophy, first awarded at Super Bowl V in Miami.

Television coverage

By any measure, the Super Bowl is one of the most watched television programs of the year. The game tends to have high Nielsen television ratings which usually come in around a 40 rating and 60 share (i.e., on average, 40 percent of all U.S. households, and 60 percent of all homes tuned into television during the game). This means that on average, 80 to 90 million Americans are tuned into the Super Bowl at any given moment. It is also estimated that 130-140 million tune into some part of the game.

There is a popular urban myth regarding the Super Bowl — that the game is watched in 234 countries by 1 billion people [1], a fact unlikely to be true considering the time of the event, and the lack of popularity American Football has outside of the United States. In actual fact, Super Bowl XXXIX in 2005 was watched by 93 million viewers in total, of which 98 percent were in North America [2]. Approximately half of the remaining 2 million worldwide viewers watched from the United Kingdom. [3]

Given the immense popularity of the Super Bowl, it may be surprising to discover that videotapes of the telecasts of the first two Super Bowls are said not to exist. This is especially shocking for Super Bowl I, which was covered by both NBC and CBS. According to Sports Illustrated, the only footage of the first telecast known to exist is a two minute clip of the first game.[citation needed] From the early days of television into the 1960s, copies of TV broadcasts were routinely erased, mainly because nobody thought anyone would want to watch the same show they had just seen. Another reason was that videotape in those days was prohibitively expensive. (Merv Griffin once said that a ninety-minute blank tape cost $750. [citation needed]) According to Steve Sabol, both networks taped soap operas over the game tapes, which are presumably lost forever. [citation needed] But the NFL has put out a $1,000,000 bounty on either one of the tapes, and experts say that there is still a chance that one of the network affiliates taped the game off the live feed and saved it. [citation needed] According to NFL Films...these are the ultimate Lost Treasures. [citation needed]

The highest rated game according to Nielsen was Super Bowl XVI in 1982 which was watched in 49.1% of households (73 share) or 40,020,000 households at the time. Super Bowl XVI is #4 on Nielsen's list of top-rated programs of all time, and 3 other Super Bowls (XII, XVII, XX) made the top 10. [4] Although the proliferation of cable and satellite television has undercut broadcast ratings somewhat in recent years, the game is still so popular that a number of networks actually schedule original programming, such as independently produced halftime entertainment, during the game, simply to take advantage of a large audience already in front of the television.

Following Apple Computer's 1984 commercial introducing the Apple Macintosh computer, directed by Ridley Scott, the broadcast of the Super Bowl became the premier showcase for high concept or simply extravagantly expensive commercials. Famous commercial campaigns include the Budweiser "Bud Bowl" campaign, and the 1999 and 2000 dot-com ads. Prices have increased each year, with reports citing a record $2.5 million (US) for a 30 second spot during Super Bowl XL in 2006. Many people tune in to the Super Bowl solely to watch the very creative commercials.

In recent years, the NFL has denied the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority the opportunity to run Super Bowl ads for the city as a tourist destination. The ban includes the game, as well as the pre-game and post-game shows. Many groups are denied the chance to run Super Bowl ads on various grounds, but Las Vegas is the only city to be denied in such a fashion; the NFL has stated that it does not want the Super Bowl to be associated with the perception of Las Vegas as a gambling mecca. If the television show Las Vegas stays on the air when NBC gets their next Super Bowl Broadcast (which will be Super Bowl XLIII in 2009), they may not be allowed to promote the series during the entire block of programming. [5]

Coverage by American television networks

The television network showing the game changes from year to year. In the United States it is currently shared among three of the four major television networks: ABC, CBS, and FOX. Super Bowl XXXVIII was shown on CBS, Super Bowl XXXIX was shown on FOX, and Super Bowl XL was shown on ABC, which will be the final NFL game broadcast on that network for the foreseeable future.

With the new television contracts beginning in 2006, NBC, which last telecast Super Bowl XXXII in 1998, will take ABC's place in the network rotation starting with Super Bowl XLIII in 2009.

Entertainment

Because of the large number of viewers that the Super Bowl generates, a number of popular singers and musicians have performed during its pregame ceremonies, the halftime show, or even just singing the national anthem of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner". Super Bowl XL in 2006 featured Stevie Wonder, Joss Stone, and John Legend during the pregame ceremonies; Aaron Neville, Aretha Franklin, and Dr. John performed the national anthem; and The Rolling Stones played during the halftime show.

In 2004, it was during halftime at Super Bowl XXXVIII that Janet Jackson had her now-infamous wardrobe malfunction after Justin Timberlake ripped off a piece of her top, exposing her right breast with a star-like ring surrounding the nipple. Many conspiracy theorists think that this was done intentionally to get everyone's attention, possibly so that Janet could get the attention away from her brother Michael Jackson, who was facing child molestation charges at the time. Timberlake and Jackson have maintained that the incident was unintentional, hence the term "wardrobe malfunction". It also didn't help matters that the game was airing on CBS, and their then-corporate sister company within Viacom, MTV, produced the halftime show. The NFL, embarrassed from the incident, permanently banned MTV from doing another halftime show in any capacity. This also led to the FCC cracking down on indecency and fining CBS $225,000 for the incident, as well as fining each of CBS's then twenty owned and operated stations. The following year, the NFL chose Paul McCartney to perform at halftime of Super Bowl XXXIX. True to the hopes of the NFL and the networks, McCartney turned in an enjoyable but uncontroversial performance.

Venue

The location of the Super Bowl is chosen by the NFL well in advance, usually 3 to 5 years before the game. Cities compete to host the game in a selection bidding process similar to ones used by the Olympic Games and soccer's World Cup.

Over half of the Super Bowls have been played in one of the following three cities: New Orleans, Louisiana (9 times), Miami, Florida (8 times) and the Greater Los Angeles Area (7 total, 5 times at Pasadena's Rose Bowl stadium and twice at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum). Miami has been selected to host two future games: Super Bowl XLI in 2007 and Super Bowl XLIV in 2010. After Hurricane Katrina damaged the Louisiana Superdome and the city, the game might never return to New Orleans. The last time the Los Angeles area hosted the game was Super Bowl XXVII in 1993; the area is currently not considered a possible venue after the league's two teams vacated the city in 1995: the Raiders moved back to Oakland, California, and the Rams moved to St. Louis, Missouri.

Coincidentally, no NFL team has ever played the Super Bowl on its own home turf. However, Super Bowl XIV (which involved the then-Los Angeles Rams) was played at nearby Pasadena's Rose Bowl stadium; and Super Bowl XIX (which involved the San Francisco 49ers) was played at the nearby Stanford Stadium on the Stanford University campus in Palo Alto. Neither of these stadiums has ever been a home to an NFL team.

A potential venue currently must meet these qualifications in order to be a Super Bowl host: [citation needed]

  • Average high temperature of at least 50 degrees in February
  • Stadium with greater than 70,000 seats
  • Space for 10 photo trailers and 40 television trucks
  • 600,000 square feet of exhibit space for fan events
  • Large, high-end hotel for teams and NFL
  • 50,000 square feet of space for news media ("Radio Row")
  • Enough "quality" hotel rooms within a one-hour drive for 35% of the stadium's capacity
  • Separate practice facilities for each team
  • 250 buses for NFL use
  • Three golf courses for the NFL's annual charity golf tournament

Exceptions are at the discretion of the NFL. For instance, cruise ships made up the discrepancy in hotel rooms for Jacksonville in Super Bowl XXXIX and cold-weather cities such as Minneapolis and Detroit have been awarded Super Bowls because the stadium had a roof.

The designated "home team" alternates between the NFC team in odd-numbered years (the Philadelphia Eagles in 2005), and the AFC team in even-numbered years (the Pittsburgh Steelers in 2006). The home team is given the choice of either wearing their colored jerseys or their white ones; this started with Super Bowl XIII. Prior to that, the home team always wore the dark jerseys. The Dallas Cowboys wore their rarely used blue uniform tops in Super Bowl V, and lost to the then-Baltimore Colts, which has led to the widely held belief that the Cowboys do not play well in their blue shirts. While most home teams in the Super Bowl choose to wear their colored jerseys, only the Cowboys in XIII and XXVII, the Washington Redskins in XVII, and the Pittsburgh Steelers in Super Bowl XL have worn white as the home team.

Trivia

  • The Super Bowl uses Roman numerals to identify each game, rather than the year it was held. The NFL season spreads over two calendar years, so identifying the games by the year of the Super Bowl could cause some confusion. For example, the New England Patriots, winners of Super Bowl XXXIX are the champions of the 2004 NFL season, even though the championship game was played in February 2005.
  • In 1994, the 49ers became the first team to wear a throwback jersey during the Super Bowl. Since it was the league's 75th season, every team wore a throwback jersey during the season and San Francisco decided to continue to wear their jerseys all the way through the playoffs and into Super Bowl XXIX. The jerseys they wore paid tribute to the 1957 team.
  • In 2000, the St. Louis Rams were the first NFL team who plays their home games in a fully enclosed stadium, the Edward Jones Dome, to win the Super Bowl.
  • In the months leading up to Super Bowl XXX (or Super Bowl Thirty), some Internet proxy servers were blocking the web site for the upcoming event. Many proxy servers' filters were configured to block the text string "XXX" whenever occurring to prevent access to pornography. As a result, additional settings were necessary to grant exceptions for other uses of "XXX".
  • Super Bowl XXXVI was originally scheduled to be played on January 27, 2002. But the game was moved back one week to February 3, 2002 because of the September 11, 2001 attacks. This was the first Super Bowl to be played in February. With the exception of Super Bowl XXXVII on January 26, 2003, all of the succeeding Super Bowls have been scheduled for February. Also, because of the attacks, the Super Bowl is now a National Special Security Event (NSSE).
  • Super Bowl XXXVI was also the first Super Bowl to be decided by a score on the last play of the game. The winning play was a 48-yard field goal kicked by Adam Vinatieri of the New England Patriots to lift them to a 20-17 victory over the St. Louis Rams.
  • Super Bowl XXXIX was the first such game to be tied after three quarters of play.
  • The Pittsburgh Steelers were the first AFC team to ever win a Super Bowl (XL) that was broadcast on ABC (The NFC is currently 6-1). Previously, the closest an AFC team had come to winning the Super Bowl on that network was when the Buffalo Bills lost to the New York Giants 20-19 in Super Bowl XXV.
  • The NFC won 13 Super Bowls in a row from 1985 to 1997, starting with Super Bowl XIX. The AFC broke the streak in 1998 in Super Bowl XXXII when Denver beat the defending champion Packers.
  • The last Super Bowl to start at 3:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time was Super Bowl XI which was played in Pasadena. This is also the last Super Bowl which was played outside to not end in dusk. Since the early 1980s Super Bowls have been starting at around 6 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. The kickoff has been since moved back to 6:30 p.m. Eastern starting with Super Bowl XXXVII.
  • Overall, nine teams have advanced to the Super Bowl after entering the playoffs as wild card teams (teams that entered the playoffs without winning its division). They include the Kansas City Chiefs in Super Bowl IV, the Dallas Cowboys in Super Bowl X, the Oakland Raiders in Super Bowl XV, the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XX, the Buffalo Bills in Super Bowl XXVII, the Denver Broncos in Super Bowl XXXII, the Tennessee Titans in Super Bowl XXXIV, the Baltimore Ravens in Super Bowl XXXV, and the Pittsburgh Steelers, the only sixth-seeded team to make it, in Super Bowl XL. Wild card teams are 5-4 in the Super Bowl, with the Chiefs, Raiders, Broncos, Ravens, and Steelers winning their respective games.
  • Super Bowl Indicator, an indicator based on the belief that a Super Bowl win for a team from the old AFL (AFC division) foretells a decline in the stock market for the coming year, and that a win for a team from the old NFL (NFC division) means the stock market will be up for the year. This indicator has been surprisingly accurate (around 85% correct) over the past years
  • The infamous "I'm Going to Disney World!" Advertising campaign did not take place at Super Bowl XXXIX for the first time since it started at Super Bowl XXI, although Disney did run an ad several times during the game showing several players from both teams practicing the catch-phrase.

Post-Super Bowl loss jinx

Commentators and sports analysts note a tendency for teams that have made it to the Super Bowl and lost, to collapse the following season. The season after a Super Bowl loss, a team usually returns with a losing, or mediocre at best, record. This effect can be traced to the loss of momentum a team has built up, accumulating injuries, losing successful free agents between seasons, and the aging of talented players.

There are notable exceptions to this pattern, such as the Buffalo Bills who went to the Super Bowl and lost four years in a row, from XXV to XXVIII.

The most recent is the Philadelphia Eagles, who lost Super Bowl XXXIX to the New England Patriots in the 2004 season (played on February 6, 2005), who posted a 6-10 record in the 2005 season. The most glaring example is the Oakland Raiders. Following their 48-21 loss to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in 2003, the Raiders posted a 4-12 record in the 2003 NFL season, the worst post-Super Bowl record, and as of the end of the 2005 NFL season, have not recovered.

Game history

The first Super Bowl was played in 1967, as commemorated by this stamp issued in 1999 by the United States Postal Service featuring the ticket for that first game.

Notable Super Bowl games

The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see discussion on the talk page.
  • Super Bowl I: In the first matchup of the AFL and NFL champions, the NFL's Green Bay Packers, led by coach Vince Lombardi and quarterback Bart Starr, defeat the Kansas City Chiefs, 35-10. The Packers outscore the Chiefs 21-0 in the second half after struggling in the first half. Only 61,946 attend the game at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, making it the only non-sellout Super Bowl. The game is also notable as it was broadcast on both NBC and CBS.
  • Super Bowl III: Speaking to the press in the week before the game, New York Jets quarterback "Broadway" Joe Namath guarantees a victory over the Baltimore Colts. The Jets defeat the Colts, 16-7.
  • Super Bowl VII: Coach Don Shula and the Miami Dolphins complete the only undefeated season in NFL history, defeating the Washington Redskins 14-7.
  • Super Bowl XIII: The Pittsburgh Steelers defeat the Dallas Cowboys 35-31 in the second Super Bowl matchup between the two teams. This game decided which of these two teams would be the first NFL team to win three Super Bowls. It marks one of the Steelers' four Super Bowl titles obtained during the 1970s.
  • Super Bowl XVII: After the spending the entire game trailing the Miami Dolphins, the Washington Redskins were faced with fourth down and one to go on Miami 42 yard line. In the fourth quarter, in one of the most dramatic runs in Super Bowl history, MVP John Riggins ran for the first down, broke a tackle from Miami cornerback Don McNeal and ran 43 yards for a touchdown giving the Redskins a lead they never relinquished
  • Super Bowl XX: After the New England Patriots (in their first Super Bowl) take a 3-0 lead on a field goal, the Chicago Bears (also in their first SB) played dominant offense and defense to take the game 46-10. MVP Richard Dent led a Bears defense that limited New England to 7 rushing yards.
  • Super Bowl XXI: New York Giants quarterback Phil Simms completes 22 of 25 passing attempts, including all 10 of his attempts in the second half as New York defeats Denver 39-20. Simms is the games MVP with a Super Bowl completion record of 88.0%.
  • Super Bowl XXII: Washington Redskins after trailing 10-0 MVP quarterback Doug Williams, the first African-American quarterback to start a Superbowl, throws for 4 touchdowns in one quarter which leads to a 42 unanswered points and a rout of Denver.
  • Super Bowl XXIII: San Francisco 49ers quarterback Joe Montana leads a 92 yard fourth quarter drive, as the 49ers score the game-winning touchdown with 34 seconds left and defeat the Cincinnati Bengals 20-16.
  • Super Bowl XXIV: The San Francisco 49ers defeat the Denver Broncos 55-10, the largest margin of victory in Super Bowl history. The 55 points are the most scored by any team in a Super Bowl. As a result of this game, Joe Montana, San Francisco's quarterback became the first player to ever win three Superbowl MVPs.
  • Super Bowl XXV: As time expires, the Buffalo Bills' Scott Norwood attempts a 47-yard field goal but misses wide to the right, and the New York Giants win 20-19. A game with no turnovers by either team and only one 5 yard penalty, it remains the only Super Bowl to be decided by a single point.
  • Super Bowl XXX: The Dallas Cowboys make a record 8th Super Bowl appearance, winning 27-17 over the Pittsburgh Steelers, and become the first NFL team to win 3 Super Bowls in a 4 year span. The victory also tied the Cowboys with the San Francisco 49ers for the most Super Bowl victories (5). The Cowboys' Charles Haley became the first player to win 5 Super Bowls, after winning two with San Francisco (XXIII and XXIV) and two with Dallas (XXVII and XXVIII). Shades of Super Bowl XIII, this game decided which of these two teams would be the first to win five Super Bowls and thus be the second NFL team to do so.
  • Super Bowl XXXII: After four superbowl losses, the Denver Broncos win their first title, defeating the defending champion Green Bay Packers 31-24 and becoming the first AFC Super Bowl champion in 14 years. Denver will also win the Super Bowl XXXIII against Atlanta.
  • Super Bowl XXXIV: In a classic game, the Tennessee Titans, down 16-0 to the St. Louis Rams, rallied behind quarterback Steve McNair and running back Eddie George to tie the game at 16-16. After the Rams score a 73 yard touchdown to lead 23-16, the Titans drive, and in a close finish, wide receiver Kevin Dyson catches a short pass but is tackled by linebacker Mike Jones at the 1 yard line as he stretches for the end zone with no time left on the clock, and the Rams hold on to win 23-16.
  • Super Bowl XXXVI: Placekicker Adam Vinatieri kicks a 48-yard field goal as time expires to lift the New England Patriots to a 20-17 victory over the Rams, and the first of 3 Super Bowl wins in four years. Two years later, Vinatieri would kick another game-winning field goal at the end of Super Bowl XXXVIII to defeat the Carolina Panthers.
  • Super Bowl XXXIX: The New England Patriots win their third Super Bowl in four years when they defeat the Philadelphia Eagles 24-21 in Jacksonville, Florida. All three of New England's Super Bowl victories have been decided by three points. The Eagles had a chance to win the game on their final drive, but a New England interception ended the game.
  • Super Bowl XL: The Pittsburgh Steelers win over the Seattle Seahawks. This was the first Super Bowl appearance for the Seahawks. Firsts for the Steelers included: first AFC team to win five Super Bowls; first sixth seed to advance to the Super Bowl; first winners not to get a first down in the first quarter; and first AFC team to win a Super Bowl aired by the ABC. Ben Roethlisberger became the youngest quarterback to win a Super Bowl. Completing 9 of 21 passes for 123 yards with 2 interceptions, his passer rating (22.6) was the lowest of any winning quarterback. Steelers head coach, Bill Cowher, won his first Super Bowl.


Trends

Super Bowl wins and losses tend to cluster around a few head coaches. Vince Lombardi's Green Bay Packers won the first two. Don Shula coached two different teams: a loss with the Baltimore Colts and two wins and three losses with the Miami Dolphins. Tom Landry also coached two winners and three losers with the Dallas Cowboys. Chuck Noll won four in the 1970's with the Pittsburgh Steelers. Bill Walsh won three with the San Francisco 49ers. Joe Gibbs also won three Super Bowls with the Washington Redskins. And recently, Bill Belichick won three with the Patriots.

Don Shula, Bill Parcells, Dan Reeves, Dick Vermeil, and Mike Holmgren all took more than one team to the Super Bowl. Bud Grant coached four Vikings losses in the 1970s, Marv Levy coached four consecutive losses with the Buffalo Bills in the 1990s, and Dan Reeves coached four losses between two teams (three with the Denver Broncos and one with the Atlanta Falcons).

Super Bowl appearances

Teams with no Super Bowl appearances

  • NFL league champions prior to Super Bowl I
    • Arizona Cardinals - NFL champions in 1925 and 1947
    • Cleveland Browns - NFL championship in 1950, 1954, 1955, and 1964
      (This refers to the team that the league officially views as one continuous franchise that began in 1946 but suspended operations from 1996-1998, and resumed play in 1999.)
    • Detroit Lions - NFL championship in 1935, 1952, 1953, and 1957
  • Houston Texans
  • Jacksonville Jaguars
  • New Orleans Saints

Super Bowl winners

The Super Bowl ring and ticket for Super Bowl XI. A Super Bowl ring is given to each member of the winning team to commemorate their Super Bowl victory.

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Bud Grant coached four Vikings losses in the 1970s, Marv Levy coached four consecutive losses with the Buffalo Bills in the 1990s, and Dan Reeves coached four losses between two teams (three with the Denver Broncos and one with the Atlanta Falcons). [82]. Don Shula, Bill Parcells, Dan Reeves, Dick Vermeil, and Mike Holmgren all took more than one team to the Super Bowl. On October 9, 2005, Clinton was inducted into the Women's Hall of Fame. And recently, Bill Belichick won three with the Patriots. [80] [81]. Joe Gibbs also won three Super Bowls with the Washington Redskins. On July 30, 2005, Clinton was given the Reserve Officers Association's National President's Award.

Bill Walsh won three with the San Francisco 49ers. [79]. Chuck Noll won four in the 1970's with the Pittsburgh Steelers. On February 15, 2005, Clinton was given the American Medical Women's Association's "President’s Vision & Voice Award", for being an advocate for women's health and related issues. Tom Landry also coached two winners and three losers with the Dallas Cowboys. [78]. Don Shula coached two different teams: a loss with the Baltimore Colts and two wins and three losses with the Miami Dolphins. On February 13, 2005, Clinton was given the German Media Prize 2004, "Hillary Clinton is a model politician for millions of women around the world" who "represents in an exemplary way women's rights", the jury for the prize said.

Vince Lombardi's Green Bay Packers won the first two. [77]. Super Bowl wins and losses tend to cluster around a few head coaches. On March 26, 2004, Clinton was presented with the inaugural Nursing Health and Humanity Award from the University of Rochester School of Nursing.
. [76]. Following their 48-21 loss to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in 2003, the Raiders posted a 4-12 record in the 2003 NFL season, the worst post-Super Bowl record, and as of the end of the 2005 NFL season, have not recovered. This was in recognition of her humanitarian efforts following the Kosovo War and worldwide.

The most glaring example is the Oakland Raiders. In June 1999, Clinton received the "Mother Teresa Award", the highest honor given to civilians by Albania. The most recent is the Philadelphia Eagles, who lost Super Bowl XXXIX to the New England Patriots in the 2004 season (played on February 6, 2005), who posted a 6-10 record in the 2005 season. [75]. There are notable exceptions to this pattern, such as the Buffalo Bills who went to the Super Bowl and lost four years in a row, from XXV to XXVIII. In April 1999, Clinton was honored with the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Children of Chornobyl Relief Fund for her support of that Ukrainian organization's efforts regarding legacy effects of the Chernobyl accident. This effect can be traced to the loss of momentum a team has built up, accumulating injuries, losing successful free agents between seasons, and the aging of talented players. [74].

The season after a Super Bowl loss, a team usually returns with a losing, or mediocre at best, record. In May 1998, Clinton received the United Arab Emirates Health Foundation Prize for her work in health and social welfare, especially as it related to women, children, and families. Commentators and sports analysts note a tendency for teams that have made it to the Super Bowl and lost, to collapse the following season. As one of the highest-profile American female political figures, Clinton has been involved in a number of situations that attracted attention to cultural matters. While most home teams in the Super Bowl choose to wear their colored jerseys, only the Cowboys in XIII and XXVII, the Washington Redskins in XVII, and the Pittsburgh Steelers in Super Bowl XL have worn white as the home team. Clinton has faced a number of accusations, ranging from the serious to the lurid. The Dallas Cowboys wore their rarely used blue uniform tops in Super Bowl V, and lost to the then-Baltimore Colts, which has led to the widely held belief that the Cowboys do not play well in their blue shirts. Clinton's role in public life has not been free of controversy or criticism.

Prior to that, the home team always wore the dark jerseys. See Controversies surrounding Hillary Rodham Clinton for more details. The home team is given the choice of either wearing their colored jerseys or their white ones; this started with Super Bowl XIII. Clinton has been criticized for not giving adequate credit to the ghostwriters of her published works. The designated "home team" alternates between the NFC team in odd-numbered years (the Philadelphia Eagles in 2005), and the AFC team in even-numbered years (the Pittsburgh Steelers in 2006). Living History was translated into several foreign languages including Chinese. For instance, cruise ships made up the discrepancy in hotel rooms for Jacksonville in Super Bowl XXXIX and cold-weather cities such as Minneapolis and Detroit have been awarded Super Bowls because the stadium had a roof. Her recording in that year of Living History earned her a second Grammy nomination in the Best Spoken Word Album category.

Exceptions are at the discretion of the NFL. In anticipation of these sales, the publisher Simon & Schuster paid her an advance of $8 million—a record figure at that time. A potential venue currently must meet these qualifications in order to be a Super Bowl host: [citation needed]. The book sold more than one million copies in the first month following publication. Neither of these stadiums has ever been a home to an NFL team. Clinton's memoirs, as the 562-page book Living History, were released in 2003. However, Super Bowl XIV (which involved the then-Los Angeles Rams) was played at nearby Pasadena's Rose Bowl stadium; and Super Bowl XIX (which involved the San Francisco 49ers) was played at the nearby Stanford Stadium on the Stanford University campus in Palo Alto. Other books released by Clinton as First Lady include An Invitation to the White House: At Home with History (2000) and Dear Socks, Dear Buddy: Kids' Letters to the First Pets (1998).

Coincidentally, no NFL team has ever played the Super Bowl on its own home turf. Clinton's book references the African proverb that "it takes a village to raise a child.". Louis, Missouri. The 1996 book, It Takes a Village: And Other Lessons Children Teach Us became a best-seller, and she received the 1997 Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for her recording of it. The last time the Los Angeles area hosted the game was Super Bowl XXVII in 1993; the area is currently not considered a possible venue after the league's two teams vacated the city in 1995: the Raiders moved back to Oakland, California, and the Rams moved to St. As First Lady, Clinton published a weekly newspaper column entitled "Talking It Over", focusing on her experiences and her observations of women, children, and families she encountered during her travels around the world. After Hurricane Katrina damaged the Louisiana Superdome and the city, the game might never return to New Orleans. In 2004, the National Journal's study of roll-call votes assigned Clinton a rating of 30 in the political spectrum, relative to the current Senate, with a rating of 1 being most liberal and a rating of 100 being most conservative [72][73].

Miami has been selected to host two future games: Super Bowl XLI in 2007 and Super Bowl XLIV in 2010. [71]. Over half of the Super Bowls have been played in one of the following three cities: New Orleans, Louisiana (9 times), Miami, Florida (8 times) and the Greater Los Angeles Area (7 total, 5 times at Pasadena's Rose Bowl stadium and twice at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum). In a Gallup poll conducted during May, 2005, 54% of respondents considered Senator Clinton a liberal, 30% considered her a moderate, and 9% considered her a conservative. Cities compete to host the game in a selection bidding process similar to ones used by the Olympic Games and soccer's World Cup. As a United States Senator and former First Lady, Clinton has articulated her views on issues ranging from terrorism to abortion. The location of the Super Bowl is chosen by the NFL well in advance, usually 3 to 5 years before the game. Clinton's appeal in upstate New York would be the harbinger of her ability to attract support from moderates and conservatives nationwide, setting off a debate throughout the blogosphere as to her presidential prospects [70].

True to the hopes of the NFL and the networks, McCartney turned in an enjoyable but uncontroversial performance. The article challenged the assumption that Sen. The following year, the NFL chose Paul McCartney to perform at halftime of Super Bowl XXXIX. In January 2006, the moderate-liberal magazine The New Republic attempted to debunk the "myth" that Senator Clinton's popularity in traditionally Republican upstate New York was unprecedented, arguing both that the region was not as conservative as was often assumed in the national media and that her approval ratings there were comparable to those of other prominent Democrats. This also led to the FCC cracking down on indecency and fining CBS $225,000 for the incident, as well as fining each of CBS's then twenty owned and operated stations. In February 2005, associates of Republican political consultant Arthur Finkelstein announced he would be forming a PAC entitled Stop Her Now with the stated goal, "to shed light on the REAL Hillary Clinton and the danger she and her ideas pose for America.". The NFL, embarrassed from the incident, permanently banned MTV from doing another halftime show in any capacity. In August 2005, the Los Angeles Times reported that Clinton was positioning herself as a centrist [68]; critics [69] cited her Senate voting record as proof that was not the case.

It also didn't help matters that the game was airing on CBS, and their then-corporate sister company within Viacom, MTV, produced the halftime show. Liberal media watchdog Media Matters has offered evidence that Clinton's positions have remained consistent with her past [66] [67]. Timberlake and Jackson have maintained that the incident was unintentional, hence the term "wardrobe malfunction". Clinton's January 2005, speech on abortion quoted below was viewed by some as part of her alleged move to the center. Many conspiracy theorists think that this was done intentionally to get everyone's attention, possibly so that Janet could get the attention away from her brother Michael Jackson, who was facing child molestation charges at the time. [65] The alignment represents for both a reconciliation with the past, for it was Gingrich that helped defeat Clinton's health care plan in the early 1990s. In 2004, it was during halftime at Super Bowl XXXVIII that Janet Jackson had her now-infamous wardrobe malfunction after Justin Timberlake ripped off a piece of her top, exposing her right breast with a star-like ring surrounding the nipple. Following the 2004 election cycle, Clinton began what some saw as a movement to the political center by supporting health care reform with Contract with America architect and former adversary Newt Gingrich.

John performed the national anthem; and The Rolling Stones played during the halftime show. These findings were similar to the June 2003 poll that found 53 percent reacted favorably toward her and 41 percent unfavorably, with the undecided/no opinion bloc representing only 6% of those polled. Super Bowl XL in 2006 featured Stevie Wonder, Joss Stone, and John Legend during the pregame ceremonies; Aaron Neville, Aretha Franklin, and Dr. In May 2005, 55 percent of respondents held a favorable view of Senator Clinton, while 39 percent held an unfavorable view of her [64]. Because of the large number of viewers that the Super Bowl generates, a number of popular singers and musicians have performed during its pregame ceremonies, the halftime show, or even just singing the national anthem of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner". In June 2003, in a similar poll, the numbers had been 21 percent very likely, 21 percent somewhat likely, 12 percent not very likely, and 44 percent not at all likely. With the new television contracts beginning in 2006, NBC, which last telecast Super Bowl XXXII in 1998, will take ABC's place in the network rotation starting with Super Bowl XLIII in 2009. [63] In a poll conducted by the same organizations in May 2005, when general voters were asked the likelihood of voting for Senator Clinton for president, 29 percent of respondents were very likely, 24 percent were somewhat likely, 7 percent were not very likely, and 39 percent were not at all likely.

Super Bowl XXXVIII was shown on CBS, Super Bowl XXXIX was shown on FOX, and Super Bowl XL was shown on ABC, which will be the final NFL game broadcast on that network for the foreseeable future. In a December 2005 CNN/USA Today/Gallup poll, 41% of Democrats preferred her for the 2008 presidential nomination. In the United States it is currently shared among three of the four major television networks: ABC, CBS, and FOX. For example, in July 2005 the magazine Washington Monthly ran two side-by-side articles, one thinking that she could win the presidency and one thinking that she could not [61] [62]. The television network showing the game changes from year to year. Clinton has an established national image that makes her possible candidacy in 2008 a popular and controversial topic among media pundits, bloggers, and the public at large. [5]. No woman has ever been nominated for President by a major party.

If the television show Las Vegas stays on the air when NBC gets their next Super Bowl Broadcast (which will be Super Bowl XLIII in 2009), they may not be allowed to promote the series during the entire block of programming. The last female candidate from a major political party for a major national office was Walter Mondale's Vice Presidential candidate Geraldine Ferraro; Mondale and Ferraro lost in a landslide against Ronald Reagan in 1984. Many groups are denied the chance to run Super Bowl ads on various grounds, but Las Vegas is the only city to be denied in such a fashion; the NFL has stated that it does not want the Super Bowl to be associated with the perception of Las Vegas as a gambling mecca. presidential race [60]. The ban includes the game, as well as the pre-game and post-game shows. Clinton has expressed interest in the 2008 U.S. In recent years, the NFL has denied the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority the opportunity to run Super Bowl ads for the city as a tourist destination. Tasini is supported by anti-war activist Cindy Sheehan, who had in October said, "I will resist her candidacy with every bit of my power and strength...I will not make the mistake of supporting another pro-war Democrat for president again." [59].

Many people tune in to the Super Bowl solely to watch the very creative commercials. Then on December 6, 2005, labor advocate Jonathan Tasini announced that he would run against her as well [58], calling for immediate withdrawal of troops from Iraq, universal health care and what he terms "New Rules For the Economy," a more labor-centric as opposed to the corporate-centric approach to economic matters espoused by Clinton. Prices have increased each year, with reports citing a record $2.5 million (US) for a 30 second spot during Super Bowl XL in 2006. In October 2005 New Paltz firefighter and activist Steven Greenfield announced he would run against her. Famous commercial campaigns include the Budweiser "Bud Bowl" campaign, and the 1999 and 2000 dot-com ads. Clinton also faces opposition for the Democratic party nomination for Senate; it comes from the anti-war base of her own party that has become increasingly frustrated with her support for the Iraq War. Following Apple Computer's 1984 commercial introducing the Apple Macintosh computer, directed by Ridley Scott, the broadcast of the Super Bowl became the premier showcase for high concept or simply extravagantly expensive commercials. Possible Republican nominees now include Cox and former Yonkers, New York mayor John Spencer.

[4] Although the proliferation of cable and satellite television has undercut broadcast ratings somewhat in recent years, the game is still so popular that a number of networks actually schedule original programming, such as independently produced halftime entertainment, during the game, simply to take advantage of a large audience already in front of the television. However, Pirro trailed Clinton badly in fund-raising and in polls, and under pressure from state party officials dropped out of the race herself on December 21, 2005 [57], leaving the Republicans without a well-known candidate. Super Bowl XVI is #4 on Nielsen's list of top-rated programs of all time, and 3 other Super Bowls (XII, XVII, XX) made the top 10. On October 14, 2005, New York Governor George Pataki formally endorsed Pirro, causing Cox to drop out of the race [56]. The highest rated game according to Nielsen was Super Bowl XVI in 1982 which was watched in 49.1% of households (73 share) or 40,020,000 households at the time. Nixon) and Westchester County District Attorney Jeanine Pirro. [citation needed]. The two most prominent Republicans contemplating a challenge to Senator Clinton were lawyer Ed Cox (the son-in-law of former President Richard M.

[citation needed] According to NFL Films...these are the ultimate Lost Treasures. Clinton announced in November 2004 that she will seek a second term in the Senate in the 2006 New York election for Senator. [citation needed] But the NFL has put out a $1,000,000 bounty on either one of the tapes, and experts say that there is still a chance that one of the network affiliates taped the game off the live feed and saved it. states such as Michigan and Illinois, but were ruled to be unconstitutional. [citation needed]) According to Steve Sabol, both networks taped soap operas over the game tapes, which are presumably lost forever. Similar bills have been filed in some U.S. (Merv Griffin once said that a ninety-minute blank tape cost $750. The act is intended to protect children from inappropriate content found in video games.

Another reason was that videotape in those days was prohibitively expensive. On November 29, 2005, Clinton, together with Joe Lieberman and Evan Bayh introduced the Family Entertainment Protection Act. According to Sports Illustrated, the only footage of the first telecast known to exist is a two minute clip of the first game.[citation needed] From the early days of television into the 1960s, copies of TV broadcasts were routinely erased, mainly because nobody thought anyone would want to watch the same show they had just seen. [55]. This is especially shocking for Super Bowl I, which was covered by both NBC and CBS. She failed to win over a two-thirds majority needed to overcome procedural hurdles in the Senate rules. Given the immense popularity of the Super Bowl, it may be surprising to discover that videotapes of the telecasts of the first two Super Bowls are said not to exist. Clinton sought to establish an independent, bipartisan panel patterned after the 9/11 Commission to investigate what went wrong with federal, state and local governments' response to Hurricane Katrina.

[3]. [52] Regarding the Supreme Court nomination of Samuel Alito, in January and February 2006 Clinton not only joined almost all Senate Democrats in voting against his confirmation, but also joined about half the Democrats in supporting a filibuster against bringing his nomination to a vote [53], saying "He would roll back decades of progress, and roll over when confronted with an administration too willing to play fast and loose with the rules." [54] That effort failed and Alito was confirmed on a largely party-line vote. Approximately half of the remaining 2 million worldwide viewers watched from the United Kingdom. [51] Roberts was confirmed by a solid majority, with half the Senate's Democrats voting for him and half against. In actual fact, Super Bowl XXXIX in 2005 was watched by 93 million viewers in total, of which 98 percent were in North America [2]. [50] Regarding the Supreme Court nomination of John Roberts, in September 2005 Clinton voted against his confirmation, saying "I do not believe that the Judge has presented his views with enough clarity and specificity for me to in good conscience cast a vote on his behalf," but that she hoped her concerns would be unfounded. There is a popular urban myth regarding the Super Bowl — that the game is watched in 234 countries by 1 billion people [1], a fact unlikely to be true considering the time of the event, and the lack of popularity American Football has outside of the United States. She subsequently voted against three of the nominees, but all were confirmed.

It is also estimated that 130-140 million tune into some part of the game. [49] She was not part of the "Gang of 14" that resolved the dispute short of the "nuclear option", but she did vote to endorse that resolution and end debate on the nominations, thereby allowing the nominations to come to a vote. This means that on average, 80 to 90 million Americans are tuned into the Super Bowl at any given moment. Bush's federal judicial nominations, Senator Clinton generally kept a low profile. households, and 60 percent of all homes tuned into television during the game). In 2005, during the intense debate over the filibustering of some of President George W. The game tends to have high Nielsen television ratings which usually come in around a 40 rating and 60 share (i.e., on average, 40 percent of all U.S. [48].

By any measure, the Super Bowl is one of the most watched television programs of the year. In July 2005, Senator Clinton called for the Federal Trade Commission to investigate how hidden sex scenes showed up in the controversial video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. Following his death in September 1970, the trophy was named the Vince Lombardi Trophy, first awarded at Super Bowl V in Miami. In June, 2005, Senator Clinton united with Senator Bill Frist to push for the modernization of medical records, claiming that thousands of deaths caused by medical mistakes, such as misreading prescriptions, can be prevented by greater reliance on computer technology [47]. The winning team gets the Vince Lombardi Trophy, named for the coach of the Green Bay Packers, who won the first two Super Bowl games. In May 2005, Senator Clinton joined forces with her former adversary, House Speaker Newt Gingrich, on a proposal for incremental universal health care [46]. The game remains his crowning achievement and was an important factor in him being selected by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. As an advocate for her state, Senator Clinton led a bipartisan effort to bring broadband access to rural communities; co-sponsored the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act; included language in the Energy Bill to provide tax exempt bonding authority for environmentally conscious construction projects; and introduced an amendment calling for funding of new job creation to repair, renovate and modernize public schools.

His leadership guided them into the merger agreement and cemented the preeminence of the Super Bowl. In 2005, Clinton co-sponsored with Senator Lindsey Graham the AMTAC proposal regarding incentives and rewards for completely domestic American manufacturing companies [45]. The NFL commissioner at that time, Pete Rozelle, is often considered the mastermind of both the merger and the Super Bowl. Senate India Caucus with the encouragement and aid of the USINPAC Political Action Committee. As of Super Bowl XL, former AFL teams have won 11 Super Bowls, pre-1970 NFL teams have won 23 games, and two games have been won by teams created after 1970. In 2004, Clinton co-founded and became the co-chair of the U.S. Since then, the Super Bowl has featured the champions of the AFC and NFC. For example, in 2003, Clinton solicited offshoring firm Tata Consultancy Services to set up shop in economically beleaguered Buffalo, New York [44].

When the NFL and AFL merged into one combined league for the 1970 season, three NFL teams joined the 10 AFL teams to form the American Football Conference (AFC), and the other 13 teams became the National Football Conference (NFC). Clinton has pressed for education, labor, and technology infrastructure programs to assist economic development in upstate New York and similar regions. One year later, the American Football League's Kansas City Chiefs defeated the NFL Minnesota Vikings 23-7 and won Super Bowl IV in New Orleans, the last World Championship game played between the champions of two leagues. Senator Clinton was a vocal opponent of the Bush Administration's tax cuts. That all changed with perhaps the biggest upset in American sports history, the AFL's New York Jets defeat of the Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III in Miami. [43]. After the NFL's Green Bay Packers convincingly won the first two Super Bowls, some team owners feared for the future of the merger, since many doubted that AFL teams could compete with their NFL counterparts. By the end of 2005, her standing among the military community was much higher than it had been during her days as First Lady.

Starting with the third contest in January 1969, the name "Super Bowl" became official. Senator Clinton also became a national advocate for retaining and improving health and other benefits for veterans. Not surprisingly, fans and media tended to use the shorter, unofficial name. should remove its forces from Iraq, Clinton stated that immediate withdrawal would be "a big mistake", leading to Iraq becoming "a failed state", but that the Bush administration's open-ended commitment to stay in Iraq was also misguided, as it gives Iraqis "an open-ended invitation not to take care of themselves." [40] This centrist and somewhat vague stance caused frustration among the Democratic party's anti-war activists [41], who have even occasionally protested outside Clinton fundraisers.[42]. Not having thought of one, the owners named the contest the AFL-NFL World Championship Game. [39] By late 2005, with domestic debate intensifying over whether and when the U.S. Hunt only meant his suggested name to be a stopgap until a better one could be found. In July 2005 she co-introduced legislation to increase the size of the regular United States Army by 80,000 soldiers.

The name was feasible because postseason college football games had long been known as "bowl games" (the term originates from the Rose Bowl Game, which was in turn named for the bowl-shaped stadium in which it is played). In February 2005 she stated that much of Iraq was functioning well, elections in Iraq had succeeded, and that the insurgency there was failing [38]. The ball is now on display at the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. forces (such as the Fort Drum, New York-based 10th Mountain Division) in both countries. [citation needed] During the discussions to iron out the details, AFL founder and Kansas City Chiefs owner Lamar Hunt had jokingly referred to the proposed interleague championship as the "Super Bowl." Hunt thought of the name after seeing his daughter playing with a toy called a Super Ball. Senator Clinton has visited U.S. According to NFL Films President Steve Sabol, Then NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle wanted to call the game "The Big One". military action in Afghanistan – with the additional benefit that it greatly improved the lives of women in that country, who had suffered terribly under the rule of the Taliban [37] – and a somewhat weaker position regarding action in Iraq (her vote in support of initial military action against Iraq was criticized for being equivocal).

One of the conditions of the AFL-NFL Merger was that the winners of each league's championship game would meet in a contest to determine the "world champion of football". Clinton has used her membership on the Armed Services Committee to take a strong position in favor of U.S. The intense competitive war for players and fans led to serious merger talks between the two leagues in 1966. In 2005, Clinton issued two studies that examined the disbursement of federal homeland security funds to local communities and first responders. After its inception in 1920, the NFL fended off several rival leagues before the AFL began play in 1960. [36] Undaunted, Senator Clinton worked with Senator Schumer to secure $21.4 billion in funding to assist clean up and recovery, to provide health tracking for first responders and volunteers at Ground Zero, and to create grants for redevelopment. The Super Bowl was created as part of the merger agreement between the National Football League (NFL) and its rival, the American Football League (AFL). Despite her efforts, she was audibly booed by some in an audience of New York firefighters and police officers during her on-stage appearance at The Concert for New York City on October 20, 2001.

. Senator Clinton has made homeland security one of her top issues following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in downtown New York City, especially regarding obtaining funding for recovery from the attacks and for improving security capabilities in the New York City area. food consumption day next to Thanksgiving. Senator Clinton sits on four Senate Committees with a total of eight subcommittee assignments: the Senate Committee on Armed Services with three subcommittee assignments, on Airland, on Emerging Threats and Capabilities, and on Readiness and Management Support; the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee with three subcommittee assignments on Clean Air, Wetlands, Private Property, and Nuclear Safety, on Fisheries, Wildlife, and Water and on Superfund, Waste Control, and Risk Assessment; the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee, with two subcommittee assignments, on Aging and on Children and Families; and the Senate Special Committee on Aging. This is the largest U.S. [35]. In addition, many popular singers and musicians have performed during the Super Bowl's pre-game and halftime ceremonies. [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] Indeed when Elizabeth Dole (R-North Carolina) joined the Senate in 2003 in somewhat similar circumstances, she modeled her initial approach after Clinton's, as did the nationally visible Barack Obama (D-Illinois) in 2005.

The last true day game (which ended before local sunset) of the series was Super Bowl XI in January 1977. When Clinton joined the Senate, she was widely reported to have kept a low public profile and learned the ways of the institution while building relationships with senators from both sides of the aisle, thus countering her polarizing celebrity. This has caused the starting time of the game to be pushed back later and later, to ensure the Sunday night prime time audience on the East Coast. The victory of a Democrat in the Senate election was not assured, because in recent decades the Republicans had won about half the elections for governor and senator. The Super Bowl is one of the most-watched American television broadcasts of the year, attracting many companies to spend millions of dollars on commercials. However, Clinton's 12% margin was larger than Charles Schumer's 10% margin in his initial 1998 election to New York's other Senate seat. Since then, the game has been played annually on a Sunday following the playoffs, originally early to mid-January, then late January, and in 2002, the first Sunday in February. This 12% margin was smaller than Gore's 25% margin over Bush in the state Presidential contest.

After both leagues merged in 1970, the Super Bowl became the NFL's championship game. Clinton won the election on November 7, 2000 with 55% of the vote to Lazio's 43% [29]. The game began in January 1967 as the AFL-NFL World Championship Game in which the NFL championship team played against the champion of the younger, rival American Football League (AFL) for the "World Championship of Professional Football". The Republican effort to make carpetbagging a major issue failed, according to exit polls that showed more than two-thirds of the voters dismissed the issue as unimportant. The game and its ancillary festivities constitute Super Bowl Sunday (sometimes "Super Sunday"), which over the years has almost become a de facto American national holiday. After she decided to run, the Clintons purchased a home in Chappaqua, New York. In professional American football, the Super Bowl is the championship game of the National Football League (NFL) in the United States. Kennedy who was elected in 1964 despite similar accusations.

New Orleans Saints. Her supporters pointed out that the state was receptive to national leaders, like Robert F. Jacksonville Jaguars. Clinton faced charges of carpetbagging since she had never resided in the state. Houston Texans. During the race, she spent considerable time in traditionally Republican upstate regions. Detroit Lions - NFL championship in 1935, 1952, 1953, and 1957. Clinton began her campaign by visiting every county in the state, in a "listening tour" of small-group settings.

Cleveland Browns - NFL championship in 1950, 1954, 1955, and 1964
(This refers to the team that the league officially views as one continuous franchise that began in 1946 but suspended operations from 1996-1998, and resumed play in 1999.). She called for targeted personal tax cuts for college tuition and long-term care [28]. Arizona Cardinals - NFL champions in 1925 and 1947. Her plan included specific tax credits with the purpose of rewarding job creation and encouraging business investment, especially in the high-tech sector. NFL league champions prior to Super Bowl I

    . During the campaign, Clinton vowed to improve the economic picture in upstate New York, promising that her plan would deliver 200,000 New York jobs over six years. Steelers head coach, Bill Cowher, won his first Super Bowl. While Clinton had a solid base of support in New York City, candidates and observers expected the race to be decided in upstate New York where 45 percent of New Yorker voters live.

    Completing 9 of 21 passes for 123 yards with 2 interceptions, his passer rating (22.6) was the lowest of any winning quarterback. By the end of the race, Democrat Clinton and Republicans Lazio and Giuliani had spent a combined $78 million [27]. Ben Roethlisberger became the youngest quarterback to win a Super Bowl. The contest drew considerable national attention and both candidates were well-funded. Firsts for the Steelers included: first AFC team to win five Super Bowls; first sixth seed to advance to the Super Bowl; first winners not to get a first down in the first quarter; and first AFC team to win a Super Bowl aired by the ABC. Instead, Clinton faced a lesser-known candidate, Rick Lazio, who was a Congressman representing Suffolk County on Long Island. This was the first Super Bowl appearance for the Seahawks. She was initially expected to face New York City's Mayor Rudy Giuliani, but Giuliani withdrew after being diagnosed with prostate cancer and after developments in his personal life attracted negative publicity.

    Super Bowl XL: The Pittsburgh Steelers win over the Seattle Seahawks. When Clinton chose to run, she became the first First Lady of the United States to be a candidate for elected office. The Eagles had a chance to win the game on their final drive, but a New England interception ended the game. Senate, 2000, elections. All three of New England's Super Bowl victories have been decided by three points. When long-time New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan announced his retirement, prominent Democratic politicians and advisors, including Charlie Rangel, urged Clinton to run for the New York Senate seat in the U.S. Super Bowl XXXIX: The New England Patriots win their third Super Bowl in four years when they defeat the Philadelphia Eagles 24-21 in Jacksonville, Florida. When President Clinton required immediate heart surgery in October of 2004, Clinton, who was then the junior senator of New York, cancelled her public schedule to be at his side at the Columbia University Medical Center of New York Presbyterian Hospital.

    Two years later, Vinatieri would kick another game-winning field goal at the end of Super Bowl XXXVIII to defeat the Carolina Panthers. Bill and I started a conversation in the spring of 1971, and more than thirty years later we're still talking[26].". Super Bowl XXXVI: Placekicker Adam Vinatieri kicks a 48-yard field goal as time expires to lift the New England Patriots to a 20-17 victory over the Rams, and the first of 3 Super Bowl wins in four years. Even after all these years, he is still the most interesting, energizing and fully alive person I have ever met. After the Rams score a 73 yard touchdown to lead 23-16, the Titans drive, and in a close finish, wide receiver Kevin Dyson catches a short pass but is tackled by linebacker Mike Jones at the 1 yard line as he stretches for the end zone with no time left on the clock, and the Rams hold on to win 23-16. "[N]o one understands me better and no one can make me laugh the way Bill does. Louis Rams, rallied behind quarterback Steve McNair and running back Eddie George to tie the game at 16-16. In her book Living History, Clinton explains that love is the reason she stays with President Clinton.

    Super Bowl XXXIV: In a classic game, the Tennessee Titans, down 16-0 to the St. While many women sympathized with her as a victim of her husband's insensitive behavior, others criticized her as being an enabler to her husband's indiscretions by showing no interest in obtaining a divorce. Denver will also win the Super Bowl XXXIII against Atlanta. These revelations and rumors resulted in a mix of sympathy and scorn for the First Lady. Super Bowl XXXII: After four superbowl losses, the Denver Broncos win their first title, defeating the defending champion Green Bay Packers 31-24 and becoming the first AFC Super Bowl champion in 14 years. In his memoirs, President Clinton confirmed a "relationship that I should not have had" with Gennifer Flowers, an Arkansas lounge singer [25]. Shades of Super Bowl XIII, this game decided which of these two teams would be the first to win five Super Bowls and thus be the second NFL team to do so. These rumors gained credibility following the Lewinsky scandal.

    The Cowboys' Charles Haley became the first player to win 5 Super Bowls, after winning two with San Francisco (XXIII and XXIV) and two with Dallas (XXVII and XXVIII). For much of his political career, President Clinton was dogged by rumors of extra-marital affairs. The victory also tied the Cowboys with the San Francisco 49ers for the most Super Bowl victories (5). Both Bill's and Hillary's memoirs later revealed that the revelation of the affair was in reality a very painful time in their marriage. Super Bowl XXX: The Dallas Cowboys make a record 8th Super Bowl appearance, winning 27-17 over the Pittsburgh Steelers, and become the first NFL team to win 3 Super Bowls in a 4 year span. [24]" After the evidence of President Clinton's encounters with Lewinsky became incontrovertible, she remained resolute that their marriage was solid. A game with no turnovers by either team and only one 5 yard penalty, it remains the only Super Bowl to be decided by a single point. During the Lewinsky scandal, Hillary initially claimed that the allegations against her husband were the result of a "vast right-wing conspiracy.

    Super Bowl XXV: As time expires, the Buffalo Bills' Scott Norwood attempts a 47-yard field goal but misses wide to the right, and the New York Giants win 20-19. In 1998, the Clintons' relationship became the subject of much speculation and gossip after the Lewinsky scandal when the President admitted to a sexual affair (short of sexual intercourse) with a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. As a result of this game, Joe Montana, San Francisco's quarterback became the first player to ever win three Superbowl MVPs. Congress. The 55 points are the most scored by any team in a Super Bowl. They married and lived there, briefly, before relocating to the state capital of Little Rock, Arkansas, from which Bill conducted his first campaign, for U.S. Super Bowl XXIV: The San Francisco 49ers defeat the Denver Broncos 55-10, the largest margin of victory in Super Bowl history. When he proposed marriage to her and she accepted, he revealed that they owned the house.

    Super Bowl XXIII: San Francisco 49ers quarterback Joe Montana leads a 92 yard fourth quarter drive, as the 49ers score the game-winning touchdown with 34 seconds left and defeat the Cincinnati Bengals 20-16. Before he proposed marriage to Hillary Rodham, Bill Clinton secretly purchased a small house in Fayetteville that she had noticed and remarked that she had liked. Super Bowl XXII: Washington Redskins after trailing 10-0 MVP quarterback Doug Williams, the first African-American quarterback to start a Superbowl, throws for 4 touchdowns in one quarter which leads to a 42 unanswered points and a rout of Denver. On October 11, 1975, when Hillary was 27 years old and Bill was 28 years old, the Clintons married in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Simms is the games MVP with a Super Bowl completion record of 88.0%. Hillary Rodham and Bill Clinton met at Yale Law School where both were students. Super Bowl XXI: New York Giants quarterback Phil Simms completes 22 of 25 passing attempts, including all 10 of his attempts in the second half as New York defeats Denver 39-20. She hosted a massive New Year's Eve party on the turning of the twentieth century into the twenty-first century, as well as a state dinner honoring the November 2000 bicentennial of the White House, which gathered more former Presidents and First Ladies together in the mansion than had ever been present at any other time in its history.

    MVP Richard Dent led a Bears defense that limited New England to 7 rushing yards. For all the foods served in the White House, Clinton hired a chef whose expertise was in American regional cooking. Super Bowl XX: After the New England Patriots (in their first Super Bowl) take a 3-0 lead on a field goal, the Chicago Bears (also in their first SB) played dominant offense and defense to take the game 46-10. Patrick's Day reception, a state dinner for visiting Chinese dignitaries, and a contemporary music concert that raised funds for music education in the public schools. In the fourth quarter, in one of the most dramatic runs in Super Bowl history, MVP John Riggins ran for the first down, broke a tackle from Miami cornerback Don McNeal and ran 43 yards for a touchdown giving the Redskins a lead they never relinquished. In a unique venue of large white tents on the South Lawn that could accommodate several thousand guests, Clinton hosted many large events such as a St. Super Bowl XVII: After the spending the entire game trailing the Miami Dolphins, the Washington Redskins were faced with fourth down and one to go on Miami 42 yard line. She oversaw the restoration of the Blue Room on the state floor, and the redecoration of the Treaty Room into the President's study on the second floor.

    It marks one of the Steelers' four Super Bowl titles obtained during the 1970s. In the White House, Clinton placed the donated handicrafts (pottery, glassware, etc.) of contemporary American artisans on rotating display in the state rooms. This game decided which of these two teams would be the first NFL team to win three Super Bowls. Clinton also created the first Sculpture Garden, which displayed large contemporary American works of art loaned from museums in the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden on a rotating basis. Super Bowl XIII: The Pittsburgh Steelers defeat the Dallas Cowboys 35-31 in the second Super Bowl matchup between the two teams. One of these lectures became the first live simultaneous webcast from the White House. Super Bowl VII: Coach Don Shula and the Miami Dolphins complete the only undefeated season in NFL history, defeating the Washington Redskins 14-7. Clinton initiated the Millennium Project with monthly lectures that considered both America's past and forecasted its future.

    The Jets defeat the Colts, 16-7. With a lifelong interest in regional American history, she initiated the Save America's Treasures program, a national effort that matched federal funds to private donations to rescue from deterioration and neglect, or restore to completion many iconic historic items and sites, including the flag that inspired the Star Spangled Banner, and the National First Ladies Historic Site in Canton, Ohio. Super Bowl III: Speaking to the press in the week before the game, New York Jets quarterback "Broadway" Joe Namath guarantees a victory over the Baltimore Colts. Clinton performed many less political activities in her role as First Lady. The game is also notable as it was broadcast on both NBC and CBS. One of the programs she helped create was Vital Voices, a U.S.-sponsored initiative to promote the participation of international women in their nation's political process. Only 61,946 attend the game at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, making it the only non-sellout Super Bowl. She was one of the few international figures at the time who spoke out against the treatment of Afghani women by Islamist fundamentalist Taliban that had seized control of Afghanistan.

    The Packers outscore the Chiefs 21-0 in the second half after struggling in the first half. With Attorney General Janet Reno, Clinton helped to create the Department of Justice's Violence Against Women office. Super Bowl I: In the first matchup of the AFL and NFL champions, the NFL's Green Bay Packers, led by coach Vince Lombardi and quarterback Bart Starr, defeat the Kansas City Chiefs, 35-10. She fought for nationwide immunization against childhood illnesses and supported an annual drive to encourage older women to seek a mammogram to prevent breast cancer, coverage of the cost being provided by Medicare. The infamous "I'm Going to Disney World!" Advertising campaign did not take place at Super Bowl XXXIX for the first time since it started at Super Bowl XXI, although Disney did run an ad several times during the game showing several players from both teams practicing the catch-phrase. Clinton hosted numerous White House conferences that related to children's health, including early childhood development and school violence. This indicator has been surprisingly accurate (around 85% correct) over the past years. She initiated and shepherded the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, which she regarded as her greatest accomplishment as First Lady [23].

    Super Bowl Indicator, an indicator based on the belief that a Super Bowl win for a team from the old AFL (AFC division) foretells a decline in the stock market for the coming year, and that a win for a team from the old NFL (NFC division) means the stock market will be up for the year. The First Lady worked to solve the mystery behind the illnesses that were affecting veterans of the Gulf War. Wild card teams are 5-4 in the Super Bowl, with the Chiefs, Raiders, Broncos, Ravens, and Steelers winning their respective games. She also successfully sought to increase the research funding for illnesses such as prostate cancer and childhood asthma at the National Institutes of Health. They include the Kansas City Chiefs in Super Bowl IV, the Dallas Cowboys in Super Bowl X, the Oakland Raiders in Super Bowl XV, the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XX, the Buffalo Bills in Super Bowl XXVII, the Denver Broncos in Super Bowl XXXII, the Tennessee Titans in Super Bowl XXXIV, the Baltimore Ravens in Super Bowl XXXV, and the Pittsburgh Steelers, the only sixth-seeded team to make it, in Super Bowl XL. She initiated the Children's Health Insurance Program in 1997, a federal effort that provided state support for those children whose parents were unable to provide them with health coverage. Overall, nine teams have advanced to the Super Bowl after entering the playoffs as wild card teams (teams that entered the playoffs without winning its division). As first lady, Clinton won many admirers for her staunch support for women's rights around the world and her commitment to children's issues [22].

    Eastern starting with Super Bowl XXXVII. [18] Indeed, during the campaign Bill Clinton had stated that voting for him would get "two for the price of one." [19] This remark led to the (inaccurate) notion that the two were acting as "co-Presidents" [20], sometimes nicknamed "Billary" [21]. The kickoff has been since moved back to 6:30 p.m. Supporters, by contrast, argued that Clinton was no different than other White House advisors and that furthermore, voters were well aware that she would play an active role in her husband's Presidency. Eastern Standard Time. At the time, some critics called it inappropriate for a First Lady to play a central role in matters of public policy. Since the early 1980s Super Bowls have been starting at around 6 p.m. [16] [17]).

    This is also the last Super Bowl which was played outside to not end in dusk. (A decade later, "Hillarycare" would still be used as a label, sometimes pejoratively, for plans perceived as implementing universal health care. Eastern Standard Time was Super Bowl XI which was played in Pasadena. In her Living History memoirs, Clinton acknowledged that her political inexperience contributed to the defeat, but also said that many other factors were responsible as well. The last Super Bowl to start at 3:30 p.m. The recommendation of this task force, commonly called the Clinton health care plan and nicknamed "Hillarycare" by its opponents, failed to gain enough support to come to a floor vote in either house of Congress, and was abandoned in September, 1994. The AFC broke the streak in 1998 in Super Bowl XXXII when Denver beat the defending champion Packers. In 1993 the President appointed his wife to head the Task Force on National Health Care Reform.

    The NFC won 13 Super Bowls in a row from 1985 to 1997, starting with Super Bowl XIX. [15]. Previously, the closest an AFC team had come to winning the Super Bowl on that network was when the Buffalo Bills lost to the New York Giants 20-19 in Super Bowl XXV. [14] She is regarded as the most openly empowered presidential wife in American history other than Eleanor Roosevelt. The Pittsburgh Steelers were the first AFC team to ever win a Super Bowl (XL) that was broadcast on ABC (The NFC is currently 6-1). She was the first First Lady to hold a post-graduate degree and the first to have her own successful professional career. Super Bowl XXXIX was the first such game to be tied after three quarters of play. After Bill Clinton was elected to the White House in 1992, Hillary Rodham Clinton became the First Lady of the United States in 1993.

    Louis Rams. From 1985 to 1992, Clinton served on the Board of Directors for both TCBY ("The Country's Best Yogurt") and Wal-Mart Stores Inc.[13]. The winning play was a 48-yard field goal kicked by Adam Vinatieri of the New England Patriots to lift them to a 20-17 victory over the St. Clinton co-founded the Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families and served on the boards of the Arkansas Children's Hospital Legal Services and the Children's Defense Fund [12]. Super Bowl XXXVI was also the first Super Bowl to be decided by a score on the last play of the game. In 1988 and 1991 National Law Journal named Clinton one of the 100 most influential lawyers in America [11]. Also, because of the attacks, the Super Bowl is now a National Special Security Event (NSSE). Throughout her time as first lady, Clinton continued to practice law with the Rose Law Firm.

    With the exception of Super Bowl XXXVII on January 26, 2003, all of the succeeding Super Bowls have been scheduled for February. Clinton was named Arkansas Woman of the Year in 1983 and Arkansas Mother of the Year in 1984 [10]. This was the first Super Bowl to be played in February. She also chaired the Rural Health Advisory Committee and introduced a pioneering program called Arkansas' Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youth, which trains parents to work with their children in preschool preparedness and literacy. But the game was moved back one week to February 3, 2002 because of the September 11, 2001 attacks. As first lady, Clinton chaired the Arkansas Educational Standards Committee, where she successfully fought (against some opposition) for improved testing standards of new teachers [9]. Super Bowl XXXVI was originally scheduled to be played on January 27, 2002. 93].

    As a result, additional settings were necessary to grant exceptions for other uses of "XXX". [Living History p. Many proxy servers' filters were configured to block the text string "XXX" whenever occurring to prevent access to pornography. In February 1982, Bill Clinton announced his bid to regain the office, which would be successful; at the same time, Rodham began using the name Hillary Rodham Clinton. In the months leading up to Super Bowl XXX (or Super Bowl Thirty), some Internet proxy servers were blocking the web site for the upcoming event. In 1980, Bill Clinton was defeated in his re-election bid for governor and the couple left the statehouse. Louis Rams were the first NFL team who plays their home games in a fully enclosed stadium, the Edward Jones Dome, to win the Super Bowl. On February 27, 1980, Rodham gave birth to Chelsea, their only child.

    In 2000, the St. In 1978, with the election of her husband as governor of Arkansas, Rodham became Arkansas's First Lady, her title for a total of 12 years. The jerseys they wore paid tribute to the 1957 team. President Jimmy Carter appointed Rodham to the board of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978. Since it was the league's 75th season, every team wore a throwback jersey during the season and San Francisco decided to continue to wear their jerseys all the way through the playoffs and into Super Bowl XXIX. In 1979, she became the first woman to be made a full partner of Rose Law Firm [8]. In 1994, the 49ers became the first team to wear a throwback jersey during the Super Bowl. In 1976, Hillary Rodham joined the venerable and influential Rose Law Firm, specializing in intellectual property cases while doing child advocacy cases pro bono.

    For example, the New England Patriots, winners of Super Bowl XXXIX are the champions of the 2004 NFL season, even though the championship game was played in February 2005. In 1975 Rodham and Clinton were married and moved to Little Rock, Arkansas. The NFL season spreads over two calendar years, so identifying the games by the year of the Super Bowl could cause some confusion. After President Nixon resigned in August of 1974, Rodham became a faculty member (one of only two women in the faculty) at the University of Arkansas Law School, located in Fayetteville, where her Yale Law School classmate and boyfriend Bill Clinton was teaching as well. The Super Bowl uses Roman numerals to identify each game, rather than the year it was held. She joined the presidential impeachment inquiry staff advising the Judiciary Committee of the United States House of Representatives during the Watergate Scandal. Three golf courses for the NFL's annual charity golf tournament. During her post-graduate study, Rodham also served as staff attorney for the Children’s Defense Fund.

    250 buses for NFL use. She received a Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree from Yale in 1973, having written her widely recognized thesis on the rights of children [7], and began a year of post-graduate study on children and medicine at the Yale Child Study Center. Separate practice facilities for each team. She also took on cases of child abuse at New Haven Hospital and worked at the city Legal Services, providing free legal service to the poor. Enough "quality" hotel rooms within a one-hour drive for 35% of the stadium's capacity. During her second year in law school, she volunteered at the Yale Child Study Center, learning about new research on early childhood brain development. 50,000 square feet of space for news media ("Radio Row"). For the summer of 1972, Rodham worked in the western states for the Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern's campaign.

    Large, high-end hotel for teams and NFL. to work on Senator Walter Mondale's subcommittee on migrant workers, researching migrant problems in housing, sanitation, health and education. 600,000 square feet of exhibit space for fan events. During the summer of 1971, she traveled to Washington, D.C. Space for 10 photo trailers and 40 television trucks. During the summer of 1970, she was awarded a grant to work at the Children's Defense Fund in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Stadium with greater than 70,000 seats. In 1969, Rodham entered Yale Law School where she served on the Board of Editors of Yale Review of Law and Social Action and worked with underprivileged children at the Yale-New Haven Hospital.

    Average high temperature of at least 50 degrees in February. Her speech received a standing ovation and she was featured in an article published by Life magazine [6]. She became the first student in the history of Wellesley College to deliver a commencement address when she spoke at her own graduation [5]. Having been named valedictorian of her graduating class at Wellesley, Rodham graduated, in 1969, with departmental honors in Political Science. After attending the Wellesley in Washington program at the urging of Professor Alan Schechter, her political views became more liberal and she joined the Democratic Party.

    Martin Luther King Jr., whom she had met in person in 1962 [4]. During her junior year at Wellesley in 1968, Rodham was affected by the death of the civil rights leader, Reverend Dr. After completing high school in 1965, Rodham enrolled at Wellesley College in Massachusetts where she became active in politics, serving, for a time, as President of the Wellesley College Chapter of the College Republicans. Her parents encouraged her to pursue the career of her choice [2] [3].

    Hillary entered the world of politics in 1964, at the age of 16, by supporting the presidential bid of Arizona Republican Senator Barry Goldwater. She earned many awards as a Brownie and Girl Scout [1]. Throughout her youth, Rodham was fond of sports, including tennis, skating, ballet, swimming, volleyball, and softball. During her final year of high school (Maine South High School), she received the school's first social science award.

    Prior to graduating from Maine South High School, she attended Maine East High School, where she served as class president, a member of the student council, a member of the debating team, and as a member of the National Honor Society. As a child, Hillary was interested in sports, her church, and her school, a public school in Park Ridge. Her father, Hugh Ellsworth Rodham, a conservative, worked in the textile industry, and her mother, Dorothy Emma Howell Rodham, was a homemaker. Hillary Rodham was born in Chicago, Illinois, and was raised in a Methodist family in Park Ridge, Illinois.

    . She is a member of the Democratic Party. Before that she was a prominent lawyer and First Lady of Arkansas. She is married to President Bill Clinton, and was First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

    Hillary Rodham Clinton (born Hillary Diane Rodham on October 26, 1947) is the junior United States Senator from New York, serving her freshman term since January 3, 2001.

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