Muse

For other uses see Muse (disambiguation).

In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek Μουσαι, Mousai) are nine archaic goddesses who embody the right evocation of myth, inspired through remembered and improvised song and traditional music and dances. They were water nymphs, associated with the springs of Helicon and Pieris. The Olympian system set Apollo as their leader, Apollon Mousagetes.

According to Hesiod's Theogony, they are the daughters of Zeus, king of the gods, and Mnemosyne, goddess of memory. For Alcman and Mimnermus, they were even more primordial, springing from Uranus and Gaia.

Compare the Roman inspiring nymphs of springs, the Camenae.

Muses in myth

According to Pausanias there were three original Muses: Aoide ("song", "voice"), Melete ("practice" or "occasion") and Mneme ("memory") (Paus. 9.29.1). Together, they form the complete picture of the preconditions of poetic art in cult practice.

The canonical nine Muses are:

  • Euterpe (music)
  • Calliope (epic poetry)
  • Clio (history)
  • Erato (lyric poetry)
  • Melpomene (tragedy)
  • Polyhymnia (sacred poetry)
  • Terpsichore (dancing)
  • Thalia (comedy)
  • Urania (astronomy)

Together, they form a complete picture of the subjects proper to poetic art in the archaic period. However, the association of specific muses with specific art forms is a later innovation, and has been called pedantic.

In Roman, Renaissance and Neoclassical art, Muses depicted in sculptures or paintings are often distinguished by certain props or poses, as emblems. Euterpe (music) carries a flute; Calliope (epic poetry) carries a writing tablet; Clio (history) carries a scroll and books; Erato (lyric poetry) is often seen with a lyre and a crown of roses; Melpomene (tragedy) is often seen with a tragic mask; Polyhymnia (sacred poetry) is often seen with a pensive expression; Terpsichore (dancing) is often seen dancing and carrying a lyre; Thalia (comedy) is often seen with a comic mask; and Urania (astronomy) carries a staff pointed at a celestial globe.

Function in Society

Greek mousa is a common noun as well as a type of goddess: it literally means "song" or "poem". In Pindar, to "carry a mousa" is "to sing a song". The word is probably derived from the Indo-European root *men-, which is also the source of Greek Mnemosyne, Latin Minerva, and English "mind", "mental" and "memory".

The Muses were therefore both the embodiments and sponsors of performed metrical speech: mousike, whence "music", was the art of the Muses. In the archaic period, before the widespread availability of books, this included nearly all of learning: the first Greek book on astronomy, by Thales, was set in dactylic hexameter, as were many works of pre-Socratic philosophy; both Plato and the Pythagoreans explicitly included philosophy as a sub-species of mousike (Strabo 10.3.10). Herodotus, whose primary medium of delivery was public recitation, named each one of the nine books of his Histories after a different Muse.

For poet and lawgiver Solon (fragment 13), the Muses were the key to the good life, since they brought both prosperity and friendship. Solon sought to perpetuate his political reforms by establishing recitations of his poetry—complete with invocations to his practical-minded Muses—by Athenian boys at festivals every year.

The Muses judged the contest between Apollo and Marsyas. They also gathered the pieces of the dead body of Orpheus, son of Calliope, and buried them. They blinded Thamyris for his hubris in challenging them to a contest.

Function in literature

The muses are typically invoked at or near the beginning of an epic poem or story. They have served as aid to an author, or as the true speaker for which an author is only a mouthpiece. Originally the invocation of the Muse was an indication that the speaker was working inside the poetic tradition, according to the established formulae.

Two classic examples: Homer, Book I of The Odyssey:

"Tell me, O Muse, of that ingenious hero
who travelled far and wide
after he had sacked the famous town of Troy."

... And Dante Alighieri, in Canto II of The Inferno:

O Muses, o high genious, aid me now!
O memory that noted what I saw,
Now shall your true nobility be seen!

Cults of the Muses

When Pythagoras arrived at Croton, his first advice to the Crotoniates was to build a shrine of the Muses at the center of the city, to promote civic harmony and learning.

Local cults of the Muses were often associated with springs or fountains. They were sometimes called Aganippids because of their association with a fountain called Aganippe. Other fountains, called Hippocrene and Pirene were also important to the Muses. The Muses were also occasionally referred to as Corycides or Corycian nymphs after a cave on Mount Parnassos called the Corycian Cave.

The Muses were especially venerated in Boeotia, near Helicon, and in Delphi and the Parnassus, where Apollo became known as Mousagetes "Muse-leader".

Muse-worship was also often associated with the hero-cults of poets: the tombs of Archilochus on Thasos and Hesiod and Thamyris (whom they blinded) in Boeotia all played host to festivals in which poetic recitations were accompanied by sacrifices to the Muses.

The Library of Alexandria and its circle of scholars were formed around a mousaion ("museum" or shrine of the Muses) close by the tomb of Alexander the Great.

Many Enlightenment figures sought to re-establish a "Cult of the Muses" in the 18th century. A popular Masonic lodge in pre-Revolutionary Paris was called Neuf Soeurs ("nine sisters", i.e. nine Muses), and was attended by Voltaire and Benjamin Franklin. One side-effect of this movement was the use of the word "museum" (originally, "cult place of the Muses") to refer to a place for the public display of knowledge.

The classical tradition

The poet Sappho of Lesbos was also paid the very great compliment of being called "the tenth Muse".

The word muse is used figuratively to denote someone who inspires an artist.


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The word muse is used figuratively to denote someone who inspires an artist. Perkins died after suffering several strokes at the age of 65 and is interred in the Ridgecrest Cemetery, Jackson, Tennessee. The poet Sappho of Lesbos was also paid the very great compliment of being called "the tenth Muse". In 1987, recognition of Perkins' contribution to music came when he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. One side-effect of this movement was the use of the word "museum" (originally, "cult place of the Muses") to refer to a place for the public display of knowledge. It was a tribute to their early years at Sun and in part a reprise of an informal jam session he, Presley, Cash, and Lewis had done on December 4, 1956. nine Muses), and was attended by Voltaire and Benjamin Franklin. At the Sun Studios in Memphis in 1986, he joined Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis and Roy Orbison on the album Class of '55.

A popular Masonic lodge in pre-Revolutionary Paris was called Neuf Soeurs ("nine sisters", i.e. During the "rock" revival of the 1980s, George Harrison, Eric Clapton, and Ringo Starr appeared with him in a television special in London, England called Carl Perkins and Friends: A Rockabilly Session. Many Enlightenment figures sought to re-establish a "Cult of the Muses" in the 18th century. His songs were covered by the Beatles, he collaborated on vocals with Paul McCartney, and played rhythm guitar on the McCartney-Stevie Wonder hit, "Ebony and Ivory". The Library of Alexandria and its circle of scholars were formed around a mousaion ("museum" or shrine of the Muses) close by the tomb of Alexander the Great.
During a long career, Perkins recorded numerous singles and albums plus wrote some of the top hit records in both rock 'n' roll and country music. Muse-worship was also often associated with the hero-cults of poets: the tombs of Archilochus on Thasos and Hesiod and Thamyris (whom they blinded) in Boeotia all played host to festivals in which poetic recitations were accompanied by sacrifices to the Muses. In 1968, Country legend, Johnny Cash, took the Perkins written "Daddy Sang Bass" to Number One.

The Muses were especially venerated in Boeotia, near Helicon, and in Delphi and the Parnassus, where Apollo became known as Mousagetes "Muse-leader". However he would go on to work with artists such as Paul McCartney, Stevie Wonder, Ringo Starr, old friend Jerry Lee Lewis and others. The Muses were also occasionally referred to as Corycides or Corycian nymphs after a cave on Mount Parnassos called the Corycian Cave. After his chart topper, Perkins follow-up records were less successfull. Other fountains, called Hippocrene and Pirene were also important to the Muses. His friend, Elvis Presley, would also cover "Blue Suede Shoes", that same year and his version also was a huge hit. They were sometimes called Aganippids because of their association with a fountain called Aganippe. At the peak of the song's national success he was involved in a near-fatal car accident.

Local cults of the Muses were often associated with springs or fountains. Produced by Sam Phillips, the record was a chart success, it went to #1 in the USA and was a top 10 hit in the UK. When Pythagoras arrived at Croton, his first advice to the Crotoniates was to build a shrine of the Muses at the center of the city, to promote civic harmony and learning. In 1956, a desperately poor and struggling Perkins wrote the song "Blue Suede Shoes" on an old potato sack. And Dante Alighieri, in Canto II of The Inferno:. By age seven, he was playing a guitar his father made from a cigar box, broomstick and baling wire. .. Born in Tiptonville, Tennessee, the son of a poor tenant farmer, Perkins grew up surrounded by southern gospel music sung by blacks working in the cotton fields.

Two classic examples: Homer, Book I of The Odyssey:. Carl Lee Perkins (April 9, 1932 - January 19, 1998) was an American pioneer of rockabilly music, a mix of rhythm and blues and country music that evolved at Sun Records in Memphis in the early 1950s. Originally the invocation of the Muse was an indication that the speaker was working inside the poetic tradition, according to the established formulae. They have served as aid to an author, or as the true speaker for which an author is only a mouthpiece. The muses are typically invoked at or near the beginning of an epic poem or story.

They blinded Thamyris for his hubris in challenging them to a contest. They also gathered the pieces of the dead body of Orpheus, son of Calliope, and buried them. The Muses judged the contest between Apollo and Marsyas. Solon sought to perpetuate his political reforms by establishing recitations of his poetry—complete with invocations to his practical-minded Muses—by Athenian boys at festivals every year.

For poet and lawgiver Solon (fragment 13), the Muses were the key to the good life, since they brought both prosperity and friendship. Herodotus, whose primary medium of delivery was public recitation, named each one of the nine books of his Histories after a different Muse. In the archaic period, before the widespread availability of books, this included nearly all of learning: the first Greek book on astronomy, by Thales, was set in dactylic hexameter, as were many works of pre-Socratic philosophy; both Plato and the Pythagoreans explicitly included philosophy as a sub-species of mousike (Strabo 10.3.10). The Muses were therefore both the embodiments and sponsors of performed metrical speech: mousike, whence "music", was the art of the Muses.

The word is probably derived from the Indo-European root *men-, which is also the source of Greek Mnemosyne, Latin Minerva, and English "mind", "mental" and "memory". In Pindar, to "carry a mousa" is "to sing a song". Greek mousa is a common noun as well as a type of goddess: it literally means "song" or "poem". In Roman, Renaissance and Neoclassical art, Muses depicted in sculptures or paintings are often distinguished by certain props or poses, as emblems. Euterpe (music) carries a flute; Calliope (epic poetry) carries a writing tablet; Clio (history) carries a scroll and books; Erato (lyric poetry) is often seen with a lyre and a crown of roses; Melpomene (tragedy) is often seen with a tragic mask; Polyhymnia (sacred poetry) is often seen with a pensive expression; Terpsichore (dancing) is often seen dancing and carrying a lyre; Thalia (comedy) is often seen with a comic mask; and Urania (astronomy) carries a staff pointed at a celestial globe.

However, the association of specific muses with specific art forms is a later innovation, and has been called pedantic. Together, they form a complete picture of the subjects proper to poetic art in the archaic period. The canonical nine Muses are:. Together, they form the complete picture of the preconditions of poetic art in cult practice.

9.29.1). According to Pausanias there were three original Muses: Aoide ("song", "voice"), Melete ("practice" or "occasion") and Mneme ("memory") (Paus. Compare the Roman inspiring nymphs of springs, the Camenae. For Alcman and Mimnermus, they were even more primordial, springing from Uranus and Gaia.

According to Hesiod's Theogony, they are the daughters of Zeus, king of the gods, and Mnemosyne, goddess of memory. The Olympian system set Apollo as their leader, Apollon Mousagetes.. They were water nymphs, associated with the springs of Helicon and Pieris. In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek Μουσαι, Mousai) are nine archaic goddesses who embody the right evocation of myth, inspired through remembered and improvised song and traditional music and dances.

Urania (astronomy). Thalia (comedy). Terpsichore (dancing). Polyhymnia (sacred poetry).

Melpomene (tragedy). Erato (lyric poetry). Clio (history). Calliope (epic poetry).

Euterpe (music).

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