Muse

For other uses see Muse (disambiguation).

In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek Μουσαι, Mousai) are nine archaic goddesses who embody the right evocation of myth, inspired through remembered and improvised song and traditional music and dances. They were water nymphs, associated with the springs of Helicon and Pieris. The Olympian system set Apollo as their leader, Apollon Mousagetes.

According to Hesiod's Theogony, they are the daughters of Zeus, king of the gods, and Mnemosyne, goddess of memory. For Alcman and Mimnermus, they were even more primordial, springing from Uranus and Gaia.

Compare the Roman inspiring nymphs of springs, the Camenae.

Muses in myth

According to Pausanias there were three original Muses: Aoide ("song", "voice"), Melete ("practice" or "occasion") and Mneme ("memory") (Paus. 9.29.1). Together, they form the complete picture of the preconditions of poetic art in cult practice.

The canonical nine Muses are:

  • Euterpe (music)
  • Calliope (epic poetry)
  • Clio (history)
  • Erato (lyric poetry)
  • Melpomene (tragedy)
  • Polyhymnia (sacred poetry)
  • Terpsichore (dancing)
  • Thalia (comedy)
  • Urania (astronomy)

Together, they form a complete picture of the subjects proper to poetic art in the archaic period. However, the association of specific muses with specific art forms is a later innovation, and has been called pedantic.

In Roman, Renaissance and Neoclassical art, Muses depicted in sculptures or paintings are often distinguished by certain props or poses, as emblems. Euterpe (music) carries a flute; Calliope (epic poetry) carries a writing tablet; Clio (history) carries a scroll and books; Erato (lyric poetry) is often seen with a lyre and a crown of roses; Melpomene (tragedy) is often seen with a tragic mask; Polyhymnia (sacred poetry) is often seen with a pensive expression; Terpsichore (dancing) is often seen dancing and carrying a lyre; Thalia (comedy) is often seen with a comic mask; and Urania (astronomy) carries a staff pointed at a celestial globe.

Function in Society

Greek mousa is a common noun as well as a type of goddess: it literally means "song" or "poem". In Pindar, to "carry a mousa" is "to sing a song". The word is probably derived from the Indo-European root *men-, which is also the source of Greek Mnemosyne, Latin Minerva, and English "mind", "mental" and "memory".

The Muses were therefore both the embodiments and sponsors of performed metrical speech: mousike, whence "music", was the art of the Muses. In the archaic period, before the widespread availability of books, this included nearly all of learning: the first Greek book on astronomy, by Thales, was set in dactylic hexameter, as were many works of pre-Socratic philosophy; both Plato and the Pythagoreans explicitly included philosophy as a sub-species of mousike (Strabo 10.3.10). Herodotus, whose primary medium of delivery was public recitation, named each one of the nine books of his Histories after a different Muse.

For poet and lawgiver Solon (fragment 13), the Muses were the key to the good life, since they brought both prosperity and friendship. Solon sought to perpetuate his political reforms by establishing recitations of his poetry—complete with invocations to his practical-minded Muses—by Athenian boys at festivals every year.

The Muses judged the contest between Apollo and Marsyas. They also gathered the pieces of the dead body of Orpheus, son of Calliope, and buried them. They blinded Thamyris for his hubris in challenging them to a contest.

Function in literature

The muses are typically invoked at or near the beginning of an epic poem or story. They have served as aid to an author, or as the true speaker for which an author is only a mouthpiece. Originally the invocation of the Muse was an indication that the speaker was working inside the poetic tradition, according to the established formulae.

Two classic examples: Homer, Book I of The Odyssey:

"Tell me, O Muse, of that ingenious hero
who travelled far and wide
after he had sacked the famous town of Troy."

... And Dante Alighieri, in Canto II of The Inferno:

O Muses, o high genious, aid me now!
O memory that noted what I saw,
Now shall your true nobility be seen!

Cults of the Muses

When Pythagoras arrived at Croton, his first advice to the Crotoniates was to build a shrine of the Muses at the center of the city, to promote civic harmony and learning.

Local cults of the Muses were often associated with springs or fountains. They were sometimes called Aganippids because of their association with a fountain called Aganippe. Other fountains, called Hippocrene and Pirene were also important to the Muses. The Muses were also occasionally referred to as Corycides or Corycian nymphs after a cave on Mount Parnassos called the Corycian Cave.

The Muses were especially venerated in Boeotia, near Helicon, and in Delphi and the Parnassus, where Apollo became known as Mousagetes "Muse-leader".

Muse-worship was also often associated with the hero-cults of poets: the tombs of Archilochus on Thasos and Hesiod and Thamyris (whom they blinded) in Boeotia all played host to festivals in which poetic recitations were accompanied by sacrifices to the Muses.

The Library of Alexandria and its circle of scholars were formed around a mousaion ("museum" or shrine of the Muses) close by the tomb of Alexander the Great.

Many Enlightenment figures sought to re-establish a "Cult of the Muses" in the 18th century. A popular Masonic lodge in pre-Revolutionary Paris was called Neuf Soeurs ("nine sisters", i.e. nine Muses), and was attended by Voltaire and Benjamin Franklin. One side-effect of this movement was the use of the word "museum" (originally, "cult place of the Muses") to refer to a place for the public display of knowledge.

The classical tradition

The poet Sappho of Lesbos was also paid the very great compliment of being called "the tenth Muse".

The word muse is used figuratively to denote someone who inspires an artist.


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The word muse is used figuratively to denote someone who inspires an artist. Rumors have circulated that Justin Timberlake quit the group, thus, disbanding NSYNC. The poet Sappho of Lesbos was also paid the very great compliment of being called "the tenth Muse". Plans to work on their fifth album are being discussed, however details are uncertain. One side-effect of this movement was the use of the word "museum" (originally, "cult place of the Muses") to refer to a place for the public display of knowledge. Joey is acting in movies (My Big Fat Greek Wedding) and on Broadway (Rent). nine Muses), and was attended by Voltaire and Benjamin Franklin. Lance abandoned his plans to be the first celebrity in space.

A popular Masonic lodge in pre-Revolutionary Paris was called Neuf Soeurs ("nine sisters", i.e. Chris closed his clothing business, Fuman Skeeto. Many Enlightenment figures sought to re-establish a "Cult of the Muses" in the 18th century. The group went on hiatus in 2002, as two of its members released solo albums -- Justin Timberlake released Justified on November 4, 2002 and JC Chasez released his solo album, Schizophrenic, on February 24, 2004. The Library of Alexandria and its circle of scholars were formed around a mousaion ("museum" or shrine of the Muses) close by the tomb of Alexander the Great. Recent hits such as "Gone" and "Girlfriend" have expanded the group's influence and fan base into the hip-hop crowd as well. Muse-worship was also often associated with the hero-cults of poets: the tombs of Archilochus on Thasos and Hesiod and Thamyris (whom they blinded) in Boeotia all played host to festivals in which poetic recitations were accompanied by sacrifices to the Muses. Their albums have been boosted by a number of successful single releases, including "Tearin' Up My Heart" from *NSYNC, "Music Of My Heart" recorded with Gloria Estefan for the movie Music of the Heart, "Bye Bye Bye", "It's Gonna Be Me" and "This I Promise You" from No Strings Attached.

The Muses were especially venerated in Boeotia, near Helicon, and in Delphi and the Parnassus, where Apollo became known as Mousagetes "Muse-leader". Their fourth album, Celebrity comes in at number two, with 1.8 million records sold in its first week. The Muses were also occasionally referred to as Corycides or Corycian nymphs after a cave on Mount Parnassos called the Corycian Cave. After moving from BMG to Jive Records, home of rival boy band Backstreet Boys, No Strings Attached, released in March 2000, sold 2.4 million copies in its first week of release—the highest record sales in music history (1.1 million of which was attributed to the first day of release). Other fountains, called Hippocrene and Pirene were also important to the Muses. Their debut album, released by BMG, did well in Europe and the US as did the seasonal Home For Christmas. They were sometimes called Aganippids because of their association with a fountain called Aganippe. No Strings Attached was the first album to feature this type of music; they gave the style a name with their latest album Celebrity.

Local cults of the Muses were often associated with springs or fountains. The group produces a blend of pop, dance, and R&B that they call "dirty pop". When Pythagoras arrived at Croton, his first advice to the Crotoniates was to build a shrine of the Muses at the center of the city, to promote civic harmony and learning. Their defining album, No Strings Attached, released shortly thereafter, proved that the boys were back in business. And Dante Alighieri, in Canto II of The Inferno:. *NSYNC left Pearlman to be managed by Johnny Wright of Wright Entertainment Group. .. Shortly after their breakthrough, *NSYNC fought a court battle against their manager citing mismanagement.

Two classic examples: Homer, Book I of The Odyssey:. After Lance joined, the group claimed to call him "Lansten" so his name would fit in the *NSYNC acronym. Originally the invocation of the Muse was an indication that the speaker was working inside the poetic tradition, according to the established formulae. It was created from the last letter of each member's name: Justin, Chris, Joey, Jason, and JC. They have served as aid to an author, or as the true speaker for which an author is only a mouthpiece. The logic behind the name *NSYNC came from Justin's mother, Lynn Harless. The muses are typically invoked at or near the beginning of an epic poem or story. The bass part was sung by Jason Watkins, who left the group early on because he did not like the type of music *NSYNC was performing.

They blinded Thamyris for his hubris in challenging them to a contest. Lance Bass, who coincidentally sang bass, was not originally part of the group. They also gathered the pieces of the dead body of Orpheus, son of Calliope, and buried them. The group formed in 1995 under the funding of Lou Pearlman, who hired Johnny Wright (former manager of New Kids On The Block ) to be their tour manager. The Muses judged the contest between Apollo and Marsyas.
. Solon sought to perpetuate his political reforms by establishing recitations of his poetry—complete with invocations to his practical-minded Muses—by Athenian boys at festivals every year. The group members are James Lance Bass, Joshua Scott Chasez (JC), Joseph Anthony Fatone Junior (Joey), Christopher Alan Kirkpatrick (Chris), and Justin Randall Timberlake.

For poet and lawgiver Solon (fragment 13), the Muses were the key to the good life, since they brought both prosperity and friendship. *NSYNC is a five-part pop music vocal group, specifically a boy band, formed in Orlando, Florida, USA. Herodotus, whose primary medium of delivery was public recitation, named each one of the nine books of his Histories after a different Muse. 2002 "Girlfriend" #5 US, #2 UK. In the archaic period, before the widespread availability of books, this included nearly all of learning: the first Greek book on astronomy, by Thales, was set in dactylic hexameter, as were many works of pre-Socratic philosophy; both Plato and the Pythagoreans explicitly included philosophy as a sub-species of mousike (Strabo 10.3.10). 2001 "Gone" #11 US, #24 UK. The Muses were therefore both the embodiments and sponsors of performed metrical speech: mousike, whence "music", was the art of the Muses. 2001 "Pop" #19 US, #9 UK.

The word is probably derived from the Indo-European root *men-, which is also the source of Greek Mnemosyne, Latin Minerva, and English "mind", "mental" and "memory". 2000 "This I Promise You" #5 US, #21 UK. In Pindar, to "carry a mousa" is "to sing a song". 2000 "It's Gonna Be Me" #1 US, #9 UK. Greek mousa is a common noun as well as a type of goddess: it literally means "song" or "poem". 2000 "I'll Never Stop" #13 UK. In Roman, Renaissance and Neoclassical art, Muses depicted in sculptures or paintings are often distinguished by certain props or poses, as emblems. Euterpe (music) carries a flute; Calliope (epic poetry) carries a writing tablet; Clio (history) carries a scroll and books; Erato (lyric poetry) is often seen with a lyre and a crown of roses; Melpomene (tragedy) is often seen with a tragic mask; Polyhymnia (sacred poetry) is often seen with a pensive expression; Terpsichore (dancing) is often seen dancing and carrying a lyre; Thalia (comedy) is often seen with a comic mask; and Urania (astronomy) carries a staff pointed at a celestial globe. 2000 "Bye Bye Bye" #4 US, #3 UK.

However, the association of specific muses with specific art forms is a later innovation, and has been called pedantic. 2000 "Music of My Heart" (with Gloria Estefan) #2 US, #34 UK. Together, they form a complete picture of the subjects proper to poetic art in the archaic period. 1999 "Tearin' Up My Heart" (re-release) #9 UK. The canonical nine Muses are:. 1999 "I Want You Back" #13 US, #5 UK. Together, they form the complete picture of the preconditions of poetic art in cult practice. 1998 "God Must Have Spent a Little More Time on You" #8 US.

9.29.1). 1997 "Tearin' Up My Heart" #40 UK. According to Pausanias there were three original Muses: Aoide ("song", "voice"), Melete ("practice" or "occasion") and Mneme ("memory") (Paus. Celebrity (2001, Jive) #1 US, #12 UK. Compare the Roman inspiring nymphs of springs, the Camenae. No Strings Attached (2000, Jive) #1 US, #14 UK. For Alcman and Mimnermus, they were even more primordial, springing from Uranus and Gaia. The Winter Album (1998, BMG).

According to Hesiod's Theogony, they are the daughters of Zeus, king of the gods, and Mnemosyne, goddess of memory. Home For Christmas (1998, RCA/BMG) #7 US. The Olympian system set Apollo as their leader, Apollon Mousagetes.. NSYNC (1998, RCA/BMG) #2 US, #30 UK. They were water nymphs, associated with the springs of Helicon and Pieris. In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek Μουσαι, Mousai) are nine archaic goddesses who embody the right evocation of myth, inspired through remembered and improvised song and traditional music and dances.

Urania (astronomy). Thalia (comedy). Terpsichore (dancing). Polyhymnia (sacred poetry).

Melpomene (tragedy). Erato (lyric poetry). Clio (history). Calliope (epic poetry).

Euterpe (music).

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