Motocross

A rider cornering during a motocross race in Australia

Motocross is a form of motorcycle or ATV racing held on enclosed off-road circuits and is the widely considered the world's most popular form of motorcycle racing. Motocross is derived from the French, and was originally called Scrambling when the sport was invented in the UK. The name "motocross" is a contraction derived from the words "Motorcycle" and "Cross Country". Motocross is often abbreviated as MX.

Motocross tracks are often quite large and incorporate natural terrain features with very few man made jumps, unlike Supercross, a sport that was originally derived from Motocross and is executed on a smaller track with more extreme man made obstacles. It is not unheard of for a Motocross track to be made up entirely of hills and turns with no jumps at all. Due to the size of the track, motocross races often include more than 40 racers whereas Supercross races are generally limited to about 25.

Professional races measaured by time. A typical Pro race will run for 30 minutes, then once the leader crosses the finish line that lap, he is given a signal indicating there are two laps remaining. A one-lap-to-go signal is given at the start of the final lap, and the race is completed at the end of that lap. This format is known as 30 minutes plus 2 laps.

Other formats may be determined by laps. In each race there is a set number of laps and the first rider to complete the set number of laps is the victor. The first three riders that finish first are declared the podium riders because of the first though third positions in the race. Races are ran in sessions called motos. There are two motos in a race and the riders place in those heats are averaged together to get their overall finish.

Machines

Motocross racing requires skill and a good sense of balance

Motocross motorcycles are lightweight and powered by highly tuned two-stroke or four-stroke engines (but usually geared for quick acceleration rather than very high speeds). They have knobby tires for traction on loose surfaces, a highly absorbent suspension designed to cope with the shock of heavy landings, and short gearing designed for swift acceleration rather than high top speed. They feature hinged footpegs and levers so that they simply fold rather than bend or snap when the machine is inevitably dropped. Also the exhaust may be routed carefully so that a fall will not damage the exhaust, nor bend it so that it would obstruct the rear swing arm's travel - something that does happen to road bikes. The saddle (seat) is curiously shaped, in a long banana, to extend from rear of the fuel tank to the rear fender. This offers the rider greater protection when he or she hits bumps or lands hard and allows the rider to move and distribute his or her weight over the front or rear of the bike. This will affect rotation pitch while jumping and greater traction to the front wheel when necessary on the ground. Lowering the rider's center of gravity (sitting) greatly increases the ability to go through a turn at higher speeds. Sitting further back and accelerating hard over a series of bumps or ("whoops") keeps the front tire from dropping into any large gaps between them and causing you to lose control of the bike. The gyroscopic effect of the engine along with the wheels makes jumping the "motocross" bike over long distances possible - this effect keeps the bike from rotating through any axis other than the axis of the wheels while in the air. A common technique to change the attitude of the bike in air involves the use of the rear brake. When the rear wheel is decelerated while the bike is in mid-air, angular momentum is transferred from the wheel to the entire bike. This forces the front of the bike lower (and likewise, accelerating the rear wheel causes the front of the bike to rise), allowing the rider to force the bike to a specific position or attitude relative to the ground.

Unusual for racing machines, motocross bikes can be purchased in a ready-to-race condition at moderate prices from major motorcycle manufacturers.

Professional riders, however, modify their machines further, both for outright performance and to have the bike's behaviour more in tune with their own preferences. The highly tuned machines of the professionals are called "factory bikes." The latest trend in motocross motorcycles is towards four-stroke engines. Although the four-strokes weigh more, they have much more power to back up the weight. These engines have been developed due to manufacturer's pressure and environmental concerns regarding the increased emissions of two-strokes. Some predict that two-strokes will not be available to buy after 2008, perhaps earlier in states such as California.

Engine sizes ranges from 50cc right up to 550cc, although bikes with sidecars can have up 1000cc engines. Four stroke motocrossers do not compete on a truly level playing field. Currently, 250cc four strokes compete in the 125cc class and 450cc four strokes are used in the 250cc class. They are very competitive in these classes but need twice the displacement to rival a two-stroke. However, the popularity of four-stroke motocross bikes has been steadily increasing. Due to the increase in popularity and to non-matching displacements of four-stroke and two-stroke motorcycles in the same classes, in the year 2005 the AMA changed the class names from 250cc to Pro, and from 125cc to Pro Lite. Thus, the former 125cc Supercross series is now referred to as AMA Supercross Pro Lites; the 250cc Motocross series is now AMA Motocross Pro; etc.

See also Motorcycle - especially the "Construction", "Dirt bike/Trail bike" and "Farm bike" sections

Manufacturers

Incomplete list

Current

  • Honda (Japan)
  • Kawasaki (Japan)
  • Suzuki (Japan)
  • Yamaha (Japan)
  • KTM (Austria)

The above five are the major five manufactures in most markets, the manufactures below command little market share (currently - 2005).

  • Husaberg (Sweden)
  • Aprilia (Italy)
  • TM (Italy)
  • VOR (Italy)
  • Vertemati (Italy)
  • Husqvarna (Italy, ex Sweden)

Previous

  • Cannondale (USA)
  • Maico (West Germany)
  • CCM (UK)


See also the List of motorcycle manufacturers

Event

The object of the contest is to complete either a defined number of laps (usually three to seven for amateurs, more for professionals) or fixed time period (anything up to 40 minutes) first. This competition is called a moto. Usually a race consists of two or three motos with the scores combined to determine the overall result.

Motocross racing is one of the most visually appealing forms of motorsport, with riders performing seemingly death-defying leaps, turns visibly at the edge of traction (as indicated by a sliding, spinning rear tire throwing dirt at all behind it), and the effort of riders clearly visible as they move their bodies around their motorcycles to balance the bikes for maximum speed.

Motocross racers spend a lot of time airborne!

Recently the sport has evolved with sub disciplines like Supercross and Arenacross (both are indoor motocross), Freestyle (or FMX) (a display of jumping skill rather than racing) and Supermoto (Motocross machines racing on both tarmac and off road).

Motocross can be an entry sport for motorsports in general. Classes for children as young as 4 years old exist for competition on 50cc machines.

Physical demands

One of the least understood aspects of motocross racing by non-participants is the extreme level of physical fitness required of competitors. Those unfamiliar with the sport often assume that the rider is doing nothing more strenuous than steering a motorized vehicle around a field, no more demanding than driving the family car around the block. In truth, motocross racing has been found to be one of the most physically demanding sports in existence. Observing in detail a rider's actions while at speed on the track reveals why. He or she must maintain ultra-precise control of a machine traversing terrain that most people would have difficulty walking across while maintaining as high of a rate of speed as possible. The rider is astride a machine weighing at least two hundred pounds and, at the most elite professional level, has an engine that produces at least fifty horsepower. A rider's arms and legs are in constant motion during a race, fighting for control of the motorcycle and absorbing the energy produced by high-speed landings from heights that often exceed twenty feet or from two-foot high stutter bumps (called whoops) that jackhammer the motorcycle and the rider. The G forces produced test the absolute limits of a rider's strength and endurance. Finally, a typical professional moto (heat race) lasts at least thirty minutes. That represents half of an hour in which the faster the rider goes, the more violently and frequently he or she is punished. And there are no pauses, breaks or pit stops. At least not if a rider expects to win. [citation needed]

The National Sport Health Institute in Englewood, California tested several professional motocross racers in the early 1980s as part of a comparative study of the cardio-vascular fitness of athletes from various disciplines. Athletes from track, American football and soccer were tested, among others. The cardiac stress and strength test results compiled there revealed that the motocross subjects had as high of a fitness level as than any other discipline tested. (original article appeared in DirtBike magazine in 1980. Interview with Brad Lackey, World Motocross Champion and one of the test's participants appeared in Racer X Illustrated in 2004 and is recounted here)

ATV Motocross

Starting in the year 2002, ATV motocross started to see a dramatic increase in participation across the United States. This was a direct result of the major ATV manufacturers getting involved in the sport. Before we can talk about the current state of ATV motocross, we must understand the past. ATV motocross floundered after Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki and Yamaha dropped ATV-racing support in the mid 1980s due to the bad publicity of the vehicles. Throughout the late 1980s and all during the 1990s, aftermarket companies kept the sport alive, but barely. Racers would build expensive, custom ATVs with parts from major aftermarket manufacturers like Laeger's, Walsh Race Craft and Lonestar Racing. The engine that kept racing alive was the Honda TRX250R engine that was manufactured from 1986 to 1989. Again, the aftermarket helped racers get all they could out of the dated engine. Companies like Curtis Sparks Racing Engines, Baldwin Motorsports and Hinson Racing made it so the only stock component of the 250R engine were the left and right engine cases. Suspension upgrades made it possible for ATVs to hit jumps never thought possible. Suspension companies like PEP and Custom Axis, combined with long-travel A-arms and rear suspension links smoothed out rough tracks and harsh landings.

However, in order to be competitive on the motocross track, it was necessary to spend upwards of $20,000 on the race ATV. In the late 90s, rules were changed to allow racers to use dirt bike engines in ATV frames. The era of the four-stroke hybrid race ATV was born when Harold Goodman piloted a custom-built YZ400F to a national Four-Stroke Pro-Am championship. Soon hybrid machines were all over the tracks.

The manufacturers started paying closer attention to the sport ATV market, and in 1999 Honda released the four-stroke TRX400EX. While it wasn't as powerful as the hybrids racing on the tracks, it was a positive step. In 2001, Cannondale entered the ATV market and even fielded an ATV racing team in partnership with Nac's Racing the following year. The Cannondale story was a short one as the company declared bankruptcy shortly after 2002. In 2003 Suzuki released the LT-Z400 that featured a liquid-cooled four-stroke powerplant. That same year, the ATVA instituted a Pro Production class at the motocross nationals in order to showcase "stock" ATVs. The traditional Pro class still allowed two-strokes and hybrids. Many Pro racers raced both classes, but the premier class was still the Pro class. Tim Farr, in a move that raised eyebrows, raced only the Pro Production class. Doug Gust won the Pro Production class while Jeremiah Jones won the Pro class. Jones' championship would be the last Pro-class championship on a two-stroke.

Late in the 2003, Yamaha announced the YFZ450 for the 2004 model year. This ATV represented the first time a major manufacturer built a high-performance sport ATV suited for racing. While it wasn't as wide as many wanted for motocross and didn't have long-travel suspension, it featured a four-stroke engine very similar to the motocross dirt bikes Yamaha was putting out. The ATV also came stock with fully adjustable front suspension, the first time this was available on a stock ATV. After the Yamaha announcement, Honda announced it was going to bring the TRX450R to market in 2004. The tide was turning for the high-performance race ATV market.

The 2004 national motocross season was one of the most anticipated in 15 years. Suzuki announced it was going to hire Doug Gust as its motocross pilot, Honda was hiring Tim Farr as its factory racer and Yamaha was going to offer support Kory Ellis in limited fashion for the season. This represented the first time since around 1986 that any manufacturer was offering factory support for ATV racing. The moved proved to be a successful one for Suzuki as Doug Gust walked away with the national motocross championship, and in the process winning six overalls in a row.

The 2005 season saw more factory support and Suzuki fielding two racers, Gust and Jeremiah Jones, out of the Yoshimura/Suzuki semi. That year it was Honda winning the championship with support rider John Natalie taking the motocross championship. The 2005 season proved that the factories were willing to support ATV racing as they never had before. With that support on the track also meant support in the dealerships in the way of new, updated machines.

In the summer of 2005, Suzuki announced it was going to produce the 2006 LT-R450. This sport ATV was the most motocross-ready ATV ever produced. It featured electronic fuel injection, a high-performance four-stroke engine and a chassis that could be competitive in stock form. The front end had high-end shocks with 10 inches of travel and a width approaching 50 inches. The rear tires with 18-inch tires just like motocrossers sport. The swingarm was made of steel, too.

In 2005, local tracks mirrored the national tracks as more and more racers were bringing ATVs to race thanks to raceable models. Many feel that 2006 will be the biggest yet as the nationals continue to grow and many local AMA districts are offering "quad-only" race weekends.

Sidecars

Sidecar racing, known as Sidecarcross has been around since the 50’s but has declined in popularity since the 90’s. This variant is common in Europe, with a few followers in USA, New Zealand and Australia. Motocross sidecars are purpose built frames that resemble an ordinary motocross-cycle with a flat platform to stand on attached to either side and a handlebar at waist height to hold on to. The side of the "chair" (slang for the platform) usually follows the side of the road the nation in question drives upon, but not always. The passenger balances the bike by being a counterweight, especially in corners and on jumps. It’s driven on ordinary crosstracks. It is very physically demanding, especially for the passenger. This is reflected in most in the Swedish term for passenger- "burkslav", roughly translated as trunk/body/barrel-slave. This name comes from the early sidecars where the platform looked like a real road-sidecar and not today's platform.

The major frame builders today (2004) are VMC, BSU, AYR, EML and Woodenleg. Ordinary engines can be used, but size matters and two engines purpose built for sidecars exist, Zabel (Germany) and MTH (Austria) are most common. Fourstrokes are getting more common, usually KTM(Austria).

Freestyle

Mike Adair performing the Superman Seatgrab

Freestyle motocross (FMX), a relatively new sport, is not racing and instead concentrates on performing acrobatic stunts while jumping motocross bikes. The winner is chosen by a group of judges. The riders are scored on style, level of trick difficulty, best use of the course, and frequently crowd reactions as well.

One stunt performed is the backflip, which was first performed successfully on a large bike by Caleb Wyatt. Some consider the body varial 360 as the most difficult stunt being performed at this time. This stunt, also called the Carolla, was first performed by Chuck Carothers at the 2004 X Games. Prior to this, the backflip 360, or off-axis backflip, was widely considered the most challenging stunt.

Minibikes

The latest craze is adult racing on miniature (50cc) motorcycles called a minibike. These inexpensive minibikes designed for small children are often transformed for adult use by adding taller handle bars and by improving the suspension.

In 1998 Australian minibike riders Jonathan Byrne and Nicholas Stephenson revolutionised the sport by launching them from a up ramp to a down ramp while copying the mid air monuvers done on a large bike in freestyle motocross. This type of minibiking is now called freestyle minibike riding. Since 1998 this type of sport has spread all over the world. [citation needed]

Supermoto

Supermoto is a recent invention involving racing Motocross bikes on a part concrete, part off road track, with "road" tires instead of off road tires. Some tracks for these race events have jumps, berms, and whoop-dee-doos just like true motocross tracks. For special events, the Supermoto track may incorporate metal ramps for jumps that can be disassembled and taken to other locations. Supermoto races may take place at modified go-kart tracks, road racing tracks, or even street racing tracks. There are also classes for kids such as the 85cc class.

Governing bodies

The sport is governed world wide by the FIM, with federations in many nations.

Incomplete listing

  • USA - AMA
  • UK - ACU, with other separate (unconnected) bodies like the AMCA, ORPA, BSMA, and YSMA.
  • Ireland - MCUI (covering the whole island)
  • France - FFM
  • Canada - CMRC / CMA
  • South Africa - MSA
  • Sweden - SVEMO

This page about Motocross includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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Incomplete listing. List Format:. The sport is governed world wide by the FIM, with federations in many nations. [20]. There are also classes for kids such as the 85cc class. Out of these two groups, several notable individuals have immerged. Supermoto races may take place at modified go-kart tracks, road racing tracks, or even street racing tracks. In addition, the university employees 1825 part and full time faculty members.

For special events, the Supermoto track may incorporate metal ramps for jumps that can be disassembled and taken to other locations. NC State has conferred 185,663 degrees (as of 2005) since opening its doors and has an estimated 145,000 living alumni. Some tracks for these race events have jumps, berms, and whoop-dee-doos just like true motocross tracks. A great number of people have made their way through NC State University. Supermoto is a recent invention involving racing Motocross bikes on a part concrete, part off road track, with "road" tires instead of off road tires. The property borders the North Carolina State Fair to the North and hosts tailgating parties before NC State football games. [citation needed]. Aside from the two stadiums, the property is mainly open space used for event parking.

Since 1998 this type of sport has spread all over the world. Both Carter-Finley Stadium and the RBC Center are located there. This type of minibiking is now called freestyle minibike riding. The Stadium property is 3.4 miles (5.5 km) northwest of the Memorial Bell Tower. In 1998 Australian minibike riders Jonathan Byrne and Nicholas Stephenson revolutionised the sport by launching them from a up ramp to a down ramp while copying the mid air monuvers done on a large bike in freestyle motocross. Since most of the campus is rolling pastoral land, part of it is converted to parking space during the North Carolina State Fair and NC State football games. These inexpensive minibikes designed for small children are often transformed for adult use by adding taller handle bars and by improving the suspension. Situated on this campus is the University Club and North Carolina’s only Veterinary School.

The latest craze is adult racing on miniature (50cc) motorcycles called a minibike. The campus’s 182 acres (0.73 km²) is bordered by the stadiums and the North Carolina State Fairgrounds to the west and Meredith College to the east. Prior to this, the backflip 360, or off-axis backflip, was widely considered the most challenging stunt. West Campus is located 2.5 miles (4 km) west of the Memorial Bell Tower. This stunt, also called the Carolla, was first performed by Chuck Carothers at the 2004 X Games. The offices of Red Hat and the Raleigh branch of the National Weather Service are also on the Centennial Campus, as well as Centennial Campus Middle School. Some consider the body varial 360 as the most difficult stunt being performed at this time. The College of Textiles is based on this campus and long-term plans have the majority of the College of Engineering relocating to the new campus.

One stunt performed is the backflip, which was first performed successfully on a large bike by Caleb Wyatt. Located 1 mile (1.6 Km) south of the Memorial Bell Tower, this campus houses university, corporate, and government research, in addition to classrooms and non-student residences. The riders are scored on style, level of trick difficulty, best use of the course, and frequently crowd reactions as well. NC State's main campus is augmented by the 1,334 acre (5.4 km²) mixed-use Centennial Campus. The winner is chosen by a group of judges. NC State plans to reopen the Tunnel around March 2006. Freestyle motocross (FMX), a relatively new sport, is not racing and instead concentrates on performing acrobatic stunts while jumping motocross bikes. The tunnel was closed in June 2005 and has been partially demolished, to be rebuilt with wheelchair accessibility.

Fourstrokes are getting more common, usually KTM(Austria). This particular tunnel is the site of sanctioned graffiti; anyone may paint there, and it is often the place for political statements, personal messages, and unique art. Ordinary engines can be used, but size matters and two engines purpose built for sidecars exist, Zabel (Germany) and MTH (Austria) are most common. The Free Expression Tunnel functions as one of three pedestrian tunnels underneath the railroad tracks separating North Main Campus and Central Main Campus. The major frame builders today (2004) are VMC, BSU, AYR, EML and Woodenleg. Southwest of the Court of North Carolina is another landmark, the Free Expression Tunnel. This name comes from the early sidecars where the platform looked like a real road-sidecar and not today's platform. Some replanting has occurred, but the Court's former appearance is far from being restored.

This is reflected in most in the Swedish term for passenger- "burkslav", roughly translated as trunk/body/barrel-slave. It was once home to 100 trees (one for every county in North Carolina), but damage caused by Hurricane Fran in 1996 reduced the number significantly, including the destruction of a particularly old and large tree which was some 12 feet in diameter. It is very physically demanding, especially for the passenger. The Court of North Carolina, just West of the Memorial Bell Tower, is surrounded by the 1911 Building; the College of Humanities and Social Sciences in Tompkins, Caldwell, Winston Halls and Poe Hall; Page Hall, home to College of Engineering offices; and Leazar Hall, location of the Computer Science Teaching Labs. It’s driven on ordinary crosstracks. As a tradition, the Bell Tower is lighted in red at night immediately following athletic victories and certain academic achievements.[19]. The passenger balances the bike by being a counterweight, especially in corners and on jumps. The granite tower, completed in 1937, is 115 feet (35 meters) tall.

The side of the "chair" (slang for the platform) usually follows the side of the road the nation in question drives upon, but not always. It was constructed as a monument to alumni killed in World War I. Motocross sidecars are purpose built frames that resemble an ordinary motocross-cycle with a flat platform to stand on attached to either side and a handlebar at waist height to hold on to. The Memorial Bell Tower, located in the Northeast corner of North Main Campus, serves as the signature of NC State and appears in the NC State Official Seal. This variant is common in Europe, with a few followers in USA, New Zealand and Australia. These sidewalks are also dotted with white brick mosaics. Sidecar racing, known as Sidecarcross has been around since the 50’s but has declined in popularity since the 90’s. "the brickyard"), and most sidewalks are also made with brick.

Many feel that 2006 will be the biggest yet as the nationals continue to grow and many local AMA districts are offering "quad-only" race weekends. Due to oversupply, odd brick statues dot the landscape, a large section of main campus is paved over with brick (University Plaza, a.k.a. In 2005, local tracks mirrored the national tracks as more and more racers were bringing ATVs to race thanks to raceable models. Architecturally, Main Campus is known for its distinctive red brick buildings. The swingarm was made of steel, too. Greek Court and a large conference center are found on South Main Campus. The rear tires with 18-inch tires just like motocrossers sport. Western Boulevard separates Central and South Main Campuses.

The front end had high-end shocks with 10 inches of travel and a width approaching 50 inches. Pedestrian and road tunnels are used to cross the tracks. It featured electronic fuel injection, a high-performance four-stroke engine and a chassis that could be competitive in stock form. North and Central Main Campus are separated by a rail road track. This sport ATV was the most motocross-ready ATV ever produced. Central Main Campus is mainly dormitories, cafeterias, gymnasiums and student support departments. In the summer of 2005, Suzuki announced it was going to produce the 2006 LT-R450. North Main Campus is the oldest part of NC State and is home to most academic departments and a few dorms.

With that support on the track also meant support in the dealerships in the way of new, updated machines. NC State’s Main Campus has three general areas: North Main Campus, Central Main Campus, and South Main Campus. The 2005 season proved that the factories were willing to support ATV racing as they never had before. The campus is divided into four sections:. That year it was Honda winning the championship with support rider John Natalie taking the motocross championship. NC State has a sprawling, urban 2,139 acre (8.65 km²) campus. The 2005 season saw more factory support and Suzuki fielding two racers, Gust and Jeremiah Jones, out of the Yoshimura/Suzuki semi. Other sports supported at NC State are cheerleading, cross country, dance, golf, rifle, soccer, sailing, swimming and diving, and track and field.

The moved proved to be a successful one for Suzuki as Doug Gust walked away with the national motocross championship, and in the process winning six overalls in a row. Both men's and women's tennis compete out of this facility. This represented the first time since around 1986 that any manufacturer was offering factory support for ATV racing. Isenhouser Tennis Complex in early 2005. Suzuki announced it was going to hire Doug Gust as its motocross pilot, Honda was hiring Tim Farr as its factory racer and Yamaha was going to offer support Kory Ellis in limited fashion for the season. The University completed the J.W. The 2004 national motocross season was one of the most anticipated in 15 years. The baseball team plays its games out of Doak Field, at the western edge of Main Campus.

The tide was turning for the high-performance race ATV market. Completed in the 1949, Reynolds was once the heart of NC State, hosting many University sports. After the Yamaha announcement, Honda announced it was going to bring the TRX450R to market in 2004. Volleyball, women's basketball, wrestling, and gymnastics are all still hosted in historic Reynolds Coliseum. The ATV also came stock with fully adjustable front suspension, the first time this was available on a stock ATV. These two facilities are located roughly three miles to the west of NC State's Main Campus. While it wasn't as wide as many wanted for motocross and didn't have long-travel suspension, it featured a four-stroke engine very similar to the motocross dirt bikes Yamaha was putting out. This new arena is located next to Carter-Finley Stadium, where the football team plays its games.

This ATV represented the first time a major manufacturer built a high-performance sport ATV suited for racing. For the Fall of 1999 the Wolfpack men's basketball program opened play in the RBC Center. Late in the 2003, Yamaha announced the YFZ450 for the 2004 model year. Coach Kay Yow, head coach of the women's basketball program and member of the Naismith Basketball Hall of Fame, has led the Wolfpack Women to more than 600 wins and approaches 700 for her career. Jones' championship would be the last Pro-class championship on a two-stroke. They also won the championship in 1983 under coach Jim Valvano. Doug Gust won the Pro Production class while Jeremiah Jones won the Pro class. The men's team won the NCAA Championship in 1974 under coach Norm Sloan after ending UCLA's seven year reign.

Tim Farr, in a move that raised eyebrows, raced only the Pro Production class. The men's basketball team has made four consecutive trips and a recent Sweet Sixteen appearance in the NCAA Tournament under the guidance of coach Herb Sendek. Many Pro racers raced both classes, but the premier class was still the Pro class. Chuck Amato, the head football coach, has led the Wolfpack to five bowl games while at NC State. The traditional Pro class still allowed two-strokes and hybrids. NC State participates in the NCAA's Division I-A in the Atlantic Coast Conference. That same year, the ATVA instituted a Pro Production class at the motocross nationals in order to showcase "stock" ATVs. Athletic teams at NC State are known as the Wolfpack.

In 2003 Suzuki released the LT-Z400 that featured a liquid-cooled four-stroke powerplant. (Demographics last updated Dec 6, 2005). The Cannondale story was a short one as the company declared bankruptcy shortly after 2002. The station host several formats run by student disc jockies. In 2001, Cannondale entered the ATV market and even fielded an ATV racing team in partnership with Nac's Racing the following year. The radio station broadcasts at 25,000 watts and reaches around 200,000 people. While it wasn't as powerful as the hybrids racing on the tracks, it was a positive step. It does seek sponsors, who can be acknowledged on the air, but 90% of the station's funding is from the university.

The manufacturers started paying closer attention to the sport ATV market, and in 1999 Honda released the four-stroke TRX400EX. WKNC is a non-commercial station and cannot run traditional advertisements. Soon hybrid machines were all over the tracks. NC State has its own student-run radio station, WKNC. The era of the four-stroke hybrid race ATV was born when Harold Goodman piloted a custom-built YZ400F to a national Four-Stroke Pro-Am championship. Each year, nearly 1,000 copies are printed and sold. In the late 90s, rules were changed to allow racers to use dirt bike engines in ATV frames. The Agromeck serves as a historian of campus and is a reminder of the way things used to be.

However, in order to be competitive on the motocross track, it was necessary to spend upwards of $20,000 on the race ATV. It acts as a compendium of student life on campus including sporting events, social activities, and day-to-day living. Suspension companies like PEP and Custom Axis, combined with long-travel A-arms and rear suspension links smoothed out rough tracks and harsh landings. NC State’s oldest student publication, the Agromeck yearbook, celebrated its 100th birthday with the 2002 edition. Suspension upgrades made it possible for ATVs to hit jumps never thought possible. The paper is funded by advertisement and the student government; it is distributed for free at numerous locations on campus and at area merchants. Companies like Curtis Sparks Racing Engines, Baldwin Motorsports and Hinson Racing made it so the only stock component of the 250R engine were the left and right engine cases. Technician is published Monday through Friday when school is in session with a circulation of about 15,000.

Again, the aftermarket helped racers get all they could out of the dated engine. It employs more than 100 students throughout the year and reports on campus news, sports, entertainment, and state and national news. The engine that kept racing alive was the Honda TRX250R engine that was manufactured from 1986 to 1989. Technician has been North Carolina State University’s student-run newspaper since 1920. Racers would build expensive, custom ATVs with parts from major aftermarket manufacturers like Laeger's, Walsh Race Craft and Lonestar Racing. Besides fraternities and sororities, there are multicultural groups, arts groups, political and social action groups, service and professional groups, religious groups, sports and recreation groups, academic and professional groups, and special interest groups such as the Clogging Team, the Film Society, the Judo Club, the Equestrian Club, and the Black Finesse Modeling Troupe. Throughout the late 1980s and all during the 1990s, aftermarket companies kept the sport alive, but barely. Student life at North Carolina State University includes opportunities in a diverse range of activities and organizations.

ATV motocross floundered after Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki and Yamaha dropped ATV-racing support in the mid 1980s due to the bad publicity of the vehicles. There is also a multicultural student affairs office. Before we can talk about the current state of ATV motocross, we must understand the past. The student center of the University includes an African-American Cultural Center which has an art gallery and a library. This was a direct result of the major ATV manufacturers getting involved in the sport. Most students are North Carolina residents, so on the weekends the campus is empty. Starting in the year 2002, ATV motocross started to see a dramatic increase in participation across the United States. By far the largest party and social events are those associated with sporting events.

Interview with Brad Lackey, World Motocross Champion and one of the test's participants appeared in Racer X Illustrated in 2004 and is recounted here). While Greeks do offer some social events, many dormitories host their own parties, though alcohol policies are strictly enforced. (original article appeared in DirtBike magazine in 1980. NC State has a relatively small Greek presence, and few Greeks actually live in their fraternity or sorority houses. The cardiac stress and strength test results compiled there revealed that the motocross subjects had as high of a fitness level as than any other discipline tested. Freshman dorms provide academic and social events that acclimate incoming students to the college experience. Athletes from track, American football and soccer were tested, among others. Thirty-three percent of all students live on campus in one of twenty different dormitories.

The National Sport Health Institute in Englewood, California tested several professional motocross racers in the early 1980s as part of a comparative study of the cardio-vascular fitness of athletes from various disciplines. [17] NC State as a member of the Triangle Research Libraries Network (TRLN), has interlibrary loan services with Duke University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and North Carolina Central University.[18]. [citation needed]. Hill Library, located on Main Campus is over 11 stories tall and covers over 119 thousand square feet (11 thousand square meters). At least not if a rider expects to win. The largest library, D.H. And there are no pauses, breaks or pit stops. The NC State Library, ranked 27th out of 113 North American research libraries, includes 3.4 million volumes and 54 thousand journal subscriptions (as of 2005).[15][16] The library system has an annual budget of over $20 million and consists of 5 libraries.

That represents half of an hour in which the faster the rider goes, the more violently and frequently he or she is punished. The administration of NC State claims that this rate is a product of high participation in the cooperative education program (which adds a year to an undergraduate’s tenure) and the difficulty of the engineering degrees.[8] [9]. Finally, a typical professional moto (heat race) lasts at least thirty minutes. NC State’s rankings are significantly hurt by its 29.7% four year graduation rate (for freshmen entering in 1998), as compared to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s 66.7% rate for the same class. The G forces produced test the absolute limits of a rider's strength and endurance. NC State includes the following academic units:. A rider's arms and legs are in constant motion during a race, fighting for control of the motorcycle and absorbing the energy produced by high-speed landings from heights that often exceed twenty feet or from two-foot high stutter bumps (called whoops) that jackhammer the motorcycle and the rider. Areas of Study:.

The rider is astride a machine weighing at least two hundred pounds and, at the most elite professional level, has an engine that produces at least fifty horsepower.
. He or she must maintain ultra-precise control of a machine traversing terrain that most people would have difficulty walking across while maintaining as high of a rate of speed as possible. Only the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences offers associate's degrees. Observing in detail a rider's actions while at speed on the track reveals why. NC State offers bachelor's degrees in 100 areas of study, master's degrees in 109 areas and doctorate degrees in 55 areas. In truth, motocross racing has been found to be one of the most physically demanding sports in existence. NC State also provides a First Year Program for incoming freshmen to give incoming freshmen an opportunity to experience several disciplines before selecting a major.

Those unfamiliar with the sport often assume that the rider is doing nothing more strenuous than steering a motorized vehicle around a field, no more demanding than driving the family car around the block. Students can alternate semesters in the cooperative program, which gives them college credit for time-spent working on-site. One of the least understood aspects of motocross racing by non-participants is the extreme level of physical fitness required of competitors. The textile and paper science programs are notable, given the University’s location near active textile and paper producers. Classes for children as young as 4 years old exist for competition on 50cc machines. NC State is known for its programs in engineering and design. Motocross can be an entry sport for motorsports in general. State law limits the admission of student from outside North Carolina, so there is strong competition among non-residents for admissions.

Recently the sport has evolved with sub disciplines like Supercross and Arenacross (both are indoor motocross), Freestyle (or FMX) (a display of jumping skill rather than racing) and Supermoto (Motocross machines racing on both tarmac and off road). Twenty-five percent were in both categories. Motocross racing is one of the most visually appealing forms of motorsport, with riders performing seemingly death-defying leaps, turns visibly at the edge of traction (as indicated by a sliding, spinning rear tire throwing dirt at all behind it), and the effort of riders clearly visible as they move their bodies around their motorcycles to balance the bikes for maximum speed. Out of the 3,175 students in the 2004 freshmen class, 43% were ranked in the top 10% of their high school class and 48% scored greater than 1200 on the SAT. Usually a race consists of two or three motos with the scores combined to determine the overall result. Considered a more selective university, NC State accepts fewer than 60% of those who apply. This competition is called a moto. It is also widely recognized as one of the three anchors of North Carolina's Research Triangle, together with Duke University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.[7].

The object of the contest is to complete either a defined number of laps (usually three to seven for amateurs, more for professionals) or fixed time period (anything up to 40 minutes) first. Currently, NC State has over 7,000 employees, over 30,000 students, an $820 million annual budget, and a $300 million endowment.
See also the List of motorcycle manufacturers. [5] [6]. Previous. There are 61 private and government agency partners located here as well. The above five are the major five manufactures in most markets, the manufactures below command little market share (currently - 2005). Over $620 million has been invested in facilities and infrastructure at the new campus with 2.7 million square feet of space being constructed.

Current. Over the next decade and a half, NC State has focused on developing is new Centennial Campus. Incomplete list. Also in this year, it gained 700 acres of land that would later become the Centennial Campus. See also Motorcycle - especially the "Construction", "Dirt bike/Trail bike" and "Farm bike" sections. School of Engineering to the College of Engineering). Thus, the former 125cc Supercross series is now referred to as AMA Supercross Pro Lites; the 250cc Motocross series is now AMA Motocross Pro; etc. NC State celebrated its centennial in 1987 and reorganized its internal structure renaming all is schools to colleges (e.g.

Due to the increase in popularity and to non-matching displacements of four-stroke and two-stroke motorcycles in the same classes, in the year 2005 the AMA changed the class names from 250cc to Pro, and from 125cc to Pro Lite. The 1970s saw enrollment surpass 19,000 and the addition of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. However, the popularity of four-stroke motocross bikes has been steadily increasing. In 1966 single year enrollment reached 10,000. They are very competitive in these classes but need twice the displacement to rival a two-stroke. Convention ignores the "at Raleigh" part of the name, but it is still in the official name. Currently, 250cc four strokes compete in the 125cc class and 450cc four strokes are used in the 250cc class. Still not satisfied, protest and letter writing campaigns continued until 1965 when the university received the present name North Carolina State University at Raleigh.

Four stroke motocrossers do not compete on a truly level playing field. Instead the General Assembly changed the name to North Carolina State of the University of North Carolina at Raleigh in 1963. Engine sizes ranges from 50cc right up to 550cc, although bikes with sidecars can have up 1000cc engines. The name was never adopted. Some predict that two-strokes will not be available to buy after 2008, perhaps earlier in states such as California. Faculty, students and alumni immediately launched a bitter opposition campaign, arguing that the name would cause the university to lose its identity and to appear to be a branch of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. These engines have been developed due to manufacturer's pressure and environmental concerns regarding the increased emissions of two-strokes. In 1962, administrators tried to change State College to North Carolina State University, but Governor Terry Sanford and other UNC system officials proposed The University of North Carolina at Raleigh for consistency.

Although the four-strokes weigh more, they have much more power to back up the weight. The period also saw the first admission of African-Americans. The highly tuned machines of the professionals are called "factory bikes." The latest trend in motocross motorcycles is towards four-stroke engines. The 1950s saw many building projects and national recognition of its academic programs. Professional riders, however, modify their machines further, both for outright performance and to have the bike's behaviour more in tune with their own preferences. By 1947 enrollment was over 5,000 and the university expanded to accommodate the new students. Unusual for racing machines, motocross bikes can be purchased in a ready-to-race condition at moderate prices from major motorcycle manufacturers. Bill.

This forces the front of the bike lower (and likewise, accelerating the rear wheel causes the front of the bike to rise), allowing the rider to force the bike to a specific position or attitude relative to the ground. After the end of World War II, State College experienced rapid growth due to the G.I. When the rear wheel is decelerated while the bike is in mid-air, angular momentum is transferred from the wheel to the entire bike. By 1937 enrollment rebounded to over 2,000, but World War II caused enrollment to drop below 1,000. A common technique to change the attitude of the bike in air involves the use of the rear brake. The Consolidated University of North Carolina lasted until 1972 when it was remade into the University of North Carolina system. The gyroscopic effect of the engine along with the wheels makes jumping the "motocross" bike over long distances possible - this effect keeps the bike from rotating through any axis other than the axis of the wheels while in the air. This move also brought another name – North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering of the University of North Carolina.

Sitting further back and accelerating hard over a series of bumps or ("whoops") keeps the front tire from dropping into any large gaps between them and causing you to lose control of the bike. This administratively combined the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the Women’s College at Greensboro, and State College. Lowering the rider's center of gravity (sitting) greatly increases the ability to go through a turn at higher speeds. To address issues institutional inefficiencies, the State of North Carolina established the Consolidated University of North Carolina in 1931. This will affect rotation pitch while jumping and greater traction to the front wheel when necessary on the ground. The Great Depression brought many challenges to State College when economic hardships caused enrollment to suffer. This offers the rider greater protection when he or she hits bumps or lands hard and allows the rider to move and distribute his or her weight over the front or rear of the bike. In 1927, the first women graduated from the university.

The saddle (seat) is curiously shaped, in a long banana, to extend from rear of the fuel tank to the rear fender. In 1920 enrollment reached 1,000 and by 1929 enrollment doubled to 2,000. Also the exhaust may be routed carefully so that a fall will not damage the exhaust, nor bend it so that it would obstruct the rear swing arm's travel - something that does happen to road bikes. School of Agriculture, Textile School…). They feature hinged footpegs and levers so that they simply fold rather than bend or snap when the machine is inevitably dropped. In the 1920s, many of the university’s educational units were organized into schools (e.g. They have knobby tires for traction on loose surfaces, a highly absorbent suspension designed to cope with the shock of heavy landings, and short gearing designed for swift acceleration rather than high top speed. By the end of World War I, State College experienced many institutional changes and fluctuating enrollment.

Motocross motorcycles are lightweight and powered by highly tuned two-stroke or four-stroke engines (but usually geared for quick acceleration rather than very high speeds). [4]. . By 1918 the college had an enrollment over 700 students and it had a new name—North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering. There are two motos in a race and the riders place in those heats are averaged together to get their overall finish. These two new programs allowed the university’s knowledge resources to directly benefit the people of North Carolina, not just those students who walked its halls. Races are ran in sessions called motos. In 1914 the federal Smith-Lever Act enabled the university to establish state, county, and local extension programs.

The first three riders that finish first are declared the podium riders because of the first though third positions in the race. Along with United State Department of Agriculture, State College created the Boys’ and Girls’ Clubs in 1909 (which later became 4-H in 1926). In each race there is a set number of laps and the first rider to complete the set number of laps is the victor. Between 1889 to the end of World War I, the college experienced growth and expansion of purpose. Other formats may be determined by laps. [1] [2] [3]. This format is known as 30 minutes plus 2 laps. Construction began on the Main Building (now called Holladay Hall) in 1888 and the college formally opened on October 3, 1889.

A one-lap-to-go signal is given at the start of the final lap, and the race is completed at the end of that lap. Stanhope Pullen gave land towards the establishment of the new college in Raleigh. A typical Pro race will run for 30 minutes, then once the leader crosses the finish line that lap, he is given a signal indicating there are two laps remaining. R. Professional races measaured by time. The state also budgeted money for the new college and transferred North Carolina's land-grant endowment to it as well. Due to the size of the track, motocross races often include more than 40 racers whereas Supercross races are generally limited to about 25. On March 7, 1887 the North Carolina General Assembly authorized the establishment of North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.

It is not unheard of for a Motocross track to be made up entirely of hills and turns with no jumps at all. In the mid 1880s both state farmers and business leaders claimed that the Chapel Hill’s elitist education did not meet the mandate set forth by the Morrill Land-Grant Act. Motocross tracks are often quite large and incorporate natural terrain features with very few man made jumps, unlike Supercross, a sport that was originally derived from Motocross and is executed on a smaller track with more extreme man made obstacles. For two decades that university received $7,500 annually from the endowment. Motocross is often abbreviated as MX. During Reconstruction, North Carolina allocated its endowment to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The name "motocross" is a contraction derived from the words "Motorcycle" and "Cross Country". This Act created endowments that were to be used in the establishment of colleges that would provide a “liberal and practical education” while focusing on military tactics, agriculture and the mechanical arts without excluding classical studies.

Motocross is derived from the French, and was originally called Scrambling when the sport was invented in the UK. Although established in 1887, the North Carolina State University story begins in 1862 when President Lincoln signed the federal Morrill Land-Grant Act. Motocross is a form of motorcycle or ATV racing held on enclosed off-road circuits and is the widely considered the world's most popular form of motorcycle racing. . Sweden - SVEMO. While NC State has historical strengths in design, agriculture, engineering, and textiles, it offers over 100 Bachelor degree areas of study including meteorology, economics, political science, forestry, and education. South Africa - MSA. Today, NC State has an enrollment of over 30,000, making it the largest university in North Carolina.

Canada - CMRC / CMA. The North Carolina General Assembly founded NC State in 1887 as a land-grant college. France - FFM. Also known as NC State, the university is the principal technological institute of the University of North Carolina. Ireland - MCUI (covering the whole island). North Carolina State University at Raleigh is a public, coeducational, extensive research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. UK - ACU, with other separate (unconnected) bodies like the AMCA, ORPA, BSMA, and YSMA. JC Raulston Arboretum.

USA - AMA. Armed Forces Joint Chiefs of Staff. CCM (UK). Hugh Shelton (Bachelors 1963) Former chairman of the U.S. Maico (West Germany). Gen. Cannondale (USA). Burley Mitchell (Bachelors 1966) North Carolina Supreme Court Chief Justice.

Husqvarna (Italy, ex Sweden). Jones (Bachelors 1965) Member, United States Congress, 3rd District, North Carolina. Vertemati (Italy). Walter B. VOR (Italy). (Bachelors 1959, Masters 196?) 4-term Governor of North Carolina. TM (Italy). Hunt Jr.

Aprilia (Italy). James B. Husaberg (Sweden). Hayworth (Bachelors 1980) Member, United States Congress, 6th District, Arizona. KTM (Austria). J.D. Yamaha (Japan). Senator and vice-presidential candidate.

Suzuki (Japan). John Edwards (Bachelors 1974) U.S. Kawasaki (Japan). John Tesh (Attended circa 1975, expelled for cheating(?)) Musician. Honda (Japan). Jerry Punch (Bachelors 1975) Sideline reporter & auto racing analyst for ESPN and ABC. Park (Bachelors 1931) Communications executive.

Roy H. Terry Gannon Bachelors 1985) ABC Sports commentator. Richard Curtis (Bachelors 1972) A founder and managing editor of graphics and photography for USA TODAY. David Thompson (Bachelors 2003 played for NCSU from 1971 to 1975)) basketball player.

Philip Rivers (Bachelors 2003) football player. Nate McMillan (Attended 1985-1986) Basketball, head coach of the Portland Trail Blazers and past Head Coach Seattle SuperSonics. Torry Holt (Attended 1995-1998) football player. Terrence Holt (Attended 1999-2001) football player.

Roman Gabriel (Bachelors 1962) football player. David Fox (Bachelor 1994) 1996 Summer Olympics Swimming gold medalist. Bill Cowher (Bachelors 1979) football, head coach of the Pittsburgh Steelers. 1972, Faculty member 1972-1976) CEO of SAS Institute.

1968, Ph.D. 1965, M.S. James Goodnight (B.S. Marshall Brain (Masters 1989, Instructor 1986-1992) Founder of HowStuffWorks.

Donald Bitzer (Professor 1989-Present) Father of Plasma Television. Young (Professor 19??-present) Renaissance English literature scholar and co-founder of the John Donne Journal. V. R.

John Kessel (Professor 1982-Present) science-fiction author. George Kennedy (Professor 1976-Present) Entomologist. Thomas Hester (Professor 19??-Present) Renaissance English literature scholar and co-founder of the John Donne Journal. M.

Tom Regan (Professor 1967-Present) Philosopher and animal rights activist. Friday (Bachelors 1941) Former President of the University of North Carolina. William C. 1966, Faculty member 1962-1969) UCLA Chancellor.

Albert Carnesale (PhD. William Brantley Aycock (Bachelors 1936) former University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chancellor. Stadiums—Located further West of Main Campus than West Campus, it is the location of the basketball and football stadiums. West Campus—Located two miles West of Main Campus, it is the home of the veterinary School.

Centennial Campus—Located South of Main Campus, it is home to some academic departments, in particular those related to science and engineering, but most activity here is concerned with public/private cooperation and research. Location of most academic studies and student dormitories. Main Campus—Oldest campus of NC State. Among America's Best Value Colleges by Princeton Reviews.[14].

3rd in the nation in the total number of engineering degrees conferred in 2004.[13]. 28th best value in education by Kiplinger in 2006.[12]. [11]. 34th in US News and World Report's Best Graduate Engineering Programs.

78th out of all national universities by US News and World Report in 2006.[10]. List of graduate degrees. List of bachelor degrees.

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