Motocross

A rider cornering during a motocross race in Australia

Motocross is a form of motorcycle or ATV racing held on enclosed off-road circuits and is the widely considered the world's most popular form of motorcycle racing. Motocross is derived from the French, and was originally called Scrambling when the sport was invented in the UK. The name "motocross" is a contraction derived from the words "Motorcycle" and "Cross Country". Motocross is often abbreviated as MX.

Motocross tracks are often quite large and incorporate natural terrain features with very few man made jumps, unlike Supercross, a sport that was originally derived from Motocross and is executed on a smaller track with more extreme man made obstacles. It is not unheard of for a Motocross track to be made up entirely of hills and turns with no jumps at all. Due to the size of the track, motocross races often include more than 40 racers whereas Supercross races are generally limited to about 25.

Professional races measaured by time. A typical Pro race will run for 30 minutes, then once the leader crosses the finish line that lap, he is given a signal indicating there are two laps remaining. A one-lap-to-go signal is given at the start of the final lap, and the race is completed at the end of that lap. This format is known as 30 minutes plus 2 laps.

Other formats may be determined by laps. In each race there is a set number of laps and the first rider to complete the set number of laps is the victor. The first three riders that finish first are declared the podium riders because of the first though third positions in the race. Races are ran in sessions called motos. There are two motos in a race and the riders place in those heats are averaged together to get their overall finish.

Machines

Motocross racing requires skill and a good sense of balance

Motocross motorcycles are lightweight and powered by highly tuned two-stroke or four-stroke engines (but usually geared for quick acceleration rather than very high speeds). They have knobby tires for traction on loose surfaces, a highly absorbent suspension designed to cope with the shock of heavy landings, and short gearing designed for swift acceleration rather than high top speed. They feature hinged footpegs and levers so that they simply fold rather than bend or snap when the machine is inevitably dropped. Also the exhaust may be routed carefully so that a fall will not damage the exhaust, nor bend it so that it would obstruct the rear swing arm's travel - something that does happen to road bikes. The saddle (seat) is curiously shaped, in a long banana, to extend from rear of the fuel tank to the rear fender. This offers the rider greater protection when he or she hits bumps or lands hard and allows the rider to move and distribute his or her weight over the front or rear of the bike. This will affect rotation pitch while jumping and greater traction to the front wheel when necessary on the ground. Lowering the rider's center of gravity (sitting) greatly increases the ability to go through a turn at higher speeds. Sitting further back and accelerating hard over a series of bumps or ("whoops") keeps the front tire from dropping into any large gaps between them and causing you to lose control of the bike. The gyroscopic effect of the engine along with the wheels makes jumping the "motocross" bike over long distances possible - this effect keeps the bike from rotating through any axis other than the axis of the wheels while in the air. A common technique to change the attitude of the bike in air involves the use of the rear brake. When the rear wheel is decelerated while the bike is in mid-air, angular momentum is transferred from the wheel to the entire bike. This forces the front of the bike lower (and likewise, accelerating the rear wheel causes the front of the bike to rise), allowing the rider to force the bike to a specific position or attitude relative to the ground.

Unusual for racing machines, motocross bikes can be purchased in a ready-to-race condition at moderate prices from major motorcycle manufacturers.

Professional riders, however, modify their machines further, both for outright performance and to have the bike's behaviour more in tune with their own preferences. The highly tuned machines of the professionals are called "factory bikes." The latest trend in motocross motorcycles is towards four-stroke engines. Although the four-strokes weigh more, they have much more power to back up the weight. These engines have been developed due to manufacturer's pressure and environmental concerns regarding the increased emissions of two-strokes. Some predict that two-strokes will not be available to buy after 2008, perhaps earlier in states such as California.

Engine sizes ranges from 50cc right up to 550cc, although bikes with sidecars can have up 1000cc engines. Four stroke motocrossers do not compete on a truly level playing field. Currently, 250cc four strokes compete in the 125cc class and 450cc four strokes are used in the 250cc class. They are very competitive in these classes but need twice the displacement to rival a two-stroke. However, the popularity of four-stroke motocross bikes has been steadily increasing. Due to the increase in popularity and to non-matching displacements of four-stroke and two-stroke motorcycles in the same classes, in the year 2005 the AMA changed the class names from 250cc to Pro, and from 125cc to Pro Lite. Thus, the former 125cc Supercross series is now referred to as AMA Supercross Pro Lites; the 250cc Motocross series is now AMA Motocross Pro; etc.

See also Motorcycle - especially the "Construction", "Dirt bike/Trail bike" and "Farm bike" sections

Manufacturers

Incomplete list

Current

  • Honda (Japan)
  • Kawasaki (Japan)
  • Suzuki (Japan)
  • Yamaha (Japan)
  • KTM (Austria)

The above five are the major five manufactures in most markets, the manufactures below command little market share (currently - 2005).

  • Husaberg (Sweden)
  • Aprilia (Italy)
  • TM (Italy)
  • VOR (Italy)
  • Vertemati (Italy)
  • Husqvarna (Italy, ex Sweden)

Previous

  • Cannondale (USA)
  • Maico (West Germany)
  • CCM (UK)


See also the List of motorcycle manufacturers

Event

The object of the contest is to complete either a defined number of laps (usually three to seven for amateurs, more for professionals) or fixed time period (anything up to 40 minutes) first. This competition is called a moto. Usually a race consists of two or three motos with the scores combined to determine the overall result.

Motocross racing is one of the most visually appealing forms of motorsport, with riders performing seemingly death-defying leaps, turns visibly at the edge of traction (as indicated by a sliding, spinning rear tire throwing dirt at all behind it), and the effort of riders clearly visible as they move their bodies around their motorcycles to balance the bikes for maximum speed.

Motocross racers spend a lot of time airborne!

Recently the sport has evolved with sub disciplines like Supercross and Arenacross (both are indoor motocross), Freestyle (or FMX) (a display of jumping skill rather than racing) and Supermoto (Motocross machines racing on both tarmac and off road).

Motocross can be an entry sport for motorsports in general. Classes for children as young as 4 years old exist for competition on 50cc machines.

Physical demands

One of the least understood aspects of motocross racing by non-participants is the extreme level of physical fitness required of competitors. Those unfamiliar with the sport often assume that the rider is doing nothing more strenuous than steering a motorized vehicle around a field, no more demanding than driving the family car around the block. In truth, motocross racing has been found to be one of the most physically demanding sports in existence. Observing in detail a rider's actions while at speed on the track reveals why. He or she must maintain ultra-precise control of a machine traversing terrain that most people would have difficulty walking across while maintaining as high of a rate of speed as possible. The rider is astride a machine weighing at least two hundred pounds and, at the most elite professional level, has an engine that produces at least fifty horsepower. A rider's arms and legs are in constant motion during a race, fighting for control of the motorcycle and absorbing the energy produced by high-speed landings from heights that often exceed twenty feet or from two-foot high stutter bumps (called whoops) that jackhammer the motorcycle and the rider. The G forces produced test the absolute limits of a rider's strength and endurance. Finally, a typical professional moto (heat race) lasts at least thirty minutes. That represents half of an hour in which the faster the rider goes, the more violently and frequently he or she is punished. And there are no pauses, breaks or pit stops. At least not if a rider expects to win. [citation needed]

The National Sport Health Institute in Englewood, California tested several professional motocross racers in the early 1980s as part of a comparative study of the cardio-vascular fitness of athletes from various disciplines. Athletes from track, American football and soccer were tested, among others. The cardiac stress and strength test results compiled there revealed that the motocross subjects had as high of a fitness level as than any other discipline tested. (original article appeared in DirtBike magazine in 1980. Interview with Brad Lackey, World Motocross Champion and one of the test's participants appeared in Racer X Illustrated in 2004 and is recounted here)

ATV Motocross

Starting in the year 2002, ATV motocross started to see a dramatic increase in participation across the United States. This was a direct result of the major ATV manufacturers getting involved in the sport. Before we can talk about the current state of ATV motocross, we must understand the past. ATV motocross floundered after Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki and Yamaha dropped ATV-racing support in the mid 1980s due to the bad publicity of the vehicles. Throughout the late 1980s and all during the 1990s, aftermarket companies kept the sport alive, but barely. Racers would build expensive, custom ATVs with parts from major aftermarket manufacturers like Laeger's, Walsh Race Craft and Lonestar Racing. The engine that kept racing alive was the Honda TRX250R engine that was manufactured from 1986 to 1989. Again, the aftermarket helped racers get all they could out of the dated engine. Companies like Curtis Sparks Racing Engines, Baldwin Motorsports and Hinson Racing made it so the only stock component of the 250R engine were the left and right engine cases. Suspension upgrades made it possible for ATVs to hit jumps never thought possible. Suspension companies like PEP and Custom Axis, combined with long-travel A-arms and rear suspension links smoothed out rough tracks and harsh landings.

However, in order to be competitive on the motocross track, it was necessary to spend upwards of $20,000 on the race ATV. In the late 90s, rules were changed to allow racers to use dirt bike engines in ATV frames. The era of the four-stroke hybrid race ATV was born when Harold Goodman piloted a custom-built YZ400F to a national Four-Stroke Pro-Am championship. Soon hybrid machines were all over the tracks.

The manufacturers started paying closer attention to the sport ATV market, and in 1999 Honda released the four-stroke TRX400EX. While it wasn't as powerful as the hybrids racing on the tracks, it was a positive step. In 2001, Cannondale entered the ATV market and even fielded an ATV racing team in partnership with Nac's Racing the following year. The Cannondale story was a short one as the company declared bankruptcy shortly after 2002. In 2003 Suzuki released the LT-Z400 that featured a liquid-cooled four-stroke powerplant. That same year, the ATVA instituted a Pro Production class at the motocross nationals in order to showcase "stock" ATVs. The traditional Pro class still allowed two-strokes and hybrids. Many Pro racers raced both classes, but the premier class was still the Pro class. Tim Farr, in a move that raised eyebrows, raced only the Pro Production class. Doug Gust won the Pro Production class while Jeremiah Jones won the Pro class. Jones' championship would be the last Pro-class championship on a two-stroke.

Late in the 2003, Yamaha announced the YFZ450 for the 2004 model year. This ATV represented the first time a major manufacturer built a high-performance sport ATV suited for racing. While it wasn't as wide as many wanted for motocross and didn't have long-travel suspension, it featured a four-stroke engine very similar to the motocross dirt bikes Yamaha was putting out. The ATV also came stock with fully adjustable front suspension, the first time this was available on a stock ATV. After the Yamaha announcement, Honda announced it was going to bring the TRX450R to market in 2004. The tide was turning for the high-performance race ATV market.

The 2004 national motocross season was one of the most anticipated in 15 years. Suzuki announced it was going to hire Doug Gust as its motocross pilot, Honda was hiring Tim Farr as its factory racer and Yamaha was going to offer support Kory Ellis in limited fashion for the season. This represented the first time since around 1986 that any manufacturer was offering factory support for ATV racing. The moved proved to be a successful one for Suzuki as Doug Gust walked away with the national motocross championship, and in the process winning six overalls in a row.

The 2005 season saw more factory support and Suzuki fielding two racers, Gust and Jeremiah Jones, out of the Yoshimura/Suzuki semi. That year it was Honda winning the championship with support rider John Natalie taking the motocross championship. The 2005 season proved that the factories were willing to support ATV racing as they never had before. With that support on the track also meant support in the dealerships in the way of new, updated machines.

In the summer of 2005, Suzuki announced it was going to produce the 2006 LT-R450. This sport ATV was the most motocross-ready ATV ever produced. It featured electronic fuel injection, a high-performance four-stroke engine and a chassis that could be competitive in stock form. The front end had high-end shocks with 10 inches of travel and a width approaching 50 inches. The rear tires with 18-inch tires just like motocrossers sport. The swingarm was made of steel, too.

In 2005, local tracks mirrored the national tracks as more and more racers were bringing ATVs to race thanks to raceable models. Many feel that 2006 will be the biggest yet as the nationals continue to grow and many local AMA districts are offering "quad-only" race weekends.

Sidecars

Sidecar racing, known as Sidecarcross has been around since the 50’s but has declined in popularity since the 90’s. This variant is common in Europe, with a few followers in USA, New Zealand and Australia. Motocross sidecars are purpose built frames that resemble an ordinary motocross-cycle with a flat platform to stand on attached to either side and a handlebar at waist height to hold on to. The side of the "chair" (slang for the platform) usually follows the side of the road the nation in question drives upon, but not always. The passenger balances the bike by being a counterweight, especially in corners and on jumps. It’s driven on ordinary crosstracks. It is very physically demanding, especially for the passenger. This is reflected in most in the Swedish term for passenger- "burkslav", roughly translated as trunk/body/barrel-slave. This name comes from the early sidecars where the platform looked like a real road-sidecar and not today's platform.

The major frame builders today (2004) are VMC, BSU, AYR, EML and Woodenleg. Ordinary engines can be used, but size matters and two engines purpose built for sidecars exist, Zabel (Germany) and MTH (Austria) are most common. Fourstrokes are getting more common, usually KTM(Austria).

Freestyle

Mike Adair performing the Superman Seatgrab

Freestyle motocross (FMX), a relatively new sport, is not racing and instead concentrates on performing acrobatic stunts while jumping motocross bikes. The winner is chosen by a group of judges. The riders are scored on style, level of trick difficulty, best use of the course, and frequently crowd reactions as well.

One stunt performed is the backflip, which was first performed successfully on a large bike by Caleb Wyatt. Some consider the body varial 360 as the most difficult stunt being performed at this time. This stunt, also called the Carolla, was first performed by Chuck Carothers at the 2004 X Games. Prior to this, the backflip 360, or off-axis backflip, was widely considered the most challenging stunt.

Minibikes

The latest craze is adult racing on miniature (50cc) motorcycles called a minibike. These inexpensive minibikes designed for small children are often transformed for adult use by adding taller handle bars and by improving the suspension.

In 1998 Australian minibike riders Jonathan Byrne and Nicholas Stephenson revolutionised the sport by launching them from a up ramp to a down ramp while copying the mid air monuvers done on a large bike in freestyle motocross. This type of minibiking is now called freestyle minibike riding. Since 1998 this type of sport has spread all over the world. [citation needed]

Supermoto

Supermoto is a recent invention involving racing Motocross bikes on a part concrete, part off road track, with "road" tires instead of off road tires. Some tracks for these race events have jumps, berms, and whoop-dee-doos just like true motocross tracks. For special events, the Supermoto track may incorporate metal ramps for jumps that can be disassembled and taken to other locations. Supermoto races may take place at modified go-kart tracks, road racing tracks, or even street racing tracks. There are also classes for kids such as the 85cc class.

Governing bodies

The sport is governed world wide by the FIM, with federations in many nations.

Incomplete listing

  • USA - AMA
  • UK - ACU, with other separate (unconnected) bodies like the AMCA, ORPA, BSMA, and YSMA.
  • Ireland - MCUI (covering the whole island)
  • France - FFM
  • Canada - CMRC / CMA
  • South Africa - MSA
  • Sweden - SVEMO

This page about Motocross includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Motocross
News stories about Motocross
External links for Motocross
Videos for Motocross
Wikis about Motocross
Discussion Groups about Motocross
Blogs about Motocross
Images of Motocross

Incomplete listing. The university also produces a literary magazine called Mosaic, which features undergraduate fiction, poetry, and art. The sport is governed world wide by the FIM, with federations in many nations. The Sentinel serves as an analytical complement to The Lantern, though with a substantially smaller circulation. There are also classes for kids such as the 85cc class. The student monthly newspaper is The Sentinel (formerly The Observer). Supermoto races may take place at modified go-kart tracks, road racing tracks, or even street racing tracks. The school newspaper is called The Lantern, and has operated as a laboratory newspaper in the School of Communication (formerly the School of Journalism) for more than 150 years.

For special events, the Supermoto track may incorporate metal ramps for jumps that can be disassembled and taken to other locations. There is also a student-run radio station with an Internet audio stream (no broadcast signals are available in Columbus) called "The Underground" and a student-run cable channel, airing primarily on the campus cable system operated by UNITS (the university's telecommunications department), known as Buckeye TV. Some tracks for these race events have jumps, berms, and whoop-dee-doos just like true motocross tracks. In 2003, the television station began broadcasting in HDTV. Supermoto is a recent invention involving racing Motocross bikes on a part concrete, part off road track, with "road" tires instead of off road tires. OSU operates a public television station, WOSU-TV 34 / WOSU-DT 38 (a local PBS TV station), as well as two public radio stations, WOSU-AM (NPR/BBC) and WOSU-FM (Classical) in Columbus, both with the call letters WOSU. [citation needed]. Ward.

Since 1998 this type of sport has spread all over the world. Robert J. This type of minibiking is now called freestyle minibike riding. The Glee Club is under the direction of Dr. In 1998 Australian minibike riders Jonathan Byrne and Nicholas Stephenson revolutionised the sport by launching them from a up ramp to a down ramp while copying the mid air monuvers done on a large bike in freestyle motocross. In 1990, led by Professor James Gallagher, the Men's Glee Club participated in the International Musical Eisteddfod in Llangolen, Wales and won the male chorus competition by an unprecedented 20 points before, in a unanimous decision of the judges, being named "Choir of the World"—the first American choir to win such an honor. These inexpensive minibikes designed for small children are often transformed for adult use by adding taller handle bars and by improving the suspension. The Ohio State University Men's Glee Club[3], formed in 1875, is the oldest musical organization on campus.

The latest craze is adult racing on miniature (50cc) motorcycles called a minibike. The vehicle was designed, built and managed by a team of engineering students at the university's "Center for Automotive Research-Intelligent Transportation" (CAR-IT). Prior to this, the backflip 360, or off-axis backflip, was widely considered the most challenging stunt. The vehicle also holds the US record for fastest electric vehicle with a speed of 314.958 MPH (506.9 km/h), and peak timed mile speed of 321.834 MPH (517.9 km/h). This stunt, also called the Carolla, was first performed by Chuck Carothers at the 2004 X Games. OSU's "Buckeye Bullet" electric car broke the world record for the fastest speed by an electric vehicle on October 3, 2004 with a speed of 271.737 MPH (437.3 km/h) at the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah. Some consider the body varial 360 as the most difficult stunt being performed at this time. The band is famous for "Script Ohio," during which the band marches through the curves of the word, spelling "Ohio" while playing the famous march "Le Regiment de Sambre et Meuse".

One stunt performed is the backflip, which was first performed successfully on a large bike by Caleb Wyatt. All songs are customized to fit the unorthodox instrumentation. The riders are scored on style, level of trick difficulty, best use of the course, and frequently crowd reactions as well. The marching band is the largest all brass band in the world. The winner is chosen by a group of judges. The Ohio State University Marching Band (or TBDBITL, "The Best Damn Band in the Land") is also a tradition at Ohio State. Freestyle motocross (FMX), a relatively new sport, is not racing and instead concentrates on performing acrobatic stunts while jumping motocross bikes. The book was revived from 1985 to 1994, and has been revived again since 2000.

Fourstrokes are getting more common, usually KTM(Austria). The Makio ran into financial problems during the early 1970s, and the organization went bankrupt and stopped publication during the late 1970s. Ordinary engines can be used, but size matters and two engines purpose built for sidecars exist, Zabel (Germany) and MTH (Austria) are most common. The Makio is Ohio State's annual/yearbook. The major frame builders today (2004) are VMC, BSU, AYR, EML and Woodenleg. The Office of Student Affairs also operates the Schottenstein Center, the Fawcett Center, the Blackwell Inn, the Ohio union and the Drake Event Center. This name comes from the early sidecars where the platform looked like a real road-sidecar and not today's platform. Among these are student housing; food service; health, wellness and counseling; activities, organizations and leadership development; recreation and intramurals.

This is reflected in most in the Swedish term for passenger- "burkslav", roughly translated as trunk/body/barrel-slave. The Office of Student Affairs is responsible for many of the outside-the-classroom aspects of student life at Ohio State. It is very physically demanding, especially for the passenger. At The Ohio State University, there are three recognized student governments that represent their constituents. It’s driven on ordinary crosstracks. All of these programs have the ultimate goal of making students into better leaders, people and citizens of Ohio State. The passenger balances the bike by being a counterweight, especially in corners and on jumps. Examples of programs to get involved in are the Buckeye Leadership Society, LeaderShape, Buckeye Service Council, Community Commitment, and Alternative Spring Break.

The side of the "chair" (slang for the platform) usually follows the side of the road the nation in question drives upon, but not always. The union's vision is to prepare students to be responsible, engaged leaders committed to community participation for social action and change. Motocross sidecars are purpose built frames that resemble an ordinary motocross-cycle with a flat platform to stand on attached to either side and a handlebar at waist height to hold on to. Student organizations at The Ohio State University provide students with opportunities to get involved in a wide variety of interest areas including academic, social, religious, artistic, service-based, diversity and many more! There are over 800 registered student organizations that involve many thousands of students. This variant is common in Europe, with a few followers in USA, New Zealand and Australia. In addition, many student services and programs are housed in the union, along with dining and recreational facilities. Sidecar racing, known as Sidecarcross has been around since the 50’s but has declined in popularity since the 90’s. It provides facilities for student activities, organizations and events, and serves as an important meeting place for campus and community interaction.

Many feel that 2006 will be the biggest yet as the nationals continue to grow and many local AMA districts are offering "quad-only" race weekends. The Ohio union, located prominently along High Street southeast of the Oval, has been a center of student life at The Ohio State University for more than 50 years. In 2005, local tracks mirrored the national tracks as more and more racers were bringing ATVs to race thanks to raceable models. The Ohio union is dedicated to enriching the student experience on and off of the Ohio State University campus. The swingarm was made of steel, too. The Ohio union, was the first student union built by a public university. The rear tires with 18-inch tires just like motocrossers sport. The OSU/UM game has been called the greatest rivalry in sports by ESPN.[2].

The front end had high-end shocks with 10 inches of travel and a width approaching 50 inches. The University of Michigan leads the historical series 57-39-6, but Ohio State is 4-1 in the game since Jim Tressel became its coach in 2001. It featured electronic fuel injection, a high-performance four-stroke engine and a chassis that could be competitive in stock form. Ohio State is a part of the intense athletic Ohio State-Michigan Rivalry (particularly in football). This sport ATV was the most motocross-ready ATV ever produced. Taylor, John Havlicek, and Jerry Lucas (basketball); Frank Howard (baseball); Jack Nicklaus (golf); and Chic Harley (three-time All-American football running back) and Woody Hayes (football; M.A.). In the summer of 2005, Suzuki announced it was going to produce the 2006 LT-R450. Other outstanding sports figures that were students at Ohio State include Jesse Owens "the Buckeye Bullet" (track and field); Fred R.

With that support on the track also meant support in the dealerships in the way of new, updated machines. The Buckeye football team also boasts 5 Heisman trophy winners including the only two-time winner Archie Griffin (in 1974 and 1975), Les Horvath (1944), Vic Janowicz (1950), Howard "Hopalong" Cassady (1955), and Eddie George (1995). The 2005 season proved that the factories were willing to support ATV racing as they never had before. The most famous football coach in Ohio State's history was the colorful and legendary Woody Hayes (1913-1987), who passionately taught players and students that a person succeeds in life through "hard work.". That year it was Honda winning the championship with support rider John Natalie taking the motocross championship. Although Ohio State University does not recognize championships won in 1933, 1944, 1969, 1973, 1974, 1975, and 1998, various organizations awarded it the national championship, reaching a total of 13 titles. The 2005 season saw more factory support and Suzuki fielding two racers, Gust and Jeremiah Jones, out of the Yoshimura/Suzuki semi. It was the seventh national championship for the football team, which also topped the nation in 1942, 1954, 1957, 1961, 1968, and 1970.

The moved proved to be a successful one for Suzuki as Doug Gust walked away with the national motocross championship, and in the process winning six overalls in a row. the Horseshoe or simply The 'Shoe), won the 2002 college football national championship at the 2003 Fiesta Bowl. This represented the first time since around 1986 that any manufacturer was offering factory support for ATV racing. The Buckeye football team, which plays at Ohio Stadium (a.k.a. Suzuki announced it was going to hire Doug Gust as its motocross pilot, Honda was hiring Tim Farr as its factory racer and Yamaha was going to offer support Kory Ellis in limited fashion for the season. The school colors are Scarlet and Gray, and the mascot of OSU is Brutus Buckeye. The 2004 national motocross season was one of the most anticipated in 15 years. (The men's hockey program competes in the Central Collegiate Hockey Association, and its women's hockey program competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association).

The tide was turning for the high-performance race ATV market. Ohio State's intercollegiate sports teams are called the "Buckeyes" (after the state tree, the Buckeye), and participate in the NCAA's Division I-A in all sports and the Big Ten Conference in most sports. After the Yamaha announcement, Honda announced it was going to bring the TRX450R to market in 2004. Snyder is the Provost. The ATV also came stock with fully adjustable front suspension, the first time this was available on a stock ATV. Holbrook and Barbara R. While it wasn't as wide as many wanted for motocross and didn't have long-travel suspension, it featured a four-stroke engine very similar to the motocross dirt bikes Yamaha was putting out. The current president is Karen A.

This ATV represented the first time a major manufacturer built a high-performance sport ATV suited for racing. The Columbus campus is also home to the Wexner Center for the Arts. Late in the 2003, Yamaha announced the YFZ450 for the 2004 model year. Ross Heart Hospital, a research institute for cardiovascular disease. Jones' championship would be the last Pro-class championship on a two-stroke. The medical school is home to the James Cancer Hospital, a cancer research institute, and the Richard M. Doug Gust won the Pro Production class while Jeremiah Jones won the Pro class. News and World Report in their annual college rankings special issue.

Tim Farr, in a move that raised eyebrows, raced only the Pro Production class. The university is ranked best public university in the state of Ohio by U.S. Many Pro racers raced both classes, but the premier class was still the Pro class. The Columbus, Ohio campus is currently one of the largest student bodies in the United States, with 50,504 students enrolled. The traditional Pro class still allowed two-strokes and hybrids. Ohio State University is comprised of the following colleges, schools, and campuses:. That same year, the ATVA instituted a Pro Production class at the motocross nationals in order to showcase "stock" ATVs.
.

In 2003 Suzuki released the LT-Z400 that featured a liquid-cooled four-stroke powerplant. Ohio State operated The Big Ear, the largest and longest-running radio telescope SETI project in the world, until 1998. The Cannondale story was a short one as the company declared bankruptcy shortly after 2002. After an 1878 vote passed in favor of broadening the spectrum of educational offerings, the college permanently changed its name to the now-familiar "The Ohio State University". In 2001, Cannondale entered the ATV market and even fielded an ATV racing team in partnership with Nac's Racing the following year. The school was originally situated within a farming community located on the northern edge of Columbus, and was intended to matriculate students of various agricultural and mechanical disciplines. While it wasn't as powerful as the hybrids racing on the tracks, it was a positive step. Initially, President Stanton of Miami University was trying to receive more state funding through the Morrill Land Grant Act and was instrumental in the founding of The Ohio State University.

The manufacturers started paying closer attention to the sport ATV market, and in 1999 Honda released the four-stroke TRX400EX. The Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, founded in 1870 as a land-grant university in accordance with the Morrill Act of 1862, first opened its doors for students during the September of 1873. Soon hybrid machines were all over the tracks. . The era of the four-stroke hybrid race ATV was born when Harold Goodman piloted a custom-built YZ400F to a national Four-Stroke Pro-Am championship. Ohio State should not be confused with Ohio University, a separate institution located in Athens, Ohio. In the late 90s, rules were changed to allow racers to use dirt bike engines in ATV frames. The university was founded in 1870 as a land-grant university.

However, in order to be competitive on the motocross track, it was necessary to spend upwards of $20,000 on the race ATV. The Ohio State University is currently the third largest university in the United States and currently ranked by US News and World Report as the best public university in Ohio and the twenty-first best public university in the nation.[1] Ohio State's students attend either the main campus in Columbus, Ohio, or regional campuses located in Lima, Mansfield, Marion, Gibraltar Island (Stone Lab), Newark, and Wooster. Suspension companies like PEP and Custom Axis, combined with long-travel A-arms and rear suspension links smoothed out rough tracks and harsh landings. Chadwick Arboretum - Columbus, Ohio campus. Suspension upgrades made it possible for ATVs to hit jumps never thought possible. List of Ohio State University people. Companies like Curtis Sparks Racing Engines, Baldwin Motorsports and Hinson Racing made it so the only stock component of the 250R engine were the left and right engine cases. Its purpose is to act as a liaison between these students and the governing bodies of the University.

Again, the aftermarket helped racers get all they could out of the dated engine. Inter-Professional Council (IPC), which is a representative body of all professional students in the colleges of Dentistry, Law, Medicine, Optometry, Pharmacy, and Veterinary Medicine. The engine that kept racing alive was the Honda TRX250R engine that was manufactured from 1986 to 1989. The Council provides a forum in which the graduate student body may present, discuss, and set upon issues related to its role in the academic and non-academic aspects of the University community. Racers would build expensive, custom ATVs with parts from major aftermarket manufacturers like Laeger's, Walsh Race Craft and Lonestar Racing. Council of Graduate Students (CGS), which promotes and provides academic, administrative, and social programs for the university community in general and for graduate students in particular. Throughout the late 1980s and all during the 1990s, aftermarket companies kept the sport alive, but barely. USG seeks to outreach to and work for the students at the Ohio State University.

ATV motocross floundered after Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki and Yamaha dropped ATV-racing support in the mid 1980s due to the bad publicity of the vehicles. Undergraduate Student Government (USG), which consists of elected and appointed student representatives who serve as liaisons from the undergraduate student body to university officials. Before we can talk about the current state of ATV motocross, we must understand the past. Ohio State University Newark Campus. This was a direct result of the major ATV manufacturers getting involved in the sport. Delaware Center. Starting in the year 2002, ATV motocross started to see a dramatic increase in participation across the United States. Ohio State University Marion Campus

    .

    Interview with Brad Lackey, World Motocross Champion and one of the test's participants appeared in Racer X Illustrated in 2004 and is recounted here). Ohio State University Mansfield Campus. (original article appeared in DirtBike magazine in 1980. Ohio State University Lima Campus. The cardiac stress and strength test results compiled there revealed that the motocross subjects had as high of a fitness level as than any other discipline tested. Moritz College of Law. Athletes from track, American football and soccer were tested, among others. Michael E.

    The National Sport Health Institute in Englewood, California tested several professional motocross racers in the early 1980s as part of a comparative study of the cardio-vascular fitness of athletes from various disciplines. Fisher College of Business. [citation needed]. Max M. At least not if a rider expects to win. Graduate School. And there are no pauses, breaks or pit stops. School of Public Policy and Management.

    That represents half of an hour in which the faster the rider goes, the more violently and frequently he or she is punished. School of Journalism and Communication. Finally, a typical professional moto (heat race) lasts at least thirty minutes. College of Social and Behavioral Sciences

      . The G forces produced test the absolute limits of a rider's strength and endurance. College of Mathematical and Physical Sciences. A rider's arms and legs are in constant motion during a race, fighting for control of the motorcycle and absorbing the energy produced by high-speed landings from heights that often exceed twenty feet or from two-foot high stutter bumps (called whoops) that jackhammer the motorcycle and the rider. College of Humanities.

      The rider is astride a machine weighing at least two hundred pounds and, at the most elite professional level, has an engine that produces at least fifty horsepower. College of Biological Sciences. He or she must maintain ultra-precise control of a machine traversing terrain that most people would have difficulty walking across while maintaining as high of a rate of speed as possible. School of Music. Observing in detail a rider's actions while at speed on the track reveals why. Advanced Computing Center for the Arts and Design (ACCAD). In truth, motocross racing has been found to be one of the most physically demanding sports in existence. College of the Arts

        .

        Those unfamiliar with the sport often assume that the rider is doing nothing more strenuous than steering a motorized vehicle around a field, no more demanding than driving the family car around the block. Colleges of the Arts and Sciences

          . One of the least understood aspects of motocross racing by non-participants is the extreme level of physical fitness required of competitors. College of Veterinary Medicine. Classes for children as young as 4 years old exist for competition on 50cc machines. College of Social Work. Motocross can be an entry sport for motorsports in general. College of Pharmacy.

          Recently the sport has evolved with sub disciplines like Supercross and Arenacross (both are indoor motocross), Freestyle (or FMX) (a display of jumping skill rather than racing) and Supermoto (Motocross machines racing on both tarmac and off road). College of Optometry. Motocross racing is one of the most visually appealing forms of motorsport, with riders performing seemingly death-defying leaps, turns visibly at the edge of traction (as indicated by a sliding, spinning rear tire throwing dirt at all behind it), and the effort of riders clearly visible as they move their bodies around their motorcycles to balance the bikes for maximum speed. College of Nursing. Usually a race consists of two or three motos with the scores combined to determine the overall result. School of Public Health. This competition is called a moto. School of Biomedical Science.

          The object of the contest is to complete either a defined number of laps (usually three to seven for amateurs, more for professionals) or fixed time period (anything up to 40 minutes) first. School of Allied Medical Professions.
          See also the List of motorcycle manufacturers. College of Medicine and Public Health

            . Previous. College of Human Ecology. The above five are the major five manufactures in most markets, the manufactures below command little market share (currently - 2005). School of Natural Resources.

            Current. Agricultural Technical Institute. Incomplete list. Horticulture & Crop Science. See also Motorcycle - especially the "Construction", "Dirt bike/Trail bike" and "Farm bike" sections. College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences

              . Thus, the former 125cc Supercross series is now referred to as AMA Supercross Pro Lites; the 250cc Motocross series is now AMA Motocross Pro; etc. Knowlton School of Architecture.

              Due to the increase in popularity and to non-matching displacements of four-stroke and two-stroke motorcycles in the same classes, in the year 2005 the AMA changed the class names from 250cc to Pro, and from 125cc to Pro Lite. Austin E. However, the popularity of four-stroke motocross bikes has been steadily increasing. College of Engineering

                . They are very competitive in these classes but need twice the displacement to rival a two-stroke. School of Teaching and Learning. Currently, 250cc four strokes compete in the 125cc class and 450cc four strokes are used in the 250cc class. School of Physical Activity and Educational Services.

                Four stroke motocrossers do not compete on a truly level playing field. School of Educational Policy and Leadership. Engine sizes ranges from 50cc right up to 550cc, although bikes with sidecars can have up 1000cc engines. College of Education

                  . Some predict that two-strokes will not be available to buy after 2008, perhaps earlier in states such as California. College of Dentistry. These engines have been developed due to manufacturer's pressure and environmental concerns regarding the increased emissions of two-strokes.

                  Although the four-strokes weigh more, they have much more power to back up the weight. The highly tuned machines of the professionals are called "factory bikes." The latest trend in motocross motorcycles is towards four-stroke engines. Professional riders, however, modify their machines further, both for outright performance and to have the bike's behaviour more in tune with their own preferences. Unusual for racing machines, motocross bikes can be purchased in a ready-to-race condition at moderate prices from major motorcycle manufacturers.

                  This forces the front of the bike lower (and likewise, accelerating the rear wheel causes the front of the bike to rise), allowing the rider to force the bike to a specific position or attitude relative to the ground. When the rear wheel is decelerated while the bike is in mid-air, angular momentum is transferred from the wheel to the entire bike. A common technique to change the attitude of the bike in air involves the use of the rear brake. The gyroscopic effect of the engine along with the wheels makes jumping the "motocross" bike over long distances possible - this effect keeps the bike from rotating through any axis other than the axis of the wheels while in the air.

                  Sitting further back and accelerating hard over a series of bumps or ("whoops") keeps the front tire from dropping into any large gaps between them and causing you to lose control of the bike. Lowering the rider's center of gravity (sitting) greatly increases the ability to go through a turn at higher speeds. This will affect rotation pitch while jumping and greater traction to the front wheel when necessary on the ground. This offers the rider greater protection when he or she hits bumps or lands hard and allows the rider to move and distribute his or her weight over the front or rear of the bike.

                  The saddle (seat) is curiously shaped, in a long banana, to extend from rear of the fuel tank to the rear fender. Also the exhaust may be routed carefully so that a fall will not damage the exhaust, nor bend it so that it would obstruct the rear swing arm's travel - something that does happen to road bikes. They feature hinged footpegs and levers so that they simply fold rather than bend or snap when the machine is inevitably dropped. They have knobby tires for traction on loose surfaces, a highly absorbent suspension designed to cope with the shock of heavy landings, and short gearing designed for swift acceleration rather than high top speed.

                  Motocross motorcycles are lightweight and powered by highly tuned two-stroke or four-stroke engines (but usually geared for quick acceleration rather than very high speeds). . There are two motos in a race and the riders place in those heats are averaged together to get their overall finish. Races are ran in sessions called motos.

                  The first three riders that finish first are declared the podium riders because of the first though third positions in the race. In each race there is a set number of laps and the first rider to complete the set number of laps is the victor. Other formats may be determined by laps. This format is known as 30 minutes plus 2 laps.

                  A one-lap-to-go signal is given at the start of the final lap, and the race is completed at the end of that lap. A typical Pro race will run for 30 minutes, then once the leader crosses the finish line that lap, he is given a signal indicating there are two laps remaining. Professional races measaured by time. Due to the size of the track, motocross races often include more than 40 racers whereas Supercross races are generally limited to about 25.

                  It is not unheard of for a Motocross track to be made up entirely of hills and turns with no jumps at all. Motocross tracks are often quite large and incorporate natural terrain features with very few man made jumps, unlike Supercross, a sport that was originally derived from Motocross and is executed on a smaller track with more extreme man made obstacles. Motocross is often abbreviated as MX. The name "motocross" is a contraction derived from the words "Motorcycle" and "Cross Country".

                  Motocross is derived from the French, and was originally called Scrambling when the sport was invented in the UK. Motocross is a form of motorcycle or ATV racing held on enclosed off-road circuits and is the widely considered the world's most popular form of motorcycle racing. Sweden - SVEMO. South Africa - MSA.

                  Canada - CMRC / CMA. France - FFM. Ireland - MCUI (covering the whole island). UK - ACU, with other separate (unconnected) bodies like the AMCA, ORPA, BSMA, and YSMA.

                  USA - AMA. CCM (UK). Maico (West Germany). Cannondale (USA).

                  Husqvarna (Italy, ex Sweden). Vertemati (Italy). VOR (Italy). TM (Italy).

                  Aprilia (Italy). Husaberg (Sweden). KTM (Austria). Yamaha (Japan).

                  Suzuki (Japan). Kawasaki (Japan). Honda (Japan).

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