Motocross

A rider cornering during a motocross race in Australia

Motocross is a form of motorcycle or ATV racing held on enclosed off-road circuits and is the widely considered the world's most popular form of motorcycle racing. Motocross is derived from the French, and was originally called Scrambling when the sport was invented in the UK. The name "motocross" is a contraction derived from the words "Motorcycle" and "Cross Country". Motocross is often abbreviated as MX.

Motocross tracks are often quite large and incorporate natural terrain features with very few man made jumps, unlike Supercross, a sport that was originally derived from Motocross and is executed on a smaller track with more extreme man made obstacles. It is not unheard of for a Motocross track to be made up entirely of hills and turns with no jumps at all. Due to the size of the track, motocross races often include more than 40 racers whereas Supercross races are generally limited to about 25.

Professional races measaured by time. A typical Pro race will run for 30 minutes, then once the leader crosses the finish line that lap, he is given a signal indicating there are two laps remaining. A one-lap-to-go signal is given at the start of the final lap, and the race is completed at the end of that lap. This format is known as 30 minutes plus 2 laps.

Other formats may be determined by laps. In each race there is a set number of laps and the first rider to complete the set number of laps is the victor. The first three riders that finish first are declared the podium riders because of the first though third positions in the race. Races are ran in sessions called motos. There are two motos in a race and the riders place in those heats are averaged together to get their overall finish.

Machines

Motocross racing requires skill and a good sense of balance

Motocross motorcycles are lightweight and powered by highly tuned two-stroke or four-stroke engines (but usually geared for quick acceleration rather than very high speeds). They have knobby tires for traction on loose surfaces, a highly absorbent suspension designed to cope with the shock of heavy landings, and short gearing designed for swift acceleration rather than high top speed. They feature hinged footpegs and levers so that they simply fold rather than bend or snap when the machine is inevitably dropped. Also the exhaust may be routed carefully so that a fall will not damage the exhaust, nor bend it so that it would obstruct the rear swing arm's travel - something that does happen to road bikes. The saddle (seat) is curiously shaped, in a long banana, to extend from rear of the fuel tank to the rear fender. This offers the rider greater protection when he or she hits bumps or lands hard and allows the rider to move and distribute his or her weight over the front or rear of the bike. This will affect rotation pitch while jumping and greater traction to the front wheel when necessary on the ground. Lowering the rider's center of gravity (sitting) greatly increases the ability to go through a turn at higher speeds. Sitting further back and accelerating hard over a series of bumps or ("whoops") keeps the front tire from dropping into any large gaps between them and causing you to lose control of the bike. The gyroscopic effect of the engine along with the wheels makes jumping the "motocross" bike over long distances possible - this effect keeps the bike from rotating through any axis other than the axis of the wheels while in the air. A common technique to change the attitude of the bike in air involves the use of the rear brake. When the rear wheel is decelerated while the bike is in mid-air, angular momentum is transferred from the wheel to the entire bike. This forces the front of the bike lower (and likewise, accelerating the rear wheel causes the front of the bike to rise), allowing the rider to force the bike to a specific position or attitude relative to the ground.

Unusual for racing machines, motocross bikes can be purchased in a ready-to-race condition at moderate prices from major motorcycle manufacturers.

Professional riders, however, modify their machines further, both for outright performance and to have the bike's behaviour more in tune with their own preferences. The highly tuned machines of the professionals are called "factory bikes." The latest trend in motocross motorcycles is towards four-stroke engines. Although the four-strokes weigh more, they have much more power to back up the weight. These engines have been developed due to manufacturer's pressure and environmental concerns regarding the increased emissions of two-strokes. Some predict that two-strokes will not be available to buy after 2008, perhaps earlier in states such as California.

Engine sizes ranges from 50cc right up to 550cc, although bikes with sidecars can have up 1000cc engines. Four stroke motocrossers do not compete on a truly level playing field. Currently, 250cc four strokes compete in the 125cc class and 450cc four strokes are used in the 250cc class. They are very competitive in these classes but need twice the displacement to rival a two-stroke. However, the popularity of four-stroke motocross bikes has been steadily increasing. Due to the increase in popularity and to non-matching displacements of four-stroke and two-stroke motorcycles in the same classes, in the year 2005 the AMA changed the class names from 250cc to Pro, and from 125cc to Pro Lite. Thus, the former 125cc Supercross series is now referred to as AMA Supercross Pro Lites; the 250cc Motocross series is now AMA Motocross Pro; etc.

See also Motorcycle - especially the "Construction", "Dirt bike/Trail bike" and "Farm bike" sections

Manufacturers

Incomplete list

Current

  • Honda (Japan)
  • Kawasaki (Japan)
  • Suzuki (Japan)
  • Yamaha (Japan)
  • KTM (Austria)

The above five are the major five manufactures in most markets, the manufactures below command little market share (currently - 2005).

  • Husaberg (Sweden)
  • Aprilia (Italy)
  • TM (Italy)
  • VOR (Italy)
  • Vertemati (Italy)
  • Husqvarna (Italy, ex Sweden)

Previous

  • Cannondale (USA)
  • Maico (West Germany)
  • CCM (UK)


See also the List of motorcycle manufacturers

Event

The object of the contest is to complete either a defined number of laps (usually three to seven for amateurs, more for professionals) or fixed time period (anything up to 40 minutes) first. This competition is called a moto. Usually a race consists of two or three motos with the scores combined to determine the overall result.

Motocross racing is one of the most visually appealing forms of motorsport, with riders performing seemingly death-defying leaps, turns visibly at the edge of traction (as indicated by a sliding, spinning rear tire throwing dirt at all behind it), and the effort of riders clearly visible as they move their bodies around their motorcycles to balance the bikes for maximum speed.

Motocross racers spend a lot of time airborne!

Recently the sport has evolved with sub disciplines like Supercross and Arenacross (both are indoor motocross), Freestyle (or FMX) (a display of jumping skill rather than racing) and Supermoto (Motocross machines racing on both tarmac and off road).

Motocross can be an entry sport for motorsports in general. Classes for children as young as 4 years old exist for competition on 50cc machines.

Physical demands

One of the least understood aspects of motocross racing by non-participants is the extreme level of physical fitness required of competitors. Those unfamiliar with the sport often assume that the rider is doing nothing more strenuous than steering a motorized vehicle around a field, no more demanding than driving the family car around the block. In truth, motocross racing has been found to be one of the most physically demanding sports in existence. Observing in detail a rider's actions while at speed on the track reveals why. He or she must maintain ultra-precise control of a machine traversing terrain that most people would have difficulty walking across while maintaining as high of a rate of speed as possible. The rider is astride a machine weighing at least two hundred pounds and, at the most elite professional level, has an engine that produces at least fifty horsepower. A rider's arms and legs are in constant motion during a race, fighting for control of the motorcycle and absorbing the energy produced by high-speed landings from heights that often exceed twenty feet or from two-foot high stutter bumps (called whoops) that jackhammer the motorcycle and the rider. The G forces produced test the absolute limits of a rider's strength and endurance. Finally, a typical professional moto (heat race) lasts at least thirty minutes. That represents half of an hour in which the faster the rider goes, the more violently and frequently he or she is punished. And there are no pauses, breaks or pit stops. At least not if a rider expects to win. [citation needed]

The National Sport Health Institute in Englewood, California tested several professional motocross racers in the early 1980s as part of a comparative study of the cardio-vascular fitness of athletes from various disciplines. Athletes from track, American football and soccer were tested, among others. The cardiac stress and strength test results compiled there revealed that the motocross subjects had as high of a fitness level as than any other discipline tested. (original article appeared in DirtBike magazine in 1980. Interview with Brad Lackey, World Motocross Champion and one of the test's participants appeared in Racer X Illustrated in 2004 and is recounted here)

ATV Motocross

Starting in the year 2002, ATV motocross started to see a dramatic increase in participation across the United States. This was a direct result of the major ATV manufacturers getting involved in the sport. Before we can talk about the current state of ATV motocross, we must understand the past. ATV motocross floundered after Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki and Yamaha dropped ATV-racing support in the mid 1980s due to the bad publicity of the vehicles. Throughout the late 1980s and all during the 1990s, aftermarket companies kept the sport alive, but barely. Racers would build expensive, custom ATVs with parts from major aftermarket manufacturers like Laeger's, Walsh Race Craft and Lonestar Racing. The engine that kept racing alive was the Honda TRX250R engine that was manufactured from 1986 to 1989. Again, the aftermarket helped racers get all they could out of the dated engine. Companies like Curtis Sparks Racing Engines, Baldwin Motorsports and Hinson Racing made it so the only stock component of the 250R engine were the left and right engine cases. Suspension upgrades made it possible for ATVs to hit jumps never thought possible. Suspension companies like PEP and Custom Axis, combined with long-travel A-arms and rear suspension links smoothed out rough tracks and harsh landings.

However, in order to be competitive on the motocross track, it was necessary to spend upwards of $20,000 on the race ATV. In the late 90s, rules were changed to allow racers to use dirt bike engines in ATV frames. The era of the four-stroke hybrid race ATV was born when Harold Goodman piloted a custom-built YZ400F to a national Four-Stroke Pro-Am championship. Soon hybrid machines were all over the tracks.

The manufacturers started paying closer attention to the sport ATV market, and in 1999 Honda released the four-stroke TRX400EX. While it wasn't as powerful as the hybrids racing on the tracks, it was a positive step. In 2001, Cannondale entered the ATV market and even fielded an ATV racing team in partnership with Nac's Racing the following year. The Cannondale story was a short one as the company declared bankruptcy shortly after 2002. In 2003 Suzuki released the LT-Z400 that featured a liquid-cooled four-stroke powerplant. That same year, the ATVA instituted a Pro Production class at the motocross nationals in order to showcase "stock" ATVs. The traditional Pro class still allowed two-strokes and hybrids. Many Pro racers raced both classes, but the premier class was still the Pro class. Tim Farr, in a move that raised eyebrows, raced only the Pro Production class. Doug Gust won the Pro Production class while Jeremiah Jones won the Pro class. Jones' championship would be the last Pro-class championship on a two-stroke.

Late in the 2003, Yamaha announced the YFZ450 for the 2004 model year. This ATV represented the first time a major manufacturer built a high-performance sport ATV suited for racing. While it wasn't as wide as many wanted for motocross and didn't have long-travel suspension, it featured a four-stroke engine very similar to the motocross dirt bikes Yamaha was putting out. The ATV also came stock with fully adjustable front suspension, the first time this was available on a stock ATV. After the Yamaha announcement, Honda announced it was going to bring the TRX450R to market in 2004. The tide was turning for the high-performance race ATV market.

The 2004 national motocross season was one of the most anticipated in 15 years. Suzuki announced it was going to hire Doug Gust as its motocross pilot, Honda was hiring Tim Farr as its factory racer and Yamaha was going to offer support Kory Ellis in limited fashion for the season. This represented the first time since around 1986 that any manufacturer was offering factory support for ATV racing. The moved proved to be a successful one for Suzuki as Doug Gust walked away with the national motocross championship, and in the process winning six overalls in a row.

The 2005 season saw more factory support and Suzuki fielding two racers, Gust and Jeremiah Jones, out of the Yoshimura/Suzuki semi. That year it was Honda winning the championship with support rider John Natalie taking the motocross championship. The 2005 season proved that the factories were willing to support ATV racing as they never had before. With that support on the track also meant support in the dealerships in the way of new, updated machines.

In the summer of 2005, Suzuki announced it was going to produce the 2006 LT-R450. This sport ATV was the most motocross-ready ATV ever produced. It featured electronic fuel injection, a high-performance four-stroke engine and a chassis that could be competitive in stock form. The front end had high-end shocks with 10 inches of travel and a width approaching 50 inches. The rear tires with 18-inch tires just like motocrossers sport. The swingarm was made of steel, too.

In 2005, local tracks mirrored the national tracks as more and more racers were bringing ATVs to race thanks to raceable models. Many feel that 2006 will be the biggest yet as the nationals continue to grow and many local AMA districts are offering "quad-only" race weekends.

Sidecars

Sidecar racing, known as Sidecarcross has been around since the 50’s but has declined in popularity since the 90’s. This variant is common in Europe, with a few followers in USA, New Zealand and Australia. Motocross sidecars are purpose built frames that resemble an ordinary motocross-cycle with a flat platform to stand on attached to either side and a handlebar at waist height to hold on to. The side of the "chair" (slang for the platform) usually follows the side of the road the nation in question drives upon, but not always. The passenger balances the bike by being a counterweight, especially in corners and on jumps. It’s driven on ordinary crosstracks. It is very physically demanding, especially for the passenger. This is reflected in most in the Swedish term for passenger- "burkslav", roughly translated as trunk/body/barrel-slave. This name comes from the early sidecars where the platform looked like a real road-sidecar and not today's platform.

The major frame builders today (2004) are VMC, BSU, AYR, EML and Woodenleg. Ordinary engines can be used, but size matters and two engines purpose built for sidecars exist, Zabel (Germany) and MTH (Austria) are most common. Fourstrokes are getting more common, usually KTM(Austria).

Freestyle

Mike Adair performing the Superman Seatgrab

Freestyle motocross (FMX), a relatively new sport, is not racing and instead concentrates on performing acrobatic stunts while jumping motocross bikes. The winner is chosen by a group of judges. The riders are scored on style, level of trick difficulty, best use of the course, and frequently crowd reactions as well.

One stunt performed is the backflip, which was first performed successfully on a large bike by Caleb Wyatt. Some consider the body varial 360 as the most difficult stunt being performed at this time. This stunt, also called the Carolla, was first performed by Chuck Carothers at the 2004 X Games. Prior to this, the backflip 360, or off-axis backflip, was widely considered the most challenging stunt.

Minibikes

The latest craze is adult racing on miniature (50cc) motorcycles called a minibike. These inexpensive minibikes designed for small children are often transformed for adult use by adding taller handle bars and by improving the suspension.

In 1998 Australian minibike riders Jonathan Byrne and Nicholas Stephenson revolutionised the sport by launching them from a up ramp to a down ramp while copying the mid air monuvers done on a large bike in freestyle motocross. This type of minibiking is now called freestyle minibike riding. Since 1998 this type of sport has spread all over the world. [citation needed]

Supermoto

Supermoto is a recent invention involving racing Motocross bikes on a part concrete, part off road track, with "road" tires instead of off road tires. Some tracks for these race events have jumps, berms, and whoop-dee-doos just like true motocross tracks. For special events, the Supermoto track may incorporate metal ramps for jumps that can be disassembled and taken to other locations. Supermoto races may take place at modified go-kart tracks, road racing tracks, or even street racing tracks. There are also classes for kids such as the 85cc class.

Governing bodies

The sport is governed world wide by the FIM, with federations in many nations.

Incomplete listing

  • USA - AMA
  • UK - ACU, with other separate (unconnected) bodies like the AMCA, ORPA, BSMA, and YSMA.
  • Ireland - MCUI (covering the whole island)
  • France - FFM
  • Canada - CMRC / CMA
  • South Africa - MSA
  • Sweden - SVEMO

This page about Motocross includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Motocross
News stories about Motocross
External links for Motocross
Videos for Motocross
Wikis about Motocross
Discussion Groups about Motocross
Blogs about Motocross
Images of Motocross

Incomplete listing. Consequently, Ohio's politicians addressed constituencies that were the same as those across the nation.' Finally, the pragmatic and centrist character of Ohio politics, Hurt asserts, has made it 'job-oriented rather than issue oriented.'" [7]. The sport is governed world wide by the FIM, with federations in many nations. Ohioans were northerners and southerners as well as easterners and westerners. There are also classes for kids such as the 85cc class. Hurt writes that the elements of that microcosm were 'the diversity of the people, the strength of the industrial and agricultural economy, and the balance between rural and urban populations.' He continues: 'The individuals who played major roles in national affairs appealed to broad national constituencies because they learned their skills in Ohio, where political success required candidates to reconcile wide differences among the voters. Supermoto races may take place at modified go-kart tracks, road racing tracks, or even street racing tracks. Ohioans dominated national politics for seventy years, because Ohio was to a large extent a microcosm of the nation.

For special events, the Supermoto track may incorporate metal ramps for jumps that can be disassembled and taken to other locations. Douglas Hurt, 'had a state made such a mark on national political affairs.'. Some tracks for these race events have jumps, berms, and whoop-dee-doos just like true motocross tracks. At the same time, six Ohioans sat on the US Supreme Court and two served as Chief Justices....'Not since the Virginia dynasty dominated national government during the early years of the Repubilic' notes historian R. Supermoto is a recent invention involving racing Motocross bikes on a part concrete, part off road track, with "road" tires instead of off road tires. Between the Civil War and 1920, seven Ohioans were elected to he presidency, ending with Harding's election in 1920. [citation needed]. "Ohio has excelled as a recruiting-ground for national political leaders.

Since 1998 this type of sport has spread all over the world. Seven of them were Republicans, and the other was a member of the Whig Party. This type of minibiking is now called freestyle minibike riding. Ohio is known as the "Modern Mother of Presidents," having sent eight of its native sons to the White House. In 1998 Australian minibike riders Jonathan Byrne and Nicholas Stephenson revolutionised the sport by launching them from a up ramp to a down ramp while copying the mid air monuvers done on a large bike in freestyle motocross. Southwestern Ohio, especially the suburbs of Cincinnati, Warren County, Butler County, and Clermont County is particularly Republican. These inexpensive minibikes designed for small children are often transformed for adult use by adding taller handle bars and by improving the suspension. Specifically, the core of this region includes eight counties stretching east along Lake Erie from Erie County to the Pennsylvania border and south to Mahoning County.

The latest craze is adult racing on miniature (50cc) motorcycles called a minibike. The most solidly Democratic areas of the state are in the northeast, including Cleveland, Youngstown, and other industrial areas. Prior to this, the backflip 360, or off-axis backflip, was widely considered the most challenging stunt. Ohio had 20 electoral votes in the Electoral College in 2004. This stunt, also called the Carolla, was first performed by Chuck Carothers at the 2004 X Games. Consequently, the state is very important to the campaigns of both major parties. Some consider the body varial 360 as the most difficult stunt being performed at this time. Nixon in 1960.

One stunt performed is the backflip, which was first performed successfully on a large bike by Caleb Wyatt. Dewey in 1944 (Ohio's John Bricker was his running mate) and Richard M. The riders are scored on style, level of trick difficulty, best use of the course, and frequently crowd reactions as well. Interestingly, a Republican presidential candidate has never won the White House without winning Ohio, and Ohio has gone to the winner of the election in all but two contests since 1892, backing only losers Thomas E. The winner is chosen by a group of judges. Ohio's demographics cause many to consider the state as a microcosm of the nation as a whole. Freestyle motocross (FMX), a relatively new sport, is not racing and instead concentrates on performing acrobatic stunts while jumping motocross bikes. Truman defeated Republican Thomas Dewey (who had won the state four years earlier) and in the 1976 presidential election when Democrat Jimmy Carter defeated Republican Gerald Ford by a slim margin in Ohio and took the election.

Fourstrokes are getting more common, usually KTM(Austria). Ohio was also a deciding factor in the 1948 presidential election when Democrat Harry S. Ordinary engines can be used, but size matters and two engines purpose built for sidecars exist, Zabel (Germany) and MTH (Austria) are most common. The state supported Democrat Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996, but supported Republican George Bush in 2000 and 2004. The major frame builders today (2004) are VMC, BSU, AYR, EML and Woodenleg. Bush narrowly won the state's 20 electoral votes by a margin of 2 percentage points and 50.8% of the vote. This name comes from the early sidecars where the platform looked like a real road-sidecar and not today's platform. Bush and John Kerry.

This is reflected in most in the Swedish term for passenger- "burkslav", roughly translated as trunk/body/barrel-slave. Ohio was the deciding state in the 2004 presidential election between George W. It is very physically demanding, especially for the passenger. The mixture of urban and rural areas, and the presence of both large blue-collar industries and significant white-collar commercial districts leads to a balance of conservative and liberal population that (together with the state's 20 electoral votes, more than most swing states) makes the state very important to the outcome of national elections. It’s driven on ordinary crosstracks. Politically, Ohio is considered a swing state, although state politics are dominated by Republicans. The passenger balances the bike by being a counterweight, especially in corners and on jumps. The religious affiliations of the people of Ohio are:.

The side of the "chair" (slang for the platform) usually follows the side of the road the nation in question drives upon, but not always. Cincinnati and Cleveland also have a large population of Catholics. Motocross sidecars are purpose built frames that resemble an ordinary motocross-cycle with a flat platform to stand on attached to either side and a handlebar at waist height to hold on to. There are sizeable Jewish communities in the Cleveland (eastern suburbs), and to a lesser extent Cincinnati. This variant is common in Europe, with a few followers in USA, New Zealand and Australia. Other notable Protestant groups include the nation's largest Amish population, and the headquarters of the United Church of Christ, which is in Cleveland. Sidecar racing, known as Sidecarcross has been around since the 50’s but has declined in popularity since the 90’s. There are large numbers of Baptists, Methodists, Lutherans, Presbyterians, and Pentecostals.

Many feel that 2006 will be the biggest yet as the nationals continue to grow and many local AMA districts are offering "quad-only" race weekends. Ohio is mostly Protestant. In 2005, local tracks mirrored the national tracks as more and more racers were bringing ATVs to race thanks to raceable models. Females made up approximately 51.4% of the population. The swingarm was made of steel, too. 6.6% of Ohio's population were reported as under 5, 25.4% under 18, and 13.3% were 65 or older. The rear tires with 18-inch tires just like motocrossers sport. The Cleveland and Columbus areas have the largest asian populations.

The front end had high-end shocks with 10 inches of travel and a width approaching 50 inches. The cities of Cleveland and Toledo have large hispanic populations. It featured electronic fuel injection, a high-performance four-stroke engine and a chassis that could be competitive in stock form. The cities of Cleveland and Cincinnati are heavily black. This sport ATV was the most motocross-ready ATV ever produced. Ohioans of American and British ancestry are present throughout the state as well, particularly in the south-central part of the state. In the summer of 2005, Suzuki announced it was going to produce the 2006 LT-R450. German is the largest reported ancestry in most of the counties in Ohio, especially in the northwest.

With that support on the track also meant support in the dealerships in the way of new, updated machines. The 5 largest ancestry groups in Ohio are German (25.2%), Irish (12.7%), African (11.5%), English (9.2%), American (8.5%). The 2005 season proved that the factories were willing to support ATV racing as they never had before. The racial makeup of the state is:. That year it was Honda winning the championship with support rider John Natalie taking the motocross championship. As of 2004, Ohio's population included about 390,000 foreign-born (3.4%). The 2005 season saw more factory support and Suzuki fielding two racers, Gust and Jeremiah Jones, out of the Yoshimura/Suzuki semi. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,142 people, and migration within the country produced a net decrease of 177,150 people.

The moved proved to be a successful one for Suzuki as Doug Gust walked away with the national motocross championship, and in the process winning six overalls in a row. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 217,877 people (that is 789,312 births minus 571,435 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 102,008 people out of the state. This represented the first time since around 1986 that any manufacturer was offering factory support for ATV racing. As of 2005, Ohio has an estimated population of 11,464,042, which is an increase of 13,899, or 0.1%, from the prior year and an increase of 110,897, or 1.0%, since the year 2000. Suzuki announced it was going to hire Doug Gust as its motocross pilot, Honda was hiring Tim Farr as its factory racer and Yamaha was going to offer support Kory Ellis in limited fashion for the season. Its industrial outputs are transportation equipment, fabricated metal products, machinery, food processing, and electric equipment. The 2004 national motocross season was one of the most anticipated in 15 years. Ohio's agricultural outputs are soybeans, dairy products, corn, tomatoes, hogs, cattle, poultry and eggs.

The tide was turning for the high-performance race ATV market. Per capita personal income in 2003 was $30,129, 25th in the nation. After the Yamaha announcement, Honda announced it was going to bring the TRX450R to market in 2004. The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Ohio's total state product in 2003 was $403 billion. The ATV also came stock with fully adjustable front suspension, the first time this was available on a stock ATV. Of special historical interest are the Native American archaeological sites—including grave mounds and other sites. While it wasn't as wide as many wanted for motocross and didn't have long-travel suspension, it featured a four-stroke engine very similar to the motocross dirt bikes Yamaha was putting out. Over 2,500 lakes and 70,000 kilometers of river landscapes are a paradise for boaters, fishermen, and swimmers.

This ATV represented the first time a major manufacturer built a high-performance sport ATV suited for racing. In addition, Ohio's historical attractions, varying landscapes, and recreational opportunities are the basis for a thriving tourist industry. Late in the 2003, Yamaha announced the YFZ450 for the 2004 model year. There is also a small commercial fishing sector on Lake Erie, and the principal catch is yellow perch. Jones' championship would be the last Pro-class championship on a two-stroke. As part of the Corn Belt, agriculture also plays an important role in the state's economy. Doug Gust won the Pro Production class while Jeremiah Jones won the Pro class. Ohio today also has many aerospace, defense, and NASA parts and systems suppliers scattered throughout the state.

Tim Farr, in a move that raised eyebrows, raced only the Pro Production class. On the base are located Wright Hill and Huffman Prairie, where many of the earliest aerodynamic experiments of the Wright brothers were performed. Many Pro racers raced both classes, but the premier class was still the Pro class. Production of aircraft in the USA is now centered elsewhere, but a large experimental and design facility, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base has been located near Dayton and serves in the co-ordination of production of US military aircraft. The traditional Pro class still allowed two-strokes and hybrids. Ohio is the site of the invention of the airplane, resulting from the experiments of the Wright brothers in Dayton. That same year, the ATVA instituted a Pro Production class at the motocross nationals in order to showcase "stock" ATVs. Nevertheless, there are well known Ohio consumer items including some Procter & Gamble products, Smuckers jams and jellies, and DayGlo.

In 2003 Suzuki released the LT-Z400 that featured a liquid-cooled four-stroke powerplant. This is not immediately obvious because Ohio specializes in producers goods (goods used to make other goods, such as machine tools, industrial chemicals, and plastic moldings). The Cannondale story was a short one as the company declared bankruptcy shortly after 2002. Ohio is a major producer of machines, tires and rubber products, steel, processed foods, tools, and other manufactured goods. In 2001, Cannondale entered the ATV market and even fielded an ATV racing team in partnership with Nac's Racing the following year. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state. While it wasn't as powerful as the hybrids racing on the tracks, it was a positive step. It should be noted that Ohio's canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states.

The manufacturers started paying closer attention to the sport ATV market, and in 1999 Honda released the four-stroke TRX400EX. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles, was the largest artificial lake in the world. Soon hybrid machines were all over the tracks. Mary's in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. The era of the four-stroke hybrid race ATV was born when Harold Goodman piloted a custom-built YZ400F to a national Four-Stroke Pro-Am championship. Grand Lake St. In the late 90s, rules were changed to allow racers to use dirt bike engines in ATV frames. Lawrence River, and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio and then the Mississippi.

However, in order to be competitive on the motocross track, it was necessary to spend upwards of $20,000 on the race ATV. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Suspension companies like PEP and Custom Axis, combined with long-travel A-arms and rear suspension links smoothed out rough tracks and harsh landings. Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, and Scioto River. Suspension upgrades made it possible for ATVs to hit jumps never thought possible. Known somewhat erroneously as Ohio's "Appalachian Counties" (they are actually in the Allegheny Plateau), this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and even distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state and, unfortunately, create a limited opportunity to participate in the generally high economic standards of Ohio. Companies like Curtis Sparks Racing Engines, Baldwin Motorsports and Hinson Racing made it so the only stock component of the 250R engine were the left and right engine cases. The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit.

Again, the aftermarket helped racers get all they could out of the dated engine. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests. The engine that kept racing alive was the Honda TRX250R engine that was manufactured from 1986 to 1989. This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Racers would build expensive, custom ATVs with parts from major aftermarket manufacturers like Laeger's, Walsh Race Craft and Lonestar Racing. Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. Throughout the late 1980s and all during the 1990s, aftermarket companies kept the sport alive, but barely. It borders Pennsylvania on the east, Michigan in the northwest near Toledo, Ontario, Canada across Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, and West Virginia on the southeast.

ATV motocross floundered after Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki and Yamaha dropped ATV-racing support in the mid 1980s due to the bad publicity of the vehicles. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River (with the border being at the 1793 low-water mark on the north side of the river), and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Before we can talk about the current state of ATV motocross, we must understand the past. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity.[4] To the North, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline,[5] which allows for numerous seaports. This was a direct result of the major ATV manufacturers getting involved in the sport. Because Ohio straddles the Northeast to the east, and the Midwest to the west, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders on its well-developed highways. Starting in the year 2002, ATV motocross started to see a dramatic increase in participation across the United States. Ohio's geographic location has proved to be an asset for economic growth and expansion.

Interview with Brad Lackey, World Motocross Champion and one of the test's participants appeared in Racer X Illustrated in 2004 and is recounted here). Ohio has 18 seats in the United States House of Representatives. (original article appeared in DirtBike magazine in 1980. The Governor is Bob Taft. The cardiac stress and strength test results compiled there revealed that the motocross subjects had as high of a fitness level as than any other discipline tested. Ohio's capital is Columbus, located close to the center of the state. Athletes from track, American football and soccer were tested, among others. Congress intervened and, as a condition for admittance as a state of the Union, Michigan was forced to accept the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula in exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip.

The National Sport Health Institute in Englewood, California tested several professional motocross racers in the early 1980s as part of a comparative study of the cardio-vascular fitness of athletes from various disciplines. In 1835, Ohio fought a mostly bloodless boundary war with Michigan over the Toledo Strip known as the Toledo War. [citation needed]. Virginia actually has the most presidents with 8 born there. At least not if a rider expects to win. Ohio is sometimes known as "the mother of modern presidents". And there are no pauses, breaks or pit stops. So, on August 7, 1953 (the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary), President Eisenhower signed an act that officially declared March 1, 1803 the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union.

That represents half of an hour in which the faster the rider goes, the more violently and frequently he or she is punished. The current custom of Congress declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812, with Louisiana's admission. Finally, a typical professional moto (heat race) lasts at least thirty minutes. Congress that recognized Ohio as the 17th state. The G forces produced test the absolute limits of a rider's strength and endurance. On February 19, 1803, President Jefferson signed an act of U.S. A rider's arms and legs are in constant motion during a race, fighting for control of the motorcycle and absorbing the energy produced by high-speed landings from heights that often exceed twenty feet or from two-foot high stutter bumps (called whoops) that jackhammer the motorcycle and the rider. Although Ohio's population numbered only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that the population was growing rapidly and Ohio could begin the path to statehood with the assumption that it would exceed 60,000 residents by the time it would become a state.

The rider is astride a machine weighing at least two hundred pounds and, at the most elite professional level, has an engine that produces at least fifty horsepower. Under the Northwest Ordinance, any of the states to be formed out of the Northwest Territory would be admitted as a state once the population exceeded 60,000. He or she must maintain ultra-precise control of a machine traversing terrain that most people would have difficulty walking across while maintaining as high of a rate of speed as possible. As Ohio prepared for statehood, Indiana Territory was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula. Observing in detail a rider's actions while at speed on the track reveals why. The Northwest Territory originally included areas that had previously been known as Ohio Country and Illinois Country. In truth, motocross racing has been found to be one of the most physically demanding sports in existence. The states of the Midwest would be known as free states, in contradistinction to those states south of the Ohio River known as slave states, and later, as Northeastern states abolished slavery in the coming two generations, the free states would be known as Northern States.

Those unfamiliar with the sport often assume that the rider is doing nothing more strenuous than steering a motorized vehicle around a field, no more demanding than driving the family car around the block. The United States created the Northwest Territory in 1787 under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, also known as the Freedom Ordinance because for the first time slavery would be prohibited from an entire American region. One of the least understood aspects of motocross racing by non-participants is the extreme level of physical fitness required of competitors. British control of the region ended with the American victory in the American Revolution, after which the British ceded claims to Ohio and the territory in the West to the Mississippi River to the United States. Classes for children as young as 4 years old exist for competition on 50cc machines. Britain soon passed the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited the American colonists from settling in Ohio Country. Motocross can be an entry sport for motorsports in general. As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded control of Ohio and the old Northwest to Great Britain.

Recently the sport has evolved with sub disciplines like Supercross and Arenacross (both are indoor motocross), Freestyle (or FMX) (a display of jumping skill rather than racing) and Supermoto (Motocross machines racing on both tarmac and off road). In 1754, France and Great Britain fought a war known in the United States as the French and Indian War. Motocross racing is one of the most visually appealing forms of motorsport, with riders performing seemingly death-defying leaps, turns visibly at the edge of traction (as indicated by a sliding, spinning rear tire throwing dirt at all behind it), and the effort of riders clearly visible as they move their bodies around their motorcycles to balance the bikes for maximum speed. During the 18th century, the French set up a system of trading posts to control the fur trade in the region. Usually a race consists of two or three motos with the scores combined to determine the overall result. However, locally, the region was populated by several other peoples, principally the Miamis, Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnees, Ottawas, and Eries. This competition is called a moto. At the time of European colonization, the Iroquois federation of the New York area claimed the region including the modern territory of Ohio as a hunting ground.

The object of the contest is to complete either a defined number of laps (usually three to seven for amateurs, more for professionals) or fixed time period (anything up to 40 minutes) first. Ohio, the region north of the Ohio River and south of the Great Lakes, was originally controlled by various native tribes.
See also the List of motorcycle manufacturers. . Previous. Navy has named several ships USS Ohio in honor of this state. The above five are the major five manufactures in most markets, the manufactures below command little market share (currently - 2005). The U.S.

Current. postal abbreviation is OH; its old-style abbreviation is O. Ohio is an Iroquois word meaning "good river." The name refers to the Ohio River that forms its southern border. Incomplete list. Its U.S. See also Motorcycle - especially the "Construction", "Dirt bike/Trail bike" and "Farm bike" sections. Ohio was the first and eastern-most state admitted to the Union under the Northwest Ordinance. Thus, the former 125cc Supercross series is now referred to as AMA Supercross Pro Lites; the 250cc Motocross series is now AMA Motocross Pro; etc. Ohio is now in the East North Central States division.[3].

Due to the increase in popularity and to non-matching displacements of four-stroke and two-stroke motorcycles in the same classes, in the year 2005 the AMA changed the class names from 250cc to Pro, and from 125cc to Pro Lite. [1] Prior to 1984, the United States Census Bureau considered Ohio part of the North Central Region.[2] That region concept was renamed "Midwest" and split into two divisions. However, the popularity of four-stroke motocross bikes has been steadily increasing. "This slice of the mid-west contains a bit of everything American—part north-eastern and part southern, part urban and part rural, part hardscrabble poverty and part booming suburb," notes The Economist. They are very competitive in these classes but need twice the displacement to rival a two-stroke. Historically (but not universally) considered a part of the Midwest, Ohio is a multi-regional cultural and geographical crossroads, with elements of the Midwest, Northeast, Appalachia and the South. Currently, 250cc four strokes compete in the 125cc class and 450cc four strokes are used in the 250cc class. Ohio is a state in the United States.

Four stroke motocrossers do not compete on a truly level playing field. Voinovich (R). Engine sizes ranges from 50cc right up to 550cc, although bikes with sidecars can have up 1000cc engines. George V. Some predict that two-strokes will not be available to buy after 2008, perhaps earlier in states such as California. Non-Religious – 16%. These engines have been developed due to manufacturer's pressure and environmental concerns regarding the increased emissions of two-strokes. Other Religions – less than 1%.

Although the four-strokes weigh more, they have much more power to back up the weight. Judaism – 1.3%. The highly tuned machines of the professionals are called "factory bikes." The latest trend in motocross motorcycles is towards four-stroke engines. Other Christian – 1%. Professional riders, however, modify their machines further, both for outright performance and to have the bike's behaviour more in tune with their own preferences. Roman Catholic – 19%. Unusual for racing machines, motocross bikes can be purchased in a ready-to-race condition at moderate prices from major motorcycle manufacturers. Other Protestant – 20%.

This forces the front of the bike lower (and likewise, accelerating the rear wheel causes the front of the bike to rise), allowing the rider to force the bike to a specific position or attitude relative to the ground. Amish/Pietist – 1%. When the rear wheel is decelerated while the bike is in mid-air, angular momentum is transferred from the wheel to the entire bike. United Church of Christ – 2%. A common technique to change the attitude of the bike in air involves the use of the rear brake. Pentecostal – 4%. The gyroscopic effect of the engine along with the wheels makes jumping the "motocross" bike over long distances possible - this effect keeps the bike from rotating through any axis other than the axis of the wheels while in the air. Presbyterian – 4%.

Sitting further back and accelerating hard over a series of bumps or ("whoops") keeps the front tire from dropping into any large gaps between them and causing you to lose control of the bike. Lutheran – 5%. Lowering the rider's center of gravity (sitting) greatly increases the ability to go through a turn at higher speeds. Methodist – 11%. This will affect rotation pitch while jumping and greater traction to the front wheel when necessary on the ground. Baptist – 15%. This offers the rider greater protection when he or she hits bumps or lands hard and allows the rider to move and distribute his or her weight over the front or rear of the bike. Protestant – 62%

    .

    The saddle (seat) is curiously shaped, in a long banana, to extend from rear of the fuel tank to the rear fender. Christianity – 82%

      . Also the exhaust may be routed carefully so that a fall will not damage the exhaust, nor bend it so that it would obstruct the rear swing arm's travel - something that does happen to road bikes. 1.4% Mixed race. They feature hinged footpegs and levers so that they simply fold rather than bend or snap when the machine is inevitably dropped. 0.2% Native American. They have knobby tires for traction on loose surfaces, a highly absorbent suspension designed to cope with the shock of heavy landings, and short gearing designed for swift acceleration rather than high top speed. 1.2% Asian.

      Motocross motorcycles are lightweight and powered by highly tuned two-stroke or four-stroke engines (but usually geared for quick acceleration rather than very high speeds). 1.9% Hispanic. . 11.5% Black. There are two motos in a race and the riders place in those heats are averaged together to get their overall finish. 85.0% White. Races are ran in sessions called motos.

      The first three riders that finish first are declared the podium riders because of the first though third positions in the race. In each race there is a set number of laps and the first rider to complete the set number of laps is the victor. Other formats may be determined by laps. This format is known as 30 minutes plus 2 laps.

      A one-lap-to-go signal is given at the start of the final lap, and the race is completed at the end of that lap. A typical Pro race will run for 30 minutes, then once the leader crosses the finish line that lap, he is given a signal indicating there are two laps remaining. Professional races measaured by time. Due to the size of the track, motocross races often include more than 40 racers whereas Supercross races are generally limited to about 25.

      It is not unheard of for a Motocross track to be made up entirely of hills and turns with no jumps at all. Motocross tracks are often quite large and incorporate natural terrain features with very few man made jumps, unlike Supercross, a sport that was originally derived from Motocross and is executed on a smaller track with more extreme man made obstacles. Motocross is often abbreviated as MX. The name "motocross" is a contraction derived from the words "Motorcycle" and "Cross Country".

      Motocross is derived from the French, and was originally called Scrambling when the sport was invented in the UK. Motocross is a form of motorcycle or ATV racing held on enclosed off-road circuits and is the widely considered the world's most popular form of motorcycle racing. Sweden - SVEMO. South Africa - MSA.

      Canada - CMRC / CMA. France - FFM. Ireland - MCUI (covering the whole island). UK - ACU, with other separate (unconnected) bodies like the AMCA, ORPA, BSMA, and YSMA.

      USA - AMA. CCM (UK). Maico (West Germany). Cannondale (USA).

      Husqvarna (Italy, ex Sweden). Vertemati (Italy). VOR (Italy). TM (Italy).

      Aprilia (Italy). Husaberg (Sweden). KTM (Austria). Yamaha (Japan).

      Suzuki (Japan). Kawasaki (Japan). Honda (Japan).

07-28-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory Move your favorite Unsigned Artist to the Top of the List Bet Real Money Heads-Up Against Other Users