Morgan is both a given name and a surname, as well as the name of several places. The surname Morgan is of Welsh origin, meaning "of the sea", and is a popular family name in that country. Many Welsh families emigrated to Australia and the USA, thus many founding families in those countries carried the surname Morgan, which is reflected in a number of place names. The name, in female form Morgana, is given to a principal in the legends about King Arthur. See also Morganic or Morganatic marriage.
An agile fast breed of horse used to rope cattle .
There are also:
Abella, Alex 2000 The Great American: A Novel. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0743205480
Crawford, Donald 1997 Michael and Natasha. Scribner. ISBN 0684834308
Pope, Dudley 2001 Harry Morgan's Way: The Biography of Sir Henry Morgan 1635-1684 House of Stratus ISBN 1842324829
Strouse, Jean 2000 Morgan: American Financier. Harper Perennial. ISBN: 0060955899
This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. If an internal link referred you to this page, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.
Pope, Dudley 2001 Harry Morgan's Way: The Biography of Sir Henry Morgan 1635-1684 House of Stratus ISBN 1842324829. Romantic motion pictures about a girl loving a guy but not being able to be together for some reason, movies about a hero who fights against all odds a more powerful fiendish enemy, comedies about everyday life, etc. ISBN 0684834308. Apart from societal norms and cultural changes, there are still close resemblances between theatrical plays throughout the ages and films of today. Scribner. Many believe that film will be a long enduring art form because motion pictures appeal to diverse human emotions. Crawford, Donald 1997 Michael and Natasha. Films have been around for more than a century, however this is not long when you consider it in relation to other arts like painting and sculpture.
ISBN 0743205480. Yet the migration is gradual, and as of 2005 most major motion pictures are still recorded on film. Simon & Schuster. These approaches are extremely beneficial to moviemakers, especially because footage can be evaluated and edited without waiting for the film stock to be processed. Abella, Alex 2000 The Great American: A Novel. Modern digital video cameras and digital projectors are gaining ground as well. Australia. Some films in recent decades have been recorded using analog video technology similar to that used in television production.
There are also:. Film preservation of decaying film stock is a matter of concern to both film historians and archivists, and to companies interested in preserving their existing products in order to make them available to future generations (and thereby increase revenue). USA. Digital methods have also been used to restore and preserve films. An agile fast breed of horse used to rope cattle . Some studios save three B&W negatives exposed through red, green, and blue filters.
. However, historic films have problems in terms of preservation and storage, and the motion picture industry is exploring many alternatives.
Many Welsh families emigrated to Australia and the USA, thus many founding families in those countries carried the surname Morgan, which is reflected in a number of place names. The soundtrack can be recorded separately from shooting the film, but for live-action pictures many parts of the soundtrack are usually recorded simultaneously. The surname Morgan is of Welsh origin, meaning "of the sea", and is a popular family name in that country. Improvements since the late 19th century include the mechanization of cameras, allowing them to record at a consistent speed, the invention of more sophisticated filmstocks and lenses, allowing directors to film in increasingly dim conditions, and the development of synchronized sound, allowing sound to be recorded at exactly the same speed as its corresponding action. Morgan is both a given name and a surname, as well as the name of several places. A new standard speed, 24 frames per second, came with the introduction of sound. Morgan, Mariah Carey's Older Brother. Originally moving picture film was shot at various speeds using hand-cranked cameras; then the speed for mechanized cameras and projectors was standardized at 16 frames per second, which was faster than much existing hand-cranked footage.
Ru Fe Morgan is a fictional character in the anime/manga Oh My Goddess!. Stock widths and the film format for images on the reel have had a rich history, though most large commercial films are still shot on (and distributed to theaters) as 35 mm prints. Morgan Industries, one of the factions in Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri led by Nwabudike Morgan. Cellulose nitrate was the first type of film base used to record motion pictures, but due to its flammability was eventually replaced by safer materials. Nwabudike Morgan, a fictional character in the computer game Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri. Filmstock consists of a transparent celluloid, polyester, or other plastic base coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive chemicals. Captain Morgan, famous rum. According to a 2000 study by ABN AMRO, about 26% of Hollywood movie studios' worldwide income came from box office ticket sales; 46% came from VHS and DVD sales to consumers; and 28% came from television (broadcast, cable, and pay-per-view).
Morgan sea gypsies, seafaring minority ethnic group in the Andaman Sea. There are a few movies every year that defy this rule, often limited-release movies that start in only a few theaters and actually grow their theater count through good word-of-mouth and reviews. Centimorgan, unit of recombinant frequency in genetics. However, today's barrage of highly marketed movies ensures that most movies are shown in first-run theaters for less than 8 weeks. Morgan le Fay, antagonist of Arthur of Britain. The actual percentage starts with a number higher than that, and decreases as the duration of a film's showing continues, as an incentive to theaters to keep movies in the theater longer. Morgan State University, university in Baltimore, Maryland. The movie theater pays an average of about 55% of its ticket sales to the movie studio, as film rental fees.
Morgan, graphic novel by Hugo Pratt. And indeed, some films that are rejected by their own studios upon completion are dumped into these markets. Morgan!, 1966 film. These are often considered to be of inferior quality compared to theatrical releases. Morgan Motor Company, brand of automobile. Some films are now made specifically for these other venues, being released as made-for-TV movies or direct-to-video movies. Morgan horse, horse breed (see above). Recording technology has also enabled consumers to rent or buy copies of films on video tape or DVD (and the older formats of laserdisc, VCD and SelectaVision—see also videodisc), and Internet downloads may be available and have started to become revenue sources for the film companies.
JPMorgan Chase & Co., American banking corporation. The development of television has allowed films to be broadcast to larger audiences, usually after the film is no longer being shown in theaters. Morgan, South Australia. Originally, all films were made to be shown in movie theaters. Mount Morgan, California. Today, the bulk of the material shown before the feature film (those in theaters) consists of previews for upcoming movies and paid advertisements (also known as trailers or "The Twenty"). New Morgan, Pennsylvania. There were "double features"; typically, a high quality "A picture" rented by an independent theater for a lump sum, and a "B picture" of lower quality rented for a percentage of the gross receipts.
Morganville - archaic synonym for the fictional town Shelbyville in The Simpsons. Typically, one film is the featured presentation (or feature film). Morganville, Washington. In the United States, these theaters came to be known as nickelodeons, because admission typically cost a nickel (five cents). Morganville, Ohio. Thousands of such theaters were built or converted from existing facilities within a few years. Morganville, New York. The first theater designed exclusively for cinema opened in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1905.
Morganville, New Jersey. When it is initially produced, a film is normally shown to audiences in a movie theater. Morganville, Kansas. This method was pioneered by UPA and popularized (some say exploited) by Hanna-Barbera, and adapted by other studios as cartoons moved from movie theaters to television. Morganville, Georgia. Limited animation is a way of increasing production and decreasing costs of animation by using "short cuts" in the animation process. Morgantown, West Virginia. Several independent animation producers have gone on to enter the professional animation industry.
Morgantown, Pennsylvania. However, the field of independent animation has existed at least since the 1950s, with animation being produced by independent studios (and sometimes by a single person). Morgantown, Kentucky. Because animation is very time-consuming and often very expensive to produce, the majority of animation for TV and movies comes from professional animation studios. Morgantown, Indiana. Graphics file formats like GIF, MNG, SVG and Flash allow animation to be viewed on a computer or over the Internet. Morganton, North Carolina. Generating such a film is very labour intensive and tedious, though the development of computer animation has greatly sped up the process.
Morganton, Georgia. When the frames are strung together and the resulting film is viewed at a speed of 16 or more frames per second, there is an illusion of continuous movement (due to the persistence of vision). Morgan's Point Resort, Texas. Animation is the technique in which each frame of a film is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result with a special animation camera. Morgan's Point, Texas. Most independent filmmakers rely on film festivals to get their films noticed and sold for distribution. Morgan Hill, California. However, while the means of production may be democratized, financing, distribution, and marketing remain difficult to accomplish outside the traditional system.
Morgan Farm Area, Texas. Filmmakers can conceivably shoot and edit a movie, create and edit the sound and music, and mix the final cut on a home computer. Morgan City, Mississippi. Since the introduction of DV technology, the means of production have become more democratized. Morgan City, Louisiana. Technologies such as DVDs, IEEE 1394 connections and non-linear editing system pro-level software like Adobe Premiere Pro and Final Cut Pro, and consumer level software such as Final Cut Express and iMovie make movie-making relatively inexpensive. Fort Morgan, Colorado. Both production and post-production costs have been significantly lowered; today, the hardware and software for post-production can be installed in a commodity-based personal computer.
Morgan Township, Pennsylvania. But the advent of consumer camcorders in 1985, and more importantly, the arrival of high-resolution digital video in the early 1990s, have lowered the technology barrier to movie production significantly. Morgan Township, Minnesota. Film requires expensive lighting and post-production facilities. Morgan County, West Virginia. The cost of 35mm film is outpacing inflation: in 2002 alone, film negative costs were up 23%, according to Variety. Morgan County, Utah. Until the advent of digital alternatives, the cost of professional film equipment and stock was also a hurdle to being able to produce, direct, or star in a traditional studio film.
Morgan County, Tennessee. Films with unknowns, particularly in lead roles, are also rarely produced. Morgan County, Ohio. An unproven director is almost never given the opportunity to get his or her big break with the studios unless he or she has significant industry experience in film or television. Morgan County, Missouri. in 2000 were joint ventures, up from 10% in 1987). Morgan County, Kentucky. The problem is exacerbated by the trend towards co-financing (over two-thirds of the films put out by Warner Bros.
Morgan County, Indiana. On the business side, the costs of big-budget studio films also leads to conservative choices in cast and crew. Morgan County, Illinois. Experimental elements in theme and style are inhibitors for the big studios. Morgan County, Georgia. Creatively, it was becoming increasingly difficult to get studio backing for experimental films. Morgan County, Colorado. Creative, business, and technological reasons have all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late 20th and early 21st century.
Morgan County, Alabama. An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio. Morgan, Wisconsin. Filmmaking also takes place outside of the Hollywood studio system, and is commonly called independent filmmaking. Morgan, Vermont. Crew are distinguished from cast, the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. Morgan, Utah. A film crew is a group of people hired by a film company for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture.
Morgan, Texas. The third year, post-production and distribution. Morgan, Minnesota. The second year comprises preproduction and production. Morgan, Georgia. The first year is taken up with development. William Alexander Morgan, anti Batista Guerrilla, said CIA operative active, executed by Castro   ,. This production cycle typically takes three years.
film editor and director. A typical Hollywood-style filmmaking Production cycle comprises five main stages:. William Morgan (director), mid-20th Century U.S. Filmmaking takes place all over the world using different technologies, styles of acting and genre, and is produced in a variety of economic contexts that range from state-sponsored documentary in China to profit-oriented movie making within the American studio system. 1829–1883), Premier of South Australia 1878-1881. However, a low-budget, independent film may be made with a skeleton crew, often paid very little. William Morgan (Australian politician) (c. Many Hollywood adventure films need computer generated imagery (CGI), created by dozens of 3D modellers, animators, rotoscopers and compositors.
Morgan, credited as having invented volleyball in Holyoke, Massachusetts on February 9, 1895. The nature of the film determines the size and type of crew required during filmmaking. William G. Also, film quickly came to be used in education, in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. William De Morgan (1839-1917), famed pottery and tile designer in Britain. The Academy Awards (also known as The Oscars) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. political figure in the 1920s. Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly nature of filmmaking; yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance.
William Morgan Butler, U.S. Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. William Wilson Morgan, 20th-century astronomer. Whether the ten thousand plus features a year produced by the Valley porn industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate. William Morgan, scientist who won the Copley Medal in 1789 "for his two Papers on the values of Reversions and Survivorships, printed in the two last volumes of the Philosophical Transactions" (presumably in the field of actuarial science). Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, and the Indian film industry (primarily centered around "Bollywood") annually produces the largest number of films in the world. William Morgan (anti-Mason), person whose disappearance sparked anti-Freemason hysteria in the United States. In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood.
William Morgan (Bible translator), 16th century translator of the Bible. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. Trevor Morgan (EastEnders), character in the British soap opera EastEnders. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Trevor Morgan (actor), United States actor. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Thomas Hunt Morgan, geneticist. The Oberammergau Passion play of 1898 was the first commercial motion picture ever produced.
Sheryl Morgan, sprinter. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. Morgan, First Amendment scholar. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumieres quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. Richard E. The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon the process was invented. Peter Morgan, ran the Morgan Motor Company. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities.
Lorrie Morgan, country music singer. Rather than write for newspaper or appear on television their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. Morgan, 19th Century pioneer of kinship studies. These film critics try to come to understand why film works, how it works, and what effects it has on people. Lewis H. This work is more often known as film theory or film studies. Kevin Morgan (porn star). It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films.
Morgan, mayor of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. John W. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. Senator. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. John Tyler Morgan, U.S. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily-promoted movies that were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence.
Morgan, American financier and banker. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. P. The impact of reviewer on a film's box office performance is a matter of debate. J. Poor reviews will often deign a film to obscurity and financial loss. John Morgan (poker player), winner of $1,500 No Limit Hold'em event at the 1996 World Series of Poker. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important.
John Morgan (poet). The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. John Morgan (journalist). Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic's overall judgement of a film. John Morgan (golfer). Despite this, critics have an important impact of films, especially those of certain genres. John Morgan (etiquette expert). Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions.
John Morgan (comedian). Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. John Morgan (bishop), Archbishop of Wales from 1949 to 1957. In general this can be divided into academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. John Morgan, on-air pseudonym of British radio presenter and executive John Myers. Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. Representative. More recent analysis has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others.
John Jordan Morgan, U.S. Classical film theory provides a structural framework to address classical issues of techniques, narrativity, diegesis, cinematic codes, "the image", genre, subjectivity, and authorship. John Hunt Morgan, Confederate Brigadier General during the American Civil War. Film theory seeks to develop concise, systematic concepts that apply to the study of film/cinema as art. James Morgan, British architect and engineer. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 21st Century. Harry Morgan, actor best known for his role in M*A*S*H. New Hollywood, French New Wave and the rise of film school educated, independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th Century.
Henry Morgan (comedian), American radio and television personality. The 1950s, 60s and 70s saw changes in the production and style of film. Henry Morgan (merchant), Canadian retail merchant. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Henry Morgan, seventeenth century Welsh privateer or pirate, became English Governor of Jamaica [.]. But as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color an essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-60s. Morgan, designer of the Morgan Dollar. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white.
George T. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually. Morgan, African American inventor. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of color. Garrett A. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them "talking pictures", or talkies. David Morgan (frontiersman), West Virginian frontiersman. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen.
David Morgan (businessman), Australian businessman. Murnau continued to advance the medium. Dan Morgan (footballer), American football player. W. Chris Morgan (politician), British politician. However in the 1920s, European filmmaker’s such as Sergei Eisenstein and F. Chris Morgan (powerlifter), powerlifting champion. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the breakout of World War I while the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood.
Chris Morgan (journalist), journalist working for The Sunday Times (UK). By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purposes, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. Chris Morgan (footballer), English football player. Rather than leave the audience in silence, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music fitting the mood of the film at any given moment. Chris Morgan, alias of professional wrestler Chris Kanyon (Klucsaritis). Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Chesty Morgan, Polish-born actress known for her large breasts. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles.
Lloyd Morgan, behaviorist best known for coining Morgan's Canon. Films began stringing scenes together to tell narratives. C. Around the turn of the 20th Century, films began developing a narrative structure. Billy Morgan, first man to drink beer in Ohio bar after 131 years of prohibition. Motion pictures were purely visual art up to the late 1920s, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Augustus de Morgan, British mathematician and logician. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques.
Morgan Spurlock, documentarian. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as "motion pictures". Morgan Russell, abstract painter. By the 1880s, the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these "moving picture shows" onto a screen for an entire audience. Morgan Morgan, pioneer. Early versions of the technology sometimes required the viewer to look into a special device to see the pictures. Morgan Lewis (songwriter). With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time.
Morgan Lewis (governor), Governor of New York. Naturally, the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect — and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. Morgan Hamm, gymnast. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns), and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Morgan Freeman, actor. Mechanisms for producing artificially created, two-dimensional images in motion were demonstrated as early as the 1860s, with devices such as the zoetrope and the praxinoscope. Morgan Fairchild, actress. .
Films are also artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Any film can become a worldwide attraction, especially with the addition of dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. The visual elements of cinema need no translation, giving the motion picture a universal power of communication. Film is considered by many to be an important art form; films entertain, educate, enlighten and inspire audiences.
Also of relevance is what causes the perception of motion — a psychological effect identified as beta movement. Flickering between frames is not seen due to an effect known as persistence of vision — whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. They comprise a series of individual frames, but when these images are shown rapidly in succession, the illusion of motion is given to the viewer. Films are produced by recording actual people and objects with cameras, or by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects.
Many other terms exist — motion pictures (or just pictures or "picture"), the silver screen, photoplays, the cinema, picture shows, flicks — and most commonly movies. The origin of the name comes from the fact that photographic film (also called filmstock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. Distribution.
Post-production. Production. Preproduction. Development.