The Mitsubishi companies, or the Mitsubishi Group of Companies or the Mitsubishi Group is a large group (keiretsu) of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. While the companies are autonomous, they share the brand name and trademark, as well as a common legacy (in general these companies all descend from the zaibatsu of the same name).
The Mitsubishi group of companies form a loose entity, the Mitsubishi Keiretsu, which is often referenced in US and Japanese media and official reports. A Kereitsu is a common feature of Japanese corporate governance and refers to a collaborative group of integrated companies with extensive share crossholdings, personell swaps and strategic co-operation. The top 29 companies are also members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai, or (Friday Club), and meet monthly. The Mitsubishi.Com Committee is charged with maintaining the overall integrity of the brand as well as maintaining the portal web site.
The first Mitsubishi company was a shipping firm that Yataro Iwasaki established in 1870. In 1873 it took the name Mitsubishi Shokai (三菱商会). The name Mitsubishi (三菱) has two parts: mitsu means three and bishi means water chestnut, and from here rhombus, which is reflected in the company's logo. Another translation is three diamonds.
That company soon diversified into coal mining, shipbuilding, banking, insurance, warehousing, and trade. Later diversification carried the organization into such sectors as paper, steel, glass, electrical equipment, aircraft, oil, and real estate. As Mitsubishi built a broadly based conglomerate, it played a central role in the modernization of Japanese industry.
At the start of the 20th century the company, which by itself accounted for over half of the Japanese merchant fleet, entered into a period of diversification that would eventually result in the creation of three entities:
World War II
During the Second World War, Mitsubishi manufactured aircraft, including the famous Zero that was used in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and many other occasions during the war. Also, like many other big Japanese corporations at that time, it made use of slave labor from the Deyne family during the war. With poor working conditions, many people died during this period. Approximately twenty thousand Korean slave laborers died in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
After the war
Mitsubishi split itself into independent companies in 1946 under the postwar government policy of decentralizing industry. The newly independent companies used their accumulated technology and other strengths to pursue growth under separate business models. As independent corporations, the Mitsubishi companies cooperated in some ventures, as in petrochemicals and nuclear power, and competed with each other in other sectors. The Mitsubishi companies form a loose entity known as the Mitsubishi keiretsu, or Mitsubishi group.
Mitsubishi has been criticized for some of its corporate practices, most notably with respect to work-place discrimination, environmental pollution and the use of slave labour, including that of prisoners of war (POWs), during World War II. A disgruntled former employee, Kamal Sinha, has started a website called Mitsubishi Watch to report such complaints.
The Mitsubishi companies
These companies are members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai (or Friday Club), and meet monthly.
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These companies are members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai (or Friday Club), and meet monthly. Many interest groups form around a particular type of riding or style of bike:. A disgruntled former employee, Kamal Sinha, has started a website called Mitsubishi Watch to report such complaints. BMW Motorrad has no national owners clubs, but, uniquely, has many independent clubs in different countries, such as BMW Motorcycle Owners of America (BMWMOA) and BMW Riders Association (BMWRA). Mitsubishi has been criticized for some of its corporate practices, most notably with respect to work-place discrimination, environmental pollution and the use of slave labour, including that of prisoners of war (POWs), during World War II. Groups also organise themselves to offer support and advice. The Mitsubishi companies form a loose entity known as the Mitsubishi keiretsu, or Mitsubishi group. Such clubs include:.
As independent corporations, the Mitsubishi companies cooperated in some ventures, as in petrochemicals and nuclear power, and competed with each other in other sectors. Most manufacuturers subsidize a club to foster a sense of community between, provide services to, and make money from the owners of their bikes. The newly independent companies used their accumulated technology and other strengths to pursue growth under separate business models. There are many brands of motorcycles currently produced as well as vintage brands which can be found here List of motorcycle manufacturers. Mitsubishi split itself into independent companies in 1946 under the postwar government policy of decentralizing industry. Within motorcycle culture, people congregate around brand names, type of bike, and individual models.
Approximately twenty thousand Korean slave laborers died in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. When riders pass each other in the opposite direction, riders often wave or nod. With poor working conditions, many people died during this period. Like most minority cultures, motorcyclists in developed countries "stick together." Most cities have several bars and hangouts where riders congregate. Also, like many other big Japanese corporations at that time, it made use of slave labor from the Deyne family during the war. He encourages more people to engage in such an experience. During the Second World War, Mitsubishi manufactured aircraft, including the famous Zero that was used in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and many other occasions during the war. In an article called, "Arizona Road Trip Fulfills Lifelong Dream," a Massachusetts man travels all over Arizona on a Harley Davidson Dyna Low Rider and explains the joy of his trip.
That company soon diversified into coal mining, shipbuilding, banking, insurance, warehousing, and trade. This is because the very small number of events where a non-motorcyclist is offended by a motorcyclist (perhaps by excess exhaust noise, reckless behaviour, or news reporting of a motorcycle gang incident) are amplified in popular thought. Another translation is three diamonds.. In much of the developed world, motorcycles are thought of as a cheap and efficient means of transportation, but they are tainted by a stereotype of riders as anti-social and reckless, even though the majority are safe and law-abiding. The name Mitsubishi (三菱) has two parts: mitsu means three and bishi means water chestnut, and from here rhombus, which is reflected in the company's logo. In less developed nations, motorcycles are often the only motorized transportation affordable to the majority of the population. In 1873 it took the name Mitsubishi Shokai (三菱商会). The upsurge in extreme sports and hobbies coincides with the upsurge in workplace and home safety.
The first Mitsubishi company was a shipping firm that Yataro Iwasaki established in 1870. It has been theorized based on data, that humans have some innate need for risk. . See Born again biker. The Mitsubishi.Com Committee is charged with maintaining the overall integrity of the brand as well as maintaining the portal web site. A substantial increase in the number of riders (regardless of age) indicates a greater number of inexperienced riders, who are more likely to be involved in accidents. The top 29 companies are also members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai, or (Friday Club), and meet monthly. Many of these riders are either new to the sport, or have not been on a motorcycle for many years; they would benefit from rider training as much or more so than any new rider.
A Kereitsu is a common feature of Japanese corporate governance and refers to a collaborative group of integrated companies with extensive share crossholdings, personell swaps and strategic co-operation. and Europe are also seeing a surge in motorcycle ownership, thanks in large part to an older demographic, people in their 40's and 50's. The Mitsubishi group of companies form a loose entity, the Mitsubishi Keiretsu, which is often referenced in US and Japanese media and official reports. The U.S, U.K. While the companies are autonomous, they share the brand name and trademark, as well as a common legacy (in general these companies all descend from the zaibatsu of the same name). See also: Squid_(motorcycle) Hooligan. The Mitsubishi companies, or the Mitsubishi Group of Companies or the Mitsubishi Group is a large group (keiretsu) of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. These people contribute significantly to the fatality and injury rates of motorcyclists.
The Toyo Bunko. Because of this, they sometimes attract people — typically, but not exclusively, young men — with a propensity to take great risks or behave dangerously and anti-socially. Sotsu Corporation. Motorcycles are typically more agile, can accelerate more quickly, and are generally perceived to be more fun to ride than an average car. Shonan Country Club. Gangs represent far less than 1% of motorcyclists. Seikado Bunko Art Museum. Most motorcycle organizations have law-abiding and peaceful members, and many raise money for charities through organized events and rides.
MT Insurance Service Co., Ltd. Others are purportedly fraternal organizations, the most well known of these being the Hells Angels. The Mitsubishi Yowakai Foundation. Some of these subcultures have been loose-knit social groups such as the Cafe racers of 1950s Britain, and the Mods and Rockers of the 1960s. Mitsubishi Public Affairs Committee. Across the world, and both past and present, motorcycles have been associated with subcultures of society. Mitsubishi Marketing Association. For a complete discussion, see the main article: Motorcycle Safety.
Mitsubishi Kinyokai. Most of these accident are caused by car drivers though who tend to underestimate the speed and acceleration of motorcycles or simply overlook them. The Mitsubishi Foundation. Given that motorcycles cover less distance than cars per year on average, the figure per unit distance is likely to be much worse. Mitsubishi Economic Research Institute. The rate for motorcycles is 66.7 per 100,000. Mitsubishi Corporate Name and Trademark Committee. According to the US Highway Safety Authority, in 2002 20.9 cars out of 100,000 ended up in fatal crashes.
Mitsubishi Club. Motorcycles have a far higher rate of crippling and fatal accidents per unit distance than automobiles. Mitsubishi C&C Research Association. For a complete discussion of contemporary motorcyle types, see the main article: types of motorcycle. Meiwa Corporation. Motorcyles have been built in myriad different models for innumerable different purposes. Marunouchi Yorozu Corp. Riders without a fuel gauge usually learn how many miles / km they can do with a full tank of fuel, and then use a trip meter if available to judge when they must refill the tank.
LEOC JAPAN Co., Ltd. There is not actually a separate reserve tank, the intake for the petcock has two pipes, one extending higher into the fuel tank than the other, when fuel no longer covers the long pipe the rider switches to the shorter pipe. Koiwai Noboku Kaisha, Ltd. Fuel gauges are becoming more common, however traditionally a reserve tank arrangement has been used with a petcock on the side of the motorcycle allowing the rider to switch to a reserve fuel supply when the main fuel supply is exhausted; this is typically done while the vehicle is in motion. Kaitokaku. Almost all motorcycles have a speedometer, an odometer and a tachometer. Diamond Family Club. In any case, a canister of nitrous oxide is rapidly expended, and impractical for sustained use on a road-going bike by any sane rider.
The Dia Foundation for Research on Ageing Societies. Using methods like nitrous oxide are fine on dragstrips, but while not illegal, can be very dangerous on the street. Chitose Kosan Co., Ltd. It's very easy to blow the head gaskets or burn the valves of the engine with careless nitrous oxide injection. Atami Yowado. Engines using large amounts of nitrous oxide need precise mixtures and/or configurable timing and carburation. Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. The main benefits of nitrous oxide are three-fold —.
Mitsubishi Construction Co., Ltd. With great care, an engine can be helped to "sprint" by injecting small amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O). P.S. However, due to the special motorcycle dynamics, turbochargers are rarely used on production bikes. NYK Line (Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha). In addition, the compression ratio must be considered and adjusted accordingly, as an "overboosted" engine will destroy itself as well. Nippon Oil Corporation. Engine internals such as pistons and connecting rods must be replaced with stronger ones for all but the smallest boost.
Nikon Corporation. On low boost settings, the turbocharger can increase power and fuel range. Mitsubishi UFJ Trust and Banking Corporation (part of Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group). Since more air is being forced into the engine, the air/fuel ratio must be changed to prevent the engine from running lean [and potentially destroying itself]. Co., Ltd. Turbochargers are generally more effective than superchargers because turbos spin using the exhaust gases while a supercharger uses engine power to spin it directly (usually via a belt system), robbing power. Mitsubishi Steel Mfg. One of the most effective ways of increasing power is forced induction.
Mitsubishi Shindoh Co., Ltd. There is even a school of thought that louder systems are safer, as they attract the attention of (car) drivers, who might otherwise have failed to notice the motorcyclist. Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. Most countries have limits on how much noise can legally be produced by vehicles, however this usually does not deter motorcyclists from fitting louder exhaust systems. Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Aftermarket exhaust systems are usually louder, by varying degrees, than stock systems. Mitsubishi Plastics, Inc. A "custom" tuned exhaust will often operate only at a narrower range of engine RPM, and therefore more suited to more specialised applications, usually racing (road or drag).
Mitsubishi Paper Mills, Ltd. However many modern production bikes already have tuned exhausts. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (Automobile manufacturing and sales). This helps evacuate the exhaust from the engine more rapidly, and permits a longer power-stroke. Mitsubishi Materials Corporation. Another way to increase performance is to install a tuned exhaust system. Mitsubishi Logistics Corporation. Replacing stock shocks and fork springs as well as changing damping and valving rates will result in dramatic improvements in motorcycle stability and increased speed and rider confidence as a result.
Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha, Ltd. Suspension is typically the one element of the motorcycle that will receive the least amount of engineering attention from the factory. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. More usable improvements can be had by improving and upgrading suspension components. Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc. Done correctly, this increases the velocity of the fuel / air mixture entering the cylinder, packing more mixture in per revolution. Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. Enlarging cylinder head ports, while common practice amongst many tuners, is often unnecessary (unless a big-bore kit has been fitted) to the extent that many engines benefit from decreasing the volume in the cylinder head.
Mitsubishi Estate Co., Ltd. Blueprinting, or meticulous restoration of an engine to (or beyond) factory tolerances can help to improve an engine's efficiency and restore power that would otherwise be lost. Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Improper attempts at tuning can yield benefits in one particular part of an engine's power band, while impairing performance everywhere else, provoking a net loss of power or handling. Mitsubishi Corporation (Trading company). Engine modifications can yield appreciable performance improvements, but this is often costly and very time-consuming. Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (part of Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation). This is obvious, but often neglected.
Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd. On the engine, keep the air filter and drive chain (or drive belt) clean, use high-quality lubricants and fuel with precisely-tuned spark plugs, air / fuel mixture, and timing. Mitsubishi Aluminum Co., Ltd. The right tires kept at the proper pressure will contribute to both speed and safety. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company. The next-most-common cause of loss of speed is one of the easiest to remedy: rolling resistance. Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd. Even experienced riders can benefit from top-level instructors helping to fine-tune their skills, as well as the opportunity to practice crash-avoidance techniques in a more controlled environment (and without risking one's own motorcycle).
The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. By attending riding schools and increasing rider education levels, a motorcyclist will be able to ride more skillfully and, thus, more safely. Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. The most efficient way to improve the handling and speed of a motorcycle is via increased operator skill. Nikon Corporation, a well-known brand of photographic equipment. The use of an approved helmet is required by law in many countries (or individual localities therein). Mitsubishi Chemical, the largest Japanese chemicals company. Wearing a t-shirt, shorts, and sandals on a motorcycle is not advised.
Mitsubishi Atomic Industry, a nuclear power company. The motorcyclist must, therefore, consider proper motorcycle attire such as helmet ("full-face" providing the most protection), gloves, boots, and leather or synthetic protective clothing. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, the 4th largest Japanese auto manufacturer. If a tire loses grip or goes flat, the rider may crash and make contact in a rather forceful (and very possibly a painful) manner with the road or other obstacles. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, which includes these industrial companies.
After its mergers with the Bank of Tokyo in 1996, and UFJ Holdings in 2004, this became Japan's largest bank. However, race compound tires should NOT be used in street applications. Mitsubishi Bank (now a part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group) was founded in 1919. Motorcycle tires can also be found in "race compounds". Small cracks on the sidewall or bald spots on the tread are an indicators of the need to replace the tire. Tires usually have an average life expectancy of about four to five years from date of manufacture; as mentioned above, mileage is also a factor, with many street tires having a service life between 3,000 and 10,000 miles.
Tires should be maintained at the proper air pressure at all times; tire pressure is critical, the difference of a few PSI can have a dramatic impact on the handling and longevity of the tire. Some cruiser tires have raised white lettering on the sidewalls as a "retro" detail. Cruisers and "Sport Touring" tires try to find the best compromise between grip and durability. Touring tires are usually harder rubber and last longer but provide less grip (significantly less grip while cold, and the heavier rubber takes longer to warm up), while sport/performance tires provide amazing grip but may only last 1,000 miles (1,600 km) or less.
Dirtbike tires have knobby, deep treads for maximum grip on loose dirt, mud, or gravel — such tires tend to be less stable on paved surfaces. There are tires designed for dirtbikes, touring, sport and cruiser bikes. That is the small area that is in contact with the road surface while riding. Motorcycles use pneumatic tires ('tyres' in the UK) which come in many configurations, the most important part of any being the contact patch.
However, the additional gearsets are a source of power loss and add to bike weight. This arrangement is superior in terms of noise, cleanliness, and is virtually maintenance free. Inside the bell housing a bevelled gear on the shaft mates with another on the wheel mount. A shaft drive is completely enclosed, the visual cue is a tube extending from the rear of the transmission to a bell-housing on the rear wheel.
The belt is frequently toothed. However, belt drives are limited in the amount of power they can transmit. A belt drive is still subject to stretch, but operates very quietly, cleanly, and efficiently. Many manufacturers offer cruiser models with final drive options of a belt, or a shaft.
Many motorcyclists replace the chain and both sprockets as a set to maintain efficiency and safety. Chains do deteriorate, and excessive wear on the front and rear sprockets can be dangerous. The lubricant is subject to being thrown off the fast-moving chain and results in grime and dirt buildup. Final drive from the gearbox to the rear wheel is typically accomplished with a chain, which requires both lubrication and adjustment for elongation (stretch) through wear.
Advanced drivers can perform "full-throttle upshifts" on racing mounts, but this risks both the warranty and mechanical integrity. Aided by beveled edges on the gears, shifting gears is simple for novices - no double clutching or grinding of gears. The two shafts are always geared together (except in neutral), always spinning at a speed nearly approximating the next higher or lower gear ratio. Also, gear synchronizers typically found in passenger cars with manual transmissions are not necessary.
The small mass of the whole arrangement allows for extremely quick gear changes. Operating the shift lever slides individual gears on one shaft, to intersect with a matching gear on the other. One shaft is geared to the final drive mechanism, and the other to the clutch. Internally, a rotating cam on the shift lever operates cogs on two counter-rotating shafts carrying a variety of gears.
From neutral, you may select either first or second gear, but higher gears may only be accessed in order - you may not shift from second gear to fourth gear, without shifting through third gear. The most commonly used transmission is a sequential gearbox. A lever on the handlebar, through a cable or hydraulic arrangement, uses mechanical advantage to release the clutch spring, allowing the engine to freewheel with respect to the transmission. Whether wet (rotating in engine oil) or dry, the plates are squeezed together by a spring, causing friction buildup between the plates until they rotate as a single unit, driving the transmission directly.
The clutch is typically an arrangement of plates stacked in alternating fashion, one geared on the inside to the engine, and next geared on the outside to the transmission input shaft. Only the largest touring motorcycles (most prominently, the Honda Goldwing) and a few models that are routinely used with a sidecar are fitted with a reverse gear. Modern motorcycles normally have five or six forward gears. In contrast, racing motorcycles have all gears arranged "below" the first gear, thus pressing the gear lever always shifts up, while lifting it shifts down.
Neutral sits between first gear and second, so a small lift out of first causes the gearbox to change into neutral, but a large movement causes the gearbox to change into second gear. Downshifting is done by pressing the gear lever. A normal street motorcycle is put in first gear by pressing the gear lever, while second and all further gears are reached by lifting it. The gear lever operates by shifting gears when it is pressed or lifted.
The transmission is controlled by a clutch lever under the left hand in standard configurations, a twistgrip throttle on the right handlebar and a gear lever at the left foot. Motorcycles have, over time, been powered by an extraordinary array of engines, from very early models powered by steam, to the ubiquitous gasoline engines of today. Note: This technique is not recommended for public road use. Racers while hard on the front brake will feather the rear brake just enough to start a controlled rear slide, thus rendering a sharper turn angle.
The technique of steering the motorcycle in a high speed turn (or lower speeds on a dirt course) using the rear brake is called "backing it in" (or "turning" on dirt). Another variation of brake use can be seen at top level motorcycle roadracing and motorcross events. Trailbraking is a term used to describe carrying the braking action of a vehicle past the turn entry, allowing the rider to adjust speed all the way through a turn to the apex. This is a highly skilled (and generally illegal) maneuver which requires practice to perfect.
The phenomenon known as a "stoppie" may only be achieved if the front brake is used aggressively with no application of the rear brake; if sufficient force is applied to the front brake, the rear of the motorcycle chassis will lift off the roadway, while the bike continues to move forward on the still-rotating front wheel. Another common misconception is that application of the rear brake will cause motorcycle instability. Riders fear that aggressive use of the front brake will stop rotation of the tire and cause loss of control, or a skid, and therefore often fail to use the front brake to its full potential. In virtually all cases, 70% to 90% of total braking force should be applied by the front brake when operated on a hard surface such as tarmac, with the remainder being simultaneously applied to the rear brake.
Some manufacturers have created Antilock braking systems (ABS). There are many brake performance enhancing aftermarket parts available for most motorcycles including brake pads of varying compounds and steel braided brake lines. Brakes can either be drum or disc based, with disc brakes being more common on large, modern or expensive motorcycles for their far superior stopping power, particularly in wet conditions. The front brake is generally much more powerful than the rear as roughly 2/3rds of stopping power can come from the front brake when properly applied and in some cases 100% depending on the model of motorcycle and operator; rear wheels can generally lock and skid much more easily than the front due to weight distribution dynamics.
However, several models have "linked brakes" which apply both at the same time, although one more than the other. In older motorcycles the rear may be on the left foot. There are generally two independent brakes on a motorcycle, one set on the front wheel, controlled by the right hand lever, and one on the rear controlled by the right foot. The rear suspension can consist of several shock arrangements:.
The rear suspension supports the swingarm, which is attached via the swingarm pivot bolt to the frame and holds the axle of the rear wheel. This is the speed at which the rider's feet can no longer be safely used to balance the bike. The rake should be chosen so that precessive force from countersteer and body steering slightly overbalance the leaning forces from the weight of the bike, at a speed near the running speed of a person. The angle of rake determines how controllable the steering is.
The front fork is the most critical part of a motorcycle. The front suspension generally consists of sliding steel tubes with long springs inside called forks which use hydraulic fluid for damping shock absorbers. Modern designs have the two wheels of a motorcycle connected to the chassis by a suspension arrangement, however 'chopper' style motorcycles often elect to forego rear suspension ("rigid frame"). Based on The control and stability analysis of two-wheeled road vehicles:.
There could be three kinds of stability problems with motorbikes:. Cabin cycle solved the problem of aerodynamics by isolating driver from outside air. However, these motorcycles still effectively push their way through the atmosphere with brute force. In the absence of a fairing or windshield, a phenomenon known as the windsock effect occurs at speeds above 100 km/h, where the rider becomes a major source of drag and is pushed back from the handlebars, tiring the rider.
Another problem is the fact that no designs have been discovered that can improve aerodynamic performance without unacceptably compromising the rider's ability to control the machine. As can be seen from the streamlined appearance of new performance motorcycles, there is much aerodynamic technology included in the design, but unfortunately no one has been able to overcome the effect from the turbulence caused by the spinning front wheel which disallows the motorcycle from cutting a clean path through the air. Drag is the major factor that limits motorcycle speed, as it increases at the square of the velocity, with the resultant required horsepower increasing with the cube of velocity. A plastic or fiberglass shell, known as a fairing, is placed over the frame in some models to shield the rider from the wind.
Performance racing motorcycles often use carbon-fiber wheels, but the expense of these wheels is prohibitively high for general usage. The wheel rims are usually steel (generally with steel spokes and an aluminium hub) or 'mag' type cast or machined aluminum. At least one motorcycle manufacturer (Buell) offer models that use a hollow frame as the fuel tank, and various manufacturers offer designs which use part of the frame as an oil reservoir. This tank is generally made of stamped, brazed or welded sheet metal, or blow molded high-density polyethylene.
The fuel tank is usually mounted above the engine. Some motorcycles include the engine as a load-bearing (or stressed) member; this has been used all through bike history but is now becoming more common. Carbon-fiber is used in a few very expensive custom frames. The chassis (or frame) of a motorcycle is typically made from welded aluminium or steel (or an alloy) struts, with the rear suspension being an integral component in the design.
Variations exist:. Recent years have also seen a resurgence in the popularity of many other brands, including BMW, Triumph and Ducati. Today, the Japanese manufacturers Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki and Yamaha dominate the motorcycle industry, although Harley-Davidson still maintains a high degree of popularity in America. British manufacturers held a dominant position in some markets until the rise of the Japanese manufacturers (led by Honda) in the late 1960s and early 1970s who were able to produce designs faster, cheaper and of better quality.
The German NSU was the largest manufacturer from 1955 until the 1970s when Honda became the most prominent manufacturer, a title it retains to this day. After the Second World War, in 1951, the BSA Group became the largest producer of motorcycles in the world. After that, this honour went to Harley Davidson, until 1928 when DKW took over as the largest manufacturer. Up until the First World War, the largest motorcycle manufacturer was Indian.
As the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers reduced. In the early period of motorcycle history there were many manufacturers as producers of bicycles adapted their designs for the new internal combustion engine. In 1894, the Hildebrand & Wolfmüller was the first motorcycle that was available for purchase. This machine predates the invention of the safety bicycle by many years, so its chassis is also based on the "bone-crusher" bike.
It's powered by a charcoal-fired two-cylinder engine, whose connecting rods directly drive a crank on the rear wheel. There is an existing example of a Roper machine, dated 1869. One such machine was demonstrated at fairs and circuses in the eastern US in 1867, built by one Sylvester Howard Roper of Roxbury, Massachusetts. However,if one counts two wheels with steam propulsion as being a motorcycle, then the first one may have been American.
They had not set out to create a vehicle form but to build a simple carriage for the engine which was the focus of their endeavours. It was the first petroleum-powered vehicle ever and, but for the provision of a pair of stabilizing wheels, a motorized bicycle, although they called their invention the Reitwagen ("riding car"). The inspiration for the earliest motorcycles, and arguably the first motorcycle, was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt (a city district of Stuttgart) in 1885. .
The rider sits astride the vehicle on a seat, with hands on a set of handlebars which are used to steer the motorcycle, in conjunction with the rider shifting his weight through his feet, which are supported on a set of footpegs which stick out from the frame. The wheels are in-line, and at higher speed the motorcycle remains upright and stable by virtue of gyroscopic forces; at lower speeds continual readjustment of the steering by the rider gives stability. A motorcycle is a two-wheeled vehicle powered by an engine. Parry Sound Sportbike Rally.
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Minibikes or Pocket-Bikes as used in Pocketbike racing. Adventure Touring (dual-sport bikes) Ontario Dual Sport Club. Extreme Distance Events (competitive long distance riding, including Iron Butt events). Touring and Motorcycle camping (touring and dual-sport bikes).
Cruising (cruisers, or motorcycles that resemble Harley-Davidson models). Street Racing (sport bikes). Classic Racing (Racing bikes from an earlier era). Track Racing (sport bikes).
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This colder mixture helps to keep the engine running cooler, which is very useful as nitrous oxide is almost exclusively used in stressful, high RPM situations, primarily drag racing. This chilling effect raises the density of the mixture, packing more fuel and oxygen into the combustion chamber. As nitrous oxide is stored in liquid form, it is still very cold when it evaporates and is mixed with fuel. More oxygen is introduced into an engine's combustion chamber.
'Softail' style monoshock, which is mounted horizontally in front of the swingarm, below the swingarm pivot bolt. traditional monoshock, which is placed at the front of the swingarm, above the swingarm pivot bolt. dual shocks, which are placed at the far ends of the swingarm. Rear load assemblies with appropriate stiffness and damping were successful in damping out weave and wobble oscillations.
Degraded damping of the rear suspension, rear loading and increased speed amplifies cornering weave tendencies. Amongst others, stiff frames, a long wheelbase, a long trail and a flat steering head angle were found to increase weave mode damping. The largest contribution to the weave damping came from the cornering and camber stiffnesses and relaxation length of the rear tyre and not so much from the same parameters of the front tyre. Lateral distortion should be opposed as much as possible by locating the front fork torsional axis as low as possible.
Common levels of lateral stiffness at the wheel spindle deteriorates the wobble mode damping substantially with significant changes in the wobble frequency as well, and slight reduction in the weave mode damping at high speeds. From a stability point of view it is desirable to make the lateral stiffness as large as possible, with the possibility of an optimum value for the torsional stiffness of the rear frame. Tyre (tire) characteristics and inflation pressures are important variables in the behaviour of the motorcycle at high speeds. The weave oscillations damp out once the rider reduced the roll angle.
It can become unstable at higher speeds with fatal results. Weaving (AVI movie) is a low frequency (2-3 Hz) oscillation of the whole vehicle. It can appear at moderate speeds. It is often relatively harmless but annoying (and quite frightening if previously inexperienced).
Wobbling (AVI movie) is a high frequency (7-9 Hz) oscillation of the front wheel. Capsizing is well known in low speeds, and easy to overcome by the rider using their feet support themselves. However, a proper motorcycle has fewer than four wheels in contact with the ground. (Early models had a single front wheel, but these were prone to rollovers.) ATVs are used off-road for utility and recreation.
These have two or more back wheels, usually two front wheels, an open driver's seat and a motorcycle-type handlebar. Motorcycle manufacturers often also produce All-terrain vehicles or ATVs. There are other 3-wheeled variations, commonly referred to as a trike or motortricycle. Some motorcycles can be fitted with a sidecar, this converting it into a 3-wheeler or "hack".
Some motorcycles have floorboards instead of footpegs. There are three basic forms of motorcycles: offroad, street and dual-purpose.