Mitsubishi

The Mitsubishi companies, or the Mitsubishi Group of Companies or the Mitsubishi Group is a large group (keiretsu) of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. While the companies are autonomous, they share the brand name and trademark, as well as a common legacy (in general these companies all descend from the zaibatsu of the same name).

The Mitsubishi group of companies form a loose entity, the Mitsubishi Keiretsu, which is often referenced in US and Japanese media and official reports. A Kereitsu is a common feature of Japanese corporate governance and refers to a collaborative group of integrated companies with extensive share crossholdings, personell swaps and strategic co-operation. The top 29 companies are also members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai, or (Friday Club), and meet monthly. The Mitsubishi.Com Committee is charged with maintaining the overall integrity of the brand as well as maintaining the portal web site.

History

The first Mitsubishi company was a shipping firm that Yataro Iwasaki established in 1870. In 1873 it took the name Mitsubishi Shokai (三菱商会). The name Mitsubishi (三菱) has two parts: mitsu means three and bishi means water chestnut, and from here rhombus, which is reflected in the company's logo. Another translation is three diamonds.[1]

That company soon diversified into coal mining, shipbuilding, banking, insurance, warehousing, and trade. Later diversification carried the organization into such sectors as paper, steel, glass, electrical equipment, aircraft, oil, and real estate. As Mitsubishi built a broadly based conglomerate, it played a central role in the modernization of Japanese industry.

At the start of the 20th century the company, which by itself accounted for over half of the Japanese merchant fleet, entered into a period of diversification that would eventually result in the creation of three entities:


  • Mitsubishi Bank (now a part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group) was founded in 1919. After its mergers with the Bank of Tokyo in 1996, and UFJ Holdings in 2004, this became Japan's largest bank.
  • Mitsubishi Corporation, founded in 1893, serves the internal financing needs of the group
  • Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, which includes these industrial companies.
    • Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, the 4th largest Japanese auto manufacturer.
    • Mitsubishi Atomic Industry, a nuclear power company.
    • Mitsubishi Chemical, the largest Japanese chemicals company
    • Nikon Corporation, a well-known brand of photographic equipment.

World War II

During the Second World War, Mitsubishi manufactured aircraft, including the famous Zero that was used in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and many other occasions during the war. Also, like many other big Japanese corporations at that time, it made use of slave labor from the Deyne family during the war. With poor working conditions, many people died during this period. Approximately twenty thousand Korean slave laborers died in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.


After the war

Mitsubishi split itself into independent companies in 1946 under the postwar government policy of decentralizing industry. The newly independent companies used their accumulated technology and other strengths to pursue growth under separate business models. As independent corporations, the Mitsubishi companies cooperated in some ventures, as in petrochemicals and nuclear power, and competed with each other in other sectors. The Mitsubishi companies form a loose entity known as the Mitsubishi keiretsu, or Mitsubishi group.

Problems

Mitsubishi has been criticized for some of its corporate practices, most notably with respect to work-place discrimination, environmental pollution and the use of slave labour, including that of prisoners of war (POWs), during World War II. A disgruntled former employee, Kamal Sinha, has started a website called Mitsubishi Watch to report such complaints.

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The Mitsubishi companies

Core members

  • Asahi Glass Co., Ltd.
  • The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd.
  • Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd.
  • Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company
  • Mitsubishi Aluminum Co., Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (part of Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation)
  • Mitsubishi Corporation (Trading company)
  • Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Estate Co., Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc.
  • Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha, Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Logistics Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Materials Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (Automobile manufacturing and sales)
  • Mitsubishi Paper Mills, Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Plastics, Inc.
  • Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc.
  • Mitsubishi Shindoh Co., Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Steel Mfg. Co., Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi UFJ Trust and Banking Corporation (part of Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group)
  • Nikon Corporation
  • Nippon Oil Corporation
  • NYK Line (Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha)
  • P.S. Mitsubishi Construction Co., Ltd.
  • Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd.

These companies are members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai (or Friday Club), and meet monthly.

Related Organizations

  • Atami Yowado
  • Chitose Kosan Co., Ltd.
  • The Dia Foundation for Research on Ageing Societies
  • Diamond Family Club
  • Kaitokaku
  • Koiwai Noboku Kaisha, Ltd.
  • LEOC JAPAN Co., Ltd.
  • Marunouchi Yorozu Corp.
  • Meiwa Corporation
  • Mitsubishi C&C Research Association
  • Mitsubishi Club
  • Mitsubishi Corporate Name and Trademark Committee
  • Mitsubishi Economic Research Institute
  • The Mitsubishi Foundation
  • Mitsubishi Kinyokai
  • Mitsubishi Marketing Association
  • Mitsubishi Public Affairs Committee
  • The Mitsubishi Yowakai Foundation
  • MT Insurance Service Co., Ltd.
  • Seikado Bunko Art Museum
  • Shonan Country Club
  • Sotsu Corporation
  • The Toyo Bunko

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These companies are members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai (or Friday Club), and meet monthly. Elevated 20Ne abundances are also found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth. A disgruntled former employee, Kamal Sinha, has started a website called Mitsubishi Watch to report such complaints. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Mitsubishi has been criticized for some of its corporate practices, most notably with respect to work-place discrimination, environmental pollution and the use of slave labour, including that of prisoners of war (POWs), during World War II. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represent a non-atmospheric source of neon. The Mitsubishi companies form a loose entity known as the Mitsubishi keiretsu, or Mitsubishi group. Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases are enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content.

As independent corporations, the Mitsubishi companies cooperated in some ventures, as in petrochemicals and nuclear power, and competed with each other in other sectors. This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surficial rocks and meteorites. The newly independent companies used their accumulated technology and other strengths to pursue growth under separate business models. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. Mitsubishi split itself into independent companies in 1946 under the postwar government policy of decentralizing industry. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium.
. Isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic production of 21Ne.

Approximately twenty thousand Korean slave laborers died in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites. With poor working conditions, many people died during this period. The alpha particles are derived from uranium-series decay chains, while the neutrons are mostly produced by secondary reactions from alpha particles. Also, like many other big Japanese corporations at that time, it made use of slave labor from the Deyne family during the war. The principal nuclear reactions which generate neon isotopes are neutron emission, alpha decay reactions on 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively. During the Second World War, Mitsubishi manufactured aircraft, including the famous Zero that was used in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and many other occasions during the war. In contrast, 20Ne is not known to be nucleogenic and the causes of its variation in the Earth have been hotly debated.


. 21Ne and 22Ne are nucleogenic and their variations are well understood. At the start of the 20th century the company, which by itself accounted for over half of the Japanese merchant fleet, entered into a period of diversification that would eventually result in the creation of three entities:. Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). As Mitsubishi built a broadly based conglomerate, it played a central role in the modernization of Japanese industry. In addition, neon forms an unstable hydrate. Later diversification carried the organization into such sectors as paper, steel, glass, electrical equipment, aircraft, oil, and real estate. The ions, Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+), have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric research.

That company soon diversified into coal mining, shipbuilding, banking, insurance, warehousing, and trade. Argon, in contrast, is heavier than air and so remains within Earth's atmosphere. Another translation is three diamonds.[1]. Neon, like water vapor, is lighter than air; unlike water vapor, which condenses into a liquid below the stratosphere and is thus trapped in Earth's atmosphere, neon may slowly leak out into space, which explains its scarcity on Earth. The name Mitsubishi (三菱) has two parts: mitsu means three and bishi means water chestnut, and from here rhombus, which is reflected in the company's logo. Neon is a rare gas that is found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 and is produced by supercooling air and fractionally distilling it from the resulting cryogenic liquid. In 1873 it took the name Mitsubishi Shokai (三菱商会). Neon is usually found in the form of a gas with molecules consisting of a single neon atom.

The first Mitsubishi company was a shipping firm that Yataro Iwasaki established in 1870. Neon (Greek neos meaning "new") was discovered by Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898. . Other uses:. The Mitsubishi.Com Committee is charged with maintaining the overall integrity of the brand as well as maintaining the portal web site. The word "neon" is also used generically for these types of lights when in reality many other gases are used to produce different colors of light. The top 29 companies are also members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai, or (Friday Club), and meet monthly. The reddish-orange color that neon emits in neon lights is widely used to make advertising signs.

A Kereitsu is a common feature of Japanese corporate governance and refers to a collaborative group of integrated companies with extensive share crossholdings, personell swaps and strategic co-operation. Neon has the most intense discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the rare gases. The Mitsubishi group of companies form a loose entity, the Mitsubishi Keiretsu, which is often referenced in US and Japanese media and official reports. In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium. While the companies are autonomous, they share the brand name and trademark, as well as a common legacy (in general these companies all descend from the zaibatsu of the same name). Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube and has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis). The Mitsubishi companies, or the Mitsubishi Group of Companies or the Mitsubishi Group is a large group (keiretsu) of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. .

The Toyo Bunko. A colorless nearly inert noble gas, neon gives a distinct reddish glow when used in vacuum discharge tubes and neon lamps and is found in air in trace amounts. Sotsu Corporation. Neon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. Shonan Country Club. Los Alamos National Laboratory – Neon. Seikado Bunko Art Museum. Liquefied neon is commercially used as an economical cryogenic refrigerant.

MT Insurance Service Co., Ltd. Neon and helium are used to make a type of gas laser. The Mitsubishi Yowakai Foundation. television tubes. Mitsubishi Public Affairs Committee. wave meter tubes. Mitsubishi Marketing Association. lightning arrestors.

Mitsubishi Kinyokai. high-voltage indicators. The Mitsubishi Foundation. vacuum tubes. Mitsubishi Economic Research Institute. Mitsubishi Corporate Name and Trademark Committee.

Mitsubishi Club. Mitsubishi C&C Research Association. Meiwa Corporation. Marunouchi Yorozu Corp.

LEOC JAPAN Co., Ltd. Koiwai Noboku Kaisha, Ltd. Kaitokaku. Diamond Family Club.

The Dia Foundation for Research on Ageing Societies. Chitose Kosan Co., Ltd. Atami Yowado. Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd.

Mitsubishi Construction Co., Ltd. P.S. NYK Line (Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha). Nippon Oil Corporation.

Nikon Corporation. Mitsubishi UFJ Trust and Banking Corporation (part of Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group). Co., Ltd. Mitsubishi Steel Mfg.

Mitsubishi Shindoh Co., Ltd. Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Mitsubishi Plastics, Inc.

Mitsubishi Paper Mills, Ltd. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (Automobile manufacturing and sales). Mitsubishi Materials Corporation. Mitsubishi Logistics Corporation.

Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha, Ltd. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc. Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation.

Mitsubishi Estate Co., Ltd. Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Mitsubishi Corporation (Trading company). Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (part of Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation).

Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd. Mitsubishi Aluminum Co., Ltd. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company. Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd.

The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. Nikon Corporation, a well-known brand of photographic equipment. Mitsubishi Chemical, the largest Japanese chemicals company.

Mitsubishi Atomic Industry, a nuclear power company. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, the 4th largest Japanese auto manufacturer. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, which includes these industrial companies.

    . Mitsubishi Corporation, founded in 1893, serves the internal financing needs of the group.

    After its mergers with the Bank of Tokyo in 1996, and UFJ Holdings in 2004, this became Japan's largest bank. Mitsubishi Bank (now a part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group) was founded in 1919.

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