The Mitsubishi companies, or the Mitsubishi Group of Companies or the Mitsubishi Group is a large group (keiretsu) of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. While the companies are autonomous, they share the brand name and trademark, as well as a common legacy (in general these companies all descend from the zaibatsu of the same name).
The Mitsubishi group of companies form a loose entity, the Mitsubishi Keiretsu, which is often referenced in US and Japanese media and official reports. A Kereitsu is a common feature of Japanese corporate governance and refers to a collaborative group of integrated companies with extensive share crossholdings, personell swaps and strategic co-operation. The top 29 companies are also members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai, or (Friday Club), and meet monthly. The Mitsubishi.Com Committee is charged with maintaining the overall integrity of the brand as well as maintaining the portal web site.
The first Mitsubishi company was a shipping firm that Yataro Iwasaki established in 1870. In 1873 it took the name Mitsubishi Shokai (三菱商会). The name Mitsubishi (三菱) has two parts: mitsu means three and bishi means water chestnut, and from here rhombus, which is reflected in the company's logo. Another translation is three diamonds.
That company soon diversified into coal mining, shipbuilding, banking, insurance, warehousing, and trade. Later diversification carried the organization into such sectors as paper, steel, glass, electrical equipment, aircraft, oil, and real estate. As Mitsubishi built a broadly based conglomerate, it played a central role in the modernization of Japanese industry.
At the start of the 20th century the company, which by itself accounted for over half of the Japanese merchant fleet, entered into a period of diversification that would eventually result in the creation of three entities:
World War II
During the Second World War, Mitsubishi manufactured aircraft, including the famous Zero that was used in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and many other occasions during the war. Also, like many other big Japanese corporations at that time, it made use of slave labor from the Deyne family during the war. With poor working conditions, many people died during this period. Approximately twenty thousand Korean slave laborers died in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
After the war
Mitsubishi split itself into independent companies in 1946 under the postwar government policy of decentralizing industry. The newly independent companies used their accumulated technology and other strengths to pursue growth under separate business models. As independent corporations, the Mitsubishi companies cooperated in some ventures, as in petrochemicals and nuclear power, and competed with each other in other sectors. The Mitsubishi companies form a loose entity known as the Mitsubishi keiretsu, or Mitsubishi group.
Mitsubishi has been criticized for some of its corporate practices, most notably with respect to work-place discrimination, environmental pollution and the use of slave labour, including that of prisoners of war (POWs), during World War II. A disgruntled former employee, Kamal Sinha, has started a website called Mitsubishi Watch to report such complaints.
The Mitsubishi companies
These companies are members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai (or Friday Club), and meet monthly.
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These companies are members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai (or Friday Club), and meet monthly. Films provide them in an accessible and powerful way. A disgruntled former employee, Kamal Sinha, has started a website called Mitsubishi Watch to report such complaints. Civilization develops and changes, at least in surface features, and so calls for a constant renewal of artistic means to channel these desires. Mitsubishi has been criticized for some of its corporate practices, most notably with respect to work-place discrimination, environmental pollution and the use of slave labour, including that of prisoners of war (POWs), during World War II. The reason motion pictures endure is because people still want escapism, adventure, inspiration, humor and to be moved emotionally. The Mitsubishi companies form a loose entity known as the Mitsubishi keiretsu, or Mitsubishi group. all involve plots with common threads that existed in books, plays and other venues.
As independent corporations, the Mitsubishi companies cooperated in some ventures, as in petrochemicals and nuclear power, and competed with each other in other sectors. Romantic motion pictures about a girl loving a guy but not being able to be together for some reason, movies about a hero who fights against all odds a more powerful fiendish enemy, comedies about everyday life, etc. The newly independent companies used their accumulated technology and other strengths to pursue growth under separate business models. Apart from societal norms and cultural changes, there are still close resemblances between theatrical plays throughout the ages and films of today. Mitsubishi split itself into independent companies in 1946 under the postwar government policy of decentralizing industry. Many believe that film will be a long enduring art form because motion pictures appeal to diverse human emotions.
Approximately twenty thousand Korean slave laborers died in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Yet the migration is gradual, and as of 2005 most major motion pictures are still recorded on film. With poor working conditions, many people died during this period. These approaches are extremely beneficial to moviemakers, especially because footage can be evaluated and edited without waiting for the film stock to be processed. Also, like many other big Japanese corporations at that time, it made use of slave labor from the Deyne family during the war. Modern digital video cameras and digital projectors are gaining ground as well. During the Second World War, Mitsubishi manufactured aircraft, including the famous Zero that was used in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and many other occasions during the war. Some films in recent decades have been recorded using analog video technology similar to that used in television production.
That company soon diversified into coal mining, shipbuilding, banking, insurance, warehousing, and trade. However, historic films have problems in terms of preservation and storage, and the motion picture industry is exploring many alternatives. Another translation is three diamonds.. Film has also been incorporated into multimedia presentations, and often has importance as primary historical documentation. The name Mitsubishi (三菱) has two parts: mitsu means three and bishi means water chestnut, and from here rhombus, which is reflected in the company's logo. It can be used to present a progressive sequence of still images in the form of a slideshow. In 1873 it took the name Mitsubishi Shokai (三菱商会). As a medium, film is not limited to motion pictures, since the technology developed as the basis for photography.
The first Mitsubishi company was a shipping firm that Yataro Iwasaki established in 1870. The soundtrack can be recorded separately from shooting the film, but for live-action pictures many parts of the soundtrack are usually recorded simultaneously. . Improvements since the late 19th century include the mechanization of cameras, allowing them to record at a consistent speed, the invention of more sophisticated filmstocks and lenses, allowing directors to film in increasingly dim conditions, and the development of synchronized sound, allowing sound to be recorded at exactly the same speed as its corresponding action. The Mitsubishi.Com Committee is charged with maintaining the overall integrity of the brand as well as maintaining the portal web site. A new standard speed, 24 frames per second, came with the introduction of sound. The top 29 companies are also members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai, or (Friday Club), and meet monthly. Originally moving picture film was shot at various speeds using hand-cranked cameras; then the speed for mechanized cameras and projectors was standardized at 16 frames per second, which was faster than much existing hand-cranked footage.
A Kereitsu is a common feature of Japanese corporate governance and refers to a collaborative group of integrated companies with extensive share crossholdings, personell swaps and strategic co-operation. Stock widths and the film format for images on the reel have had a rich history, though most large commercial films are still shot on (and distributed to theaters) as 35 mm prints. The Mitsubishi group of companies form a loose entity, the Mitsubishi Keiretsu, which is often referenced in US and Japanese media and official reports. Cellulose nitrate was the first type of film base used to record motion pictures, but due to its flammability was eventually replaced by safer materials. While the companies are autonomous, they share the brand name and trademark, as well as a common legacy (in general these companies all descend from the zaibatsu of the same name). Filmstock consists of a transparent celluloid, polyester, or other plastic base coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive chemicals. The Mitsubishi companies, or the Mitsubishi Group of Companies or the Mitsubishi Group is a large group (keiretsu) of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. According to a 2000 study by ABN AMRO, about 26% of Hollywood movie studios' worldwide income came from box office ticket sales; 46% came from VHS and DVD sales to consumers; and 28% came from television (broadcast, cable, and pay-per-view).
The Toyo Bunko. There are a few movies every year that defy this rule, often limited-release movies that start in only a few theaters and actually grow their theater count through good word-of-mouth and reviews. Sotsu Corporation. However, today's barrage of highly marketed movies ensures that most movies are shown in first-run theaters for less than 8 weeks. Shonan Country Club. The actual percentage starts with a number higher than that, and decreases as the duration of a film's showing continues, as an incentive to theaters to keep movies in the theater longer. Seikado Bunko Art Museum. The movie theater pays an average of about 55% of its ticket sales to the movie studio, as film rental fees.
MT Insurance Service Co., Ltd. And indeed, some films that are rejected by their own studios upon completion are dumped into these markets. The Mitsubishi Yowakai Foundation. These are often considered to be of inferior quality compared to theatrical releases. Mitsubishi Public Affairs Committee. Some films are now made specifically for these other venues, being released as made-for-TV movies or direct-to-video movies. Mitsubishi Marketing Association. Recording technology has also enabled consumers to rent or buy copies of films on video tape or DVD (and the older formats of laserdisc, VCD and SelectaVision—see also videodisc), and Internet downloads may be available and have started to become revenue sources for the film companies.
Mitsubishi Kinyokai. The development of television has allowed films to be broadcast to larger audiences, usually after the film is no longer being shown in theaters. The Mitsubishi Foundation. Originally, all films were made to be shown in movie theaters. Mitsubishi Economic Research Institute. Today, the bulk of the material shown before the feature film (those in theaters) consists of previews for upcoming movies and paid advertisements (also known as trailers or "The Twenty"). Mitsubishi Corporate Name and Trademark Committee. There were "double features"; typically, a high quality "A picture" rented by an independent theater for a lump sum, and a "B picture" of lower quality rented for a percentage of the gross receipts.
Mitsubishi Club. Typically, one film is the featured presentation (or feature film). Mitsubishi C&C Research Association. In the United States, these theaters came to be known as nickelodeons, because admission typically cost a nickel (five cents). Meiwa Corporation. Thousands of such theaters were built or converted from existing facilities within a few years. Marunouchi Yorozu Corp. The first theater designed exclusively for cinema opened in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1905.
LEOC JAPAN Co., Ltd. When it is initially produced, a film is normally shown to audiences in a movie theater. Koiwai Noboku Kaisha, Ltd. This method was pioneered by UPA and popularized (some say exploited) by Hanna-Barbera, and adapted by other studios as cartoons moved from movie theaters to television. Kaitokaku. Limited animation is a way of increasing production and decreasing costs of animation by using "short cuts" in the animation process. Diamond Family Club. Several independent animation producers have gone on to enter the professional animation industry.
The Dia Foundation for Research on Ageing Societies. However, the field of independent animation has existed at least since the 1950s, with animation being produced by independent studios (and sometimes by a single person). Chitose Kosan Co., Ltd. Because animation is very time-consuming and often very expensive to produce, the majority of animation for TV and movies comes from professional animation studios. Atami Yowado. Graphics file formats like GIF, MNG, SVG and Flash allow animation to be viewed on a computer or over the Internet. Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. Generating such a film is very labour intensive and tedious, though the development of computer animation has greatly sped up the process.
Mitsubishi Construction Co., Ltd. When the frames are strung together and the resulting film is viewed at a speed of 16 or more frames per second, there is an illusion of continuous movement (due to the persistence of vision). P.S. Animation is the technique in which each frame of a film is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result with a special animation camera. NYK Line (Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha). Most independent filmmakers rely on film festivals to get their films noticed and sold for distribution. Nippon Oil Corporation. However, while the means of production may be democratized, financing, distribution, and marketing remain difficult to accomplish outside the traditional system.
Nikon Corporation. Filmmakers can conceivably shoot and edit a movie, create and edit the sound and music, and mix the final cut on a home computer. Mitsubishi UFJ Trust and Banking Corporation (part of Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group). Since the introduction of DV technology, the means of production have become more democratized. Co., Ltd. Technologies such as DVDs, IEEE 1394 connections and non-linear editing system pro-level software like Adobe Premiere Pro and Final Cut Pro, and consumer level software such as Final Cut Express and iMovie make movie-making relatively inexpensive. Mitsubishi Steel Mfg. Both production and post-production costs have been significantly lowered; today, the hardware and software for post-production can be installed in a commodity-based personal computer.
Mitsubishi Shindoh Co., Ltd. But the advent of consumer camcorders in 1985, and more importantly, the arrival of high-resolution digital video in the early 1990s, have lowered the technology barrier to movie production significantly. Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. Film requires expensive lighting and post-production facilities. Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. The cost of 35mm film is outpacing inflation: in 2002 alone, film negative costs were up 23%, according to Variety. Mitsubishi Plastics, Inc. Until the advent of digital alternatives, the cost of professional film equipment and stock was also a hurdle to being able to produce, direct, or star in a traditional studio film.
Mitsubishi Paper Mills, Ltd. Films with unknowns, particularly in lead roles, are also rarely produced. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (Automobile manufacturing and sales). An unproven director is almost never given the opportunity to get his or her big break with the studios unless he or she has significant industry experience in film or television. Mitsubishi Materials Corporation. in 2000 were joint ventures, up from 10% in 1987). Mitsubishi Logistics Corporation. The problem is exacerbated by the trend towards co-financing (over two-thirds of the films put out by Warner Bros.
Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha, Ltd. On the business side, the costs of big-budget studio films also leads to conservative choices in cast and crew. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Experimental elements in theme and style are inhibitors for the big studios. Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc. Creatively, it was becoming increasingly difficult to get studio backing for experimental films. Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. Creative, business, and technological reasons have all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late 20th and early 21st century.
Mitsubishi Estate Co., Ltd. An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio. Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Filmmaking also takes place outside of the Hollywood studio system, and is commonly called independent filmmaking. Mitsubishi Corporation (Trading company). Crew are distinguished from cast, the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (part of Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation). A film crew is a group of people hired by a film company for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture.
Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd. The third year, post-production and distribution. Mitsubishi Aluminum Co., Ltd. The second year comprises preproduction and production. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company. The first year is taken up with development. Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd. This production cycle typically takes three years.
The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. A typical Hollywood-style filmmaking Production cycle comprises five main stages:. Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. Filmmaking takes place all over the world using different technologies, styles of acting and genre, and is produced in a variety of economic contexts that range from state-sponsored documentary in China to profit-oriented movie making within the American studio system. Nikon Corporation, a well-known brand of photographic equipment. However, a low-budget, independent film may be made with a skeleton crew, often paid very little. Mitsubishi Chemical, the largest Japanese chemicals company. Many Hollywood adventure films need computer generated imagery (CGI), created by dozens of 3D modellers, animators, rotoscopers and compositors.
Mitsubishi Atomic Industry, a nuclear power company. The nature of the film determines the size and type of crew required during filmmaking. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, the 4th largest Japanese auto manufacturer. Also, film quickly came to be used in education, in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, which includes these industrial companies.
After its mergers with the Bank of Tokyo in 1996, and UFJ Holdings in 2004, this became Japan's largest bank. Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Mitsubishi Bank (now a part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group) was founded in 1919. Whether the ten thousand plus features a year produced by the Valley porn industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, and the Indian film industry (primarily centered around "Bollywood") annually produces the largest number of films in the world. In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood.
Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. The Oberammergau Passion play of 1898 was the first commercial motion picture ever produced.
In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumieres quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon the process was invented. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities.
Rather than write for newspaper or appear on television their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. These film critics try to come to understand why film works, how it works, and what effects it has on people. This work is more often known as film theory or film studies. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films.
However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily-promoted movies that were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence.
Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. The impact of reviewer on a film's box office performance is a matter of debate. Poor reviews will often deign a film to obscurity and financial loss. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important.
The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic's overall judgement of a film. Despite this, critics have an important impact of films, especially those of certain genres. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions.
Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. In general this can be divided into academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. More recent analysis has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others.
Classical film theory provides a structural framework to address classical issues of techniques, narrativity, diegesis, cinematic codes, "the image", genre, subjectivity, and authorship. Film theory seeks to develop concise, systematic concepts that apply to the study of film/cinema as art. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 21st Century. New Hollywood, French New Wave and the rise of film school educated, independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th Century.
The 1950s, 60s and 70s saw changes in the production and style of film. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. But as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color an essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-60s. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white.
While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of color. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them "talking pictures", or talkies. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen.
Murnau continued to advance the medium. W. However in the 1920s, European filmmaker’s such as Sergei Eisenstein and F. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the breakout of World War I while the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood.
By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purposes, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. Rather than leave the audience in silence, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music fitting the mood of the film at any given moment. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles.
Films began stringing scenes together to tell narratives. Around the turn of the 20th Century, films began developing a narrative structure. Motion pictures were purely visual art up to the late 1920s, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques.
These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as "motion pictures". By the 1880s, the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these "moving picture shows" onto a screen for an entire audience. Early versions of the technology sometimes required the viewer to look into a special device to see the pictures. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time.
Naturally, the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect — and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns), and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Mechanisms for producing artificially created, two-dimensional images in motion were demonstrated as early as the 1860s, with devices such as the zoetrope and the praxinoscope. .
Films are also artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Any film can become a worldwide attraction, especially with the addition of dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. The visual elements of cinema need no translation, giving the motion picture a universal power of communication. Film is considered by many to be an important art form; films entertain, educate, enlighten and inspire audiences.
Also of relevance is what causes the perception of motion — a psychological effect identified as beta movement. Flickering between frames is not seen due to an effect known as persistence of vision — whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. They comprise a series of individual frames, but when these images are shown rapidly in succession, the illusion of motion is given to the viewer. Films are produced by recording actual people and objects with cameras, or by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects.
Many other terms exist — motion pictures (or just pictures or "picture"), the silver screen, photoplays, the cinema, picture shows, flicks — and most commonly movies. The origin of the name comes from the fact that photographic film (also called filmstock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. Distribution.
Post-production. Production. Preproduction. Development.