The Mitsubishi companies, or the Mitsubishi Group of Companies or the Mitsubishi Group is a large group (keiretsu) of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. While the companies are autonomous, they share the brand name and trademark, as well as a common legacy (in general these companies all descend from the zaibatsu of the same name).
The Mitsubishi group of companies form a loose entity, the Mitsubishi Keiretsu, which is often referenced in US and Japanese media and official reports. A Kereitsu is a common feature of Japanese corporate governance and refers to a collaborative group of integrated companies with extensive share crossholdings, personell swaps and strategic co-operation. The top 29 companies are also members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai, or (Friday Club), and meet monthly. The Mitsubishi.Com Committee is charged with maintaining the overall integrity of the brand as well as maintaining the portal web site.
The first Mitsubishi company was a shipping firm that Yataro Iwasaki established in 1870. In 1873 it took the name Mitsubishi Shokai (三菱商会). The name Mitsubishi (三菱) has two parts: mitsu means three and bishi means water chestnut, and from here rhombus, which is reflected in the company's logo. Another translation is three diamonds.
That company soon diversified into coal mining, shipbuilding, banking, insurance, warehousing, and trade. Later diversification carried the organization into such sectors as paper, steel, glass, electrical equipment, aircraft, oil, and real estate. As Mitsubishi built a broadly based conglomerate, it played a central role in the modernization of Japanese industry.
At the start of the 20th century the company, which by itself accounted for over half of the Japanese merchant fleet, entered into a period of diversification that would eventually result in the creation of three entities:
World War II
During the Second World War, Mitsubishi manufactured aircraft, including the famous Zero that was used in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and many other occasions during the war. Also, like many other big Japanese corporations at that time, it made use of slave labor from the Deyne family during the war. With poor working conditions, many people died during this period. Approximately twenty thousand Korean slave laborers died in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
After the war
Mitsubishi split itself into independent companies in 1946 under the postwar government policy of decentralizing industry. The newly independent companies used their accumulated technology and other strengths to pursue growth under separate business models. As independent corporations, the Mitsubishi companies cooperated in some ventures, as in petrochemicals and nuclear power, and competed with each other in other sectors. The Mitsubishi companies form a loose entity known as the Mitsubishi keiretsu, or Mitsubishi group.
Mitsubishi has been criticized for some of its corporate practices, most notably with respect to work-place discrimination, environmental pollution and the use of slave labour, including that of prisoners of war (POWs), during World War II. A disgruntled former employee, Kamal Sinha, has started a website called Mitsubishi Watch to report such complaints.
The Mitsubishi companies
These companies are members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai (or Friday Club), and meet monthly.
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These companies are members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai (or Friday Club), and meet monthly. The Royal Marines also there own special forces similar to that of the SAS: the SBS (Special Boat Service) or The Boat Troop; and the Mountain Troop. A disgruntled former employee, Kamal Sinha, has started a website called Mitsubishi Watch to report such complaints. Navy SEALs and the British Royal Marines now serve a similar function, being a ship-based force specially trained in commando-style operations and tactics. Mitsubishi has been criticized for some of its corporate practices, most notably with respect to work-place discrimination, environmental pollution and the use of slave labour, including that of prisoners of war (POWs), during World War II. However the U.S. The Mitsubishi companies form a loose entity known as the Mitsubishi keiretsu, or Mitsubishi group. Eventually the Marine Corps became a separate arm in the United States, with their own equipment.
As independent corporations, the Mitsubishi companies cooperated in some ventures, as in petrochemicals and nuclear power, and competed with each other in other sectors. Much later during the age of sail, a component of marines served a similar role, being ship-borne soldiers who were used either during boarding actions, as sharp-shooters, or in raids along the shore. The newly independent companies used their accumulated technology and other strengths to pursue growth under separate business models. These were troops primarily trained in land warfare, and did not need to be skilled at handling a ship. Mitsubishi split itself into independent companies in 1946 under the postwar government policy of decentralizing industry. During the era of the Roman empire, the naval forces included legionaries for boarding actions.
Approximately twenty thousand Korean slave laborers died in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Officers:. With poor working conditions, many people died during this period. Senior Ratings and Warrant Officers. Also, like many other big Japanese corporations at that time, it made use of slave labor from the Deyne family during the war. Ratings:. During the Second World War, Mitsubishi manufactured aircraft, including the famous Zero that was used in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and many other occasions during the war. For the Royal Navy the ranks are as follows (in acending order):.
That company soon diversified into coal mining, shipbuilding, banking, insurance, warehousing, and trade. For the Canadian Navy the ranks are as follows (in acending order):. Another translation is three diamonds.. "Flag officers" include any rank that includes the word "admiral", and are generally in command of a battle group or similar flotilla of vessels, rather than a single vessel or aspect of a vessel. The name Mitsubishi (三菱) has two parts: mitsu means three and bishi means water chestnut, and from here rhombus, which is reflected in the company's logo. Typical ranks for commissioned officers include the following, in ascending order:. In 1873 it took the name Mitsubishi Shokai (三菱商会). Warrant Officers serve in more technical positions than commissioned Officers.
The first Mitsubishi company was a shipping firm that Yataro Iwasaki established in 1870. The United States draws its Warrant Officers from the enlisted ranks. . Warrant Officers, (WO) including Chief Warrant Officers (CWO), are senior to enlisted sailors and junior to commissioned Officers. The Mitsubishi.Com Committee is charged with maintaining the overall integrity of the brand as well as maintaining the portal web site. Navy, sailors are more commony referred to by their "rating," which indicates both their rank and job specialty (for example, "BT3 Jones" for "Boiler Technician 3rd Class Jones"). The top 29 companies are also members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai, or (Friday Club), and meet monthly. Within the U.S.
A Kereitsu is a common feature of Japanese corporate governance and refers to a collaborative group of integrated companies with extensive share crossholdings, personell swaps and strategic co-operation. Typical enlisted ranks include the following, in ascending order:. The Mitsubishi group of companies form a loose entity, the Mitsubishi Keiretsu, which is often referenced in US and Japanese media and official reports. A navy will typically have two sets of ranks, one for enlisted personnel and one for officers. While the companies are autonomous, they share the brand name and trademark, as well as a common legacy (in general these companies all descend from the zaibatsu of the same name). The largest unit size may be the whole Navy or Admiralty. The Mitsubishi companies, or the Mitsubishi Group of Companies or the Mitsubishi Group is a large group (keiretsu) of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. Vessels may be combined into squadrons or flotillas, which may be formed into fleets.
The Toyo Bunko. Naval forces are typically arranged into units based on the number of vessels included, a single vessel forming the smallest operational unit. Sotsu Corporation. This allows strike groups and combat vessels to remain at sea for several months at a time. Shonan Country Club. Today, naval strike groups on longer missions are always followed by a range of support and replenishment vessels supplying them with anything from fuel and munitions, to medical treatment and postal services. Seikado Bunko Art Museum. Also, in WWII, the engine room needed about a dozen sailors to work the many engines, however, today, only about 4-5 are needed (depending on the class of the ship).
MT Insurance Service Co., Ltd. However, today ships can go on very long journeys without refuling. The Mitsubishi Yowakai Foundation. In WWII, ships needed to refuel very often. Mitsubishi Public Affairs Committee. Also, the efficiency of the engines have improved a lot, in terms of fuel, and of how many sailors it takes to operate them. Mitsubishi Marketing Association. However, today ships can easily reach 25 knots, thanks to much improved propulsion systems.
Mitsubishi Kinyokai. The average speed was about 15-20 knots. The Mitsubishi Foundation. On another note, ships of WWII were much slower than today. Mitsubishi Economic Research Institute. For a list of the prefixes used with ship names (HMS, USS, &c.) see ship prefix. Mitsubishi Corporate Name and Trademark Committee. Naval ship names are typically prefixed by an abbreviation indicating the national navy in which they served.
Mitsubishi Club. During the age of sail, the vessel categories were divided into the ship of the line, frigate, and sloop-of-war. Mitsubishi C&C Research Association. There are also support and auxiliary vessels, including the minesweeper, patrol boat, and tender. Meiwa Corporation. The categories are: Aircraft Carriers, Battleships, Cruisers, Destroyers,Frigates, Submarines and Amphibious assault ships. Marunouchi Yorozu Corp. Modern naval vessels are generally divided into seven main categories.
LEOC JAPAN Co., Ltd. On occasion, naval vessels have also served as troop carriers or supply ships. Koiwai Noboku Kaisha, Ltd. Often, other ships which were not built specifically for warfare, such as the galleon or the armed merchant ships in World War II, did carry armaments. Kaitokaku. They were designed to withstand damage and to inflict the same, but only carried munitions and supplies for the voyage (rather than merchant cargo). Diamond Family Club. Historically, naval vessels have been specialized ships that were primarily intended for warfare.
The Dia Foundation for Research on Ageing Societies.
Mitsubishi Construction Co., Ltd. rThe custom of firing cannon salutes originated in the British Royal Navy. P.S. Later ceremonies employed the casket or crematory urn. NYK Line (Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha). After a solemn ceremony, the board was tilted and the body dropped into the deep. Nippon Oil Corporation. (During the age of sail, the final stitch was placed through the nose of the victim, just to make sure they were really dead.) The body was then placed on a pivoting table attached to the outer hull, and shrouded by a national ensign.
Nikon Corporation. In the past this involved sewing the body up in a shroud that had a weight at one end, often a cannonball. Mitsubishi UFJ Trust and Banking Corporation (part of Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group). By ancient tradition, corpses on board naval vessels were buried at sea. Co., Ltd. . Mitsubishi Steel Mfg. Australia, Canada, Spain and Norway have opened submarine service to women sailors, however.
Mitsubishi Shindoh Co., Ltd.  The UK Royal Navy has similar restrictions. Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. Navy are the extended duty tours and close conditions which afford almost no privacy. Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. The major reasons cited by the U.S. Mitsubishi Plastics, Inc. submarines.
Mitsubishi Paper Mills, Ltd. Even today, despite their acceptance in many areas of naval service, women are still not permitted to serve on board U.S. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (Automobile manufacturing and sales). In spite of these views, some women did serve on board naval vessels, usually as wives of crewmembers. Mitsubishi Materials Corporation. The only women that were welcomed on board were figureheads mounted on the prow of the ship. Mitsubishi Logistics Corporation. To do so would invite a terrible storm that would wreck the ship.
Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha, Ltd. However, it was long considered bad luck to permit women to sail on board naval vessels. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. By European tradition, ships have been referred to as a "she". Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc. In the United States, in a tradition that dates back to the Revolutionary War, the First Navy Jack is a flag that has the words, "Don't Tread on Me" on the flat. Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. it is now used to pipe a senior officer on board the ship - anyone like the captain or more senior.
Mitsubishi Estate Co., Ltd. The two tones it gives of and the number of blasts given off, signify the order given. Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. The piping is done by the ship's bosun and therefore is Known as the Bosun's Whistle. Mitsubishi Corporation (Trading company). This was original used to give orders on warships when shouted orders could not have been heard. Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (part of Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation). Anouther important tradition is that of Piping someone aboard the ship.
Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd. The bell was originally kept polished first by the ship's cook, then later by a person belonging to that division of the ship's personnel. Mitsubishi Aluminum Co., Ltd. They were also employed as warning devices in heavy fog, and for alarms and ceremonies. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company. This was historically used to mark the passage of time on board a vessel, including the duration of four-hour watches. Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd. and other nations) has been the ship's bell.
The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. An important tradition on board British naval vessels (and later those of the U.S. Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. Blue water fleets may require specialized vessels, such as mine sweepers, when operating in the littoral regions along the coast. Nikon Corporation, a well-known brand of photographic equipment. Regional powers may maintain a "green water navy" as a means of localized force projection. Mitsubishi Chemical, the largest Japanese chemicals company. By contrast a "brown water navy" operates in the coastal periphery and along inland waterways, where larger ocean-going naval vessels can not readily enter.
Mitsubishi Atomic Industry, a nuclear power company. Many are also nuclear powered to save having to refuel. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, the 4th largest Japanese auto manufacturer. These are ships capable of maintaining station for long periods of time in deep ocean, and will have a long logistical tail for their support. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, which includes these industrial companies.
After its mergers with the Bank of Tokyo in 1996, and UFJ Holdings in 2004, this became Japan's largest bank. At night signal lamps could be used for a similar purpose. Mitsubishi Bank (now a part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group) was founded in 1919. Prior to the invention of radio, commands from the flag ship were communicated by means of flags. The commander of a fleet travels in the flag ship, which is usually the most powerful vessel in the group. Navy ships normally operate with a group, which may be a small squadron of comparable vessels, or a larger naval fleet of various specialized ships.
Nations with historically strong naval forces have found it advantageous to obtain basing rights in areas of strategic interest. During times of war temporary bases may be constructed in closer proximity to strategic locations, as it is advantageous in terms of patrols and station-keeping. The base is a port that is specialized in naval operations, and often includes housing for off-shore crew, an arsenal depot for munitions, docks for the vessels, and various repair facilities. Historically a national navy operates from one or more bases that are maintained by the country or an ally.
However, a few nations that lacked a navy but were faced with an enemy that was a strong naval power, such as Rome during the Punic wars, built a powerful navy from scratch. Nations that have a significant maritime trade economy have also had an incentive to protect their interests with a potent navy. Historically, naval powers have been those countries that have a long coastline and a strong economy. This gives the ship a tactical edge in warfare.
These ships have a low radar signature and are only detectable at short distances. In recent times modern navies are increasingly investing in stealth ships. The US Navy has indicated it may procure as many as 60 such vessels.. But in recent years, faced with the new requirements, larger navies, notably the US Navy have started developing these capacities as well, by planning and constructing the Littoral Combat Ship.
Traditionally, this has been the main focus of some of the smaller European navies, especially the scandinavian navies, such as the Norwegian Navy and the Swedish Navy. Since the end of the Cold war, and with the disappearance of the Cold war scenario, there has been a return of focus to ships being able to operate in more coastal environments, in support of operations such as amphibious landings, embargo enforcement, peacekeeping and coastal patrol. The main consideration is for Carrier Battle Groups (CVBGs). One scenario that was the focus of American naval planning during the Cold War was a conflict between two modern and well equipped fleets on the high seas, the clash of the United States and the Soviet Union.
In shallow waters, the detection of submarines and mines is especially problematic. The presence of land and the bottom topology of an area compress the battle space, limit the opportunities to maneuver, make it easier for an enemy to predict the location of the fleet and make the detection of enemy forces more difficult. This is why a navy prefers the open sea. There is also the concept of battle space: a zone around a naval force within which a commander is confident of detecting, tracking, engaging and destroying threats before they pose a danger.
Much time and effort is spent to deny the enemy the chance to detect one's forces. In naval warfare, the key is to detect the enemy while avoiding detection. Movement is a large component of modern combat; a naval fleet can travel hundreds of kilometres in a day. The basic idea of all tactics (land, sea and air) is fire and movement: the fulfillment of a mission by the effective delivery of firepower resulting from scouting and the creation of good firing positions.
The presence of land, changing water depths, weather, detection and electronic warfare, the dreadful speed at which actual combat occurs and other factors — especially air power — render naval tactics truly formidable. This is not, however, the truth. This assumes there is no cover, there are no civilians and the area of combat is level and flat. It is tempting to regard modern naval combat as the purest expression of tactics.
Many leading thinkers, however, suggest that navies are more important today than ever and may even surpass armies once again as the main measure of a nation's military might. By the late 20th century, naval power had become a major element in the military and strategic power of a country's power projection capabilities, though some would suggest its importance has declined in the wake of the development of military aviation and air power. By the end of World War II, the carrier had become the dominant force of naval warfare. First at Taranto and then in Pearl Harbor, the aircraft demonstrated its ability to strike decisively at enemy ships out of sight and range of surface vessels.
A major paradigm shift in naval warfare occurred with the introduction of the aircraft carrier. The X-craft severely damaged her and kept her in port for some months. The German battleship Tirpitz, a sister ship of the Bismarck, was almost put out of action by miniature submarines known as X-Craft. During WWII the German Navy's submarine fleet of U-boats almost starved Britain into submission, and inflicted tremendous losses on US coastal shipping.
The first practical military submarines were developed in the late 1800s and by the end of WWI they had proved to be a powerful arm of naval warfare. A further step change in naval firepower occurred when Britain launched HMS Dreadnought, but naval tactics still emphasised the line of battle. The battle between the CSS Virginia and the USS Monitor during the American civil war is often cited as the beginning of this age of maritime conflict. Another significant improvement came with the invention of the rotating turrets, which allowed the guns to be aimed independently of ship movement.
The first armoured vessels, the French FS Gloire and British HMS Warrior, made wooden vessels obsolete. The increased mass required steam-powered engines, which resulted in an arms race between armor thickness and firepower. The next stage in the evolution of naval warfare was the introduction of metal plating along the hull sides. These conflicts saw the development and refinement of tactics which came to be called the line of battle.
From 1695 the Royal Navy began to more successfully assert itself and throughout the eighteenth century gradually gained increasing ascendancy over the French navy, with victories in the Spanish War of Succession (1701-1714), inconclusive battles in the War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748), victories in the Seven Years War (1754-1763), a reversal during the American War of Independence (1775-1783), and consolidation into uncontested supremacy during the nineteenth century from the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. England emerged as a major naval power in the mid seventeenth century in the first Anglo-Dutch war with a technical victory, but successive decisive Dutch victories in the second and third Anglo-Dutch wars confirmed the Dutch mastery of the seas during the Dutch Golden Age, which was financed largely by building the overseas Dutch empire at the expense of the Portuguese. From the 1620s Dutch raiders began to seriously trouble Spanish shipping and finally the Dutch navy broke the long dominance of the Spanish in the Battle of the Downs (1639). The repulsion of the Spanish Armada (1588) by the Anglo-Dutch fleet revolutionised naval warfare by the success of a guns only strategy, and caused a major overhaul of the Spanish navy, partly along English lines, which resulted in even greater dominance by the Spanish.
The development of large capacity, sail-powered ships carrying cannon led to a rapid expansion of European navies, especially the Spanish and Portuguese navies, which dominated in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and ultimately helped propel the age of exploration and colonialism. Warships were designed to carry increasing numbers of cannon, and naval tactics evolved bring a ship's firepower to bear in a broadside, with ships-of-the-line arranged in a line of battle. The mass and deck space required to carry a large number of cannon made oar-based propulsion impossible, and ships came to rely primarily on sails. Naval warfare continued in this vein through the Middle Ages until cannon became commonplace and capable of being reloaded quickly enough to be reused in the same battle.
In the time of Ancient Greece and the Roman empire, naval warfare centred around long, narrow vessels powered by banks of oarsmen (such as triremes and quinqueremes) designed to ram and sink enemy vessels, or come alongside the enemy vessel so its occupants could be attacked hand-to-hand. Prior to the introduction of the cannon, and ships with sufficient capacity to carry the large guns, naval warfare primarily involved ramming and boarding actions. Naval warfare first developed whenever humankind conducted fighting from water-borne vessels. .
The strategic offensive role of a Navy is projection-of-force into areas beyond a country's shores (for example, to protect sea-lanes, ferry troops, or attack other navies, ports, or shore installations). It includes operations conducted by surface vessels, and Amphibious (ships), submarine vessels, and seaborne aviation, as well as ancillary support, communications, training, and other fields; recent developments have included space-related operations. A navy (often Navy) is the branch of a country's military forces principally designated for naval warfare and amphibious warfare (marines) namely lake- or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions. Aubrey–Maturin series by Patrick O'Brian.
Forester. S. Hornblower series by C. Tom Clancy, The Hunt for Red October.
Vice-Admiral. Rear-Admiral. Commodore. Captain.
Commander. Lieutenant-Commander. Lieutenant. Sub-Lieutenant.
Midshipman. Warrant Officer. Warrant Officer 2. Chief Petty Officer.
Petty Officer. Leading Rate. Able Rate. Ordinary Rate.
Admiral. Vice Admiral. Rear Admiral. Commodore.
Captain. Commander. Lietenant Commander. Lieutenant.
Sub-Lieutenant. Acting Sub-Lieutenant. Naval Cadet. Chief Petty Officer 1st Class (CPO1).
Chief Petty Officer 2nd Class (CPO2). Petty Officer 1st Class (PO1). Petty Officer 2nd Class (PO2). Master Seaman (MS).
Leading Seaman (LS). Able Seaman (AB). Ordinary Seaman (OS). Fleet Admiral or Admiral of the Fleet.
Admiral. Vice Admiral. Rear Admiral / Rear Admiral (upper half). Commodore / Flotilla Admiral / Rear Admiral (lower half).
Captain / Warship Captain. Commander / Frigate Captain. Lieutenant Commander / Corvette Captain. Lieutenant / Warship Lieutenant / Lieutenant Captain.
Sub Lieutenant / Lieutenant Junior Grade / Frigate Lieutenant. Ensign / Corvette Lieutenant. They have not yet received their commission. Midshipmen are officers in training, such as at the US Naval Academy.
Chief Petty Officer. Petty Officer (Petty Officers (PO) and Chief Petty Officers (CPO) are equivalent to Non-Commissioned Officers, or NCOs, in other services). Seaman.