Mitsubishi

The Mitsubishi companies, or the Mitsubishi Group of Companies or the Mitsubishi Group is a large group (keiretsu) of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. While the companies are autonomous, they share the brand name and trademark, as well as a common legacy (in general these companies all descend from the zaibatsu of the same name).

The Mitsubishi group of companies form a loose entity, the Mitsubishi Keiretsu, which is often referenced in US and Japanese media and official reports. A Kereitsu is a common feature of Japanese corporate governance and refers to a collaborative group of integrated companies with extensive share crossholdings, personell swaps and strategic co-operation. The top 29 companies are also members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai, or (Friday Club), and meet monthly. The Mitsubishi.Com Committee is charged with maintaining the overall integrity of the brand as well as maintaining the portal web site.

History

The first Mitsubishi company was a shipping firm that Yataro Iwasaki established in 1870. In 1873 it took the name Mitsubishi Shokai (三菱商会). The name Mitsubishi (三菱) has two parts: mitsu means three and bishi means water chestnut, and from here rhombus, which is reflected in the company's logo. Another translation is three diamonds.[1]

That company soon diversified into coal mining, shipbuilding, banking, insurance, warehousing, and trade. Later diversification carried the organization into such sectors as paper, steel, glass, electrical equipment, aircraft, oil, and real estate. As Mitsubishi built a broadly based conglomerate, it played a central role in the modernization of Japanese industry.

At the start of the 20th century the company, which by itself accounted for over half of the Japanese merchant fleet, entered into a period of diversification that would eventually result in the creation of three entities:


  • Mitsubishi Bank (now a part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group) was founded in 1919. After its mergers with the Bank of Tokyo in 1996, and UFJ Holdings in 2004, this became Japan's largest bank.
  • Mitsubishi Corporation, founded in 1893, serves the internal financing needs of the group
  • Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, which includes these industrial companies.
    • Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, the 4th largest Japanese auto manufacturer.
    • Mitsubishi Atomic Industry, a nuclear power company.
    • Mitsubishi Chemical, the largest Japanese chemicals company
    • Nikon Corporation, a well-known brand of photographic equipment.

World War II

During the Second World War, Mitsubishi manufactured aircraft, including the famous Zero that was used in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and many other occasions during the war. Also, like many other big Japanese corporations at that time, it made use of slave labor from the Deyne family during the war. With poor working conditions, many people died during this period. Approximately twenty thousand Korean slave laborers died in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.


After the war

Mitsubishi split itself into independent companies in 1946 under the postwar government policy of decentralizing industry. The newly independent companies used their accumulated technology and other strengths to pursue growth under separate business models. As independent corporations, the Mitsubishi companies cooperated in some ventures, as in petrochemicals and nuclear power, and competed with each other in other sectors. The Mitsubishi companies form a loose entity known as the Mitsubishi keiretsu, or Mitsubishi group.

Problems

Mitsubishi has been criticized for some of its corporate practices, most notably with respect to work-place discrimination, environmental pollution and the use of slave labour, including that of prisoners of war (POWs), during World War II. A disgruntled former employee, Kamal Sinha, has started a website called Mitsubishi Watch to report such complaints.

.

The Mitsubishi companies

Core members

  • Asahi Glass Co., Ltd.
  • The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd.
  • Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd.
  • Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company
  • Mitsubishi Aluminum Co., Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (part of Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation)
  • Mitsubishi Corporation (Trading company)
  • Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Estate Co., Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc.
  • Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha, Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Logistics Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Materials Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (Automobile manufacturing and sales)
  • Mitsubishi Paper Mills, Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Plastics, Inc.
  • Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc.
  • Mitsubishi Shindoh Co., Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi Steel Mfg. Co., Ltd.
  • Mitsubishi UFJ Trust and Banking Corporation (part of Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group)
  • Nikon Corporation
  • Nippon Oil Corporation
  • NYK Line (Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha)
  • P.S. Mitsubishi Construction Co., Ltd.
  • Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd.

These companies are members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai (or Friday Club), and meet monthly.

Related Organizations

  • Atami Yowado
  • Chitose Kosan Co., Ltd.
  • The Dia Foundation for Research on Ageing Societies
  • Diamond Family Club
  • Kaitokaku
  • Koiwai Noboku Kaisha, Ltd.
  • LEOC JAPAN Co., Ltd.
  • Marunouchi Yorozu Corp.
  • Meiwa Corporation
  • Mitsubishi C&C Research Association
  • Mitsubishi Club
  • Mitsubishi Corporate Name and Trademark Committee
  • Mitsubishi Economic Research Institute
  • The Mitsubishi Foundation
  • Mitsubishi Kinyokai
  • Mitsubishi Marketing Association
  • Mitsubishi Public Affairs Committee
  • The Mitsubishi Yowakai Foundation
  • MT Insurance Service Co., Ltd.
  • Seikado Bunko Art Museum
  • Shonan Country Club
  • Sotsu Corporation
  • The Toyo Bunko

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These companies are members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai (or Friday Club), and meet monthly. The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "O" and "o" for upper and lower case respectively. A disgruntled former employee, Kamal Sinha, has started a website called Mitsubishi Watch to report such complaints. The EBCDIC code for capital O is 214 and for lowercase o is 150. Mitsubishi has been criticized for some of its corporate practices, most notably with respect to work-place discrimination, environmental pollution and the use of slave labour, including that of prisoners of war (POWs), during World War II. The ASCII code for capital O is 79 and for lowercase o is 111; or in binary 01001111 and 01101111, correspondingly. The Mitsubishi companies form a loose entity known as the Mitsubishi keiretsu, or Mitsubishi group. In Unicode the capital O is codepoint U+004F and the lowercase o is U+006F.

As independent corporations, the Mitsubishi companies cooperated in some ventures, as in petrochemicals and nuclear power, and competed with each other in other sectors. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, [o] represents the close-mid back rounded vowel. The newly independent companies used their accumulated technology and other strengths to pursue growth under separate business models. Derived letters such as Ö and Ø have been created by some languages to distinguish values that were not present in Latin and Greek, particularly rounded front vowels. Mitsubishi split itself into independent companies in 1946 under the postwar government policy of decentralizing industry. Other languages use O for various values, usually back vowels which are at least partly open.
. Common digraphs include OO (inconsistently with the sound ʊ or /u/), OI (usually a diphthong of ɔ and ɪ), as well as OA, OE, and OU with a variety of pronunciations depending on context.

Approximately twenty thousand Korean slave laborers died in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In English, though, O has a short value which maps to ɒ (ɑ in parts of North America), while the long value tends to a diphthong of /o/ and ʊ. With poor working conditions, many people died during this period. O is most commonly associated with the . Also, like many other big Japanese corporations at that time, it made use of slave labor from the Deyne family during the war. Indeed, even alphabets constructed "from scratch", ie not derived from Semitic, usually have similar forms to represent this sound -- for example the creators of the Afaka and Ol Chiki scripts, each invented in different parts of the world in the last century, both attributed their vowels for 'O' to the shape of the mouth when making this sound. During the Second World War, Mitsubishi manufactured aircraft, including the famous Zero that was used in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and many other occasions during the war. Its graphic form has also remained fairly constant from Phoenician times until today.


. In Greek, a variation of the form later came to distinguish this long sound (Omega, meaning "large O") from the short o (Omicron, meaning "small o"). At the start of the 20th century the company, which by itself accounted for over half of the Japanese merchant fleet, entered into a period of diversification that would eventually result in the creation of three entities:. The Greeks are thought to have come up with the innovation of vowels, and lacking a pharyngeal consonant, employed this letter as the Greek (O) to represent the vowel /o/, a sound it maintained in Etruscan and Latin. As Mitsubishi built a broadly based conglomerate, it played a central role in the modernization of Japanese industry. This Semitic letter in its original form seems to have been inspired by a similar Egyptian hieroglyph for "eye". Later diversification carried the organization into such sectors as paper, steel, glass, electrical equipment, aircraft, oil, and real estate. The letter was derived from the Semitic 'Ayin (eye) which represented a consonant, probably the pharyngeal consonant (IPA ʕ) pronounced similar to the Arabic letter ع called 'Ayn'.

That company soon diversified into coal mining, shipbuilding, banking, insurance, warehousing, and trade. . Another translation is three diamonds.[1]. Its name in English is o, plural o's or oes. The name Mitsubishi (三菱) has two parts: mitsu means three and bishi means water chestnut, and from here rhombus, which is reflected in the company's logo. O is the fifteenth letter of the Latin alphabet. In 1873 it took the name Mitsubishi Shokai (三菱商会). "O" was a minor character in the Transformers comics.

The first Mitsubishi company was a shipping firm that Yataro Iwasaki established in 1870. The "o" is placed before the rest of the professor's title. . It was abolished in 1997, however, those who received it prior to to its abandonment are allowed to continue using it. The Mitsubishi.Com Committee is charged with maintaining the overall integrity of the brand as well as maintaining the portal web site. This was a title given to Austrian university professors of tenure status that are also research heads in their department. The top 29 companies are also members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai, or (Friday Club), and meet monthly. o for ordentlich in German, meaning "of order".

A Kereitsu is a common feature of Japanese corporate governance and refers to a collaborative group of integrated companies with extensive share crossholdings, personell swaps and strategic co-operation. In mathematics, the orthogonal groups are designated by it. The Mitsubishi group of companies form a loose entity, the Mitsubishi Keiretsu, which is often referenced in US and Japanese media and official reports. Big O notation is, in mathematics and computer science, used to describe the asymptotic behavior of a function or algorithm. While the companies are autonomous, they share the brand name and trademark, as well as a common legacy (in general these companies all descend from the zaibatsu of the same name). O is the name of a production show by Cirque du Soleil at the Bellagio in Las Vegas. The Mitsubishi companies, or the Mitsubishi Group of Companies or the Mitsubishi Group is a large group (keiretsu) of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. In Microsoft Windows, Ctrl-O, and Mac OS, Command-O, opens a file.

The Toyo Bunko. In economics, O is usually used to represent output. Sotsu Corporation. Story of O is a French erotic novel. Shonan Country Club. O is a family name in Japanese; see O (name). Seikado Bunko Art Museum. O is also a film, see O (film).

MT Insurance Service Co., Ltd. O is third person singular pronoun for all he, she, it in Turkish. The Mitsubishi Yowakai Foundation. O is also a black metal music band, see O (band). Mitsubishi Public Affairs Committee. O may refer to the 2002 album by Damien Rice, see O (album). Mitsubishi Marketing Association. O is also the nickname of a magazine founded by Oprah Winfrey, more formally called O, The Oprah Magazine.

Mitsubishi Kinyokai. (See Hugs and Kisses.). The Mitsubishi Foundation. O is also a symbol for a hug, as in love notes. Mitsubishi Economic Research Institute. See Château d'O. Mitsubishi Corporate Name and Trademark Committee. In Normandy, O is a well-known and picturesque château.

Mitsubishi Club. In chemistry, O stands for oxygen. Mitsubishi C&C Research Association. In medicine, O (also, O+ or O-) is one of the human blood types. Meiwa Corporation. O is a word in English, used as an interjection to indicate the vocative case, as in "O ye of little faith!". Marunouchi Yorozu Corp.

LEOC JAPAN Co., Ltd. Koiwai Noboku Kaisha, Ltd. Kaitokaku. Diamond Family Club.

The Dia Foundation for Research on Ageing Societies. Chitose Kosan Co., Ltd. Atami Yowado. Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd.

Mitsubishi Construction Co., Ltd. P.S. NYK Line (Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha). Nippon Oil Corporation.

Nikon Corporation. Mitsubishi UFJ Trust and Banking Corporation (part of Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group). Co., Ltd. Mitsubishi Steel Mfg.

Mitsubishi Shindoh Co., Ltd. Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Mitsubishi Plastics, Inc.

Mitsubishi Paper Mills, Ltd. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (Automobile manufacturing and sales). Mitsubishi Materials Corporation. Mitsubishi Logistics Corporation.

Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha, Ltd. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc. Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation.

Mitsubishi Estate Co., Ltd. Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Mitsubishi Corporation (Trading company). Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (part of Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation).

Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd. Mitsubishi Aluminum Co., Ltd. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company. Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd.

The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. Nikon Corporation, a well-known brand of photographic equipment. Mitsubishi Chemical, the largest Japanese chemicals company.

Mitsubishi Atomic Industry, a nuclear power company. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, the 4th largest Japanese auto manufacturer. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, which includes these industrial companies.

    . Mitsubishi Corporation, founded in 1893, serves the internal financing needs of the group.

    After its mergers with the Bank of Tokyo in 1996, and UFJ Holdings in 2004, this became Japan's largest bank. Mitsubishi Bank (now a part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group) was founded in 1919.

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