The Mitsubishi companies, or the Mitsubishi Group of Companies or the Mitsubishi Group is a large group (keiretsu) of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. While the companies are autonomous, they share the brand name and trademark, as well as a common legacy (in general these companies all descend from the zaibatsu of the same name).
The Mitsubishi group of companies form a loose entity, the Mitsubishi Keiretsu, which is often referenced in US and Japanese media and official reports. A Kereitsu is a common feature of Japanese corporate governance and refers to a collaborative group of integrated companies with extensive share crossholdings, personell swaps and strategic co-operation. The top 29 companies are also members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai, or (Friday Club), and meet monthly. The Mitsubishi.Com Committee is charged with maintaining the overall integrity of the brand as well as maintaining the portal web site.
The first Mitsubishi company was a shipping firm that Yataro Iwasaki established in 1870. In 1873 it took the name Mitsubishi Shokai (三菱商会). The name Mitsubishi (三菱) has two parts: mitsu means three and bishi means water chestnut, and from here rhombus, which is reflected in the company's logo. Another translation is three diamonds.
That company soon diversified into coal mining, shipbuilding, banking, insurance, warehousing, and trade. Later diversification carried the organization into such sectors as paper, steel, glass, electrical equipment, aircraft, oil, and real estate. As Mitsubishi built a broadly based conglomerate, it played a central role in the modernization of Japanese industry.
At the start of the 20th century the company, which by itself accounted for over half of the Japanese merchant fleet, entered into a period of diversification that would eventually result in the creation of three entities:
World War II
During the Second World War, Mitsubishi manufactured aircraft, including the famous Zero that was used in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and many other occasions during the war. Also, like many other big Japanese corporations at that time, it made use of slave labor from the Deyne family during the war. With poor working conditions, many people died during this period. Approximately twenty thousand Korean slave laborers died in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
After the war
Mitsubishi split itself into independent companies in 1946 under the postwar government policy of decentralizing industry. The newly independent companies used their accumulated technology and other strengths to pursue growth under separate business models. As independent corporations, the Mitsubishi companies cooperated in some ventures, as in petrochemicals and nuclear power, and competed with each other in other sectors. The Mitsubishi companies form a loose entity known as the Mitsubishi keiretsu, or Mitsubishi group.
Mitsubishi has been criticized for some of its corporate practices, most notably with respect to work-place discrimination, environmental pollution and the use of slave labour, including that of prisoners of war (POWs), during World War II. A disgruntled former employee, Kamal Sinha, has started a website called Mitsubishi Watch to report such complaints.
The Mitsubishi companies
These companies are members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai (or Friday Club), and meet monthly.
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These companies are members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai (or Friday Club), and meet monthly. Some of the improvements that are being worked on are:. A disgruntled former employee, Kamal Sinha, has started a website called Mitsubishi Watch to report such complaints. There is a great deal of active research and development into mobile phone technology that is currently underway. Mitsubishi has been criticized for some of its corporate practices, most notably with respect to work-place discrimination, environmental pollution and the use of slave labour, including that of prisoners of war (POWs), during World War II. Vulnerabilities (such as SMS spoofing) have been found in many current protocols that continue to allow the possibility of eavesdropping or cloning. The Mitsubishi companies form a loose entity known as the Mitsubishi keiretsu, or Mitsubishi group. Although more recent digital systems (such as GSM) have attempted to address these fundamental issues, security problems continue to persist.
As independent corporations, the Mitsubishi companies cooperated in some ventures, as in petrochemicals and nuclear power, and competed with each other in other sectors. Analogue phones could also be listened to on some radio scanners. The newly independent companies used their accumulated technology and other strengths to pursue growth under separate business models. Some problems with these models were "cloning", a variant of identity theft, and "scanning" whereby third parties in the local area could intercept and eaves drop in on calls. Mitsubishi split itself into independent companies in 1946 under the postwar government policy of decentralizing industry. Early mobile phones did not have much security designed in.
Approximately twenty thousand Korean slave laborers died in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Drivers in the Czech Republic, France, and the Netherlands may use cell phones but can be fined if they are involved in crashes while using such a device. With poor working conditions, many people died during this period. Australia, Brazil, Chile, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, the Philippines, Romania, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United Arab Emirates prohibit the use of hand-held cell phones while driving. Also, like many other big Japanese corporations at that time, it made use of slave labor from the Deyne family during the war. At least 25 countries restrict or prohibit cell and other wireless technology: Israel, Japan, Portugal and Singapore all prohibit mobile phone use while driving. During the Second World War, Mitsubishi manufactured aircraft, including the famous Zero that was used in the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and many other occasions during the war. Accidents involving a driver being distracted by talking on a mobile phone have begun to be prosecuted as negligence similar to driving while intoxicated.
That company soon diversified into coal mining, shipbuilding, banking, insurance, warehousing, and trade. . Another translation is three diamonds.. It is generally thought, however, that RF is incapable of producing any more than heating effects, as it is considered non-ionizing radiation; in other words, it lacks the energy to disrupt molecular bonds such as occurs in genetic mutations. The name Mitsubishi (三菱) has two parts: mitsu means three and bishi means water chestnut, and from here rhombus, which is reflected in the company's logo. (see also electromagnetic radiation hazard). In 1873 it took the name Mitsubishi Shokai (三菱商会). So far, however, the World Health Organization Task Force on EMF effects on health has no definitive conclusion on the veracity of these allegations.
The first Mitsubishi company was a shipping firm that Yataro Iwasaki established in 1870. Some researchers also report the mobile phone industry has interfered with further research on health risks. . More recently a pan-European study provided significant evidence of genetic damage under certain conditions. The Mitsubishi.Com Committee is charged with maintaining the overall integrity of the brand as well as maintaining the portal web site. There is a small amount of scientific evidence for an increase in certain types of rare tumors (cancer) in long-time, heavy users. The top 29 companies are also members of the Mitsubishi Kinyokai, or (Friday Club), and meet monthly. As with many new technologies, concerns have arisen about the effects on health from using a mobile telephone.
A Kereitsu is a common feature of Japanese corporate governance and refers to a collaborative group of integrated companies with extensive share crossholdings, personell swaps and strategic co-operation. Each network operator has a unique radio frequency band. The Mitsubishi group of companies form a loose entity, the Mitsubishi Keiretsu, which is often referenced in US and Japanese media and official reports. Some technologies include AMPS for analog, and TDMA, CDMA, GSM, GPRS, EV-DO, and UMTS for digital communications. While the companies are autonomous, they share the brand name and trademark, as well as a common legacy (in general these companies all descend from the zaibatsu of the same name). The technology that achieves this depends on the system which the mobile phone operator has adopted. The Mitsubishi companies, or the Mitsubishi Group of Companies or the Mitsubishi Group is a large group (keiretsu) of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. The dialogue between the handset and the cell site is a stream of digitized audio (except for the first generation analog networks).
The Toyo Bunko. The switch in turn connects the call to another subscriber of the same wireless service provider or to the public telephone network, which includes the networks of other wireless carriers. Sotsu Corporation. Cell sites have relatively low-power (often only one or two Watts) radio transmitters which broadcast their presence and relay communications between the mobile handsets and the switch. Shonan Country Club. As the user moves around the network, the mobile device will "hand off" to new cell sites. Seikado Bunko Art Museum. The handset constantly listens for the strongest signal being received from the surrounding base stations.
MT Insurance Service Co., Ltd. When the cellular phone or data device is turned on, it registers with the mobile telephone exchange ("switch") with its unique identifiers, and will then be alerted by the mobile switch when there is an incoming telephone call. The Mitsubishi Yowakai Foundation. The phones have a low-power transceiver that transmits voice and data to the nearest cell sites, usually .5 to 10 miles away. Mitsubishi Public Affairs Committee. However, all of them communicate through electromagnetic radio waves with a cell site/base station, the antennas of which are usually mounted on a tower, pole, or building. Mitsubishi Marketing Association. Mobile phones and the network they operate under vary significantly from provider to provider, and even from nation to nation.
Mitsubishi Kinyokai. Mobile phones often have features beyond sending text messages and make voice calls—including Internet browsing, music (MP3) playback, personal organizers, e-mail, built-in cameras and camcorders, ringtones, games, radio, Push To Talk (PTT), infrared and bluetooth connectivity, call registers, and ability to watch streaming video or download video for later viewing. The Mitsubishi Foundation. In the event of an emergency, disaster response crews can locate trapped or injured people using the signals from their mobile phones; an interactive menu accessible through the phone's Internet browser notifies the company if the user is safe or in distress. Mitsubishi Economic Research Institute. In Japan, cellular phone companies provide immediate notification of earthquakes and other natural disasters to their customers free of charge. Mitsubishi Corporate Name and Trademark Committee. Stories like the London Bombings, the Indian Ocean Tsunami and Hurricane Katrina have been reported on by cameraphone users on news sites like NowPublic and photosharing sites like Flickr.
Mitsubishi Club. Cameraphones and videophones that can capture video and take photographs are increasingly being used to cover breaking news. Mitsubishi C&C Research Association. Mobile phone use on aircraft is also prohibited, but due to concerns of possible interference with aircraft radio communications. Meiwa Corporation. Many rail companies, particularly those providing long distance services, offer a "quiet car" where phone use is prohibited, much like the designated non-smoking cars in the past. Marunouchi Yorozu Corp. It has become common practice for places like bookshops, libraries, movie theatres, and houses of worship to post signs prohibiting the use of mobile phones, sometimes even installing jamming equipment to prevent them.
LEOC JAPAN Co., Ltd. Users often speak at increased volume, with little regard for other people nearby. Koiwai Noboku Kaisha, Ltd. Mobile phone etiquette has become an important issue with mobiles ringing at funerals, weddings, movies, and plays. Kaitokaku. The sale of commercial ringtones exceeded $2.5 billion in 2004 . Diamond Family Club. This has emerged as its own industry.
The Dia Foundation for Research on Ageing Societies. The mobile phone itself has also become a totemic and fashion object, with users decorating, customizing, and accessorizing their mobile phones to reflect their personality. Chitose Kosan Co., Ltd. Cellular phones in Japan, offering Internet capabilities such as NTT DoCoMo's i-mode, offer text messaging via standard e-mail. Atami Yowado. Many phones even offer Instant Messenger services to increase the simplicity and ease of texting on phones. Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. The commercial market in SMS's is growing.
Mitsubishi Construction Co., Ltd. Many people keep in touch using SMS, and a whole culture of "texting" has developed from this. P.S. With high levels of mobile telephone penetration, a mobile culture has evolved, where the phone becomes a key social tool, and people rely on their mobile phone addressbook to keep in touch with their friends. NYK Line (Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha). In some developing countries, where there is little existing fixed-line infrastructure, the mobile phone has become widespread. Nippon Oil Corporation. It is not uncommon for young adults to simply own a mobile phone instead of a land-line for their residence.
Nikon Corporation. In many countries, mobile phones now outnumber land-line telephones, with most adults and many children now owning mobile phones. Mitsubishi UFJ Trust and Banking Corporation (part of Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group). In less than twenty years, mobile phones have gone from being rare and expensive pieces of equipment used by businesses to a pervasive low-cost personal item. Co., Ltd. In other countries, such as the United States, Japan, and South Korea, legislation does not require any particular standard, and GSM coexists with other standards, such as CDMA. Mitsubishi Steel Mfg. All European nations and some Asian nations legislated it as their sole standard.
Mitsubishi Shindoh Co., Ltd. This is due to the equipment manufacturers working to meet one of a few standards, particularly the GSM standard which was designed for Europe-wide interoperability. Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. The mobile phone has become ubiquitous because of the interoperability of mobile phones across different networks and countries. Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. The availability of Prepaid or pay as you go services, where the subscriber does not have to commit to a long term contract, has helped fuel this growth. Mitsubishi Plastics, Inc. At present India and China have the largest growth rates of cellular subscribers in the world.
Mitsubishi Paper Mills, Ltd. In most of Europe, wealthier parts of Asia and Latin America, Australia, Canada and the United States, mobile phones are now widely used, with the majority of the adult, teenage, and even child population owning one. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (Automobile manufacturing and sales). Due to their low establishment costs and rapid deployment, mobile phone networks have since spread rapidly throughout the world, outstripping the growth of fixed telephony. Mitsubishi Materials Corporation. Radio phones have a long and varied history that stretches back to the 1950s, with hand-held cellular radio devices being available since 1983. Mitsubishi Logistics Corporation. .
Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha, Ltd. Mobile phones are also distinct from cordless telephones, which generally operate only within a limited range of a specific base station. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. There are also specialist communication systems related to, but distinct from mobile phones, such as satellite phones and Professional Mobile Radio. Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc. Some of the world's largest mobile phone manufacturers include Alcatel, Audiovox, Fujitsu, Kyocera (formerly the handset division of Qualcomm), LG, Motorola, NEC, Nokia, Panasonic (Matsushita Electric), Philips, Sagem, Samsung, Sanyo, Sharp, Siemens, SK Teletech, Sony Ericsson, and Toshiba. Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. In addition to the standard voice function of a telephone, a mobile phone can support many additional services such as SMS for text messaging, packet switching for access to the Internet, and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video.
Mitsubishi Estate Co., Ltd. The mobile phone communicates via a cellular network of base stations, or cell sites, which are in turn linked to the conventional telephone network. Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Most current mobile phones connect instead to the network using a wireless radio wave transmission technology. Mitsubishi Corporation (Trading company). A mobile phone or cell phone is an electronic telecommunications device with the same basic capability as a conventional fixed-line telephone, but which is also entirely portable and is not required to be connected with a wire to the telephone network. Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (part of Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation). The GPS technology already available in some phones, while coupled with the camera phone, may also allow users in the future to not only take a picture, but snap the exact location and angle at which the picture was taken.
Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd. This would likely lead to maps and help finding where you are going, and supports social efforts, such as locating friends or group members nearby, and identifying some strangers. Mitsubishi Aluminum Co., Ltd. In the future, GPS positioning may be coupled with accelerometer positioning, for covering underground or indoor positioning. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company. There are several cell phones that can perform GPS positioning. Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd. But it is likely that the bandwidth to communicate the video, and receive a processed model will exist.
The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. It is unlikely that cell phones will have the processing power to construct models and textures. Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. With time, this may develop into full 3D texturing and modeling. Nikon Corporation, a well-known brand of photographic equipment. Image scanning, as seen in existing research  . Mitsubishi Chemical, the largest Japanese chemicals company. These methods avoid swamping the network by using traditional broadcasting.
Mitsubishi Atomic Industry, a nuclear power company. The delivery of multimedia content including video to mobiles is beginning to become a reality with two main competing standards DMB - Digital Multimedia Broadcasting - and DVB-H - a handset version of the Digital Video Broadcasting standard. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, the 4th largest Japanese auto manufacturer. The technology is proving popular and there are now even vending machines that accept this form of payment. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, which includes these industrial companies.
After its mergers with the Bank of Tokyo in 1996, and UFJ Holdings in 2004, this became Japan's largest bank. New technology in Japan has combined the RFID chip principle into the handset and hooked it up to a network of readers and interfaces. Mitsubishi Bank (now a part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group) was founded in 1919. Directly tapping into the inner ear or the auditory nerve is already technologically feasible and will become practical as surgical methods advance. In addition, the implant was only designed to receive signals, not transmit them. The implant is currently powered externally, given that no current power source is small enough to fit inside the tooth with it.
Sound is transmitted via radio waves from another device (presumably a mobile phone) and received by the implant. This device consists of a radio receiver and transducer, which transmits the sound via bone conduction through the jawbone into the ear. Speculative improvements in the future may be inspired by an English team led by James Auger and Jimmy Loizeau who in 2002 developed an implant designed to be inserted into a tooth during dental surgery. However, different display technologies, such as OLED displays, e-paper or retinal displays, smarter communication hardware (directional antennae, multi-mode and peer-to-peer phones) may reduce power requirements, while new power technologies such as fuel cells may provide better energy capacity.
Colour screens and additional functions put increasing demands on the device's power source, and battery developments may not proceed sufficiently fast to compensate. Further improvements in battery life will be required. The new standard (UMA) has been developed for this. The emergence of integration capabilities with other unlicensed access technologies such as a WiMAX and WLAN, as well as allowing handover between traditional operator networks supporting GSM, CDMA and UMTS to unlicensed mobile networks.
Developments in podcast software enables mobile phones to become podcast playback devices through existing channels like MMS Podcast, J2ME Podcast and AMR-NB Podcast. Developments in miniaturised hard disks and flash drives to solve the storage space issue are already surfacing, therefore opening a window for phones to become portable music libraries and players similar to the iPod. Examples of companies that are currently developing this technology are Neomedia (via Paperclick), Mobot and Scanbuy. Searches can also be personalized to local areas using a GPS system built in to cell phones.
This technology can be extended to RFID tags, or even snapped pictures of company logos. Phones equipped with barcode reader-enabled cameras will be able to snap photos of barcodes and direct the user to corresponding sites on the Internet. New technologies are being explored that will utilize the Extended Internet and enable mobile phones to treat a barcode as a URL tag. However, to support more natural speech recognition and translation, a drastic improvement in the state of technology in these devices is required.
Many phones already have rudimentary speech recognition in a form of voice dialing. Mobile phones will include various speech technologies as they are being developed. Examples of companies that are currently developing this technology are Digital Airways with the Kaleido product, e-sim, mobile arsenal, and Qualcomm with UIOne for the BREW environment. New solutions are being developed to create new MMI more easily and let manufacturers and operators experiment new concepts.
An important area of evolution relates to the Man Machine Interface. Currently it is only available in stand-alone devices, such as Ectaco translators. One function that would be useful in phones is a translation function. However, this may be solved using folding e-paper or built-in projectors.
For example, ebooks may well become a distinct device, because of conflicting form-factor requirements — ebooks require large screens, while phones need to be smaller. One difficulty in adapting mobile phones to new uses is form factor.