Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Nickname: "The City of Festivals", "The Genuine American City", "Cream City", "Brewtown/Brew City"
Motto: "'"
Official website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov
Location


Location of Milwaukee in
Milwaukee County, Wisconsin

Government
County Milwaukee
Mayor Tom Barrett
Geographical characteristics
Area
Total 251.0 km²
Land 248.8 km²
Water 2.2 km²
Population
Total (2000) 596,974
Metro area 1,709,926
Density 2399.5/km²
Density {{{population_density_mi2}}}/mi²
Latitude {{{latitude}}}
Longitude {{{longitude}}}
Coordinates 43°03′00″ N
87°57′00″ W
Elevation m
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)

Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin, United States and the county of Milwaukee. The city's population is 592,765 (2005 estimate) with an estimated total of 1,709,926 in the Milwaukee metropolitan area (2005). The city of Milwaukee is the 22nd largest city in the United States. The city is located in the southeastern portion of the state on the western shore of Lake Michigan.

History

The Milwaukee area was originally inhabited by the Fox, Mascouten, Potawatomi, and Winnebago Indian tribes. Milwaukee received its name from the Indian word Millioke which means "The Good Land", or "gathering place by the water." French missionaries and traders passed through the area in the late 1600s and 1700s.

In 1818, Frenchman Solomon Juneau settled in the area. Juneau bought out his father-in-law's trading business, and in 1833 he founded a town on the east side of the Milwaukee River. In 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring rival towns to incorporate as the City of Milwaukee: Kilbourntown to the west, which was founded by Byron Kilbourn, and Walker's Point to the south, founded by George H. Walker. Juneau was Milwaukee's first mayor. German immigrants helped increase the city's population during the 1840s and the following decades. Milwaukee still today has a large German-American population. The liberal tradition of these peoples led to decades of socialist government in Milwaukee during the twentieth century.

From the late 19th century until the 1950s, Milwaukee, like many northern industrial cities, saw tremendous growth from immigrants from Germany, Hungary, Poland and other central European nations, as well as the northward migration of African-Americans from southern U.S. states. This helped make Milwaukee one of the 15 largest cities in the nation, and by the mid-1960s, its population reached nearly 750,000. Starting in the late 1960s, however, like many cities in the Great Lakes "rust belt," Milwaukee saw its population start to decline due to various factors, ranging from the loss of blue collar jobs to the phenomenon of "white flight." However, in recent years, the city began to make strides in improving its economy, neighborhoods, and image, resulting in the revitalization of neighborhoods such as the Third Ward, east side,and more recently, Bay View, along with attracting new businesses to its downtown area. While the city still faces a shrinking population[1], it continues to make plans for increasing its future revitalization through various projects.

Geography and climate

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 251.0 km² (96.9 square miles). 248.8 km² (96.1 square miles) of it is land and 2.2 km² (0.9 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 0.88% water.

Cityscape

Milwaukee lies along the shores and bluffs of Lake Michigan at the confluence of three rivers: the Menomonee, the Kinnickinnic and the Milwaukee. It is crossed by Interstate 43 and Interstate 94, which come together downtown at the Marquette Interchange.

View of the Milwaukee River from downtown.

Climate

Milwaukee's proximity to Lake Michigan causes a convection current to form mid-afternoon, resulting in the so-called lake effect, causing the temperatures to be warmer in the winter, and cooler in the summer ("cooler by the lake" is practically boilerplate language for local meteorologists during the summer). Also, the relative humidity in the summer is far higher than that of comparable cities at the same latitude, meaning that it feels hotter than it really is.

Milwaukee's all-time record high temperature is 105°F (41°C) set on July 17, 1995. The coldest temperature ever experienced by the city was -26°F (-32°C) on both January 17, 1982 and February 4, 1996. The 1982 event, also known as Cold Sunday, featured temperatures as low as -40°F (-40°C) in some of the suburbs as little as 10 miles (16km) to the north of Milwaukee, although the city itself did not approach such cold temperatures.

Demographics

In the 2000 census, over a third (38 percent) of Milwaukeeans reported that they were of German descent. Other large population groups include Polish (12.7%), Irish (10%), English (5.1%), Italian (4.4%), French (3.9%), and Hispanic origin totaled 6.3%.

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there are 596,974 people, 232,188 households, and 135,133 families residing in the city. The population density is 2,399.5/km² (6,214.3 per square mile). There are 249,225 housing units at an average density of 1,001.7/km² (2,594.4 per square mile). The racial makeup of the city is 49.98% White, 37.34% African American, 0.87% Native American, 2.94% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.10% from other races, and 2.71% from two or more races. 12.00% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There are 232,188 households out of which 30.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% are married couples living together, 21.1% have a female householder with no husband present, and 41.8% are non-families. 33.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.50 and the average family size is 3.25.

In the city the population is spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 12.2% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 31 years. For every 100 females there are 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 87.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $32,216, and the median income for a family is $37,879. Males have a median income of $32,244 versus $26,013 for females. The per capita income for the city is $16,181. 21.3% of the population and 17.4% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 31.6% of those under the age of 18 and 11.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Transportation

Milwaukee uses the Interstate Highways for its main transportation. I-94 comes up from Chicago to enter Milwaukee continues to Madison I-43 also enters Milwaukee from the south and continues to Green Bay where it ends. Milwaukee also has many internal freeways as well. Residents may also use the Milwaukee County Transit System to get around the city as well as the county via the bus.

Economy

Although most people associate Milwaukee with beer, today companies like Miller Brewing employ less than one percent of the city's workers. Milwaukee's reputation as a blue collar town is more accurate, however, with 22 percent of the workforce involved in manufacturing — second only to San Jose, CA and far higher than the national average of 16.5%. Service and managerial jobs are the fastest growing segments of the Milwaukee economy, and healthcare makes up 27% of all service jobs in the city.

Milwaukee is headquarters to six Fortune 1000 manufacturers and six Fortune 1000 service companies. Among these are Briggs & Stratton, Harley-Davidson, Johnson Controls, Manpower Inc., Marshall & Ilsley, Northwestern Mutual, Rockwell Automation, Roundy's Supermarkets, Metavante, Kohl's, and Wisconsin Energy. The Milwaukee area ranked number five in the nation when measuring the number of Fortune 500 companies as a share of the population, just behind the number four Minneapolis-St. Paul region. Milwaukee also has a large number of financial service firms, particularly those specializing in mutual funds and transaction processing systems, and a disproportionate number of publishing and printing companies.

Culture and sports

Culture

The Milwaukee Art Museum

Milwaukee's most visually prominent cultural attraction is the Milwaukee Art Museum, especially its new $100 million wing designed by Santiago Calatrava in his first American commission. The museum includes a "brise soleil," a moving sunscreen that quite literally unfolds like the wing of a bird. The Milwaukee Public Museum, Mitchell Park Horticultural Conservatory and Milwaukee County Zoo are also notable public attractions.

Milwaukee is home to the Florentine Opera, the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, the Milwaukee Ballet, Milwaukee Repertory Theatre, Skylight Opera Theatre, First Stage Children's Theater,Milwaukee Youth Theatre, and a number of other arts organizations. Additionally, Milwaukee is home to artistic performance venues such as the Marcus Center for the Performing Arts, Pabst Theatre, Riverside Theatre, and Milwaukee Theatre. The Milwaukee Youth Arts Center, a first-of-its-kind Arts-in-education facility, is a national model.

Milwaukee, "A Great Place on a Great Lake" and "Genuine American," has also advertised itself as the "City of Festivals," emphasizing an annual lakefront fair called Summerfest. Listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest music festival in the world, Summerfest attracts around 900,000 visitors a year to its twelve stages. Smaller festivals througout the year celebrate the city's German, Native American, African-American, Italian, Irish, Asian, Arab, and Polish heritage.

Due in large part to its brewery history, the city has been called "the nation's watering hole" with more bars per capita than any other large city in the country (one bar for every 1600 people or approximately 375 bars, four bars for every square mile). Along the same lines, the tradition of tailgating (for almost any event, but especially Brewers games), where copious amounts of beer and other potent potables are ceremoniously consumed, is deeply engrained in culture of the city and its residents both young and old.

Although Milwaukee isn't known historically as a club scene music mecca, it does have a vibrant history of rock, blues, punk, ska, industrial music, goth and pop music bands. A range of musicians have called Milwaukee home, including Hildegarde, Woody Herman, Liberace, blues giant Hubert Sumlin, the BoDeans, Violent Femmes, Citizen King, The Gufs, The Promise Ring, Oil Tasters, Die Kruezen, Boy Dirt Car, Shiverhead, among others. Local hip-hop action includes acts like Rusty Ps and Black Elephant. Coo Coo Cal gave Milwaukee a national foothold in the hip-hop market with his hit single "My Projects". Beer City Skateboards is not only a skateboard company, but a punk rock label as well, home to DRI and Millions of Dead Cops. Venues such as Pabst Theater and The Rave bring internationally-known and critically acclaimed acts to Milwaukee every day.

Milwaukee is also home to a vibrant club scene booking regular international DJs such as Richie Hawtin, LTJ Bukem, Mark Farina, Derrick Carter and others. Milwaukee was home to a vibrant rave scene in the early Nineties, especially fostering hardcore techno, thanks to Drop Bass; but the scene moved south to Chicago after reaction by city authorities. Milwaukee was also an epicenter of the breakcore scene in early 2000s with labels like Addict Records and Zod Records.

Sports

It is also home to a number of professional sports teams including:

The Milwaukee Mile auto racing facility, the oldest active auto race track in the United States, is located on the Wisconsin State Fair Grounds in West Allis. The Mile is not far from the Pettit National Ice Center, a U.S. Olympic Team training facility for speed skating.

Previous sports teams to play in Milwaukee have included:

In addition, the Green Bay Packers played a portion of their home schedule in Milwaukee from 1933 through 1994:

The 1939 Championship between the Packers and the New York Giants was played at State Fair Park. The Packers won, 27-0.

To this day, the Packers maintain two separate season ticket plans, reflecting their time in Milwaukee: the Gold package, made up primarily of former Milwaukee season ticket holders, have a three-game package consisting of the annual Midwest Shrine preseason contest plus the second and fifth regular-season home games each year, and the Green package (made up of original Green Bay ticket holders) attend the annual Bishop's Charities preseason game and the remaining six regular-season contests.

Education

Milwaukee maintains Milwaukee Public Schools, the largest school district in Wisconsin. As of 2006, it has an enrolment of 95,600 students and employs 6,100 full-time and substitute teachers in 223 schools.

Colleges and universities

High schools

Media

Newspapers serving Milwaukee include:

Broadcast media:

Airports

Colloquialisms


This page about Milwaukee includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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Broadcast media:. But the N64 guaranteed the second place in the market, easily outselling the Sega Saturn (10 million). Newspapers serving Milwaukee include:. With 32 million Nintendo 64 units sold worldwide [2], Nintendo was unsuccessful in recapturing the preceding SNES's market share and the fifth generation was taken over by the PlayStation which had sold over 100 million units worldwide. As of 2006, it has an enrolment of 95,600 students and employs 6,100 full-time and substitute teachers in 223 schools. Backup/development units:. Milwaukee maintains Milwaukee Public Schools, the largest school district in Wisconsin. If the chip did not match the game's boot code, the game would not run.

To this day, the Packers maintain two separate season ticket plans, reflecting their time in Milwaukee: the Gold package, made up primarily of former Milwaukee season ticket holders, have a three-game package consisting of the annual Midwest Shrine preseason contest plus the second and fifth regular-season home games each year, and the Green package (made up of original Green Bay ticket holders) attend the annual Bishop's Charities preseason game and the remaining six regular-season contests. To discourage playing of copied games by piggybacking a real cartridge, Nintendo produced five different versions of the chip. The Packers won, 27-0. Unlike previous versions, the N64 lockout chip contains a seed value which is used to calculate a checksum of the game's boot code. The 1939 Championship between the Packers and the New York Giants was played at State Fair Park. Each Nintendo 64 cartridge contains a so-called lockout chip to prevent manufacturers from creating unauthorized copies of the games. In addition, the Green Bay Packers played a portion of their home schedule in Milwaukee from 1933 through 1994:. Naboo enjoyed an impressive draw distance and large amounts of snow and rain even with the high resolution, thanks to their efforts.

Previous sports teams to play in Milwaukee have included:. Then for Naboo they took what they learned from Rogue and pushed the machine even farther to make the game run at 640x480, and implement enhancements for both particles and the landscape engine. Olympic Team training facility for speed skating. In Rogue Squadron the team tweaked the microcode for a landscape engine to create the alien worlds. The Mile is not far from the Pettit National Ice Center, a U.S. Factor 5 also showed ingenuity with their Star Wars games, Rogue Squadron and Battle for Naboo, where their team again used custom microcode. The Milwaukee Mile auto racing facility, the oldest active auto race track in the United States, is located on the Wisconsin State Fair Grounds in West Allis. In the end, the game was more feature filled than the PC version (quite a feat) and was one of the most advanced games for Nintendo 64.

It is also home to a number of professional sports teams including:. Factor 5's microcode allowed almost unlimited realtime lighting, and significantly boosted the polygon count. Milwaukee was also an epicenter of the breakcore scene in early 2000s with labels like Addict Records and Zod Records. They wrote microcode for realtime lighting, because the SGI code was poor for this task, and they wanted to have more lighting than even the PC version had used. Milwaukee was home to a vibrant rave scene in the early Nineties, especially fostering hardcore techno, thanks to Drop Bass; but the scene moved south to Chicago after reaction by city authorities. They took advantage of the cartridge as a texture streaming source to squeeze as much detail into each environment, and work around RAM limitations. Milwaukee is also home to a vibrant club scene booking regular international DJs such as Richie Hawtin, LTJ Bukem, Mark Farina, Derrick Carter and others. The tool would analyze each texture and try to choose the best texture format to work with the machine and look as good as possible.

Venues such as Pabst Theater and The Rave bring internationally-known and critically acclaimed acts to Milwaukee every day. To work around the 4KB texture cache the programmers came up with custom texture formats and tools to help the artists make the best possible textures. Beer City Skateboards is not only a skateboard company, but a punk rock label as well, home to DRI and Millions of Dead Cops. For starters, the Z-buffer could not be used because it alone used up a huge amount of the console's texture fillrate. Coo Coo Cal gave Milwaukee a national foothold in the hip-hop market with his hit single "My Projects". The machine was taxed to the limit running at 640x480 though, so they absolutely needed to scrape every last bit of performance they could out of N64. Local hip-hop action includes acts like Rusty Ps and Black Elephant. In this game the Factor 5 team decided they wanted the game to run in high resolution mode (640x480) because of how much they liked the crispness it added.

A range of musicians have called Milwaukee home, including Hildegarde, Woody Herman, Liberace, blues giant Hubert Sumlin, the BoDeans, Violent Femmes, Citizen King, The Gufs, The Promise Ring, Oil Tasters, Die Kruezen, Boy Dirt Car, Shiverhead, among others. One of the best examples of rewritten µcode on N64 was with Factor 5's Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine. Although Milwaukee isn't known historically as a club scene music mecca, it does have a vibrant history of rock, blues, punk, ska, industrial music, goth and pop music bands. It was, however, far more difficult to program for and to reach peak performance/quality. Along the same lines, the tradition of tailgating (for almost any event, but especially Brewers games), where copious amounts of beer and other potent potables are ceremoniously consumed, is deeply engrained in culture of the city and its residents both young and old. Still, with these drawbacks to the hardware, the machine was architecturally superior in nearly every way to the PlayStation. Due in large part to its brewery history, the city has been called "the nation's watering hole" with more bars per capita than any other large city in the country (one bar for every 1600 people or approximately 375 bars, four bars for every square mile). There was no memory prefetch or read under write functionality either.

Smaller festivals througout the year celebrate the city's German, Native American, African-American, Italian, Irish, Asian, Arab, and Polish heritage. The R4300 CPU was the worst off component because it had to go through the RCP to access main memory, and could not use DMA (the RCP could) to do so, so its RAM access performance was quite poor. Listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest music festival in the world, Summerfest attracts around 900,000 visitors a year to its twelve stages. Game developers also said that the N64's memory controller setup was fairly poor, and this magnified the situation somewhat. Milwaukee, "A Great Place on a Great Lake" and "Genuine American," has also advertised itself as the "City of Festivals," emphasizing an annual lakefront fair called Summerfest. A high latency memory subsystem creates delays in how fast the processors can get the data they need, and how fast they can alter this data. The Milwaukee Youth Arts Center, a first-of-its-kind Arts-in-education facility, is a national model. The RDRAM was incredibly high latency memory (640 ns read) and this mostly cancelled out its high bandwidth advantage.

Additionally, Milwaukee is home to artistic performance venues such as the Marcus Center for the Performing Arts, Pabst Theatre, Riverside Theatre, and Milwaukee Theatre. The unified memory subsystem of Nintendo 64 was another critical weakness for the machine. Milwaukee is home to the Florentine Opera, the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, the Milwaukee Ballet, Milwaukee Repertory Theatre, Skylight Opera Theatre, First Stage Children's Theater,Milwaukee Youth Theatre, and a number of other arts organizations. This game also used custom microcode to improve the RSP's capabilities. The Milwaukee Public Museum, Mitchell Park Horticultural Conservatory and Milwaukee County Zoo are also notable public attractions. In fact, World Driver Championship was one of the most polygon-loaded N64 games and frequently would push past Sony Playstation's typical in-game polygon counts. The museum includes a "brise soleil," a moving sunscreen that quite literally unfolds like the wing of a bird. Most Nintendo 64 games were actually fillrate limited, not geometry limited, which is ironic considering the great concern for N64's low ~100,000 polygon per second rating during its time.

Milwaukee's most visually prominent cultural attraction is the Milwaukee Art Museum, especially its new $100 million wing designed by Santiago Calatrava in his first American commission. Z-Buffering significantly crippled the RDP's fillrate so managing the Z-depth of objects, so things would appear in the right order and not on top of each other, was put on the programmer instead of the hardware to get maximum speed. Milwaukee also has a large number of financial service firms, particularly those specializing in mutual funds and transaction processing systems, and a disproportionate number of publishing and printing companies. There were other challenges for developers to work around. Paul region. Conker's Bad Fur Day is possibly the best example of this ingenuity. The Milwaukee area ranked number five in the nation when measuring the number of Fortune 500 companies as a share of the population, just behind the number four Minneapolis-St. Creative developers towards the end of N64's lifetime managed to use tricks such as multi-layered texturing and heavily clamped small texture pieces to simulate larger textures.

Among these are Briggs & Stratton, Harley-Davidson, Johnson Controls, Manpower Inc., Marshall & Ilsley, Northwestern Mutual, Rockwell Automation, Roundy's Supermarkets, Metavante, Kohl's, and Wisconsin Energy. To put this in perspective, this cache could be quickly filled with even small textures (a 64x64 4-bit/pixel texture is 2KB and a 128x64 4-bit/pixel texture is 4KB). Milwaukee is headquarters to six Fortune 1000 manufacturers and six Fortune 1000 service companies. To make matters worse, because of how the renderer was designed, if mip mapping was used the texture cache was effectively halved to 2KB. Service and managerial jobs are the fastest growing segments of the Milwaukee economy, and healthcare makes up 27% of all service jobs in the city. This was the primary cause of N64's blurry texturing, secondary to the blurring caused by the trilinear filtering and limited ROM storage. Milwaukee's reputation as a blue collar town is more accurate, however, with 22 percent of the workforce involved in manufacturing — second only to San Jose, CA and far higher than the national average of 16.5%. This made it extremely difficult to load large textures into the rendering engine, especially textures with high color depth.

Although most people associate Milwaukee with beer, today companies like Miller Brewing employ less than one percent of the city's workers. One major flaw was the limited texture cache of 4KB. Residents may also use the Milwaukee County Transit System to get around the city as well as the county via the bus. The Nintendo 64 had some glaring weaknesses that were caused by a combination of oversight on the part of the hardware designers, limitations on 3D technology of the time, and manufacturing capabilities. Milwaukee also has many internal freeways as well. Two of the SGI microcodes. I-94 comes up from Chicago to enter Milwaukee continues to Madison I-43 also enters Milwaukee from the south and continues to Green Bay where it ends. Factor 5, Boss Game Studios, and Rare).

Milwaukee uses the Interstate Highways for its main transportation. Several companies were able to create custom microcode programs that ran their software far better than SGI's generic software (i.e. Out of the total population, 31.6% of those under the age of 18 and 11.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Some developers noted that the default SGI microcode ("Fast3D") was actually quite poorly profiled for use in games (it was too accurate), and performance suffered as a result. 21.3% of the population and 17.4% of families are below the poverty line. As a result, it was extremely easy to make mistakes that would be very hard to track down; mistakes that could cause seemingly random bugs or glitches. The per capita income for the city is $16,181. Programming RSP microcode was said to be quite difficult because the N64 µcode tools were very basic, with no debugger, and poor documentation.

Males have a median income of $32,244 versus $26,013 for females. However, Nintendo was quite unwilling to share the microcode tools with developers until the end of N64's lifecycle when they shared this information with a select number of companies. The median income for a household in the city is $32,216, and the median income for a family is $37,879. By altering the microcode run on the device it can perform different operations, create new effects, be better tuned for speed or quality, among other possibilities. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 87.2 males. The RSP is completely programmable, through microcode (µcode). For every 100 females there are 91.6 males. This created a fascinating system that was quite flexible and moldable to the game's needs, but it also assumed the programmer would be able to properly profile the code to optimize usage of each part of the machine.

The median age is 31 years. Workload on N64 could be arranged almost in any way the programmer saw fit. In the city the population is spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 12.2% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who are 65 years of age or older. It was relatively common to do audio on the main CPU to increase the graphics performance. The average household size is 2.50 and the average family size is 3.25. Nintendo 64 was one of the few consoles without a dedicated audio chip so these tasks fell on the RSP and/or CPU. 33.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. In a typical N64 game the RSP would do transforms, lighting, clipping, triangle setup, and some of the audio decoding.

There are 232,188 households out of which 30.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% are married couples living together, 21.1% have a female householder with no husband present, and 41.8% are non-families. The RSP was the transform portion of the RCP, although it was really just a DSP, similar to a MIPS R4000 core, designed to work with 8-bit integer vector operations. 12.00% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. The RDP component basically just read a FIFO buffer and rasterized polygons. The racial makeup of the city is 49.98% White, 37.34% African American, 0.87% Native American, 2.94% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.10% from other races, and 2.71% from two or more races. The CPU was primarily used for game logic, such as input management, some audio, and AI, while the RCP did everything else. There are 249,225 housing units at an average density of 1,001.7/km² (2,594.4 per square mile). The Nintendo Revolution uses "12cm discs" for storage, which are just encrypted DVDs, thus making it the first Nintendo console to use a standardized storage format.

The population density is 2,399.5/km² (6,214.3 per square mile). In 2001, the Nintendo 64 was replaced by the disc-based Nintendo GameCube, although even with this system they refused to use mainstream CD/DVD technology, opting for the DVD-based but incompatible GameCube Optical Disc. As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there are 596,974 people, 232,188 households, and 135,133 families residing in the city. The N64 also secured its share of the mature audience thanks to GoldenEye 007, Resident Evil 2, Shadow Man, Doom 64 and Quake II. Other large population groups include Polish (12.7%), Irish (10%), English (5.1%), Italian (4.4%), French (3.9%), and Hispanic origin totaled 6.3%. Much of this success was credited to Nintendo's strong first-party franchises, such as Mario and Zelda, which had strong name brand appeal yet appeared exclusively on Nintendo platforms. In the 2000 census, over a third (38 percent) of Milwaukeeans reported that they were of German descent. N64 took second place for its generation of consoles while the PlayStation finished first, with 40% and 51% of the market respectively.

The 1982 event, also known as Cold Sunday, featured temperatures as low as -40°F (-40°C) in some of the suburbs as little as 10 miles (16km) to the north of Milwaukee, although the city itself did not approach such cold temperatures. Despite the controversies, the N64 still managed to support many popular games, giving it a long life run. The coldest temperature ever experienced by the city was -26°F (-32°C) on both January 17, 1982 and February 4, 1996. While most PlayStation games rarely exceeded $50, N64 titles could reach $80. Milwaukee's all-time record high temperature is 105°F (41°C) set on July 17, 1995. Publishers had to pass these higher expenses to the consumer so N64 games tended to sell for slightly higher prices than PlayStation games did. Also, the relative humidity in the summer is far higher than that of comparable cities at the same latitude, meaning that it feels hotter than it really is. The cost of producing an N64 cartridge was far higher than producing a CD: one gaming magazine at the time cited average costs of twenty-five dollars per cartridge, versus 10 cents per CD.

Milwaukee's proximity to Lake Michigan causes a convection current to form mid-afternoon, resulting in the so-called lake effect, causing the temperatures to be warmer in the winter, and cooler in the summer ("cooler by the lake" is practically boilerplate language for local meteorologists during the summer). This incident provided a highly-publicized denunciation of Nintendo's cartridge-based system which caused negative publicity for Nintendo. It is crossed by Interstate 43 and Interstate 94, which come together downtown at the Marquette Interchange. Despite the fact that all six previous Final Fantasy games had been published on Nintendo systems, the series' producer, Squaresoft, chose to release Final Fantasy VII on the Sony PlayStation. Milwaukee lies along the shores and bluffs of Lake Michigan at the confluence of three rivers: the Menomonee, the Kinnickinnic and the Milwaukee. disc debate came to an infamous climax during the release of Final Fantasy VII. The total area is 0.88% water. The cartridge vs.

248.8 km² (96.1 square miles) of it is land and 2.2 km² (0.9 mi²) of it is water. As a result many game developers which had traditionally supported Nintendo game consoles were now developing games for the competition because of the higher profit margins found on CD based platforms. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 251.0 km² (96.9 square miles). These discs are much cheaper to manufacture and distribute, resulting in lower costs to third party game publishers. While the city still faces a shrinking population[1], it continues to make plans for increasing its future revitalization through various projects. At that time, competing systems from Sony and Sega (the PlayStation and Saturn, respectively) were using CD-ROM discs to store their games. Starting in the late 1960s, however, like many cities in the Great Lakes "rust belt," Milwaukee saw its population start to decline due to various factors, ranging from the loss of blue collar jobs to the phenomenon of "white flight." However, in recent years, the city began to make strides in improving its economy, neighborhoods, and image, resulting in the revitalization of neighborhoods such as the Third Ward, east side,and more recently, Bay View, along with attracting new businesses to its downtown area. Later cartridges such as Resident Evil 2 featured more ROM space, which demonstrated that N64 was capable of detailed in-game graphics when the media permitted, but this performance came late in the console war and at a high price.

This helped make Milwaukee one of the 15 largest cities in the nation, and by the mid-1960s, its population reached nearly 750,000. While N64 games generally had higher polygon counts, the limited storage size of ROM carts limited the amount of available textures, resulting in games which had a plain and flat-shaded look. states. Graphically, benefits of the Nintendo cartridge system were mixed. From the late 19th century until the 1950s, Milwaukee, like many northern industrial cities, saw tremendous growth from immigrants from Germany, Hungary, Poland and other central European nations, as well as the northward migration of African-Americans from southern U.S. Nintendo later approached the Dutch electronics giant Philips to develop a Super NES CD-ROM drive, but that deal also went nowhere. The liberal tradition of these peoples led to decades of socialist government in Milwaukee during the twentieth century. Nintendo sued Sony over the PlayStation name, although they later settled.

Milwaukee still today has a large German-American population. Sony reportedly kept the name for their later 32-bit system to spite Nintendo. German immigrants helped increase the city's population during the 1840s and the following decades. In addition to the CD-ROM add on, Sony would release a combination Super NES/CD-ROM system in one unit, which would have been called the PlayStation. Juneau was Milwaukee's first mayor. Nintendo later backed out of the contract due to Sony's insistence that they would receive all licensing revenue for games released on CD-ROM. Walker. While Nintendo chose the cartridge format for the N64, the company originally signed a contract with Sony in 1988 to develop a CD-ROM drive add-on for the SNES.

In 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring rival towns to incorporate as the City of Milwaukee: Kilbourntown to the west, which was founded by Byron Kilbourn, and Walker's Point to the south, founded by George H. Nintendo's choice had several advantages:. Juneau bought out his father-in-law's trading business, and in 1833 he founded a town on the east side of the Milwaukee River. The Nintendo 64 was the last mainstream home video game console to use ROM cartridges to store its games. In 1818, Frenchman Solomon Juneau settled in the area. In G4's recent 'Top 10 Games Consoles' feature, the Nintendo 64 was voted number one against other consoles. Milwaukee received its name from the Indian word Millioke which means "The Good Land", or "gathering place by the water." French missionaries and traders passed through the area in the late 1600s and 1700s.
The last Nintendo 64 game to be released in the United States was Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 3 on August 20, 2002 while Mario Party 3 released on 16 November 2001 was the last title Europe would see.

The Milwaukee area was originally inhabited by the Fox, Mascouten, Potawatomi, and Winnebago Indian tribes. Some of their more popular titles include:. . Apart from Nintendo's own in-house development, Rareware produced a steady stream of titles for the N64. The city is located in the southeastern portion of the state on the western shore of Lake Michigan. Super Mario 64 is still considered to have set the standard for 3D platform games and is considered by many to be one of the greatest games ever published. The city of Milwaukee is the 22nd largest city in the United States. Some of Nintendo's most notable games for the N64 are:.

The city's population is 592,765 (2005 estimate) with an estimated total of 1,709,926 in the Milwaukee metropolitan area (2005). The early N64 development system was an SGI Indy equipped with an add-on board that contained a full N64 system. Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin, United States and the county of Milwaukee. The system was designed by Silicon Graphics Inc., and features their trademark dithered 32-bit graphics.
Location of Milwaukee in
Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. Regardless, the Nintendo 64 was the first popular system to have these features. Some Milwaukeeans use the unique expression "ainahey", short for "ain't it, hey?" to reaffirm something obvious, used in the same way as "of course", and similar to the colloquial "don'chaknow", short for "don't you know?". The Vectrex in fact had introduced analog joysticks, while the first to feature four controller ports was the Bally Astrocade.

It is also common for people to refer to ATMs as a "Tyme Machine," referring to the name of the dominant debit card in Wisconsin. The first game console to bill itself as "64-bit" was actually the Atari Jaguar (although the truth of this is disputed, as the Jaguar merely had two 32-bit processors- albeit its graphics processor was 64-bit). One well known colloquialism common to Milwaukee and the surrounding area, is the word "bubbler," which refers to a drinking fountain. Nintendo touted many of the system's more unusual features as groundbreaking and innovative, but many of these features had in fact been implemented before. Timmerman Airport. Killer Instinct was the most advanced game of its time graphically, featuring pre-rendered movie backgrounds which were streamed off the hard drive and animated as the characters moved horizontally. Lawrence J. In fact, the hardware had nothing to do with what was finally released; the arcade games used hard drives and TMS processors.

General Mitchell International Airport. After first announcing the project, two companies, Rareware (UK) and Midway (USA), created the arcade games Killer Instinct and Cruis'n USA which claimed to use the Ultra 64 hardware. List of Milwaukee area radio stations. . List of Milwaukee area television stations. Once unveiled to the public the name changed to Nintendo Ultra 64, referring to its 64-bit processor, and Nintendo dropped "Ultra" from the name on February 1, 1996, just five months before its Japanese debut. Vital Source Magazine. The name Project Reality came from the speculation within Nintendo that this console could produce CGI on par with then-current supercomputers.

UWM Post. During the developmental stages the N64 was referred to by its code name, Project Reality. The Leader. Official coverage by Nintendo soon followed a few weeks later on the nascent Nintendo Power website, and then in volume #85 of their print magazine. Marquette Tribune. The first published photos from the event were presented on the web via coverage by Game Zero magazine two days after the event. Shepherd Express. The N64 was first publicly introduced on November 24, 1995 as the Nintendo Ultra 64 at the 7th Annual Shoshinkai Software Exhibition in Japan (though preview pictures from the Nintendo "Project Reality" console had been published in American magazines as early as June, 1993).

MKE (magazine). The Nintendo 64 cost $199 at launch in the United States. Milwaukee Magazine. It was released with only two launch games in Japan and North America (Super Mario 64 and PilotWings 64) while Europe had a third launch title in the form of Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire (which was released earlier in the other markets). Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. The N64 was released on June 23, 1996 in Japan, September 29, 1996 in North America and Puerto Rico, 1 March 1997 in Europe/Australia and September 1, 1997 in France. Wisconsin Lutheran High School. The Nintendo 64, commonly called the N64, is Nintendo's third home video game console.

Washington High School. CD64, by Success Compu. Vincent High School. Z64, by Harrison Electronics. Thomas More. Doctor V64 and Doctor V64jr, by Bung Enterprises Ltd. South Division High School. Adapters to play Game Boy games - there is an unofficial adaptor to play Game Boy cartridges, similar to the Super Game Boy and an official adapter, able to play Game Boy Color games (never released).

Rufus King High School. It featured networking capabilities similar to the (SNES) Satellaview. Riverside University High School. 64DD - The official N64 Disk Drive attachment was a commercial failure and was consequently never released outside of Japan. Reagan College Preparatory. Rare's Perfect Dark was initially going to be compatible with the Transfer Pak in order to use pictures taken with the Game Boy Camera in the game but this function was scrapped. Pulaski High School. Pokémon Stadium is a game that relies heavily on the Transfer Pak.

Professional Learning Institute. Transfer Pak - an accessory that plugged into the controller and allowed the Nintendo 64 to transfer data between Game Boy and N64 games. Pius XI High School. It has (since its release in 1997 alongside Star Fox 64) become a built-in standard for the current generation console controllers. North Division Virtual University High School. Rumble Pak - an accessory that plugged into the controller and vibrated during game play. New School for Community Service. Mad Catz marketed its own version of Expansion Pak called the High Rez Pack doing the same job for less money, though there were reports of overheating due to inferior quality.

Milwaukee School of Languages. The expansion pack was shipped with some games and also available separately. Milwaukee School of Entrepreneurship. Supporting games usually offered higher video resolutions when it was present, or in the case of Perfect Dark, unlocked 100% of game play. Milwaukee Lutheran High School. Only a few games such as Perfect Dark and Star Wars: Rogue Squadron supported the expansion, while games such as Donkey Kong 64 and The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask required it for play. Milwaukee High School of the Arts. It contained 4MB of RAM.

Metropolitan High School. Expansion Pak - a memory expansion that plugged into the console's memory expansion port. Marquette University High School. Games by Konami were particularly notorious as they often required the controller Pak to save even though the games could have easily contained three or more save-slots (such as in the case of Holy Magic Century). Madison University High School. Over time, the Controller Pak lost ground to the convenience of a back-up battery (or flash memory) found in some cartridges. Rufus King International Baccalaureate High School. A Controller Pak was initially useful or even necessary for the earlier N64 games.

Juneau Business High School. The number of pages that a game occupied varied. John Marshall High School. The original models from Nintendo offered 256KB Flash RAM, split into 123 pages, but third party models had much more, often in the form of compressed memory. Hamilton High School. Controller Pak - a memory card that plugged into the controller and allowed the player to save game progress and configuration. Divine Savior Holy Angels High School. Nintendo never allowed this code to be used in shipping games.

Custer High School. Turbo3D microcode: 500,000-600,000 polygons per second with PSX quality. Bradley (Lynde & Harry) Technology & Trade High School. Fast3D microcode: < ~100,000 polygons per second. Bay View High School. Controller: 1 analog stick; 2 shoulder buttons; one digital cross pad; six face buttons, 'start' button, and one digital trigger. Wisconsin Lutheran College. Weight: 2.4 lb (1.1 kg).

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Dimensions: 10.23 x 7.48 x 2.87 inches (260 x 190 x 73mm) WxDxH

    . Mount Mary College. Media: 4 MB to 64 MB (32-Mbit to 512-Mbit) cartridges. Milwaukee School of Engineering. Sampling: 48 kHz (max, 44.1 kHz is CD-quality). Milwaukee Institute of Art and Design. Channels: 100 PCM (max, 16-24 avg.).

    Milwaukee Area Technical College. Sound: 16-bit ADPCM Stereo

      . Medical College of Wisconsin. 150,000 polygon/s (all RDP features enabled). Marquette University. Colors: 16.7 million (32,768 on-screen). Cardinal Stritch University. Resolution: 256x224 to 640x480 pixels flicker-free, interlaced.

      Alverno College. Environment mapping. Milwaukee County Stadium, 1953-1994. Perspective correction. Marquette Stadium, 1952. Trilinear Filtered Mipmap Interpolation (increases texture map rendering speed). Wisconsin State Fair Park, 1934-51. Texture mapping (placing images over shapes, for example mapping a face image to a sphere creates head)

        .

        Borchert Field, 1933. Anti-aliasing (smoothes jagged lines and edges). Milwaukee Wave United (Outdoor Soccer) 2003 - They only played one season. Z-buffering (maintains 3D spatial relationships, is Mario in front of the tree or vice-versa?). Milwaukee Rampage (Outdoor Soccer) 1994 - 2002. RDP (Reality Drawing Processor) handles all pixel drawing operations in hardware, such as:

          . Milwaukee Mustangs (American football—Arena Football League), played at the Bradley Center from 1994 to 2001. RSP (Reality Signal Processor) controls 3D graphics and sound functions.

          Milwaukee Does (Basketball—Women's Pro Basketball League), played at MECCA Arena from 1978 to 1980. Graphics: SGI 62.5MHz RCP (Reality Coprocessor) contains two sub-processors:

            . The Milwaukee Braves won the National League pennant in 1957 and 1958, and won the World Series in 1957. Data path: Custom 9-bit Rambus at 500 MHz (max). Milwaukee Braves (Baseball—MLB), played at Milwaukee County Stadium from 1953-1965. Bandwidth: 562.5 MB/s. Louis. RAM: 4 MB RDRAM (upgradeable to 8 MB with 4MB Expansion Pak)
              .

              Milwaukee Hawks (Basketball—NBA) played at the Milwaukee Arena from 1951 to 1955 before moving to St. Manufactured by NEC using 0.35µm transistor fabrication process. Milwaukee Brewers (Baseball—Minor League Baseball), member of the American Association from 1902 through 1952, played at Borchert Field. 4.6 million transistors. Milwaukee Badgers (American football—NFL), played from 1922 to 1926. On-chip memory management unit (MMU). Cellular Arena. Operations: 93 MIPS (millions of instructions per second).

              Milwaukee Wave (Indoor Soccer) playing at the U.S. Bandwidth: 250 MB/s. Milwaukee Admirals (Ice hockey) playing at the Bradley Center. Addressable Memory Space: 4 GB (Virtual 1 TB). Milwaukee Bucks (Basketball—NBA) playing at the Bradley Center. Instruction Set: MIPS R4000 64-bit. Milwaukee Brewers (Baseball—MLB) playing at Miller Park. Bus Width: 32-bit address and data.

              Average July high/low temperatures: 79°F/62°F (26°C/17°C). L1 cache: 24 KB (split: 16 KB instruction, 8 KB data). Average January high/low temperatures: 26°F/11°F (-3°C/-12°C). Processor: 93.75 MHz NEC VR4300 (info), based on MIPS R4300i series 64-bit RISC CPU

                . Storing data at first required a cartridge battery whose energy would diminish over time, though the battery generally lasted for years, and in subsequent games EEPROMs were used instead. Most cartridges store individual profiles and game progress on the cartridge itself, eliminating the need for separate and expensive memory cards.

                It is possible to add specialized support chips (such as coprocessors) to ROM cartridges, as was done on some SNES games. While unauthorized interface devices for the PC were later developed, these devices are rare when compared to a regular CD drive as used on the PlayStation. ROM cartridges are difficult and expensive to duplicate, thus resisting piracy (albeit at the expense of lowered profit margin for Nintendo). This can be observed from the loading screens that appear in many PlayStation games but are virtually non-existent in N64 versions.

                ROM cartridges have very fast load times in comparison to disc based games. Perfect Dark. Killer Instinct Gold. Jet Force Gemini.

                GoldenEye 007. Donkey Kong 64. Diddy Kong Racing. Conker's Bad Fur Day.

                Banjo-Kazooie and its sequel Banjo-Tooie. Blast Corps.. Banjo-Kazooie. Wave Race 64.

                The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask. The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time. Super Mario 64. Super Smash Bros..

                Star Fox 64. Paper Mario. Mario Party. Mario Kart 64.

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