Mickey Mantle

Mickey Charles Mantle (October 20, 1931 – August 13, 1995) was an American baseball player, regarded as one of the best of all time. He played his entire professional career for the New York Yankees.

Youth

This person is a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame.

Mickey Mantle was born in Spavinaw, Oklahoma. He was named in honor of Mickey Cochrane, the Hall of Fame catcher from the Detroit Tigers, by his father, who was an amateur player and fervent fan. Apparently his father was not aware that Cochrane's real name was Gordon. In later life, Mickey Mantle expressed great relief that his father had not known Cochrane's real first name, as he would have hated to be named Gordon. Mantle always spoke warmly of his beloved father and said he was the bravest man he ever knew. "No boy ever loved his father more," he said. Sadly, his father died of cancer at the age of 39, just as his son was starting his career. Mantle said one of the great heartaches of his life was that he never told his father he loved him.

When Mantle was four years old, the family moved to the nearby town of Commerce, Oklahoma. Mantle was an all-around athlete at Commerce High School, playing basketball and football in addition to his first love, baseball. It was his football playing that nearly ended his athletic career, and indeed his life. Kicked in the shin during a game, Mantle's leg soon became infected with osteomyelitis, a crippling disease that would have been incurable just a few years earlier. A midnight ride to Tulsa enabled Mantle to be treated with newly available penicillin, saving his leg from amputation. He would suffer from the effects of the disease for the rest of his life, and it would lead to many other injuries that hampered his accomplishments. Additionally, Mantle's osteomyelitic condition exempted him from military service, a fact which caused him to become very unpopular with fans, as his earliest days in baseball coincided with the Korean War. This unpopularity, mainly with older fans, would dramatically reverse after he finished second to Roger Maris in the pursuit of Babe Ruth's home run record in 1961. He spent the last years of his career as a wildly popular icon of the entire sport.

Playing career

"Mutt" Mantle taught his son how to be a switch-hitter. Mickey had played shortstop in the minor leagues, but on arrival at the Yankees, he became the regular right fielder (playing only a few games at shortstop and third base in 1952 to 1955). He moved to center field in 1952, replacing Joe DiMaggio, who retired at the end of the 1951 season after one year playing alongside Mantle in the Yankees outfield. He played center field until 1967, when he was moved to first base. Among Mantle's many accomplishments are all-time World Series records for home runs (18), runs scored (42), and runs batted in (40).

Mantle also hit some of the longest home runs in Major League history. On September 10, 1960, he hit a ball that cleared the right-field roof at Tiger Stadium in Detroit and, based on where it was found, was estimated years after the fact to have traveled more than 600 feet, though it probably was closer to 500 feet. Another Mantle homer at Griffith Stadium in Washington on April 17, 1953, was said to have traveled 565 feet. Years later William J. Jenkinson, who specializes on information of long distance homeruns, said that the actual distance was probably 510 feet.

In 1956, Mantle won the Hickok Belt as top professional athlete of the year. This was his "favorite summer," a year that saw him win the Triple Crown, leading the majors with a .353 batting average, 52 HR, and 130 RBI on the way to his first of three MVP awards. Though the American League Triple Crown has been won twice since then, Mantle remains the last man to win the Major League Triple Crown.

On January 16, 1961, Mantle became the highest-paid baseball player by signing a $75,000 contract. DiMaggio, Hank Greenberg and Ted Williams, who had just retired, had been paid over $100,000 in a season, and Ruth had a peak salary of $80,000. But Mantle became the highest-paid active player of his time.

Retirement

Mantle announced his retirement on March 1, 1969, and in 1974, as soon as he was eligible, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame; his uniform number 7 was retired by the Yankees. (He had briefly worn uniform number 6, as a continuation of Babe Ruth's 3, Lou Gehrig's 4, and Joe DiMaggio's 5, in 1951, but his poor performance led to his temporary demotion to a minor league in mid-season. When he returned, Bobby Brown, who had worn number 6 before Mantle, had reclaimed it, so Mantle was given number 7. Nowadays, certain future number-retiree manager Joe Torre wears 6, and the 8 belonging to catchers Bill Dickey and Yogi Berra has already been retired - Derek Jeter's 2 may very well also join the list of consecutive retired numbers.) When he retired, the Mick was third on the all-time home run list with 536.

Despite being among the best-paid players of the pre-free agency era, Mantle was a poor businessman, having made several unlucky investments. His lifestyle would be restored to one of luxury, and his hold on his fans raised to an amazing level, by his position of leadership in the sports memorabilia craze that swept the USA beginning in the 1980's. Mantle was a prize guest at any baseball card show, commanding fees far in excess of any other player for his appearances and autographs. This popularity continues long after his death, as Mantle-related items far outsell those of any other player except possibly the unmatched Babe Ruth, whose items, due to the distance of years, now exist in far smaller quantities.

Despite the failure of Mickey Mantle's Country Cookin' restaurants in the early 1970s, Mickey Mantle's Restaurant & Sports Bar opened in New York at 42 Central Park South (59th Street) in 1988. It became one of New York's most popular restaurants, and his original Yankee Stadium Monument Park plaque is displayed at the front entrance. Mantle let others run the business operations, but made frequent appearances. But his drinking led radio show host Don Imus to joke, "If you get to Mickey Mantle's restaurant after midnight, you win a free dinner if you can guess which table Mickey's under."

In 1983, Mantle and Willie Mays took jobs promoting Atlantic City casinos, and were suspended from baseball by Commissioner Bowie Kuhn. They were reinstated in 1985 by Kuhn's successor, Peter Ueberroth.

Troubled family

On December 23, 1951, he married Merlyn Johnson in their hometown of Commerce, Oklahoma; they had four sons. In an autobiography, Mantle said he married Merlyn not because he loved her, but because his domineering father told him to. While his drinking became public knowledge during his lifetime, the press kept his many marital infidelities quiet.

The couple had four children, all sons: Mickey Jr. (born in 1953), David (1955), and Billy (1957, whom Mickey named for Billy Martin, his best friend among his Yankee teammates), and Danny (1960). Like Mickey, Merlyn and the sons all became alcoholics, and Billy developed Hodgkin's disease as several previous Mantle men had. This led to him developing a dependence on prescription painkillers.

Mickey Mantle has four grandchildren. Mickey Jr. had a daughter, Mallory. David and his wife Marla have a daughter, Marilyn. Danny and his wife Kay have a son, Will, and a daughter, Chloe. Danny and Will played a father and son watching Mickey, played by Thomas Jane, hit a home run in the 2001 film 61*.

Mickey and Merlyn had been separated for 15 years when he died, but neither ever filed for divorce. Mantle lived with his agent, Greer Johnson. Johnson was taken to federal court in November 1997 by the Mantle family to stop her from auctioning many of Mantle's personal items, including a lock of hair, a neck brace and expired credit cards.

He loved cherry pie and slept with his socks on inside out. During the final years of his life, Mantle purchased a luxury condominium on Lake Oconee near Greensboro, Georgia, near Greer Johnson's home, and freqently stayed there for months at the time. He occasionally attended the local Methodist church, and sometimes ate Sunday dinner with members of the congregation. He was well-liked by the citizens of Greensboro, and seemed to like them in return. This was probably because the town respected Mantle's privacy, refusing either to talk about their famous neighbor to outsiders or to direct fans to his home. In one interview, Mickey stated that the people of Greensboro had "gone out of their way to make me feel welcome, and I've found something there I haven't enjoyed since I was a kid."

Mantle's last days

Well before he finally sought treatment for alcoholism, Mantle admitted that his hard living had hurt his playing and his family. His rationale was that the men in his family had all died young, so he expected to as well. "I'm not gonna be cheated," he'd say. As the years passed, and he realized he had outlived the men in his family -- not realizing that working in mines and inhaling lead and zinc dust aided Hodgkin's and other cancers as much as heredity did -- he frequently used a line popularized by elderly comedian George Burns: "If I'd known I was gonna live this long, I'd have taken a lot better care of myself."

Mantle's wife and sons all completed treatment for alcoholism, and told him he needed to do the same. He checked into the Betty Ford Clinic on January 7, 1994, after being told by a doctor that his liver was so badly damaged, "Your next drink could be your last."

Shortly after completing treatment, his son Billy died on March 12, at age 36, of heart trouble, brought on by years of substance abuse. Despite the fears of those who knew him, who feared that this tragedy would send him back to drinking, he remained sober. Mickey Jr. would also die of liver cancer on December 20, 2000, at age 47. Danny would later battle prostate cancer.

Mantle spoke with great remorse of his drinking in a Sports Illustrated article, "My Life In A Bottle." He said that he was telling the same old stories, and realizing how much of them involved himself and others being drunk, and he decided they weren't funny anymore. He admitted he had often been cruel and hurtful to family, friends, and fans because of his alcoholism, and sought to make amends. He became a born-again Christian due to his former teammate Bobby Richardson, an ordained Baptist minister, sharing his faith with him. After the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, he joined with fellow Oklahoman and Yankee legend Bobby Murcer to raise money for the victims.

Mantle received a liver transplant at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas, on June 8, 1995, after his liver had been damaged by years of chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, and hepatitis C. In July, he had recovered enough to deliver a press conference at Baylor, and noted that many fans had looked to him as a role model. "This is a role model: Don't be like me," he said. He also established the Mickey Mantle Foundation to raise awareness for organ donations. Soon, he was back in the hospital, where it was found that his liver cancer spread throughout his body.

Mickey Mantle died on August 13, 1995, at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas. He was 63 years old. He was interred in the Sparkman-Hillcrest Memorial Park Cemetery in Dallas. Mantle had asked country singer Roy Clark, his good friend, to perform his favorite song "Yesterday, When I Was Young" at his funeral:

In eulogizing Mantle, Bob Costas described the legend as "a fragile hero to whom we had an emotional attachment so strong and lasting that it defied logic. In the last years of his life, Mickey Mantle, always so hard on himself, finally began to appreciate the difference between a role model and a hero. The first, he often was not. The last, he forever will be. And, in the end, people got it kid."

Honors

On Mickey Mantle Day, June 8, 1969, in addition to the retirement of his uniform number 7, Mantle was given a plaque that would hang on the center field wall at Yankee Stadium, near the monuments to Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig and Miller Huggins. The plaque was given to him by Joe DiMaggio, and Mantle then gave DiMaggio a similar plaque, telling the crowd, "His should be just a little bit higher than mine." When Yankee Stadium was reopened in 1976 following its renovation, the plaques and monuments were moved to Monument Park, behind the left-center field fence. Shortly before his death, Mantle videotaped a message to be played on Old-Timers' Day, which he was too ill to attend. He said, "When I died, I wanted on my tombstone, 'A great teammate.' But I didn't think it would be this soon." The words were indeed carved on the plaque marking his resting place at the family mausoleum in Dallas. On August 25, 1996, about a year after his death, Mantle's Monument Park plaque was replaced with a monument, bearing the words "A great teammate" and keeping a phrase that had been included on the original plaque: "A magnificent Yankee who left a legacy of unequaled courage."

Mantle and former teammate Whitey Ford were elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame together in 1974, Mantle in his first year of eligibility, Ford in his second. In 1999, The Sporting News placed Mantle at number 17 on their list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players. That same year, he was one of 100 nominees for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team, and was chosen by fan balloting as one of the Team's outfielders. While most fans who remember them both tend to rate Willie Mays as a better player than Mantle, Mantle remains the most popular player of the 1950s and 1960s, even as Mays, Hank Aaron and others outlived him by many years.

In 2006, Mantle will be featured on a United States postage stamp [1]. The stamp is one of a series of four honoring Baseball Sluggers.


Present

Mickey Mantle has some decendents in Wichita, Kansas. The decendents own Campbell Castle or The Castle Inn.


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The decendents own Campbell Castle or The Castle Inn. Films provide them in an accessible and powerful way. Mickey Mantle has some decendents in Wichita, Kansas. Civilization develops and changes, at least in surface features, and so calls for a constant renewal of artistic means to channel these desires.
. The reason motion pictures endure is because people still want escapism, adventure, inspiration, humor and to be moved emotionally. The stamp is one of a series of four honoring Baseball Sluggers. all involve plots with common threads that existed in books, plays and other venues.

In 2006, Mantle will be featured on a United States postage stamp [1]. Romantic motion pictures about a girl loving a guy but not being able to be together for some reason, movies about a hero who fights against all odds a more powerful fiendish enemy, comedies about everyday life, etc. While most fans who remember them both tend to rate Willie Mays as a better player than Mantle, Mantle remains the most popular player of the 1950s and 1960s, even as Mays, Hank Aaron and others outlived him by many years. Apart from societal norms and cultural changes, there are still close resemblances between theatrical plays throughout the ages and films of today. That same year, he was one of 100 nominees for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team, and was chosen by fan balloting as one of the Team's outfielders. Many believe that film will be a long enduring art form because motion pictures appeal to diverse human emotions. In 1999, The Sporting News placed Mantle at number 17 on their list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players. Films have been around for more than a century, however this is not long when you consider it in relation to other arts like painting and sculpture.

Mantle and former teammate Whitey Ford were elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame together in 1974, Mantle in his first year of eligibility, Ford in his second. Yet the migration is gradual, and as of 2005 most major motion pictures are still recorded on film. On August 25, 1996, about a year after his death, Mantle's Monument Park plaque was replaced with a monument, bearing the words "A great teammate" and keeping a phrase that had been included on the original plaque: "A magnificent Yankee who left a legacy of unequaled courage.". These approaches are extremely beneficial to moviemakers, especially because footage can be evaluated and edited without waiting for the film stock to be processed. He said, "When I died, I wanted on my tombstone, 'A great teammate.' But I didn't think it would be this soon." The words were indeed carved on the plaque marking his resting place at the family mausoleum in Dallas. Modern digital video cameras and digital projectors are gaining ground as well. Shortly before his death, Mantle videotaped a message to be played on Old-Timers' Day, which he was too ill to attend. Some films in recent decades have been recorded using analog video technology similar to that used in television production.

The plaque was given to him by Joe DiMaggio, and Mantle then gave DiMaggio a similar plaque, telling the crowd, "His should be just a little bit higher than mine." When Yankee Stadium was reopened in 1976 following its renovation, the plaques and monuments were moved to Monument Park, behind the left-center field fence. Film preservation of decaying film stock is a matter of concern to both film historians and archivists, and to companies interested in preserving their existing products in order to make them available to future generations (and thereby increase revenue). On Mickey Mantle Day, June 8, 1969, in addition to the retirement of his uniform number 7, Mantle was given a plaque that would hang on the center field wall at Yankee Stadium, near the monuments to Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig and Miller Huggins. Digital methods have also been used to restore and preserve films. And, in the end, people got it kid.". Some studios save three B&W negatives exposed through red, green, and blue filters. The last, he forever will be. Most movies on cellulose nitrate base have been copied onto modern safety films.

The first, he often was not. However, historic films have problems in terms of preservation and storage, and the motion picture industry is exploring many alternatives. In the last years of his life, Mickey Mantle, always so hard on himself, finally began to appreciate the difference between a role model and a hero. Film has also been incorporated into multimedia presentations, and often has importance as primary historical documentation. In eulogizing Mantle, Bob Costas described the legend as "a fragile hero to whom we had an emotional attachment so strong and lasting that it defied logic. It can be used to present a progressive sequence of still images in the form of a slideshow. Mantle had asked country singer Roy Clark, his good friend, to perform his favorite song "Yesterday, When I Was Young" at his funeral:. As a medium, film is not limited to motion pictures, since the technology developed as the basis for photography.

He was interred in the Sparkman-Hillcrest Memorial Park Cemetery in Dallas. The soundtrack can be recorded separately from shooting the film, but for live-action pictures many parts of the soundtrack are usually recorded simultaneously. He was 63 years old. Improvements since the late 19th century include the mechanization of cameras, allowing them to record at a consistent speed, the invention of more sophisticated filmstocks and lenses, allowing directors to film in increasingly dim conditions, and the development of synchronized sound, allowing sound to be recorded at exactly the same speed as its corresponding action. Mickey Mantle died on August 13, 1995, at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas. A new standard speed, 24 frames per second, came with the introduction of sound. Soon, he was back in the hospital, where it was found that his liver cancer spread throughout his body. Originally moving picture film was shot at various speeds using hand-cranked cameras; then the speed for mechanized cameras and projectors was standardized at 16 frames per second, which was faster than much existing hand-cranked footage.

He also established the Mickey Mantle Foundation to raise awareness for organ donations. Stock widths and the film format for images on the reel have had a rich history, though most large commercial films are still shot on (and distributed to theaters) as 35 mm prints. "This is a role model: Don't be like me," he said. Cellulose nitrate was the first type of film base used to record motion pictures, but due to its flammability was eventually replaced by safer materials. In July, he had recovered enough to deliver a press conference at Baylor, and noted that many fans had looked to him as a role model. Filmstock consists of a transparent celluloid, polyester, or other plastic base coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive chemicals. Mantle received a liver transplant at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas, on June 8, 1995, after his liver had been damaged by years of chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, and hepatitis C. According to a 2000 study by ABN AMRO, about 26% of Hollywood movie studios' worldwide income came from box office ticket sales; 46% came from VHS and DVD sales to consumers; and 28% came from television (broadcast, cable, and pay-per-view).

Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, he joined with fellow Oklahoman and Yankee legend Bobby Murcer to raise money for the victims. There are a few movies every year that defy this rule, often limited-release movies that start in only a few theaters and actually grow their theater count through good word-of-mouth and reviews. After the bombing of the Alfred P. However, today's barrage of highly marketed movies ensures that most movies are shown in first-run theaters for less than 8 weeks. He became a born-again Christian due to his former teammate Bobby Richardson, an ordained Baptist minister, sharing his faith with him. The actual percentage starts with a number higher than that, and decreases as the duration of a film's showing continues, as an incentive to theaters to keep movies in the theater longer. He admitted he had often been cruel and hurtful to family, friends, and fans because of his alcoholism, and sought to make amends. The movie theater pays an average of about 55% of its ticket sales to the movie studio, as film rental fees.

Mantle spoke with great remorse of his drinking in a Sports Illustrated article, "My Life In A Bottle." He said that he was telling the same old stories, and realizing how much of them involved himself and others being drunk, and he decided they weren't funny anymore. And indeed, some films that are rejected by their own studios upon completion are dumped into these markets. Danny would later battle prostate cancer. These are often considered to be of inferior quality compared to theatrical releases. would also die of liver cancer on December 20, 2000, at age 47. Some films are now made specifically for these other venues, being released as made-for-TV movies or direct-to-video movies. Mickey Jr. Recording technology has also enabled consumers to rent or buy copies of films on video tape or DVD (and the older formats of laserdisc, VCD and SelectaVision—see also videodisc), and Internet downloads may be available and have started to become revenue sources for the film companies.

Despite the fears of those who knew him, who feared that this tragedy would send him back to drinking, he remained sober. The development of television has allowed films to be broadcast to larger audiences, usually after the film is no longer being shown in theaters. Shortly after completing treatment, his son Billy died on March 12, at age 36, of heart trouble, brought on by years of substance abuse. Originally, all films were made to be shown in movie theaters. He checked into the Betty Ford Clinic on January 7, 1994, after being told by a doctor that his liver was so badly damaged, "Your next drink could be your last.". Today, the bulk of the material shown before the feature film (those in theaters) consists of previews for upcoming movies and paid advertisements (also known as trailers or "The Twenty"). Mantle's wife and sons all completed treatment for alcoholism, and told him he needed to do the same. There were "double features"; typically, a high quality "A picture" rented by an independent theater for a lump sum, and a "B picture" of lower quality rented for a percentage of the gross receipts.

As the years passed, and he realized he had outlived the men in his family -- not realizing that working in mines and inhaling lead and zinc dust aided Hodgkin's and other cancers as much as heredity did -- he frequently used a line popularized by elderly comedian George Burns: "If I'd known I was gonna live this long, I'd have taken a lot better care of myself.". Typically, one film is the featured presentation (or feature film). "I'm not gonna be cheated," he'd say. In the United States, these theaters came to be known as nickelodeons, because admission typically cost a nickel (five cents). His rationale was that the men in his family had all died young, so he expected to as well. Thousands of such theaters were built or converted from existing facilities within a few years. Well before he finally sought treatment for alcoholism, Mantle admitted that his hard living had hurt his playing and his family. The first theater designed exclusively for cinema opened in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1905.

In one interview, Mickey stated that the people of Greensboro had "gone out of their way to make me feel welcome, and I've found something there I haven't enjoyed since I was a kid.". When it is initially produced, a film is normally shown to audiences in a movie theater. This was probably because the town respected Mantle's privacy, refusing either to talk about their famous neighbor to outsiders or to direct fans to his home. This method was pioneered by UPA and popularized (some say exploited) by Hanna-Barbera, and adapted by other studios as cartoons moved from movie theaters to television. He was well-liked by the citizens of Greensboro, and seemed to like them in return. Limited animation is a way of increasing production and decreasing costs of animation by using "short cuts" in the animation process. He occasionally attended the local Methodist church, and sometimes ate Sunday dinner with members of the congregation. Several independent animation producers have gone on to enter the professional animation industry.

During the final years of his life, Mantle purchased a luxury condominium on Lake Oconee near Greensboro, Georgia, near Greer Johnson's home, and freqently stayed there for months at the time. However, the field of independent animation has existed at least since the 1950s, with animation being produced by independent studios (and sometimes by a single person). He loved cherry pie and slept with his socks on inside out. Because animation is very time-consuming and often very expensive to produce, the majority of animation for TV and movies comes from professional animation studios. Johnson was taken to federal court in November 1997 by the Mantle family to stop her from auctioning many of Mantle's personal items, including a lock of hair, a neck brace and expired credit cards. Graphics file formats like GIF, MNG, SVG and Flash allow animation to be viewed on a computer or over the Internet. Mantle lived with his agent, Greer Johnson. Generating such a film is very labour intensive and tedious, though the development of computer animation has greatly sped up the process.

Mickey and Merlyn had been separated for 15 years when he died, but neither ever filed for divorce. When the frames are strung together and the resulting film is viewed at a speed of 16 or more frames per second, there is an illusion of continuous movement (due to the persistence of vision). Danny and Will played a father and son watching Mickey, played by Thomas Jane, hit a home run in the 2001 film 61*. Animation is the technique in which each frame of a film is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result with a special animation camera. Danny and his wife Kay have a son, Will, and a daughter, Chloe. Most independent filmmakers rely on film festivals to get their films noticed and sold for distribution. David and his wife Marla have a daughter, Marilyn. However, while the means of production may be democratized, financing, distribution, and marketing remain difficult to accomplish outside the traditional system.

had a daughter, Mallory. Filmmakers can conceivably shoot and edit a movie, create and edit the sound and music, and mix the final cut on a home computer. Mickey Jr. Since the introduction of DV technology, the means of production have become more democratized. Mickey Mantle has four grandchildren. Technologies such as DVDs, IEEE 1394 connections and non-linear editing system pro-level software like Adobe Premiere Pro and Final Cut Pro, and consumer level software such as Final Cut Express and iMovie make movie-making relatively inexpensive. This led to him developing a dependence on prescription painkillers. Both production and post-production costs have been significantly lowered; today, the hardware and software for post-production can be installed in a commodity-based personal computer.

Like Mickey, Merlyn and the sons all became alcoholics, and Billy developed Hodgkin's disease as several previous Mantle men had. But the advent of consumer camcorders in 1985, and more importantly, the arrival of high-resolution digital video in the early 1990s, have lowered the technology barrier to movie production significantly. (born in 1953), David (1955), and Billy (1957, whom Mickey named for Billy Martin, his best friend among his Yankee teammates), and Danny (1960). Film requires expensive lighting and post-production facilities. The couple had four children, all sons: Mickey Jr. The cost of 35mm film is outpacing inflation: in 2002 alone, film negative costs were up 23%, according to Variety. While his drinking became public knowledge during his lifetime, the press kept his many marital infidelities quiet. Until the advent of digital alternatives, the cost of professional film equipment and stock was also a hurdle to being able to produce, direct, or star in a traditional studio film.

In an autobiography, Mantle said he married Merlyn not because he loved her, but because his domineering father told him to. Films with unknowns, particularly in lead roles, are also rarely produced. On December 23, 1951, he married Merlyn Johnson in their hometown of Commerce, Oklahoma; they had four sons. An unproven director is almost never given the opportunity to get his or her big break with the studios unless he or she has significant industry experience in film or television. They were reinstated in 1985 by Kuhn's successor, Peter Ueberroth. in 2000 were joint ventures, up from 10% in 1987). In 1983, Mantle and Willie Mays took jobs promoting Atlantic City casinos, and were suspended from baseball by Commissioner Bowie Kuhn. The problem is exacerbated by the trend towards co-financing (over two-thirds of the films put out by Warner Bros.

But his drinking led radio show host Don Imus to joke, "If you get to Mickey Mantle's restaurant after midnight, you win a free dinner if you can guess which table Mickey's under.". On the business side, the costs of big-budget studio films also leads to conservative choices in cast and crew. Mantle let others run the business operations, but made frequent appearances. Experimental elements in theme and style are inhibitors for the big studios. It became one of New York's most popular restaurants, and his original Yankee Stadium Monument Park plaque is displayed at the front entrance. Creatively, it was becoming increasingly difficult to get studio backing for experimental films. Despite the failure of Mickey Mantle's Country Cookin' restaurants in the early 1970s, Mickey Mantle's Restaurant & Sports Bar opened in New York at 42 Central Park South (59th Street) in 1988. Creative, business, and technological reasons have all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late 20th and early 21st century.

This popularity continues long after his death, as Mantle-related items far outsell those of any other player except possibly the unmatched Babe Ruth, whose items, due to the distance of years, now exist in far smaller quantities. An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio. Mantle was a prize guest at any baseball card show, commanding fees far in excess of any other player for his appearances and autographs. Filmmaking also takes place outside of the Hollywood studio system, and is commonly called independent filmmaking. His lifestyle would be restored to one of luxury, and his hold on his fans raised to an amazing level, by his position of leadership in the sports memorabilia craze that swept the USA beginning in the 1980's. Crew are distinguished from cast, the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. Despite being among the best-paid players of the pre-free agency era, Mantle was a poor businessman, having made several unlucky investments. A film crew is a group of people hired by a film company for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture.

Nowadays, certain future number-retiree manager Joe Torre wears 6, and the 8 belonging to catchers Bill Dickey and Yogi Berra has already been retired - Derek Jeter's 2 may very well also join the list of consecutive retired numbers.) When he retired, the Mick was third on the all-time home run list with 536. The third year, post-production and distribution. When he returned, Bobby Brown, who had worn number 6 before Mantle, had reclaimed it, so Mantle was given number 7. The second year comprises preproduction and production. (He had briefly worn uniform number 6, as a continuation of Babe Ruth's 3, Lou Gehrig's 4, and Joe DiMaggio's 5, in 1951, but his poor performance led to his temporary demotion to a minor league in mid-season. The first year is taken up with development. Mantle announced his retirement on March 1, 1969, and in 1974, as soon as he was eligible, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame; his uniform number 7 was retired by the Yankees. This production cycle typically takes three years.

But Mantle became the highest-paid active player of his time. A typical Hollywood-style filmmaking Production cycle comprises five main stages:. DiMaggio, Hank Greenberg and Ted Williams, who had just retired, had been paid over $100,000 in a season, and Ruth had a peak salary of $80,000. Filmmaking takes place all over the world using different technologies, styles of acting and genre, and is produced in a variety of economic contexts that range from state-sponsored documentary in China to profit-oriented movie making within the American studio system. On January 16, 1961, Mantle became the highest-paid baseball player by signing a $75,000 contract. However, a low-budget, independent film may be made with a skeleton crew, often paid very little. Though the American League Triple Crown has been won twice since then, Mantle remains the last man to win the Major League Triple Crown. Many Hollywood adventure films need computer generated imagery (CGI), created by dozens of 3D modellers, animators, rotoscopers and compositors.

This was his "favorite summer," a year that saw him win the Triple Crown, leading the majors with a .353 batting average, 52 HR, and 130 RBI on the way to his first of three MVP awards. The nature of the film determines the size and type of crew required during filmmaking. In 1956, Mantle won the Hickok Belt as top professional athlete of the year. Also, film quickly came to be used in education, in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Jenkinson, who specializes on information of long distance homeruns, said that the actual distance was probably 510 feet. The Academy Awards (also known as The Oscars) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. Years later William J. Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly nature of filmmaking; yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance.

Another Mantle homer at Griffith Stadium in Washington on April 17, 1953, was said to have traveled 565 feet. Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. On September 10, 1960, he hit a ball that cleared the right-field roof at Tiger Stadium in Detroit and, based on where it was found, was estimated years after the fact to have traveled more than 600 feet, though it probably was closer to 500 feet. Whether the ten thousand plus features a year produced by the Valley porn industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate. Mantle also hit some of the longest home runs in Major League history. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, and the Indian film industry (primarily centered around "Bollywood") annually produces the largest number of films in the world. Among Mantle's many accomplishments are all-time World Series records for home runs (18), runs scored (42), and runs batted in (40). In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood.

He played center field until 1967, when he was moved to first base. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. He moved to center field in 1952, replacing Joe DiMaggio, who retired at the end of the 1951 season after one year playing alongside Mantle in the Yankees outfield. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Mickey had played shortstop in the minor leagues, but on arrival at the Yankees, he became the regular right fielder (playing only a few games at shortstop and third base in 1952 to 1955). Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. "Mutt" Mantle taught his son how to be a switch-hitter. The Oberammergau Passion play of 1898 was the first commercial motion picture ever produced.

He spent the last years of his career as a wildly popular icon of the entire sport. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. This unpopularity, mainly with older fans, would dramatically reverse after he finished second to Roger Maris in the pursuit of Babe Ruth's home run record in 1961. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumieres quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. Additionally, Mantle's osteomyelitic condition exempted him from military service, a fact which caused him to become very unpopular with fans, as his earliest days in baseball coincided with the Korean War. The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon the process was invented. He would suffer from the effects of the disease for the rest of his life, and it would lead to many other injuries that hampered his accomplishments. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities.

A midnight ride to Tulsa enabled Mantle to be treated with newly available penicillin, saving his leg from amputation. Rather than write for newspaper or appear on television their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. Kicked in the shin during a game, Mantle's leg soon became infected with osteomyelitis, a crippling disease that would have been incurable just a few years earlier. These film critics try to come to understand why film works, how it works, and what effects it has on people. It was his football playing that nearly ended his athletic career, and indeed his life. This work is more often known as film theory or film studies. Mantle was an all-around athlete at Commerce High School, playing basketball and football in addition to his first love, baseball. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films.

When Mantle was four years old, the family moved to the nearby town of Commerce, Oklahoma. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. Mantle said one of the great heartaches of his life was that he never told his father he loved him. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. Sadly, his father died of cancer at the age of 39, just as his son was starting his career. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. "No boy ever loved his father more," he said. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily-promoted movies that were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence.

Mantle always spoke warmly of his beloved father and said he was the bravest man he ever knew. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. In later life, Mickey Mantle expressed great relief that his father had not known Cochrane's real first name, as he would have hated to be named Gordon. The impact of reviewer on a film's box office performance is a matter of debate. Apparently his father was not aware that Cochrane's real name was Gordon. Poor reviews will often deign a film to obscurity and financial loss. He was named in honor of Mickey Cochrane, the Hall of Fame catcher from the Detroit Tigers, by his father, who was an amateur player and fervent fan. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important.

Mickey Mantle was born in Spavinaw, Oklahoma. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. . Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic's overall judgement of a film. He played his entire professional career for the New York Yankees. Despite this, critics have an important impact of films, especially those of certain genres. Mickey Charles Mantle (October 20, 1931 – August 13, 1995) was an American baseball player, regarded as one of the best of all time. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions.

Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. In general this can be divided into academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. More recent analysis has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others.

Classical film theory provides a structural framework to address classical issues of techniques, narrativity, diegesis, cinematic codes, "the image", genre, subjectivity, and authorship. Film theory seeks to develop concise, systematic concepts that apply to the study of film/cinema as art. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 21st Century. New Hollywood, French New Wave and the rise of film school educated, independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th Century.

The 1950s, 60s and 70s saw changes in the production and style of film. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. But as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color an essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-60s. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white.

While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of color. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them "talking pictures", or talkies. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen.

Murnau continued to advance the medium. W. However in the 1920s, European filmmaker’s such as Sergei Eisenstein and F. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the breakout of World War I while the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood.

By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purposes, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. Rather than leave the audience in silence, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music fitting the mood of the film at any given moment. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles.

Films began stringing scenes together to tell narratives. Around the turn of the 20th Century, films began developing a narrative structure. Motion pictures were purely visual art up to the late 1920s, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques.

These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as "motion pictures". By the 1880s, the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these "moving picture shows" onto a screen for an entire audience. Early versions of the technology sometimes required the viewer to look into a special device to see the pictures. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time.

Naturally, the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect — and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns), and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Mechanisms for producing artificially created, two-dimensional images in motion were demonstrated as early as the 1860s, with devices such as the zoetrope and the praxinoscope. .

Films are also artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Any film can become a worldwide attraction, especially with the addition of dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. The visual elements of cinema need no translation, giving the motion picture a universal power of communication. Film is considered by many to be an important art form; films entertain, educate, enlighten and inspire audiences.

Also of relevance is what causes the perception of motion — a psychological effect identified as beta movement. Flickering between frames is not seen due to an effect known as persistence of vision — whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. They comprise a series of individual frames, but when these images are shown rapidly in succession, the illusion of motion is given to the viewer. Films are produced by recording actual people and objects with cameras, or by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects.

Many other terms exist — motion pictures (or just pictures or "picture"), the silver screen, photoplays, the cinema, picture shows, flicks — and most commonly movies. The origin of the name comes from the fact that photographic film (also called filmstock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. Distribution.

Post-production. Production. Preproduction. Development.

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