Mickey Mantle

Mickey Charles Mantle (October 20, 1931 – August 13, 1995) was an American baseball player, regarded as one of the best of all time. He played his entire professional career for the New York Yankees.

Youth

This person is a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame.

Mickey Mantle was born in Spavinaw, Oklahoma. He was named in honor of Mickey Cochrane, the Hall of Fame catcher from the Detroit Tigers, by his father, who was an amateur player and fervent fan. Apparently his father was not aware that Cochrane's real name was Gordon. In later life, Mickey Mantle expressed great relief that his father had not known Cochrane's real first name, as he would have hated to be named Gordon. Mantle always spoke warmly of his beloved father and said he was the bravest man he ever knew. "No boy ever loved his father more," he said. Sadly, his father died of cancer at the age of 39, just as his son was starting his career. Mantle said one of the great heartaches of his life was that he never told his father he loved him.

When Mantle was four years old, the family moved to the nearby town of Commerce, Oklahoma. Mantle was an all-around athlete at Commerce High School, playing basketball and football in addition to his first love, baseball. It was his football playing that nearly ended his athletic career, and indeed his life. Kicked in the shin during a game, Mantle's leg soon became infected with osteomyelitis, a crippling disease that would have been incurable just a few years earlier. A midnight ride to Tulsa enabled Mantle to be treated with newly available penicillin, saving his leg from amputation. He would suffer from the effects of the disease for the rest of his life, and it would lead to many other injuries that hampered his accomplishments. Additionally, Mantle's osteomyelitic condition exempted him from military service, a fact which caused him to become very unpopular with fans, as his earliest days in baseball coincided with the Korean War. This unpopularity, mainly with older fans, would dramatically reverse after he finished second to Roger Maris in the pursuit of Babe Ruth's home run record in 1961. He spent the last years of his career as a wildly popular icon of the entire sport.

Playing career

"Mutt" Mantle taught his son how to be a switch-hitter. Mickey had played shortstop in the minor leagues, but on arrival at the Yankees, he became the regular right fielder (playing only a few games at shortstop and third base in 1952 to 1955). He moved to center field in 1952, replacing Joe DiMaggio, who retired at the end of the 1951 season after one year playing alongside Mantle in the Yankees outfield. He played center field until 1967, when he was moved to first base. Among Mantle's many accomplishments are all-time World Series records for home runs (18), runs scored (42), and runs batted in (40).

Mantle also hit some of the longest home runs in Major League history. On September 10, 1960, he hit a ball that cleared the right-field roof at Tiger Stadium in Detroit and, based on where it was found, was estimated years after the fact to have traveled more than 600 feet, though it probably was closer to 500 feet. Another Mantle homer at Griffith Stadium in Washington on April 17, 1953, was said to have traveled 565 feet. Years later William J. Jenkinson, who specializes on information of long distance homeruns, said that the actual distance was probably 510 feet.

In 1956, Mantle won the Hickok Belt as top professional athlete of the year. This was his "favorite summer," a year that saw him win the Triple Crown, leading the majors with a .353 batting average, 52 HR, and 130 RBI on the way to his first of three MVP awards. Though the American League Triple Crown has been won twice since then, Mantle remains the last man to win the Major League Triple Crown.

On January 16, 1961, Mantle became the highest-paid baseball player by signing a $75,000 contract. DiMaggio, Hank Greenberg and Ted Williams, who had just retired, had been paid over $100,000 in a season, and Ruth had a peak salary of $80,000. But Mantle became the highest-paid active player of his time.

Retirement

Mantle announced his retirement on March 1, 1969, and in 1974, as soon as he was eligible, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame; his uniform number 7 was retired by the Yankees. (He had briefly worn uniform number 6, as a continuation of Babe Ruth's 3, Lou Gehrig's 4, and Joe DiMaggio's 5, in 1951, but his poor performance led to his temporary demotion to a minor league in mid-season. When he returned, Bobby Brown, who had worn number 6 before Mantle, had reclaimed it, so Mantle was given number 7. Nowadays, certain future number-retiree manager Joe Torre wears 6, and the 8 belonging to catchers Bill Dickey and Yogi Berra has already been retired - Derek Jeter's 2 may very well also join the list of consecutive retired numbers.) When he retired, the Mick was third on the all-time home run list with 536.

Despite being among the best-paid players of the pre-free agency era, Mantle was a poor businessman, having made several unlucky investments. His lifestyle would be restored to one of luxury, and his hold on his fans raised to an amazing level, by his position of leadership in the sports memorabilia craze that swept the USA beginning in the 1980's. Mantle was a prize guest at any baseball card show, commanding fees far in excess of any other player for his appearances and autographs. This popularity continues long after his death, as Mantle-related items far outsell those of any other player except possibly the unmatched Babe Ruth, whose items, due to the distance of years, now exist in far smaller quantities.

Despite the failure of Mickey Mantle's Country Cookin' restaurants in the early 1970s, Mickey Mantle's Restaurant & Sports Bar opened in New York at 42 Central Park South (59th Street) in 1988. It became one of New York's most popular restaurants, and his original Yankee Stadium Monument Park plaque is displayed at the front entrance. Mantle let others run the business operations, but made frequent appearances. But his drinking led radio show host Don Imus to joke, "If you get to Mickey Mantle's restaurant after midnight, you win a free dinner if you can guess which table Mickey's under."

In 1983, Mantle and Willie Mays took jobs promoting Atlantic City casinos, and were suspended from baseball by Commissioner Bowie Kuhn. They were reinstated in 1985 by Kuhn's successor, Peter Ueberroth.

Troubled family

On December 23, 1951, he married Merlyn Johnson in their hometown of Commerce, Oklahoma; they had four sons. In an autobiography, Mantle said he married Merlyn not because he loved her, but because his domineering father told him to. While his drinking became public knowledge during his lifetime, the press kept his many marital infidelities quiet.

The couple had four children, all sons: Mickey Jr. (born in 1953), David (1955), and Billy (1957, whom Mickey named for Billy Martin, his best friend among his Yankee teammates), and Danny (1960). Like Mickey, Merlyn and the sons all became alcoholics, and Billy developed Hodgkin's disease as several previous Mantle men had. This led to him developing a dependence on prescription painkillers.

Mickey Mantle has four grandchildren. Mickey Jr. had a daughter, Mallory. David and his wife Marla have a daughter, Marilyn. Danny and his wife Kay have a son, Will, and a daughter, Chloe. Danny and Will played a father and son watching Mickey, played by Thomas Jane, hit a home run in the 2001 film 61*.

Mickey and Merlyn had been separated for 15 years when he died, but neither ever filed for divorce. Mantle lived with his agent, Greer Johnson. Johnson was taken to federal court in November 1997 by the Mantle family to stop her from auctioning many of Mantle's personal items, including a lock of hair, a neck brace and expired credit cards.

He loved cherry pie and slept with his socks on inside out. During the final years of his life, Mantle purchased a luxury condominium on Lake Oconee near Greensboro, Georgia, near Greer Johnson's home, and freqently stayed there for months at the time. He occasionally attended the local Methodist church, and sometimes ate Sunday dinner with members of the congregation. He was well-liked by the citizens of Greensboro, and seemed to like them in return. This was probably because the town respected Mantle's privacy, refusing either to talk about their famous neighbor to outsiders or to direct fans to his home. In one interview, Mickey stated that the people of Greensboro had "gone out of their way to make me feel welcome, and I've found something there I haven't enjoyed since I was a kid."

Mantle's last days

Well before he finally sought treatment for alcoholism, Mantle admitted that his hard living had hurt his playing and his family. His rationale was that the men in his family had all died young, so he expected to as well. "I'm not gonna be cheated," he'd say. As the years passed, and he realized he had outlived the men in his family -- not realizing that working in mines and inhaling lead and zinc dust aided Hodgkin's and other cancers as much as heredity did -- he frequently used a line popularized by elderly comedian George Burns: "If I'd known I was gonna live this long, I'd have taken a lot better care of myself."

Mantle's wife and sons all completed treatment for alcoholism, and told him he needed to do the same. He checked into the Betty Ford Clinic on January 7, 1994, after being told by a doctor that his liver was so badly damaged, "Your next drink could be your last."

Shortly after completing treatment, his son Billy died on March 12, at age 36, of heart trouble, brought on by years of substance abuse. Despite the fears of those who knew him, who feared that this tragedy would send him back to drinking, he remained sober. Mickey Jr. would also die of liver cancer on December 20, 2000, at age 47. Danny would later battle prostate cancer.

Mantle spoke with great remorse of his drinking in a Sports Illustrated article, "My Life In A Bottle." He said that he was telling the same old stories, and realizing how much of them involved himself and others being drunk, and he decided they weren't funny anymore. He admitted he had often been cruel and hurtful to family, friends, and fans because of his alcoholism, and sought to make amends. He became a born-again Christian due to his former teammate Bobby Richardson, an ordained Baptist minister, sharing his faith with him. After the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, he joined with fellow Oklahoman and Yankee legend Bobby Murcer to raise money for the victims.

Mantle received a liver transplant at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas, on June 8, 1995, after his liver had been damaged by years of chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, and hepatitis C. In July, he had recovered enough to deliver a press conference at Baylor, and noted that many fans had looked to him as a role model. "This is a role model: Don't be like me," he said. He also established the Mickey Mantle Foundation to raise awareness for organ donations. Soon, he was back in the hospital, where it was found that his liver cancer spread throughout his body.

Mickey Mantle died on August 13, 1995, at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas. He was 63 years old. He was interred in the Sparkman-Hillcrest Memorial Park Cemetery in Dallas. Mantle had asked country singer Roy Clark, his good friend, to perform his favorite song "Yesterday, When I Was Young" at his funeral:

In eulogizing Mantle, Bob Costas described the legend as "a fragile hero to whom we had an emotional attachment so strong and lasting that it defied logic. In the last years of his life, Mickey Mantle, always so hard on himself, finally began to appreciate the difference between a role model and a hero. The first, he often was not. The last, he forever will be. And, in the end, people got it kid."

Honors

On Mickey Mantle Day, June 8, 1969, in addition to the retirement of his uniform number 7, Mantle was given a plaque that would hang on the center field wall at Yankee Stadium, near the monuments to Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig and Miller Huggins. The plaque was given to him by Joe DiMaggio, and Mantle then gave DiMaggio a similar plaque, telling the crowd, "His should be just a little bit higher than mine." When Yankee Stadium was reopened in 1976 following its renovation, the plaques and monuments were moved to Monument Park, behind the left-center field fence. Shortly before his death, Mantle videotaped a message to be played on Old-Timers' Day, which he was too ill to attend. He said, "When I died, I wanted on my tombstone, 'A great teammate.' But I didn't think it would be this soon." The words were indeed carved on the plaque marking his resting place at the family mausoleum in Dallas. On August 25, 1996, about a year after his death, Mantle's Monument Park plaque was replaced with a monument, bearing the words "A great teammate" and keeping a phrase that had been included on the original plaque: "A magnificent Yankee who left a legacy of unequaled courage."

Mantle and former teammate Whitey Ford were elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame together in 1974, Mantle in his first year of eligibility, Ford in his second. In 1999, The Sporting News placed Mantle at number 17 on their list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players. That same year, he was one of 100 nominees for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team, and was chosen by fan balloting as one of the Team's outfielders. While most fans who remember them both tend to rate Willie Mays as a better player than Mantle, Mantle remains the most popular player of the 1950s and 1960s, even as Mays, Hank Aaron and others outlived him by many years.

In 2006, Mantle will be featured on a United States postage stamp [1]. The stamp is one of a series of four honoring Baseball Sluggers.


Present

Mickey Mantle has some decendents in Wichita, Kansas. The decendents own Campbell Castle or The Castle Inn.


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The decendents own Campbell Castle or The Castle Inn. For example, a bearing of northwest by north differs by one point from a northwest bearing, and by a point from a north-northwest one. Mickey Mantle has some decendents in Wichita, Kansas. A "point" is defined as one eighth of a right angle, and therefore equals exactly 11.25 degrees.
. Galileo is a competing system, that will be placed into service by the European Union. The stamp is one of a series of four honoring Baseball Sluggers. It relies on a slightly different geodesic model of the Earth.

In 2006, Mantle will be featured on a United States postage stamp [1]. GLONASS is a positioning system launched by the Soviet Union. While most fans who remember them both tend to rate Willie Mays as a better player than Mantle, Mantle remains the most popular player of the 1950s and 1960s, even as Mays, Hank Aaron and others outlived him by many years. The GPS system now permits accurate geographic location with an error of only a few metres, and precision timing to less than a microsecond. That same year, he was one of 100 nominees for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team, and was chosen by fan balloting as one of the Team's outfielders. In 1974, the first GPS satellite was launched. In 1999, The Sporting News placed Mantle at number 17 on their list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players. Other radionavigation systems include:.

Mantle and former teammate Whitey Ford were elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame together in 1974, Mantle in his first year of eligibility, Ford in his second. It was the first electronic navigation system to provide global coverage. On August 25, 1996, about a year after his death, Mantle's Monument Park plaque was replaced with a monument, bearing the words "A great teammate" and keeping a phrase that had been included on the original plaque: "A magnificent Yankee who left a legacy of unequaled courage.". At about the same, TRANSIT, the first satellite-based navigation system was developed. He said, "When I died, I wanted on my tombstone, 'A great teammate.' But I didn't think it would be this soon." The words were indeed carved on the plaque marking his resting place at the family mausoleum in Dallas. An analogous system for aircraft, VHF omnidirectional range and DME, was developed around the same time. Shortly before his death, Mantle videotaped a message to be played on Old-Timers' Day, which he was too ill to attend. It revolutionized navigation by permitting semiautomated equipment to locate geographic positions to less than a half mile (800 m).

The plaque was given to him by Joe DiMaggio, and Mantle then gave DiMaggio a similar plaque, telling the crowd, "His should be just a little bit higher than mine." When Yankee Stadium was reopened in 1976 following its renovation, the plaques and monuments were moved to Monument Park, behind the left-center field fence. This used time-of-flight of radio waves from antennas at known locations. On Mickey Mantle Day, June 8, 1969, in addition to the retirement of his uniform number 7, Mantle was given a plaque that would hang on the center field wall at Yankee Stadium, near the monuments to Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig and Miller Huggins. Around 1960, LORAN was developed. And, in the end, people got it kid.". Up until 1960 it was commonplace for ships and aircraft to use radio direction-finding on commercial stations in order to locate islands and cities within the last several miles of error. The last, he forever will be. In the late 19th century Nikola Tesla invented radio and direction-finding was quickly adapted to navigation.

The first, he often was not. Later, mechanical chronometers enabled navigation at sea and in the air using relatively unskilled procedures. In the last years of his life, Mickey Mantle, always so hard on himself, finally began to appreciate the difference between a role model and a hero. A number of scientific journals during this period were started especially to chronicle geography. In eulogizing Mantle, Bob Costas described the legend as "a fragile hero to whom we had an emotional attachment so strong and lasting that it defied logic. These methods were too complex to be used by any but skilled astronomers, but they sufficed to map most of the world. Mantle had asked country singer Roy Clark, his good friend, to perform his favorite song "Yesterday, When I Was Young" at his funeral:. At first, the best available "clocks" were the moons of Jupiter, and the calculated transits of selected stars by the moon.

He was interred in the Sparkman-Hillcrest Memorial Park Cemetery in Dallas. Modern sextants measure to 0.2 minutes of arc, an error that translates to a distance of about 0.2 nautical miles (400 m). He was 63 years old. This eliminates the "cosine" error of an astrolabe's short pointer. Mickey Mantle died on August 13, 1995, at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas. Thus, its "pointer" is as long as the horizon is far away. Soon, he was back in the hospital, where it was found that his liver cancer spread throughout his body. A sextant uses mirrors to measure the altitude of celestial objects with regard to the horizon.

He also established the Mickey Mantle Foundation to raise awareness for organ donations. In 1730 the sextant was invented and navigators rapidly replaced their astrolabes. "This is a role model: Don't be like me," he said. Starting in 1670, the entire world was measured using essentially modern latitude instruments and the best available clocks. In July, he had recovered enough to deliver a press conference at Baylor, and noted that many fans had looked to him as a role model. After Isaac Newton published the Principia, navigation was transformed. Mantle received a liver transplant at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas, on June 8, 1995, after his liver had been damaged by years of chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, and hepatitis C. Diptychs remained in use during the day, until shadowing astrolabes were constructed.

Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, he joined with fellow Oklahoman and Yankee legend Bobby Murcer to raise money for the victims. Around 400, metallurgy allowed construction of astrolabes graduated in degrees, which replaced the wooden latitude instruments for night use. After the bombing of the Alfred P. This let masters continue sailing a course when the weather limited visibility of the sky. He became a born-again Christian due to his former teammate Bobby Richardson, an ordained Baptist minister, sharing his faith with him. Some time later, around 300, the magnetic compass was invented in China. He admitted he had often been cruel and hurtful to family, friends, and fans because of his alcoholism, and sought to make amends. Using these techniques, masters successfully sailed from the eastern Mediterranean to the south coast of the British Isles.

Mantle spoke with great remorse of his drinking in a Sports Illustrated article, "My Life In A Bottle." He said that he was telling the same old stories, and realizing how much of them involved himself and others being drunk, and he decided they weren't funny anymore. The above instruments were a powerful technology, and appear to have been the technique used by ancient Cretan bronze-age trading empire. Danny would later battle prostate cancer. These were often crucial trade secrets, because they enabled travel to lucrative ports. would also die of liver cancer on December 20, 2000, at age 47. The most important instrument was a navigators' diary, later called a rutter. Mickey Jr. Time-keeping was by precision hourglasses, filled and tested to 1/4 of an hour, turned by the helmsman, or a young boy brought for that purpose.

Despite the fears of those who knew him, who feared that this tragedy would send him back to drinking, he remained sober. Most sailors could use this instrument to take sun sights, but master navigators knew that sightings of Polaris were far more accurate, because they were not subject to time-keeping errors involved in finding noon. Shortly after completing treatment, his son Billy died on March 12, at age 36, of heart trouble, brought on by years of substance abuse. Latitude was determined with a "cross staff" an instrument vaguely similar to a carpenter's angle with graduated marks on it. He checked into the Betty Ford Clinic on January 7, 1994, after being told by a doctor that his liver was so badly damaged, "Your next drink could be your last.". This was placed in front of the helmsman. Mantle's wife and sons all completed treatment for alcoholism, and told him he needed to do the same. Another early invention was the compass rose, a cross or painted panel of wood oriented with the pole star or diptych.

As the years passed, and he realized he had outlived the men in his family -- not realizing that working in mines and inhaling lead and zinc dust aided Hodgkin's and other cancers as much as heredity did -- he frequently used a line popularized by elderly comedian George Burns: "If I'd known I was gonna live this long, I'd have taken a lot better care of myself.". Basically, when the diptych's two sundials indicated the same time, the diptych was aligned to the current latitude and true north. "I'm not gonna be cheated," he'd say. When combined with a plumb bob, some diptychs could also determine latitude. His rationale was that the men in his family had all died young, so he expected to as well. Most sailors have always been able find absolute north from the stars, which currently rotate around Polaris, or by using a dual sundial called a diptych. Well before he finally sought treatment for alcoholism, Mantle admitted that his hard living had hurt his playing and his family. In the West, navigation was at first performed exclusively by dead-reckoning, the process of estimating one's present position based on the navigators' experience with wind, tide and currents.

In one interview, Mickey stated that the people of Greensboro had "gone out of their way to make me feel welcome, and I've found something there I haven't enjoyed since I was a kid.". This can be accomplished using low-cost quartz clocks because the satellites send time correction signals to the GPS receivers. This was probably because the town respected Mantle's privacy, refusing either to talk about their famous neighbor to outsiders or to direct fans to his home. GPS uses 3D trilateration based on measuring the time-of-flight of radio waves using the well-known speed of light to measure distance from at least three satellites. He was well-liked by the citizens of Greensboro, and seemed to like them in return. A third source along with dead-reckoning will generally resolve to a single position. He occasionally attended the local Methodist church, and sometimes ate Sunday dinner with members of the congregation. Signals from these two point establish a hyperbolic curve for possible positions.

During the final years of his life, Mantle purchased a luxury condominium on Lake Oconee near Greensboro, Georgia, near Greer Johnson's home, and freqently stayed there for months at the time. The LORAN system is based on measuring the phase shift of radio waves sent simultaneously from a master and slave station. He loved cherry pie and slept with his socks on inside out. Inexpensive plastic sextants are available, though they have less accuracy than the more expensive metal models. Johnson was taken to federal court in November 1997 by the Mantle family to stop her from auctioning many of Mantle's personal items, including a lock of hair, a neck brace and expired credit cards. Some sextants create an artificial horizon by reflecting a bubble. Mantle lived with his agent, Greer Johnson. When the image of the star touches the horizon, the angle can be read from the sextant's scale.

Mickey and Merlyn had been separated for 15 years when he died, but neither ever filed for divorce. An arm moves a split image of the star relative to the split image of the horizon. Danny and Will played a father and son watching Mickey, played by Thomas Jane, hit a home run in the 2001 film 61*. During a sight, the user's view of the star and horizon remains steady as the boat rocks. Danny and his wife Kay have a son, Will, and a daughter, Chloe. The angle is measured with a special optical instrument called a "sextant." Sextants use two mirrors to cancel the relative motion of the sextant. David and his wife Marla have a daughter, Marilyn. Winding the chronometers was a crucial duty of the navigator.

had a daughter, Mallory. Traditionally, three chronometers are kept in gimbals in a dry room near the center of the ship, and used to set a watch for the actual sight, so that the chronometers themselves do not risk exposure to the elements. Mickey Jr. If it is worn constantly, keeping it near body heat, its rate of drift can be measured with the radio, and by compensating for this drift, a navigator can keep time to better than a second per month. Mickey Mantle has four grandchildren. A quartz wristwatch normally keeps time within a half-second per day. This led to him developing a dependence on prescription painkillers. Time is measured with a chronometer, a quartz watch or a shortwave radio broadcast from an atomic clock.

Like Mickey, Merlyn and the sons all became alcoholics, and Billy developed Hodgkin's disease as several previous Mantle men had. Accurately knowing the time of an observation is important. (born in 1953), David (1955), and Billy (1957, whom Mickey named for Billy Martin, his best friend among his Yankee teammates), and Danny (1960). Most navigation is performed with the sun and moon. The couple had four children, all sons: Mickey Jr. The numerous celestial objects permit navigators to shoot through holes in clouds. While his drinking became public knowledge during his lifetime, the press kept his many marital infidelities quiet. The math required for sight reduction is simple addition and subtraction, if sight-reduction tables are available.

In an autobiography, Mantle said he married Merlyn not because he loved her, but because his domineering father told him to. Usually the navigator knows his position well enough to pick which of the two intersections is the current position. On December 23, 1951, he married Merlyn Johnson in their hometown of Commerce, Oklahoma; they had four sons. A second sighting on a different object establishes an intersecting ring. They were reinstated in 1985 by Kuhn's successor, Peter Ueberroth. Conceptually, the angle to the celestial object establishes a ring of possible positions on the surface of the Earth. In 1983, Mantle and Willie Mays took jobs promoting Atlantic City casinos, and were suspended from baseball by Commissioner Bowie Kuhn. From a single sight, a time within a second and an estimated position, a position can be determined within a third of a mile (500 m).

But his drinking led radio show host Don Imus to joke, "If you get to Mickey Mantle's restaurant after midnight, you win a free dinner if you can guess which table Mickey's under.". In modern celestial navigation, a nautical almanac and trigonometric sight-reduction tables permit navigators to measure the Sun, Moon, visible planets or any of 57 navigational stars at any time of day or night. Mantle let others run the business operations, but made frequent appearances. Once accurate clocks were available, detailed tables for celestial bodies were created so that navigational activities could take place anytime during the day or night, rather than at noon. It became one of New York's most popular restaurants, and his original Yankee Stadium Monument Park plaque is displayed at the front entrance. The need for accurate navigation led to the development of progressively more accurate clocks. Despite the failure of Mickey Mantle's Country Cookin' restaurants in the early 1970s, Mickey Mantle's Restaurant & Sports Bar opened in New York at 42 Central Park South (59th Street) in 1988. The difference of longitude is determined knowing that the sun moves to the west at 15 degrees per hour.

This popularity continues long after his death, as Mantle-related items far outsell those of any other player except possibly the unmatched Babe Ruth, whose items, due to the distance of years, now exist in far smaller quantities. Then the local time of local noon is observed by the navigator. Mantle was a prize guest at any baseball card show, commanding fees far in excess of any other player for his appearances and autographs. The time of noon at the known location is carried by the navigator on an accurate clock. His lifestyle would be restored to one of luxury, and his hold on his fans raised to an amazing level, by his position of leadership in the sports memorabilia craze that swept the USA beginning in the 1980's. The time of the maximum altitude is easily determined by interpolating between periodic readings. Despite being among the best-paid players of the pre-free agency era, Mantle was a poor businessman, having made several unlucky investments. Local noon is determined while shooting the azimuth as described above.

Nowadays, certain future number-retiree manager Joe Torre wears 6, and the 8 belonging to catchers Bill Dickey and Yogi Berra has already been retired - Derek Jeter's 2 may very well also join the list of consecutive retired numbers.) When he retired, the Mick was third on the all-time home run list with 536. Noon was an easy event to observe. When he returned, Bobby Brown, who had worn number 6 before Mantle, had reclaimed it, so Mantle was given number 7. Longitude is calculated as a time difference between the same celestial event at different locations. (He had briefly worn uniform number 6, as a continuation of Babe Ruth's 3, Lou Gehrig's 4, and Joe DiMaggio's 5, in 1951, but his poor performance led to his temporary demotion to a minor league in mid-season. Since periodic readings of the altitude will plot a sine wave, the maximum reading is the one used for local noon. Mantle announced his retirement on March 1, 1969, and in 1974, as soon as he was eligible, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame; his uniform number 7 was retired by the Yankees. Local noon is easily determined by recording periodic readings of the altitude of the sun.

But Mantle became the highest-paid active player of his time. The sun's angle over the horizon at noon was measured, and compared to the known angle at the same date as the known port. DiMaggio, Hank Greenberg and Ted Williams, who had just retired, had been paid over $100,000 in a season, and Ruth had a peak salary of $80,000. However, prior to the development and formulation of its key principles in the latter part of the 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, tables of the sun's altitude during the year for a known port were used. On January 16, 1961, Mantle became the highest-paid baseball player by signing a $75,000 contract. Calculating the anticipated altitude of the sun for a given day and known position is done easily using Calculus. Though the American League Triple Crown has been won twice since then, Mantle remains the last man to win the Major League Triple Crown. Determining latitude by the sun was a little more difficult since the sun's altitude at noon during the year changes for a given location.

This was his "favorite summer," a year that saw him win the Triple Crown, leading the majors with a .353 batting average, 52 HR, and 130 RBI on the way to his first of three MVP awards. Navigators could determine their latitude by measuring the angular altitude of Polaris any time that it was visible (excepting, of course, in those southern latitudes from where it cannot be observed). In 1956, Mantle won the Hickok Belt as top professional athlete of the year. Anciently the home port was used as the known location, currently the Greenwich Meridian or Prime Meridian is used as the known location for celestial charts. Jenkinson, who specializes on information of long distance homeruns, said that the actual distance was probably 510 feet. Celestial navigation systems are based on observation of the positions of the Sun, Moon and stars relative to the observer and a known location. Years later William J. This is known as a fix.

Another Mantle homer at Griffith Stadium in Washington on April 17, 1953, was said to have traveled 565 feet. Addition lines of position can be measured in order to validate the results taken against other reference points. On September 10, 1960, he hit a ball that cleared the right-field roof at Tiger Stadium in Detroit and, based on where it was found, was estimated years after the fact to have traveled more than 600 feet, though it probably was closer to 500 feet. These lines of position can be plotted on a nautical chart, with the intersection being the ship's current location. Mantle also hit some of the longest home runs in Major League history. This is done by correctly identifying reference points and measuring their bearings from the ship. Among Mantle's many accomplishments are all-time World Series records for home runs (18), runs scored (42), and runs batted in (40). Periodically, the navigator needs to confirm the accuracy of the dead reckoning or estimated position calculations using position fixing techniques.

He played center field until 1967, when he was moved to first base. If the set and drift, due to tide and wind, can be determined, an estimated position can also be calculated. He moved to center field in 1952, replacing Joe DiMaggio, who retired at the end of the 1951 season after one year playing alongside Mantle in the Yankees outfield. A navigator uses the ship's last known position and dead reckoning, based on the ship's logged compass course and speed, to calculate the current position. Mickey had played shortstop in the minor leagues, but on arrival at the Yankees, he became the regular right fielder (playing only a few games at shortstop and third base in 1952 to 1955). Traditional maritime navigation with a compass uses multiple redundant sources of position information to locate the ship's position. "Mutt" Mantle taught his son how to be a switch-hitter. These were made obsolete by satellite navigation systems.

He spent the last years of his career as a wildly popular icon of the entire sport. The invention of the radio lead to radio beacons and radio direction finders providing accurate land-based fixes even hundreds of miles from shore. This unpopularity, mainly with older fans, would dramatically reverse after he finished second to Roger Maris in the pursuit of Babe Ruth's home run record in 1961. Later developments included the placing of lighthouses and buoys close to shore to act as marine signposts identifying ambiguous features, highlighting hazards and pointing to safe channels for ships approaching some part of a coast after a long sea voyage. Additionally, Mantle's osteomyelitic condition exempted him from military service, a fact which caused him to become very unpopular with fans, as his earliest days in baseball coincided with the Korean War. The development of accurate systems for taking lines of position based on the measurement of stars and planets with the sextant allowed ships to navigate the open ocean without needing to see land marks. He would suffer from the effects of the disease for the rest of his life, and it would lead to many other injuries that hampered his accomplishments. Nautical charts were developed to record new navigational and pilotage information for use by other navigators.

A midnight ride to Tulsa enabled Mantle to be treated with newly available penicillin, saving his leg from amputation. The magnetic compass allowing a course to be maintained and estimates of the ship's location to be calculated. Kicked in the shin during a game, Mantle's leg soon became infected with osteomyelitis, a crippling disease that would have been incurable just a few years earlier. Early navigators used pilotage, relying on local knowledge of land marks and coastal features, forcing all ships to stay close to shore. It was his football playing that nearly ended his athletic career, and indeed his life. Knowing the ship's current position is the main problem for all navigators. Mantle was an all-around athlete at Commerce High School, playing basketball and football in addition to his first love, baseball. There are several different branches of navigation, including but not limited to:.

When Mantle was four years old, the family moved to the nearby town of Commerce, Oklahoma. They built a replica of an ancient double-hulled canoe called the Hokule'a, whose crew, in 1976, successfully navigated the Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to Tahiti using no instruments. Mantle said one of the great heartaches of his life was that he never told his father he loved him. In 1973, the Polynesian Voyaging Society was established in Hawaii to research Polynesian navigation methods. Sadly, his father died of cancer at the age of 39, just as his son was starting his career. The first settlers of the Hawaiian Islands were said to have used these navigation methods to sail to the Hawaiian Islands from the Marquesas Islands. "No boy ever loved his father more," he said. The guild secrets might have been lost, had not one of the last living navigators trained a professional small boat captain so that he could write a book.

Mantle always spoke warmly of his beloved father and said he was the bravest man he ever knew. Generally each island maintained a guild of navigators who had very high status, since in times of famine or difficulty, only they could trade for aid or evacuate people. In later life, Mickey Mantle expressed great relief that his father had not known Cochrane's real first name, as he would have hated to be named Gordon. These, and outrigger canoe construction methods, were kept as guild secrets. Apparently his father was not aware that Cochrane's real name was Gordon. In Eastern Polynesia, navigators, in order to locate directions at various times of day and year, memorized extensive facts concerning:. He was named in honor of Mickey Cochrane, the Hall of Fame catcher from the Detroit Tigers, by his father, who was an amateur player and fervent fan. The Polynesian navigators routinely crossed thousands of miles of open ocean, to tiny inhabited islands, using only their own senses and knowledge, passed by oral tradition, from navigator to apprentice.

Mickey Mantle was born in Spavinaw, Oklahoma. . . Prominent examples are the Phoenicians, the Ancient Greeks, the Malays, the Persians, Arabians, the Norse and, perhaps more than any others, the peoples of the Pacific Ocean, particularly Polynesians and Micronesians. He played his entire professional career for the New York Yankees. In the pre-modern history of human migration and discovery of new lands by navigating the oceans, a few peoples have excelled as sea-faring explorers. Mickey Charles Mantle (October 20, 1931 – August 13, 1995) was an American baseball player, regarded as one of the best of all time. There are several traditions of navigation.

Alpha, a longwave system developed by the Soviet Union. Omega, a longwave system developed by the United States Navy. Decca. collision avoidance using radar.

position fixing - determining current position by visual and electronic means. waypoint navigation - using electronic equipment such as radio navigation and satellite navigation system to follow a course to a waypoint. dead reckoning - using compass and log to monitor expected progress on a journey. pilotage - using visible natural and man made features such as sea marks and beacons.

celestial navigation - navigation by observation of the sun, moon and stars. Wayfinding Main Page. Wayfinding Summary. angles for approaching harbors.

colors of the sea and sky, especially how clouds would cluster at the locations of some islands. directions of swells on the ocean, and how the crew would feel their motion. wildlife species (which congregate at particular positions). times of travel.

weather. the motion of specific stars, and where they would rise and set on the horizon of the ocean.

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