Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

This page about Michael Faraday includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Michael Faraday
News stories about Michael Faraday
External links for Michael Faraday
Videos for Michael Faraday
Wikis about Michael Faraday
Discussion Groups about Michael Faraday
Blogs about Michael Faraday
Images of Michael Faraday

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. The Beethoven Peninsula is one of them. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. A few places and things have been named after Beethoven. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. However, by the end of the first decade of the 19th century, Beethoven the romantic was without a doubt primary. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Yet, after that, Beethoven still wrote his very "Classical" 8th symphony and some innocent-sounding chamber music for the English market.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Then the 6th symphony was the first example of a symphony composed as "program music" (what in Romanticism became standard practice), and it broke up the traditional arrangement of a symphony in four movements. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. In the 5th symphony, he let a short pounding motto theme run through all movements of the composition (unheard of until then). His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Most scholars seem to concur: the presentation of the 5th and 6th symphonies in a single concert in 1808 is probably closest to that pivotal point. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. This means that the question changes from whether Beethoven was a classicist or a romantic, to: where is the pivotal moment that Beethoven tilted from dominant classicism to dominant romanticism?.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Later, there is much more iconoclasm in his approach, like adding a chorus to a symphony, where a symphony had until then only been a purely instrumental genre. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. The young Beethoven can be seen toiling to conform to the aesthetic models of his contemporaries: he wants to write music that is acceptable in the society of his days. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. By listening to Beethoven's music also, another scholarly analysis is possible: there is definitely an evolution in style from Beethoven's earliest compositions to his later works. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. Between these two extremes there are, of course, innumerable gradations.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. To those for whom the Enlightenment represents the basis of Modernity, he must therefore be unequivocally a Classicist, while for those who see the Romantic sensibility as a key to later aesthetics (including the aesthetics of our own time), he must be a Romantic. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. The marker buoy of Romanticism has been pushed back and forth several times by scholarship, and it remains a subject of intense debate, in no small part because Beethoven is seen as a seminal figure. This established that magnetic force and light were related. For some experts, Beethoven is not a Romantic, and his being one is a myth; for others he stands as a transitional figure, or an immediate precursor to Romanticism; for others he is the prototypical, or even archetypical, Romantic composer, complete with myth of heroic genius and individuality. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". If on the other hand we consider the context of musicology, where Romantic music is dated later, the matter is one of considerably greater debate.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He set dozens of such poems (and arranged folk melodies) for voice, piano, and violin. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. He is often considered the composer of the first Song Cycle, and was influenced by Romantic folk idioms, for example in his use of the work of Robert Burns. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Hoffman.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He was also called a Romantic by contemporaries such as Spohr and E.T.A.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. If we consider the Romantic movement as an aesthetic epoch in literature and the arts generally, Beethoven sits squarely in the first half, along with literary Romantics such as the German poets Goethe and Schiller (whose texts both he and the much more straightforwardly Romantic Franz Schubert drew on for songs), and the English poet Percy Shelley. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. As documented elsewhere, since the meanings of the word "Romantic" and the definition of the period "Romanticism" both vary by discipline, Beethoven's inclusion as a member of that movement or period must be looked at in context. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. A continuing controversy surrounding Beethoven is whether he was a Romantic composer. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. For discussion, see Beethoven's religious beliefs.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Scholars disagree on Beethoven's religious beliefs and the role they played in his work. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. The fourth movement of his Ninth Symphony features an elaborate choral setting of Schiller's ode An die Freude ("To Joy"), an optimistic hymn championing the brotherhood of humanity. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. He initially dedicated his third symphony, the Eroica (Italian for "heroic"), to Napoleon in the belief that the general would sustain the democratic and republican ideals of the French Revolution, but in 1804 tore out the title page upon which he had written a dedication to Napoleon, as Napoleon's imperial ambitions became clear, renamed the symphony as the "Sinfonia Eroica, composta per festeggiare il Sovvenire di un grand Uomo", or in English, "composed to celebrate the memory of a great man". The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. Beethoven was much taken by the ideals of the Enlightenment and by the growing Romanticism in Europe.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The work of Beethoven's Middle period is celebrated for its frequent heroic expression, and the works of his Late period for their intellectual depth. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. As far as musical form is concerned, he built on the principles of sonata form and motivic development that he had inherited from Haydn and Mozart, but greatly extended them, writing longer and more ambitious movements. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Beethoven is viewed as the transitional figure between the Classical and Romantic eras of musical history. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. (See also History of sonata form, Romantic music).

This device is known as a homopolar motor. Amongst possible sources of lead are ingested fish from the heavily polluted Danube River and lead compounds used to sweeten wine. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This implies that Beethoven decided to keep his mind clear for his music. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. History records that Beethoven continued working on his music until the day he died. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. The absence of drug metabolites indicates that Beethoven avoided opiate painkillers.

His greatest work was with electricity. Absence of detectable mercury levels was consistent with the view that Beethoven did not have syphilis, which was treated at the time with mercury compounds. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. When the hair was analysed chemically in 1996, distinctive trace-metal patterns associated with genius, irritability, glucose disorders, and malabsorption were not present. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. (The levels of lead were more than 100 times higher than levels found in most people today.) It is unlikely, however, that lead poisoning was the cause of his deafness, which several researchers have seen as caused by an immunopathic disorder such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. His death in the following year was attributed to liver disease, but modern research on a lock of Beethoven's hair taken at the time of his death shows that lead poisoning could well have contributed to his ill-health and untimely death.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. In 1826 his health took a drastic turn for the worse. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. Beethoven was often in poor health, especially after his mid-20s, when he began to suffer from serious stomach pains. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. This description is often applied to Beethoven's creation of masterpieces in the face of his severe personal difficulties. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. It is common for listeners to perceive an echo of Beethoven's life in his music, which often depicts struggle followed by triumph.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. He often had financial troubles. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. He moved often from dwelling to dwelling and had strange personal habits such as wearing filthy clothing while washing compulsively. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. Beethoven quarrelled, often bitterly, with his relatives and others (including a painful and public custody battle over his nephew Karl); he frequently behaved badly to other people. . A period of low productivity from about 1812 to 1816 is thought by some scholars to have been the result of depression, resulting from Beethoven's realization that he would never marry.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. He was attracted to unattainable (married or aristocratic) women, whom he idealized; he never married. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. Around the age of 28, he started to become deaf, a calamity which led him for some time to contemplate suicide (see the 1802 Heiligenstadt Testament). Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Beethoven's personal life was troubled. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Considering the depth and extent of Beethoven's artistic explorations, as well as the composer's success in making himself comprehensible to the widest possible audience, the Austrian-born British musician and writer Hans Keller felt able to pronounce Beethoven "humanity's greatest mind altogether".

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. The period includes the Missa Solemnis, the last six string quartets and the last six piano sonatas. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. The late works are greatly admired for and characterized by intellectual depth, intense and highly personal expression, and Beethoven's experimentation with forms (for example, the Quartet in C Sharp Minor has seven movements, while most famously the Ninth Symphony adds choral forces to the orchestra). Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Beethoven's Late period began around 1816 and lasted until Beethoven ceased to compose in 1826. Michael Faraday Directory. 7–11), the next six piano sonatas including the Waldstein, and Appassionata, and Beethoven's only opera, Fidelio.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. 3–8), the last three piano concertos and his only violin concerto, five string quartets (Nos. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. The Middle period works include six symphonies (Nos. Finish. The period is noted for large-scale works expressing heroism and struggle; these include many of the most famous works of classical music. "Work. The Middle period began shortly after Beethoven's personal crisis centering around deafness.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Some important pieces from the Early period are the first and second symphonies, the first six string quartets, the first two piano concertos, and the first twenty piano sonatas, including the famous Pathétique and Moonlight. ISBN 1400060168. In the Early period, he is seen as emulating his great predecessors Haydn and Mozart, at the same time exploring new directions and gradually expanding the scope and ambition of his work. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. Beethoven's career as a composer is usually divided into Early, Middle, and Late periods. Hamilton, James (2004). He settled into the career pattern he would follow for the remainder of his life: rather than working for the church or a noble court (as most composers before him had done), he was a freelancer, supporting himself with public performances, sales of his works, and stipends from noblemen who recognized his ability.

ISBN 0007163762. He quickly established a reputation as a piano virtuoso, and more slowly, as a composer. Harper Collins, London. Beethoven moved to Vienna in 1792, where he intended to study with Joseph Haydn, but the old man had little time for teaching and he passed Beethoven onto Johann Albrechtsberger. Faraday: The Life. Beethoven's mother died when he was 17, and for several years he was responsible for raising his two younger brothers. Hamilton, James (2002). He was given instruction and employment by Christian Gottlob Neefe, as well as financial sponsorship by the Prince-Elector.

However, Beethoven's talent was soon noticed by others. Beethoven's first music teacher was his father, who worked as a musician in the Electoral court at Bonn, but was also an alcoholic who beat him and unsuccessfully attempted to exhibit him as a child prodigy, like Mozart. However, modern scholarship declines to rely on such assumptions. Until relatively recently 16 December was shown in many reference works as Beethoven's "date of birth", since it is known he was baptized on 17 December and children at that time were generally baptized the day after their birth.

Beethoven was born in Bonn, Germany, to Johann van Beethoven (1740–1792), of Flemish origins, and Magdalena Keverich van Beethoven (1744–1787). . Among his most widely-recognized works are his Fifth Symphony, Ninth Symphony, the piano piece Für Elise, the Pathétique Sonata and the Moonlight Sonata. His reputation has inspired—and in many cases intimidated—composers, musicians, and audiences who were to come after him.

Beethoven is widely regarded as one of the greatest of composers. He was a major musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770; died March 26, 1827) was a German composer of classical music, who predominantly lived in Vienna, Austria. Walsh, Ph.D., Director of Beethoven Research Project, The Health Research Institute and Pfeiffer Treatment Center, Naperville, Illinois on 17 October 2000[1].

Statement by William J.

09-20-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory Move your favorite Unsigned Artist to the Top of the List