Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. Other patients:. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. People on whom psychoanalytic observations were published but who were not patients:. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. This is a partial list of patients whose case studies were published by Freud, with pseudonyms substituted for their names:. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. The other schools of psychology have produced alternative methods of psychotherapy to psychoanalysis, including behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and person centred psychotherapy.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Humanistic psychology maintains that psychoanalysis is a demeaning and incorrect view of human beings. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. Behaviourism, evolutionary psychology and cognitive psychology reject psychoanalysis as a pseudoscience. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Other critics, such as Thomas Szasz, argue that mental illness does not even exist, since there is no objective pathology to observe. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. The work of Emil Kraepelin established scientific psychiatry, which maintains neurological disorder view, although it is worth noting that Freud made significant contributions in this area.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Some psychiatrists argue that all mental illnesses are caused by neurological disorders but most still admit that many of them are combination of neurological disorders and "learned problems". Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. Within psychiatry, there are disputes over the causes of mental illness. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Although Popper's demarcation between science and non-science is widely accepted among scientists, it remains a controversial one itself within philosophy of science and philosophy in general. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. Popper pointed out that Freud's theories of psychology can always be "verified", since no type of behaviour could ever falsify them.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. If a theory is incapable of being falsified, then it cannot be considered scientific. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. For Popper, all proper scientific theories are potentially falsifiable. This established that magnetic force and light were related. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper formulated a method to distinguish science from non-science, or "pseudoscience". He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". Some criticize Freud's rejection of positivism.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. Moreover, they call attention to social dynamics Freud de-emphasized or ignored (such as class relations). In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. Instead, they have emphasized the social and environmental sources of patterns of development. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Others have accepted Freud's expanded notion of sexuality, but have argued that this pattern of development is not universal, nor necessary for the development of a healthy adult.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. Some have attacked Freud's claim that infants are sexual beings (and, implicitly, Freud's expanded notion of sexuality).

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. Freud's model of psycho-sexual development has been criticized from different perspectives. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. Many of the diseases which used to be treated with Freudian and related forms of therapy (such as schizophrenia) have been unequivocally demonstrated to be impervious to such treatments. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Fuller Torrey provides an account of the political and social forces which combined to raise Freud to the status of a divinity to those who needed a theoretical foundation for their political and social views. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. In his book "The Freudian Fraud", research psychiatrist E.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Freud's lessening influence in psychiatry is thus largely due to the repudiation of his theories and the adoption of many of the basic scientific principles of Freud's principal opponent in the field of psychiatry, Emil Kraepelin. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Although Freud was long regarded as a genius, psychiatry and psychology have long since been recast as scientific disciplines, and psychiatric disorders are generally considered diseases of the brain, the etiology of which is principally genetic. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Freud's psychological theories are hotly disputed today and many leading academic and research psychiatrists regard him as a charlatan - but there are also many leading academic and research psychiatrists who can agree at least with the core of his work. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. This could be more to do with modern drive to a 'quick fix' rather than problems with Freud's theories, however.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. Like Freud, Psychiatrists train as medical doctors, but—like most medical doctors in Freud's time—most reject his theory of the mind, and generally rely more on drugs than talk in their treatments. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. Experimental psychologists generally reject Freud's methods and theories. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Other clinical psychologists reject Freud's model of the mind, but have adapted elements of his therapeutic method, especially his reliance on patients' talking as a form of therapy. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Some clinical psychologists have modified this approach and have developed a variety of "psychodynamic" models and therapies.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. Clinical psychologists, who seek to treat mental illness, relate to Freudian psychoanalysis in different ways. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. Psychoanalysis today maintains the same ambivalent relationship with medicine and academia that Freud experienced during his life. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. Some, like Juliet Mitchell, have suggested that this is because his basic claim, that many of our conscious thoughts and actions are motivated by unconscious fears and desires, implicitly challenges universal and objective claims about the world (some proponents of science conclude that this invalidates Freudian theory as a means of interpreting and explaining human behavior; some proponents of Freud conclude that this invalidates science as a means of interpreting and explaining human behavior). In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. However, his research and practice were condemned by many of his peers, as well as later psychologists and academics.

His greatest work was with electricity. Freud trained as a medical doctor, and as such, he believed his research methods and conclusions were scientific. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. Excerpts / Reviews. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. Authoritarian religion, according to Freud, is dysfunctional and alienates man from himself. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. Freud's view of the idea of God as being a version of the father image and his thesis that religious belief is at bottom infantile and neurotic do not depend upon the accounts of prehistory and Biblical history with which Freud dressed up his version of the origin and nature of religion.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. When Freud spoke of religion as an illusion, he maintained that it is a fantasy structure from which a man must be set free if he is to grow to maturity; and in his treatment of the unconscious he moved toward atheism. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. His ideas were also developed in The Future of an Illusion. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. In Moses and Monotheism Freud reconstructed biblical history in accord with his general theory, but biblical scholars and historians would not accept his account since it was in opposition to the point of view of the accepted criteria of historical evidence. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. In Totem and Taboo he applied the idea of the Oedipus complex (involving unresolved sexual feelings of, for example, a son toward his mother and hostility toward his father) and postulated its emergence in the primordial stage of human development.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. Freud gave explanations of the genesis of religion in various of his writings. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. The Death Drive represented an urge inherent in all living things to return to a state of calm, or, ultimately, of non-existence. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. Freud's description of Eros/Libido included all creative, life-producing drives. . Freud believed that humans were driven by two drives, libidinal energy/Eros and the death drive/Thanatos.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. The defense mechanisms include, denial, reaction formation, displacement, repression/suppression (the proper term), projection, intellectualisation, rationalisation, compensation, sublimation and regressive emotionality.. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. His daughter, Anna Freud, had done the most significant work on this field, yet credited Sigmund with Defense Mechanisms as he began the work. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. The use of defense mechanisms, may attenuate the conflict between the id and superego, but their overuse or reuse rather than confrontation can lead to either anxiety or guilt which may result in psychological disorders such as depression. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. The use of the mechanisms required eros, and they are helpful if moderately used.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. According to Freud, the defense mechanisms are the method by which the ego can solve the conflicts between the superego and the id. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. But he also argued that the dynamic changes in the context of changing social relationships. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Freud argued that the dynamic is driven by innate drives. Michael Faraday Directory. Freud was especially concerned with the dynamic relationship between these three parts of the mind.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. The general claim that the mind is not a monolithic or homogeneous thing continues to have an enormous influence on people outside of psychology. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. A healthy ego provides the ability to adapt to reality and interact with the outside world in a way that accommodates both Id and Superego. Finish. The Ego (ich) stands in between both to balance our primitive needs and our moral/ethical beliefs. "Work. Freud based the term Id on the work of Georg Groddeck.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". The Superego (überich in German) represented our conscience and counteracted the Id with moral and ethical thoughts. ISBN 1400060168. The Id (Latin, = "it" = es in the original German) represented primary process thinking — our most primitive need gratification type thoughts. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. He proposed that the unconscious was divided into three parts: Id, Ego, and Superego. Hamilton, James (2004). Freud sought to explain how the unconscious operates by proposing that it has a particular structure.

ISBN 0007163762. Freud's views are still being questioned by people concerned about women's equality. Harper Collins, London. On the other hand, feminist theorists such as Juliet Mitchell, Nancy Chodorow, Jessica Benjamin, and Jane Flax have argued that psychoanalytic theory is essentially related to the feminist project and must, like other theoretical traditions, be adapted by women to free it from vestiges of sexism. Faraday: The Life. Terms such as "penis envy" and "castrating" (both used to describe women who attempted to excel in any field outside the home) contributed to discouraging women from obtaining education or entering any field dominated by men, until the 1970s. Hamilton, James (2002). Believing as he did that women were a kind of mutilated male, who must learn to accept her deformity (the lack of a penis) and submit to some imagined biological imperative, he contributed to the vocabulary of misogyny.

Some feminists, however, have argued that at worst his views of women's sexual development set the progress of women in Western culture back decades and that at best they lent themselves to the ideology of female inferiority. Freud was an early champion of both sexual freedom and education for women (Freud, "Civilized Sexual Morality and Modern Nervousness"). No discussion of Sigmund Freud is complete without some mention of his highly influential and controversial views on the role and psychology of women. He also turned to anthropological studies of totemism and argued that totemism reflected a ritualized enactment of a tribal Oedipal conflict.

The Oedipus conflict was described as a state of psychosexual development and awareness. Freud used the Greek tragedy by Sophocles Oedipus Rex to point out how much he believed that people (young boys in particular) desire incest, and must repress that desire. He thus turned to ancient mythology and contemporary ethnography for comparative material. Freud hoped to prove that his model was universally valid.

(see Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.). Each stage is a progression into adult sexual maturity, characterized by a strong ego and the ability to delay gratification. Freud sought to anchor this pattern of development in the dynamics of the mind. I now consider this to be a universal event in childhood,” Freud said.

Freud named his new theory the Oedipus Complex after the famous Greek tragedy by Sophocles.“I found in myself a constant love for my mother, and jealousy of my father. Freud argued that children then passed through a stage where they fixated on the parent of the opposite sex and thought the same-sexed parent a rival. He further argued that, as humans developed, they fixated on different and specific objects through their stages of development—first in the oral stage (exemplified by an infant's pleasure in nursing), then in the anal stage (exemplified by a toddler's pleasure in controlling his or her bowels), then in the phallic stage. He argued that humans are born "polymorphously perverse," meaning that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure.

Freud also believed that the libido developed in individuals by changing its object. In other words, the unconscious was for Freud both a cause and effect of repression. Freud supposed that what people repressed was in part determined by their unconscious. Moreover, Freud observed that the process of repression is itself a non-conscious act (in other words, it did not occur through people willing away certain thoughts or feelings).

Although Freud later attempted to find patterns of repression among his patients in order to derive a general model of the mind, he also observed that individual patients repress different things. Thus they come to constitute the unconscious. Such thoughts and feelings—and associated memories—could not, Freud argued, be banished from the mind, but could be banished from consciousness. Crucial to the operation of the unconscious is "repression." According to Freud, people often experience thoughts and feelings that are so painful that people cannot bear them.

Thus for Freud the ideals of the Enlightenment, positivism, and rationalism could be achieved through understanding, transforming, and mastering the unconscious, rather than through denying or repressing it. The Preconscious was described as a layer between conscious and unconscious thought—that which we could access with a little effort. In The Interpretation of Dreams Freud both developed the argument that the unconscious exists and described a method for gaining access to it. The concept of the unconscious was groundbreaking in that he proposed that awareness existed in layers and that there were thoughts occurring "below the surface." Dreams, which he called the "royal road to the unconscious", provided the best access to our unconscious life and the best illustration of its "logic", which was different than the logic of conscious thought.

While Freud shared these beliefs and goals, his work emphasized that in everyday life these claims were often delusions; that we are not entirely aware of what we even think, and often act for reasons that have nothing to do with our conscious thoughts. During the 19th century the dominant trend in Western thought was positivism, the claim that people could accumulate real knowledge about themselves and their world, and exercise rational control over both. Perhaps the most significant contribution Freud has made to modern thought is his conception of the unconscious. Through this process, called "transference," the patient can reenact and resolve repressed conflicts, especially childhood conflicts with (or about) parents.

Another important element of psychoanalysis is a relative lack of direct involvement on the part of the analyst, which is meant to encourage the patient to project thoughts and feelings onto the analyst. Classically, the bringing of unconscious thoughts and feelings to consciousness is brought about by encouraging the patient to talk in "free association" and to talk about dreams. The goal of Freudian therapy, or psychoanalysis, was to bring to consciousness repressed thoughts and feelings, in order to allow the patient to develop a stronger ego. Freud hoped that his research would provide a solid scientific basis for his therapeutic technique.

Emma Eckstein underwent disastrous nasal surgery by Fleiss. He wrote several articles on the antidepressant qualities of the drug, and he was influenced by his friend and confident, Wilhelm Fleiss, who recommended cocaine for the treatment of the "nasal reflex neurosis." Fleiss operated on Freud and a number of Freud's patients whom he believed to be suffering from the disorder. Freud was an early user and proponent of cocaine (see Freud and Cocaine). It was not until the 1980s that his speculations were confirmed by more modern research.

Instead, he suggested that complications in birth were only a symptom of the problem. He also suggested that William Little, the man who first identified cerebral palsy, was wrong about lack of oxygen during the birth process being a cause. He also showed that the disease existed far before other researchers in his day began to notice and study it. He published several medical papers on the topic.

He was an early researcher on the topic of cerebral palsy, then known as "cerebral paralysis". A lesser known interest of Freud's was neurology. He simultaneously developed a theory of the human mind and human behavior, and clinical techniques for attempting to help neurotics. Freud has been influential in two related, but distinct ways.

It is said that he would smoke an entire box of cigars daily. Freud was a smoker of Churchill-style cigars for most of his life; even after having his jaw removed due to malignancy, he continued to smoke until his death on September 23, 1939 of cancer of the mouth at the age of 83. Bernays's father, Ely Bernays, was brother to Sigmund's wife, Martha Bernays Freud. Bernays's mother, Anna Freud Bernays, was sister to Sigmund.

Sigmund Freud was also both a blood uncle and an uncle-in-law to public relations and propaganda wizard Edward Bernays. Sigmund is the grandfather of painter Lucian Freud and comedian, politician and writer Clement Freud, and the great-grandfather of journalist Emma Freud, and fashion designer Bella Freud. Freud's daughter Anna Freud was also a distinguished psychologist, particularly in the fields of child and developmental psychology. An oft-repeated, but apocryphal anecdote claims that Freud complied, but then added at the bottom the sarcastic note: "I can heartily recommend the Gestapo to anyone." The actual document contains no such comment.

As he was leaving Germany, Freud was asked to sign a statement that he had been treated respectfully by the Nazis. On June 4th, 1938 they were allowed across the border into France and then they traveled from Paris to Hampstead, London, England, where they lived at 20 Maresfield Gardens, now the Freud Museum. Following the Nazi German Anschluss, with the financial help of his patient and friend Princess Marie Bonaparte, Freud fled Austria with his family. For example, he attempted to expel those who disagreed with the movement (Corey, 2001).

Freud had little tolerance for colleagues who diverged from his psychoanalytic doctrines. The work of Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson shed some light on the nature of the suppressed material. Additionally, his later papers were closely guarded in the Sigmund Freud Archives and only available to Ernest Jones, his official biographer, and a few other members of the inner circle of psychoanalysis. Overall, little is known of Freud's early life as he destroyed his personal papers at least twice, once in 1885 and again in 1907.

Corey (2001) considers this time of emotional difficulty to be the most creative time in Freud's life. 67). During this self-analysis, he came to realize the hostility he felt towards his father (Jacob Freud), and "he also recalled his childhood sexual feelings for his mother (Amalia Freud), who was attractive, warm, and protective" (Corey 2001, p. He explored his own dreams, childhood memories, and the dynamics of his personality development.

During this time Freud was involved in the task of self-analysis. 67). In his 40's, Freud "had numerous psychosomatic disorders as well as exaggerated fears of dying and other phobias" (Corey 2001, p. He went on to attend the University of Vienna at 17, in 1873-1881 despite the anti-Semitism in Austria which was so intense that famed composer Gustav Mahler felt compelled to convert from Judaism to Roman Catholicism.

Sigmund was ranked first in his class in 6 of 8 years of schooling. His family had limited finances and lived in a crowded apartment, but his parents made every effort to foster his intellect (often favoring Sigmund over his siblings), which was apparent from an early age. In 1877 at the age of 21, he abbreviated his given name to "Sigmund." Although he was the first-born of three brothers and five sisters among his mother's children, Sigmund had older half-brothers from his father's previous marriage. Freud was born as "Sigismund Freud," into a Jewish family in Freiberg (Příbor), Moravia, the Austrian Empire (now the Czech Republic) on May 6, 1856.

. He is commonly referred to as "the father of psychoanalysis.". See International Phonetic Alphabet." class="IPA" style="white-space: nowrap; font-family:'Code2000', 'Chrysanthi Unicode', 'Doulos SIL', 'Gentium', 'GentiumAlt', 'TITUS Cyberbit Basic', 'Bitstream Vera', 'Bitstream Cyberbit', 'Arial Unicode MS', 'Lucida Sans Unicode', 'Hiragino Kaku Gothic Pro'; font-family /**/:inherit; text-decoration: none">frɔɪt/ in German. See International Phonetic Alphabet." class="IPA" style="white-space: nowrap; font-family:'Code2000', 'Chrysanthi Unicode', 'Doulos SIL', 'Gentium', 'GentiumAlt', 'TITUS Cyberbit Basic', 'Bitstream Vera', 'Bitstream Cyberbit', 'Arial Unicode MS', 'Lucida Sans Unicode', 'Hiragino Kaku Gothic Pro'; font-family /**/:inherit; text-decoration: none">fɹɔɪd/ in English and /

Initially he became interested in hypnotism and how it could be used to help the mentally ill, but later abandoned hypnotism in favor of free association and dream analysis in developing what is now known as "the talking cure." These became the core elements of psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud (May 7, 1856 – September 23, 1939) was an Austrian psychiatrist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, based on his discovery that unconscious motives control much behavior, that particular kinds of unconscious thoughts and memories, especially sexual and aggressive ones, are the source of neurosis, and that neurosis could be treated through bringing these unconscious thoughts and memories to consciousness in psychoanalytic treatment. Moses and Monotheism, 1939. Civilization and Its Discontents, 1929.

The Future of an Illusion, 1927. The Ego and the Id, 1923. Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 1920. On Narcissism, 1914.

Totem and Taboo, 1913. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, 1905. The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901). The Interpretation of Dreams (1900).

Gustav Mahler (1860-1911). Emma Eckstein. (1886-1961). H.D.

Daniel Paul Schreber (1842-1911). Wolf Lucas = Sergius Pankejeff (1887-1979). Rat Man = Ernst Lanzer (1878-1914). Little Hans = Herbert Graf (1903-1973).

Fräulein Lucy R. Fräulein Katharina = Aurelia Kronich. Fräulein Elizabeth von R. = Fanny Moser.

Frau Emmy von N. Dora = Ida Bauer (1882-1945). = Anna von Lieben. Cäcilie M.

= Bertha Pappenheim (1859 - 1936). Anna O. For example, someone may engage in violence against another race because, he claims, they are inferior, when unconsciously it is he himself who feels inferior. Reaction formation takes place when someone takes the opposite approach consciously compared to what he wants unconsciously.

For instance, the use of a dark, gloomy poem to describe life by such poets as Emily Dickinson. Sublimation is the channeling of impulses to socially accepted behaviours. For example, the second born child may clown around to get attention since the older child is already an accomplished scholar. Compensation occurs when someone takes up one behavior because one cannot accomplish another behavior.

Intellectualisation is often accomplished through rationalisation rather than accepting reality, one may explain it away to remove one's self. Intellectualisation involves removing one's self, emotionally, from a stressful event. Repression occurs when someone cannot remember a past traumatic experience, while suppression is a conscious effort to do the same. For example, a student may have received a bad grade on a report card but tells himself that grades don't matter.

Denial means that someone will not (deliberately) admit to the truth.

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