Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

This page about Michael Faraday includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Michael Faraday
News stories about Michael Faraday
External links for Michael Faraday
Videos for Michael Faraday
Wikis about Michael Faraday
Discussion Groups about Michael Faraday
Blogs about Michael Faraday
Images of Michael Faraday

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. Through 2004, Abreu is a .305 hitter with 166 home runs and 674 RBI in 1167 games. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. He also posted the league's tenth best OPS (.971) and eight highest in total bases (312). Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. Abreu finished the season with a .301 average, 30 home runs and 105 RBI, and ranked among the National League top five in five offensive categories: runs (4th, 118), doubles (4th, 47), stolen bases (3rd, 40), walks (2nd, 127) and on base percentage (5th, .428). He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Finally, in 2004, he got his first All-Star berth, being voted in as the "32nd man" in online voting on MLB.com.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. In 2001 Abreu reached career highs in home runs (31) and RBI (110), and hit .308 in 2002 and .300 a year later. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. His .335 average that season ranked third in the National League and was the highest posted by a Phillies player since outfielder Tony González hit .339 in 1967. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. In 1999 he made a brief run at the batting title. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. In his first season with the Phillies, Abreu led his team with a .312 batting average and collected 17 home runs, 74 RBI, and 19 stolen bases in 151 games, with 271 putouts and 17 assists in right field.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Despite the fact that Astros and Devil Rays both deeming him expendable, Abreu firmly established himself as one of the most promising young hitters and strong-armed rightfielders in the game. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. Left unprotected in the 1997 expansion draft when Houston decided to keep fellow Venezuelan outfielder Richard Hidalgo, Abreu was selected by the Tampa Bay Devil Rays, but minutes later he was traded to the Phillies for shortstop Kevin Stocker. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. He played only 74 games over two seasons. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. Abreu started his major league career with the Houston Astros on September 1, 1996.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. . In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor.
. This established that magnetic force and light were related. He bats left-handed and throws right-handed. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". Bob Kelly Abreu [ah-BRAY-oo] (born March 11, 1974 in Maracay, Aragua State, Venezuela) is a Major League Baseball right fielder who plays for the Philadelphia Phillies.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. Abreu is the first player in Phillies history and the first Venezuelan big leaguer to ever steal 30 bases and hit 30 home runs in one single season. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum displays the bat used by Abreu to hit the first home run in the Phillies’ new ballpark, Citizens Bank Park on April 12, 2004. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Abreu's longest homer was measured at 517'.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He set records with 24 home runs in a single round and 41 overall, topping Miguel Tejada's previous marks of 15 and 27, set a year earlier.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. At Comerica Park –a field normally considered a "pitcher's park"–, Abreu won the Home Run Derby. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. Louis Cardinals Jim Edmonds. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Abreu was voted a starter of the NL outfield for the All-Star Game, finishing second in fan voting, behind St. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. He also became the first player in major league history to hit nine home runs in a 10-game stretch.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Abreu also led the NL in slugging average (.792), on-base percentage (.535), walks (30) and was tied for the league lead with 30 RBI. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. In May, Abreu was honored as the Player of the Month in the National League, after hit .396 and 11 home runs. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Bobby Bonds had seven straight 20/20 seasons (1969-75), while his son Barry had nine in a row (1990-98). The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. One of three ML players with seven consecutive 20-HR, 20 stolen base seasons.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. .929 career OPS [18th among active players, 39th on the all-time list] (1996-2004). Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. .517 career slugging average [25th between active players, 62nd on the all-time list] (1996-2004). Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. .412 career on base percentage [6th among active players, 30th on all-time list] (1996-2004). These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. 210 career stolen bases [ranks him 25th among active players] (1996-2004).

This device is known as a homopolar motor. Rested only in 12 games in four consecutive seasons (2001-04). A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. Led league in games played (162, 2001). Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. 7-time top 10 in walks (1998-2004). In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Twice reached the 30-30 club (2001, 2004).

His greatest work was with electricity. 6-time hit .300 or more in seven regular seasons (1998-2000, 2002-04). However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. Led league in power/speed number (34.3, 2004). In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. Led league in triples (11, 1999). Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. Led league in doubles (50, 2002).

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Silver Slugger Award (2004). After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. Twice All-Star (2004-05). After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. .

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Michael Faraday Directory.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Finish. "Work.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". ISBN 1400060168. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. Hamilton, James (2004).

ISBN 0007163762. Harper Collins, London. Faraday: The Life. Hamilton, James (2002).

05-30-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Google+ Directory