Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. The men among Magellan's expedition were also the first Europeans to observe the following:. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. Magellan's expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe and the first to navigate the strait in South America connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. Four crewmen of the original 55 on the Trinidad finally returned to Spain in 1525. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. The expedition actually eked out a small profit, but the crew were not paid their full wages.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. On September 6, 1522, Juan Sebastián de Elcano and the remaining crew of Magellan's voyage and the last ship of the fleet, Victoria, arrived in Spain, almost exactly three years after leaving. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. Twenty crewmen died of starvation before Elcano put in to the Cape Verde Islands, a Portuguese holding, where he abandoned 13 more crewmen July 9 in fear of losing his cargo of 26 tons of spices (cloves and cinnamon). His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. By May 6, 1522, the Victoria, commanded by Juan Sebastián Elcano, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, with only rice for rations. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. The Victoria set sail via the Indian Ocean route home on December 21, 1521.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). This attempt failed; the ship was captured by the Portuguese, and was eventually wrecked in a storm while at anchor under Portuguese control. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. Several weeks later, Trinidad left the Moluccas to attempt to return to Spain via the Pacific route. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. As a result, Victoria with some of the crew sailed west for Spain. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. The small Victoria was not large enough to accommodate all the surviving crewmembers.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. They concluded that the Trinidad would need to spend considerable time being overhauled. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. The crew tried to discover and repair the leak, but failed. This established that magnetic force and light were related. As they left the Moluccas, however, Trinidad was found to be taking on water. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". The two remaining ships, laden with valuable spices, attempted to return to Spain by sailing west.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. They managed to trade with the Sultan of Tidore, a rival of the Sultan of Ternate, who was the ally of the Portuguese. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. After reaching the Moluccas (the Spice Islands) November 6, 1521, 115 crew were left. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Pigafetta mentions some of the technology of the court, such as porcelain (which was not yet widely available in Europe), and spectacles (eye-glasses were only just becoming available in Europe).
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. Brunei disdained the cloves which were to prove more valuable than gold, upon the return to Spain.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. In addition, Brunei boasted tame elephants and armament of 62 cannon, more than 5 times the armament of Magellan's ships. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. They anchored off the Brunei breakwater for 35 days, where the Venetian Pigafetta mentions the splendor of Rajah Siripada's court (gold, two pearls the size of hens' eggs, etc.). Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. They left that island on June 21, 1521, and were guided to Brunei, Borneo by Moro pilots, who could navigate the shallow seas. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. The fleet, now reduced to Trinidad and Victoria, fled westward to Palawan.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Accordingly, on May 2, 1521, they abandoned Concepcion, burning the ship to make sure it could not be used against them. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. The casualties suffered in the Philippines left the expedition with too few men to sail the three remaining ships. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. However, Antonio Pigafetta had been making notes about the language, and was apparently able to continue communications during the rest of the voyage. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. Enrique escaped his indenture on May 1, with the aid of Rajah Humabon, amid the deaths of almost 30 crewmen.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. However, after Mactan, the remaining ship's masters refused to free Enrique. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. Enrique was indentured by Magellan during his earlier voyages to Malacca, and was at his side during the battles in Africa, during Magellan's disgrace at the King's court in Portugal, and during Magellan's successful raising of a fleet. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Thus Enrique became the first man to circumnavigate the globe (in multiple voyages). These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. His interpreter, who was baptized Enrique (Henry) in Malacca 1511, had been captured by Sumatran slavers from his home islands.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. Magellan had provided in his will that his Malay interpreter was to be freed upon his death. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. Antonio Pigafetta, a wealthy tourist who paid to be on the Magellan voyage, provided the only extant eyewitness account of the events culminating in Magellan's death, as follows:. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. Magellan was killed in the Battle of Mactan, against indigenous forces led by Lapu-Lapu, on April 27, 1521. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. The initial peace with the Philippine natives proved misleading.

His greatest work was with electricity. Rajah Humabon of Cebu was friendly to them, and even agreed to accept Christianity. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. They traded gifts with Rajah Kolambu of Limasawa, who guided them to Cebu, on April 7. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. Magellan was able to communicate with the native peoples because his Malay interpreter could understand their language. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. On 6 March, they reached the Marianas and on 16 March, the island of Homonhon in the Philippines, with 150 crewmen left.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Heading northwest, the crew reached the equator on 13 February 1521. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. Magellan named the waters the Mar Pacifico (Pacific Ocean) because of its apparent stillness. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. On November 28, the three remaining ships entered the South Pacific. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Magellan first assigned Concepcion and San Antonio to explore the strait, but the latter, commanded by Gomez, deserted and returned to Spain.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. Now, the strait is named the Strait of Magellan. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. Four ships began an arduous passage through the 373-mile long passage that Magellan called the Estreito (Canal) de Todos los Santos, or "All Saints' Channel," because All Saints' Day, 1 November, occurred while the fleet traveled through it. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. At 52° South latitude on 21 October 1520, the fleet reached Cape Virgenes and concluded they had found the passage, because the waters were brine and deep inland. . After this experience, Magellan decided to wait for a few weeks more before again resuming the voyage.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. Two of them returned, overland, to inform Magellan of what had happened, and bring rescue to their comrades. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. All of its crewmembers survived and made it safely to shore. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Santiago, sent down the coast on a scouting expedition, was wrecked in a sudden storm. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Magellan, behind schedule, was impatient to make up for lost time, and set out again while the weather still posed problems.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. On 24 August the journey resumed. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Quesada and Mendoza were executed, and Cartagena and a priest were marooned on the coast. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. It was unsuccessful, mainly because the crew remained loyal. Michael Faraday Directory. A mutiny involving three of the five ship captains broke out.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. On 31 March the crew established a settlement that they called Puerto San Julian. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Magellan decided to spend the winter in Patagonia. Finish. It was already late in the season, however, and the southern winter struck while they were still on the Argentinian coast. "Work. The fleet reached Río de la Plata on January 10, 1520.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Afterwards, they continued to sail south along South America's east coast, looking for the strait that Magellan believed would lead to the Spice Islands. ISBN 1400060168. There the fleet was resupplied, but these good conditions caused them to delay. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. Since Brazil was Portuguese territory at the time, Magellan avoided it, and on December 13 anchored near present-day Rio de Janeiro, where the weather and the natives were generally friendly. Hamilton, James (2004). On November 20, the equator was crossed; on December 6, the crew sighted Brazil.

ISBN 0007163762. Augustine in Brazil. Harper Collins, London. After a brief stop at the Canary Islands, Magellan arrived at the Cape Verde Islands, where they set course for Cape St. Faraday: The Life. Upon hearing of his departure, King Manuel ordered a naval detachment to pursue him, but Magellan eluded the Portuguese. Hamilton, James (2002). Spanish authorities were wary of the Portuguese admiral and almost prevented Magellan from sailing, but on September 20, Magellan set sail from Sanlúcar de Barrameda with 270 men.

On 10 August 1519, the fleet of five ships under Magellan's command left Seville and traveled south from the Guadalquivir River to San Lucar de Barrameda at the mouth of the rivers, where they remained more than five weeks. Trinidad was Magellan's flagship, and besides Faleiro the captains for the other four were Juan de Cartegena, Gomez, Gaspar de Quesada and Luis de Mendoza, respectively. With the money that Magellan and Faleiro had received from the king, the pair obtained five ships: Trinidad (tonnage 110, crew 55), San Antonio (tonnage 120, crew 60), Concepcion (tonnage 90, crew 45), Victoria (tonnage 85, crew 42), and Santiago (tonnage 75, crew 32). Magellan also took an oath of allegiance in the church of Santa María de la Victoria de Triana, giving money to the monks of the monastery so they would pray for his success.

Under the contract, Magellan and Faleiro, as joint captains-general, would receive one-twentieth of all profits and they and their heirs would gain the government of any lands discovered, with the title of Adelantados. On 22 March 1518, King Charles approved Magellan's plan and granted him generous funds. Ruy Faleiro, an astronomer and Portuguese exile, aided him in his planning, and he found an invaluable financial ally in Christopher de Haro, a member of a great Antwerp firm who had a grudge against the king of Portugal. He allegedly declared himself ready to sail southwards to 75° to realize his project.

He decided to pioneer this route to reach the Moluccas (Spice Islands), the key to the strategic and tremendously lucrative spice trade. Having brought the Portuguese cartographical knowledge to the Spanish court, Magellan pointed out that there would exist a passage from South America, which he thought to be the Rio de la Plata, to the Pacific Ocean, forming a large bay-like river delta. Acquiring great influence in Seville, he gained the ear of Charles and the powerful Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca, bishop of Burgos and the persistent enemy of Christopher Columbus. With the help of Juan de Aranda, one of the three chief officials of Seville's India House, and of other friends, especially Diogo Barbosa, a Portuguese and father of Duarte Barbosa, Magellan became naturalized as a Spaniard.

Magellan reached Seville, the main port of Spain, on 20 October 1517, and from there went to Valladolid to see the teenage king, Charles I (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V). Magellan formally renounced his nationality and went to offer his services to the court of Spain, changing his name from "Fernão de Magalhães" to "Hernándo de Magallanes.". The King also told Magellan that he would have no further employment in his country's service after May 15, 1514. Several of the accusations were subsequently dropped, but Magellan fell into disfavor with King Manuel I, who refused to raise Magellan's pension.

He had also been involved in conflict with Almeida: after Magellan took a leave of the army without permission, Almeida gave a poor report on the sailor to the Portuguese court. Although wounded and the recipient of several medals, Magellan was accused of illegal trade with the Islamic Moors. In 1511, Magellan was sent to Morocco where he fought in the Battle of Azamor (August 28 and 29, 1513) and received a severe knee wound while fighting against the Moorish-Moroccan stronghold. However, after secretly sailing a ship east without permission, he lost his command and was forced to return to Portugal.

In 1510, Magellan was promoted to the rank of captain. Magellan next journeyed to the East Indies in 1506, taking part in expeditions to the Spice Islands. It was here that Magellan would also first experience battle: when a local king refused to pay tribute, Almeida's party attacked, conquering the Muslim city of Kilwa in present-day Tanzania. In 1505 he was sent to India to install Francisco de Almeida as a Portuguese viceroy there and establish military and naval bases along the way.

At age 20, Magellan first went to sea. In 1496, Magellan became a squire. Some speculate that he may even have been taught by Martin Behaim. Here, with his cousin Francisco Serrano, Magellan continued his education, becoming interested in geography and astronomy.

At 12, Magellan became a page to King John II and Queen Eleonora at the royal court at the capital of Lisbon, where his brother had gone two years before. Magellan's parents died when he was ten. The son of Pedro Rui de Magalhães, the mayor of the town, and Alda de Mesquita, Magellan had two siblings: his brother Diogo de Sousa, named after his grandmother, and his sister Isabel. Magellan was born in Sabrosa (near Vila Real, in the province of Trás-os-Montes of north Portugal) or in Porto.

. Eighteen members of his crew and one ship of the fleet did return to Spain in 1522, having circumnavigated the globe. Though Magellan is often credited with being the first to circle the globe, he himself died in the Philippines and never returned to Europe. He was the first to sail from Europe westwards to Asia, the first European to sail the Pacific Ocean, and the first to lead an expedition for the purpose of circumnavigating the globe.

Ferdinand Magellan (Spring 1480 – April 27, 1521; Portuguese: Fernão de Magalhães; Spanish: Fernando or Hernando de Magallanes) was a Portuguese sea explorer who sailed for Spain. Richard Humble, The Voyage of Magellan, (1988) Franklin Watts, ISBN 0-531-10638-1. W.D.Brownlee, The First Ships around the World, (1977) Lerner Publications Co., Minneapolis ISBN 0-8225-1204-1. For student readers

    .

    Laurence Bergreen, Over the Edge of the World: Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe, HarperCollins Publishers, 2003, hardcover 480 pages, ISBN 0066211735. They did not have clocks accurate enough to observe the variation in the length of the day during the journey. The need for an International date line — That going round the earth westward was winning one day: upon their return they observed a mismatch of one day between their calendars and those who did not travel, even though they faithfully maintained their ship's log. The extent of the Earth — their voyage was '14,460 leagues' (or 69,000 km).

    Two of our closest galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds, visible from the Southern Hemisphere. A black 'goose' which had to be skinned instead of plucked — the penguin. A 'camel without humps' — which could have been the llama, guanaco, vicuña, or alpaca.

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