Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. On December 9, 2004, he signed a $17 million contract for 2 years with the Los Angeles Dodgers. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. Louis to capture the pennant. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. The Cardinals won Games 6 and 7 in St. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Louis Cardinals 3-2 in the series.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. In his finest moment as an Astro, Kent hit a three-run homer in the bottom of the ninth in Game 5 of the 2004 National League Championship Series to put Houston ahead of the St. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. On October 2, 2004, Kent hit his 278th home run as a second baseman, surpassing Ryne Sandberg as the all-time home run leader at that position. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Kent signed a two-year, $18.2 million deal with the Houston Astros, citing his desire to be closer to his family's Texas ranch. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. The departure of manager Dusty Baker, who had first placed trust in Kent, also factored into Kent's eventual decision to leave the Giants.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Tension had also grown between Kent and Bonds: a midseason shoving match in the Giants dugout was widely reported. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. Kent had initially claimed that the wrist was broken while washing his truck; ensuing media reports indicated that Kent had crashed his motorcycle while doing wheelies, in violation of his contract. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. The Giants front office had lost confidence in Kent after an incident during spring training left him with a broken wrist. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. Despite the team's success that season, Kent's relationship with the Giants had soured.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. Kent and the Giants appeared in the 2002 World Series, nearly clinching the championship before falling to the Anaheim Angels. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. Nevertheless, Bonds virtually overshadowed Kent in almost every offensive category. This established that magnetic force and light were related. His contributions were recognized in 2000 with the National League MVP Award, beating out teammate and perennial MVP-candidate Bonds. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". He was consistently among the top RBI hitters in the league over his next five seasons with the Giants, amassing 689 RBIs over six years, an unprecedented amount for a second baseman.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. Immediately inserted in the line-up behind superstar Barry Bonds and with the confidence of manager Dusty Baker, Kent rose to his potential, hitting .250 with 29 HRs and 121 RBIs. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. Kent's career took off in San Francisco. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Brian Sabean, in his first year as General Manager of the Giants, was so widely criticized for the move that he famously defended himself to the media by saying, "I am not an idiot.".
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. The San Francisco trade was initially very unpopular, as it sent Matt Williams, a longtime Giant and a fan-favorite, to the Indians.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. The following offseason Kent was again traded, this time to the San Francisco Giants. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. In a deal made prior to the 1996 trade deadline, the Mets sent Kent to the Cleveland Indians, where he had a limited impact in the Indians' playoff run. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Furthermore, he acquired a poor reputation in the clubhouse where he was known for a quick temper and isolationism. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. Although he batted well, particularly for a second baseman, the Mets were among the worst teams in the National League.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Kent's time with the Mets was marked with some success and some failure. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Many Toronto fans felt the club was compromising their future and that Kent had earned the starting job at third base; many New York fans could not bear to see the fan-favorite Cone let go. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. It was a deal decried by both Toronto and New York fans. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. Kent was traded on August 27 to the New York Mets along with a player to be named later (Ryan Thompson) for David Cone.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. He made his debut on April 12 but saw limited at-bats early in the season; however, an injury to starting third baseman Kelly Gruber granted Kent a more regular role in the line-up. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. After three seasons in the minor leagues, Kent was invited to spring training with the Jays in 1992 and made the opening day roster. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Prior to college, Kent had also had a run-in with his Edison High School baseball coach; he was booted off the team as a result. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. He was noted throughout college for his rigorous work ethic and passion for the game, but also for his rifts with the team manager.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. Kent was a star player at the University of California, Berkeley prior to being drafted in the 20th round of the 1989 amateur draft by the Toronto Blue Jays. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. . Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. He is widely regarded as one of the best offensive second basemen to have ever played the game. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Jeffrey Franklin (Jeff) Kent (born March 7, 1968 in Bellflower, California) is a Major League Baseball player and a former MVP winner.

His greatest work was with electricity. Los Angeles Dodgers (2005-present). However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. Houston Astros (2003-2004). In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. San Francisco Giants (1997-2002). Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. Cleveland Indians (1996).

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. New York Mets (1992-1996). After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. Toronto Blue Jays (1992). After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. Hit for the cycle (1999). At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Only second baseman to have 100 or more RBIs in 6 consecutive seasons (1997-2002).

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. All-time leader in home runs as a second baseman (278). His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. Finished Top-5 in RBIs (1997, 1998, 2000). Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. Finished 9th in National League MVP voting (1998). . Finished 8th in National League MVP voting (1997).

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. Finished 6th in National League MVP voting (2002). It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. National League MVP (2000). Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. 5-time All-Star (1999-2001, 2004-05). Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Michael Faraday Directory.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Finish. "Work.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". ISBN 1400060168. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. Hamilton, James (2004).

ISBN 0007163762. Harper Collins, London. Faraday: The Life. Hamilton, James (2002).

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