Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software.
The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software.
Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999.
Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software.
In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful.
Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions
Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music.
A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems.
With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance.
Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list.
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For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list. (Clark, 315) Keel’s paperback books sold well and certainly helped spread the idea of sinister men in black; Keel claims to have been followed or threatened by men in black on several occasions. Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. Though there were certainly earlier accounts, Clark credits John Keel with disseminating the idea of ominous men in black to a wider audience beyond ufology, and with inventing the term and its abbreviated form of "MIB". With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance. As of 1991, the AFSAC, headquartered in Fort Belvoir, Virginia," and "under the operational authority of Air Force Intelligence Command centered at Kelly Air Force Base in Texas." (Clark, 321–22) Curiously, Moore also reports that AFSAC was inspired by the tales of men in black from the 1950s, and had nothing to do with those early accounts. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems. members of a rather bizarre unit of Air Force Intelligence known currently as the Air Force Special Activities Center (AFSAC) ..
Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. Moore, who asserts that "the Men in Black are really government people in disguise .. A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. More prosaically, Clark cites William L. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music. (Keel, 114). Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Kennedy.
Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions. (Clark, 316) Keel also argues that "The huge Warren Report contains multiple pieces of sworn testimony describing MIB-type men in the vicinity of Dealey Plaza" in the confusion following the Assassination of John F. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful. Jerome Clark writes that "In Keel’s view, MIB are a ubiquitous presence in human history," involved with the likes of such pivotal figures as Thomas Jefferson, Napoleon, Julius Caesar and Malcom X. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Although the phenomenon was initially and most frequently reported in the 1950s and 1960s, some researchers—John Keel and others—have suggested similarities between MIB reports and earlier demonic accounts. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. The meaning of this parallel has been the subject of debate.
A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Rojcewicz noted that many men in black accounts parallel tales of people encountering the devil: Neither men in black nor the devil are quite human, and witnesses often discover this fact midway through an encounter. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). In support of this hypothesis, Dash cites research by ufologist Nigel Watson, which suggests that many Men In Black witnesses "are often undergoing some sort of mental upheaval at the time of their encounter." (Dash, 162) Furthermore, Dash also cites work by folklorist Peter Rojcewicz "who himself encountered a possible MIB in his university library after entering what appears to have been an altered state of consciousness." (Dash, 416) See above for an account of Rojcewicz’s encounter. In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. Such reports have led to speculation that Men In Black accounts are not part of any objective reality, but are rather best explained by altered states of consciousness, such as fantasy-prone personalities, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic states and the like. A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software. Both terms are used to describe a strange sensation of "otherness", or of a dreamlike dissociation that accompanies some UFO reports.
as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). Men In Black accounts often feature "High Strangeness" or the Oz Factor (the latter term coined by ufologist Jenny Randles). Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. Others believe that they are actual government agents who intentionally dress and act ridiculously, in an attempt to get UFO witnesses to discredit themselves if they ever report such an encounter. Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. The depth of the conspiracy theory leads some to believe that the MIB's odd mannerisms and dress are due to the fact that they are aliens or alien-human hybrids, and that their job is to eliminate physical evidence of alien involvement on earth. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999. Air Force seemed interested in the phenomenon, and seemed to accept some reports as genuine, or at least as intriguing.
In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. Freeman's statement quoted above, the U.S. Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. On the other hand, as noted in Col. . Indeed, the involvement of MIB is often used as an excuse for lack of evidence. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software. Furthermore, testimony of supposed witnesses is typically the only evidence presented in alleged MIB encounters, and eyewitness testimony--however compelling it might seem--can be notoriously unreliable, and is therefore nearly always open to doubt.
As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. No incontrovertible evidence has been presented in favor of MIB's reality. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). The actuality of Men in Black has been the subject of debate. The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. Ultimately, the Committee offered a somewhat inconsistent appraisal of the Heflin case, describing it overall as "inconclusive" and Heflin's story as "internally inconsistent," (Condon, 437) but also noting that "this case is still held to be of exceptional interest because it is so well documented." (Condon, 454). It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software. is open to serious question," but they also added that "Indications are that if the two visitors did in fact exist, they were probably impostors." (Condon, 450).
Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. Citing inconsistencies in Heflin's story, the Committee noting that the alleged "'NORAD Episode' .. Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead. These three original Polaroid prints have never been returned." (Condon, 449) NORAD denied that any of their employees had ever visited Heflin, at least in any official capacity. Pauline Oliveros. The witness turned the photos over to them. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet. On the evening of September 22, Heflin reported that "two men, claiming to be from NORAD, arrived at the witnesses' home and asked to borrow the original Polaroid prints.
R. He met with limited interest from officials, but the Condon Report does state, however, that popular interest was piqued and "most of Santa Anna was saturated with the UFO pictures." (Condon, 446). Jamie Lidell. Heflin made multiple copies of the photos and tried to interest government officials or the mass media. Kevin Blechdom. Heflin, described as an California Department of Transportation “on duty Traffic Investigator” in Santa Ana, California, took three clear photographs of a “metallic looking disk” (and a fourth photograph of what Heflin said was its exhaust plumes) on August 3 1965. Leafcutter John. The report of the Condon Committee devotes some eighteen pages to a UFO sighting case from 1965, in which the witness, Rex Heflin, claimed to have been visited by two men who said they were NORAD officials.
Kit Clayton. All military and civlian personnel and particularly Information Officers and UFO Investigating Officers who hear of such reports should immediately notify their local OSI offices." (Randles and Hough, 160). Monolake. In another, a person in an Air Force uniform approached local police and other citizens who had sighted a UFO, assembled them in a school room, and told them that they should not talk to anyone about the sighting. Autechre. In one reported case an individual in civilian clothes, who represented himself as member of NORAD, demanded and received photos belonging to a private citizen. Air Force memorandum from 1960 also reinforces the fact that there was high-level interest in reports of impostors: "Information, not verfied, has reached Hq USAF that persons pretending to represent the Air Force or other Defense establishments have contacted citizens who have sighted unidentified flying objects.
A classified U.S. We sure would like to catch one." (Clark, 321). By posing as Air Force officials and government agents they are committing a federal offense. Freeman is quoted as saying, "We have checked a number of these cases ..
In 1967 United States Air Force Colonel George P. government officials gave some credence to accounts of harassment of UFO witnesses by persons claiming to be government officials. Clark cites an official response to MIB reports which suggests that U.S. There were two librarians behind each of the two desks!" (Clark, 320).
In about an hour I rose to leave the library. I sat down and tried to calm myself. I was close to panicking and went quickly back to my desk. I’ve gone to graduate school, and I’ve never been in a library when there wasn’t somebody there! No one was even at the information desk across the room.
In fact, I could see no one at all in the library. I was highly excited and walked around to the stacks at the reference desk and nobody was behind the desk. Got up again. "I got up," he wrote, "walked two steps in the direction he had left in, and returned to my seat.
Moments later Rojcewicz grew frightened and anxious as he became aware of how profoundly strange the brief encounter had been. The man then stood, placed his hand on Rojcewicz's shoulder and said something like, "Go well in your purpose." (Clark, 320). The man suddenly became angry, shouting, "Flying Saucers are the most important fact of the century, and you’re not interested?" Rojcewicz feared that the man was a "lunatic" and tried to "calm him," after which the man became silent. Rojcewicz replied that he was less interested in the physical reality of UFOs than he was in studying UFO accounts and stories from the perspective of a folklorist.
The man asked if Rojcewicz thought that UFOs were real. This instigated a brief conversation about UFOs. With a slight "European" accent, the man asked what Rojcewicz was doing; he replied that he was researching similarities between UFO accounts and earlier tales from various folklore traditions. His suit was somewhat dingy and oversized, hanging loosely on his slim frame.
After gazing out the window for a moment, the man sat near Rojcewicz. A tall, slender man with deep-set eyes and a dark complexion stood by the table. He was wearing rather worn black leather shoes." (Clark, 320). "Without any sound to indicate that someone was approaching me from behind," said Rojcewicz , "I noticed from the corner of my eye what I supposed was a man’s black pant leg.
One afternoon in November 1980, Rojcewicz was in the library of the University of Pennsylvania, seated at a table near a large window. Like some other MIB reports, this one has been interpreted as having its origins not in physical reality, but in an altered state of consciousness. thesis in folklore. D.
Peter Rojcewicz reported a detailed Men In Black account which occurred while he was researching his Ph. Hopkins never saw the man again; Dash does not note if Hopkins did indeed destroy his notes regarding the UFO sighting. Goodbye." (Ibid) The man then walked slowly and stiffly out the backdoor towards a bright light. Must leave now.
The man's voice slowed and he told Hopkins, "My energy is running low. (Dash, 162) The man then told Hopkins to destroy his notes and tape recordings of his meetings with Stephens and Gray, or Hopkins' own heart would disappear just as the coin had. The man then made a coin that Hopkins held dematerialize, and then told him that "No one on this plane (sic) will ever see that coin again," seeming to suggest that the man had teleported the coin. "Then came the threats," writes Dash.
This bizarre sight snapped Hopkins from the trance-like state he had been in since the man arrived, and Hopkins realized how profoundly strange the entire incident was. Hopkins began relating the account, then at one point, the man’s gloved hand brushed against his face and smeared lipstick from his bright red mouth onto both the man’s white gloves and his pale face. In a dull, monotone voice, the man asked Hopkins about the tale related by Stephens and Gray. His lips were bright red.
The man was pale and bald, also lacking eyelashes and eyebrows. (Dash, 161). The man wore a clean, pressed black suit and white gloves and "looked like an undertaker", said Hopkins. Just moments later, the man knocked at the back door of Hopkins' home, and Hopkins let him in without asking his name.
The man asked to interview Hopkins, who agreed to the request. Some six months after speaking with Stephens and Gray, Hopkins took a telephone call at his home from a man who claimed to represent a UFO research group, and who had heard that Hopkins had spoken to the UFO witnesses. In late 1975, two men—David Stephens and Glen Gray—had reported an odd UFO encounter to several people, including Hopkins. Herbert Hopkins of Maine.
A detailed men in black account comes from 1976, as related by Dr. "By the mid-1950s," writes Clark, "the legend of the men in black had become fixed in the imaginations of ufology’s more excitable followers." (Clark, 315) Accounts of Men In Black have been reported since then and continue today. You might as well go out of saucers in the usual syndrome." The "usual syndrome" being warned to keep quiet by sinister men. I'll always be glad to print an article by you if you'll tell the real (or made up) story of how these strange forces made you quit.
In a letter to Sherwood, Barker wrote that Saucer Scoop was printing a piece on Sherwood, calling it "a big deal on you, suggesting you really were hushed by the blackmen. Barker had earlier published one of Sherwood's tales, which Sherwood altered to give the fiction a "factual" veneer. Sherwood says he was part of the hoax, and cites his own "youthful amorality" and an eagerness to see his fiction published, in that he wrote sensationalistic UFO accounts at Barker's request. Sherwood's article "Gray Barker: My Friend, the Myth-Maker", which suggests that deliberate hoaxes were responsible for some early MIB stories.
the issue featured John C. The 1998 issue of Skeptical Inquirer magazine casts a differnet light on Barker. Clark writes that "Bender’s 'silencing' obsessed Barker, who would go on to become a prominent writer, editor and publisher in the fringes of saucerdom." (Clark, 312) Barker speculated that the "silence group" might not be human, and advised UFO researchers to be cautious. Bender's insistence that he was ordered quiet would become an important feature of UFO lore; the tale was initially spread by Bender's friend, writer Gray Barker.
Bender was so scared by the visit that he closed down his bureau and ceased all his active involvement in the world of ufology." (Dash, 161). Bender, director of the International Flying Saucer Bureau, the largest early UFO organization, was visited by three dark-suited men who, he said, first confided the 'solution' of the UFO mystery to him, then threatened him with prison if he told the secret to anyone else. Historian Mike Dash writes that "One of the first visits from the Men in Black occurred in 1953, when Albert K. Bender's account was popularized in Gray Barker's 1956 book They Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers.
In 1953, Bender claimed three men in black visited him and warned him to stop his UFO research. Bender seized on Dahl's story and printed it in his newsletter. Alfred K. Some confusion and debate over Dahl's statements has occurred: Dahl would later claim the UFO sighting was a hoax, but he has also claimed the sighting was accurate but that he had claimed it was a hoax to avoid bringing harm to his family.
Furthermore, the man gave Dahl a nonspecific warning—which Dahl took as a threat—that his family might be harmed if he related details of the sighting. While the two men ate, Dahl claimed the man told him details of the UFO sighting, though Dahl had not related his account publicly. The man drove a new 1947 Buick, and Dahl assumed he was a military or government representative. He described the man as imposing, over six feet tall and muscular, and wearing a black suit.
Dahl accepted the invitation. The next morning, Dahl reported a man arrived at his home and invited him to breakfast at a nearby diner. The slag, he said, struck and killed his dog and injured his son. Dahl took a number of photographs of the UFOs, and reported that one UFO shed some type of hot slag onto his boat.
Dahl, his son, two other men, and Dahl's dog were on the boat. On that date, seaman Harold Dahl claimed to have seen six UFOs near Maury Island (which is actually a peninsula of Vashon Island in Puget Sound, near Tacoma, Washington, USA). Arguably the first MIB report was made shortly after June 21, 1947. (Evans, 117).
For example, one of the “dread apparitions” was said to transform into "an enormous black dog". It’s worth noting, however, that these Welsh accounts also feature elements not typically featured in modern UFO or Men In Black accounts. Jones 'Lights' appeared above, a white ray darting from which pierced the figure, which thereupon vanished." (Evans, 118). Immediately, one of Mrs.
One of the witnesses "startled (and) uttered an involuntary prayer. Evans goes on to note that "a similar apparition was seen from different standpoints, but simultaneously" by two witnesses. This figure has related a message to the girl, which, however, she is forbidden to relate." (Evans, 117-118). One of these dread apparitions has some similarities to later Men in Black accounts: "In the neighborhood dwells an exceptionally intelligent young woman of the peasant class, whose bedroom has been visited three nights in succession at midnight by a man dressed in black ..
(Evans, 114). Residents furthermore reported encounters with a number of "Dread Apparitions" associated with Jones' revival. Evans asserted that he saw these aerial lights himself. Jones on her journeys." (Evans, 119) Writer Breiah G.
Beyond the usual events associated with revivals, Jones was accompanied by "Mysterious Lights" (Evans, 114) in the night skies, which Evans reports were widely visible to many reputable witnesses and which "follow(ed), preced(ed), or accompanie(d) Mrs. Though in some ways very different from modern UFO or MIB reports, this account is intriguing because it is perhaps the earliest account of spooky, black-clad figures explicitly associated with inexplicable lights reported in the skies. In Wales in the early 1900s there was a religious revival centered around thirty-eight-year-old Mary Jones. On their way they met "three men dressed in black, whom the grandmother referred to as 'grandfather's boys.' Once they arrived and met the devil, grandmother called him 'grandfather.'" (ibid).
A thirteen-year-old girl told investigators that some years earlier she had accompanied her grandmother on a trip to meet the devil. Woods relates an account from Norway in 1730. Jerome Clark cites William Woods’s 1973 work "A History of the Devil", which notes, "sometimes the devil wears green or gray, but mostly he is dressed in black, and always in the fashions of the day." (Clark, 312). While Bullard and others have simply noted the similarities and differences, some ufologists, such as John Keel, have argued there are explicit connections between older and more recent accounts of black-clad figures; that the demons of old and the men in black of today are one and the same.
The devil of folklore sometimes rides in a black carriage, the nearest thing to a Cadillac." (Clark, 323). sometimes disguised themselves and roamed the earth to dispense justice or stir up strife .. Even high gods like Odin .. modified to reflect extraterrestrial rather than supernatural employment but clearly functionaries in the same mold ..
Bullard, who argues that Men In Black "step into the shoes vacated by angels and demons .. Similarities between Men In Black accounts and earlier tales have been noted by folklorist Thomas E. They are also recalled as often speaking in archaic or obscure forms of slang English, or using odd sentence construction and grammar, as if English were not their first language. Witnesses sometimes describe MIB behavior as often odd, or belligerent and threatening, and are often noticeably unfamiliar with everyday common courtesies and civil behavior.
John Keel thought that many MIB were of an "Asian" appearance, though he also thought this description was inadequate, and hinted that some MIB might not be human. Some MIB are described as essentially normal in appearance, but others are said to be quite strange, whether in appearance or behavior. In fact, there really seems to be a rather small number of MIB cases where there are any details available at all.". In reality these 'countless cases' are difficult to pin down.
Chevon Wallace writes that "Some of those who write about UFO's and other strange phenomena rather casually mention 'countless' cases where people have been visited by Men In Black. The number of claimants of MIB encounters is unknown, and might be rather small. While it is not known if these threats have ever been realized, there are largely unsubstantiated reports of hardships and harassment leveled against those who resist. The men are often reported driving large, late-model cars, typically Cadillacs; in rare cases, they are reportedly seen in black helicopters.
If the witness refuses or questions their credentials, they often subtly or overtly threaten the witness or their family with bodily harm or other hardship. The men suggest—or the witnesses assume—that they are government agents, and often flash convincing-looking badges and demand that the witness recant their story or hand over photographs or physical evidence of a UFO. There are various types of MIB encounters, but they typically follow a pattern: after a presumably credible witness reports or witnesses a UFO sighting, the witness is visited by a man or men who are often dressed in black suits, lending the reports their name. .
The phenomenon was initially and most frequently reported in the 1950s and 1960s; it is contemporaneous with many other conspiracy theories. "The term is a generic one, used to refer to any unusual, threatening or strangely behaved individual whose appearance on the scene can be linked in some fashion with a UFO sighting." (Clark, 317–18). "All MIB are not necessarily garbed in dark suits," writes Jerome Clark. In UFO conspiracy theories, the term Men in Black (MIBs), also known as Men in Gray, are alleged to be men dressed in black suits claiming to be government agents who attempt to harass or threaten UFO witnesses into silence.
Jenny Randles and Peter Houghe; The Complete Book of UFOs: An Investigation into Alien Contact and Encounters; Sterling Publishing Co, Inc, 1994; ISBN 0806981326. ISBN 0765341972. New York: Saturday Review Press, 1975 and Georgia: IllumiNet Press, 1991. The Mothman Prophecies.
Keel, John (1975). John Keel; Our Haunted Planet; Fawcett Publications, 1971. I, No 3, March 1905; Ralph Shirley, Editor; William Rider and Sons, LTD. Evans, “Merionethshire Mysteries”, The Occult Review, Vol.
Beriah G. Mike Dash, Borderlands: The Ultimate Exploration of the Unknown; Overlook Press, 2000; ISBN 0879517247. Gillmor, Editor; Bantam Books, 1968. Condon, Director; Final Report of the Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, Daniel S.
Edward W. Jerome Clark, The UFO Encyclopedia, Volume 3: High Strangeness, UFO’s from 1960 through 1979; Omnigraphis, 1996; ISBN 1558887423. ISBN 1881532100. New York: University Books, 1956 and Georgia: IllumiNet Press, 1997.
They Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers. Barker, Gray (1956). In the movie The Forgotten, Linus Roache plays "A Friendly Man", who has some characteristics of the MIB. Not only do they have particularly strong weapons, they can also see through your disguise.
In the video game Destroy All Humans!, you (as an alien) must fight typical "Men in Black" from the Majestic organisation. In the TV series Stargate SG-1, the National Intelligence Division or NID is a Men-in-Black-like organization which employs agents dressed in black suits and ties and works to cover up the existence of the Stargate and anything associated with it. In the anime series Serial Experiments Lain, there are Men in Black that trail the titular character. Many other parts of the MiB mythos are also incorporated, such as the silent black helicopters which shuttle the player around, and the MIB's have metallic, echoing voices, as they are sometimes said to in MIB lore.
In the RPG/First-person shooter game Deus Ex, the player encounters characters specifically called "Men in Black" (and Women) who are used by the secret conspiracy group Majestic 12. In the Half-Life series, 'The G-Man' is a character that fits some characteristics of the Men in Black. The role-playing game Delta Green draws heavily from the Men in Black meme. In the role-playing game Mage: The Ascension, the Men in Black are a sub-category of Technocracy agents.
The missing person also claimed to be chased by two men in black. In the episode, the missing person claimed to be abducted by extraterrestrials, who later implanted him with a tracking device. A case about the MIB conspiracy was presented on an episode of CBS' Without a Trace. The lead character in the television series Dark Skies, John Loengard, was for a short time a black-dressed agent for a secret government agency called Majestic-12, which was involved in an extraterrestrial conspiracy.
Michael McKean played a Man In Black based at Area 51 in the episode "Dreamland", and the character returned in "Jump The Shark". Two satirical Men In Black, played by Jesse Ventura and Alex Trebek, are featured in the third season story "Jose Chung's From Outer Space". The alien conspiracy mythology of The X-Files portrayed several versions of Men In Black, the first in the episode "Deep Throat", when a group of MIBs threaten Mulder and confiscate photos from Roswell. A significant role is played by "the undertakers in smoked spectacles".
The short story Angel Down, Sussex by Kim Newman is about an archetypal alien abduction in Edwardian England, described in terms appropriate to the period. The Agents of the Matrix trilogy can also be seen as a fictional adaptation of the Men In Black. The characters of Jake Blues and Elwood Blues (played by John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd) in the 1980 comedy movie The Blues Brothers can also be seen as a humorous spoof on the Men In Black, given Ackroyd's interest in UFOs and related phenomena. Agent Parcher in the movie A Beautiful Mind can also be seen as a fictional adaptation of the Men In Black.
Grant Morrison's run on the Doom Patrol comic featured the ominous "Men In Green," who warned their victim that he was lucky they weren't the "Men In Mauve". The movie spawned a sequel (Men in Black II) and an animated television series intended for children. The enduring popularity of the Men in Black conspiracy theory led to the 1990s comic book series, which in turn became the 1997 film Men in Black starring Will Smith and Tommy Lee Jones. The 1984 film Brother From Another Planet by John Sayles features two darkly dressed bounty hunters credited as "Men In Black" (played by Sayles and David Strathairn), searching Harlem for a stranded alien ("The Brother," played by Joe Morton).
They attributed the many calamities they suffered around the time (deaths of road crew members, theft of their equipment, incarceration in jail, various contractual and business disasters, disappearance of master tapes of recordings, electrical explosions in recording studios...) to the influence of the Men in Black (Incidentally, this was one of the Stranglers' more poorly-received albums). British rock band The Stranglers, by their own admission, became obsessed with the Men in Black theory around 1979–81, culminating in the release of their concept album The Gospel According to the Meninblack.