Max

For other uses, see Max (disambiguation). A Max/MSP patch written and used by Autechre

Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software.

The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software.

History

Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999.

Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software.

In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful.

Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions

Max Mathews

Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music.

A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems.

With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance.

Notable artists

  • Autechre
  • Monolake
  • Kit Clayton
  • Leafcutter John
  • Kevin Blechdom
  • Jamie Lidell
  • R. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet
  • Pauline Oliveros
  • Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead

Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list.


This page about Max includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Max
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For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list.
. Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. At the end of 1957 Moto Guzzi, Gilera and Mondial (the most important Italian Racing motorcycles manufacturers) agreed to stop participation to competitions. With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance. (not complete). In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems. The 2004 Breva 750, 2005 Breva 1100 and Griso 1100, 2006 Norge 1200 are all-new motorcycles with competitive engineering and design, allthough the strong heritage/image seems to be the key to survival for the small Italian manufacturer by the romantic Como lake.

Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. The investments made by recent owners seem to bear fruit, as new models are now (2006) appearing at a rate not seen in recent years. A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. In 2004 the Piaggio group took over Aprilia forming Europe's biggest two wheel manufacturer. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music. A period of increasing control by an American investment group in the '90s was put to an end by the takeover by a competitive manufacturer, Aprilia, in 2000. Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. After financial troubles since the late '60s, the factory was bought by the Argentinian industrialist Alejandro de Tomaso in 1972.

Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions. Later models have improved greatly on the service intervals (today between 8,000-10,000 km). Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful. After 1975 (from late T models) all models were equipped with a proper oil filter, which helps considerably on longevity, compared to the early models which merely had a sieve. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. The service interval of the older models is 3000 km and if this schedule is maintained the engine, partly due to its simplicity, will last. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. Several machines have clocked over 200,000 miles with basic maintenance.

A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Although many regard Guzzis as old fashioned, it has been observed that a well maintained Guzzi engine can prove to be highly reliable. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). The combination of European performance and manouverability coupled with laid back American styling has secured this model its cult following all over the world. In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. police deparment. A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software. The first model appeared in 1972, and was based on a model sold to the L.A.

as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). In the '80s and '90s the California models were the biggest sellers. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. All the machines in this series are highly regarded for their styling and performance. Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. Early models use 36 or 40 mm Dellorto carburetors but the late model V11 Le Mans are fuel injected. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999. All models have shaft drive.

In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. The first two models had rounded barrels while the latter have squared barrels. Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. The I, II and III are 850 cc, the IV and V are 1000 cc and the V11 Le Mans is 1064 cc. . Six versions of the Le Mans have been produced, designated I, II, III, IV, V and V11 Le Mans. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software. When the Le Mans debuted in 1976 it was among the 5 best performing road bikes available.

As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. With it's disc brakes and additional displacement, the 850 Le Mans lived up to the promise of the V7 Sport. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). The V7 Sport was planned as the first five speed, 200 kg, 200 kmph, production motorcycle. The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. This model was a further development of the 1971 750 V7 Sport designed by Guzzi engineer Lino Tonti. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software. One of it's most famous machines has been the Le Mans.

Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. The company has produced over fifty models since its inception. Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead. This design was the basis for the 750 Breva and Nevada engines. Pauline Oliveros. In 1979 a small block version was introduced as the V50. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet. This original engine has been continuously developed into the 1200 cc 80 hp versions offered today (2006).

R. The sturdy V-twin easily won and saved the firm from extinction. Jamie Lidell. This engine was designed to win a competition for a new police bike sponsored by the Italian government. Kevin Blechdom. The air-cooled, transverse V-twin, pushrod engine started out with 700 cc displacement and 45 hp. Leafcutter John. The original V-twin was designed in the early '60s by engineer Giulio Cesare Carcano, designer of the fabulous V8 racer.

Kit Clayton. The company currently specializes in 90° V-twin engines. Monolake. The horizontal single, and from the seventies the V2, has been the official motorcycle of Italy. Autechre. Historically, much of Moto Guzzi's production has gone to the Italian army and police. Though relatively modest for Guzzis, these, and all other models were relatively upmarket and high quality in their corner of the market.

A 4 stroke 175 cc scooter known as the "Galetto" was a stable seller as well. The '46 "Motoleggera", a 65 cc lightweight motorcycle became hugely popular in postwar Italy. The solution was production of cheap lightweights. The period after World War 2, was difficult in Mandello del Lario as elsewhere in post war Europe.

At the same time the official racing team and private racers were furnished with all sorts of racing machines which included a plethora of overhead cam, multiple valve configurations and cylinder designs, culminating in the mythic 500 cc dohc V8 that ended the Guzzi racing era in 1957, when the factory withdrew from racing for financial reasons. Until the mid '40s, the traditional horizontal four stroke single cylinder 500 cc engines outfitted with one overhead and one side valve were the most performance orientated machines that Moto Guzzi sold to the general public. Moto Guzzi won 3,329 official races, 14 World Championships and 11 times the Tourist Trophy. From the beginning the company used racing to promote their brand.

The engineer, and co-founder, Carlo Guzzi's first design was a horizontal single, that in a number of guises dominated the first 45 years of the company's history. From the '30s it was the biggest, and until the '60s, it was the dominant marque amongst Italian motorcycle manufacturers. . Moto Guzzi is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer that was established in 1921 in Mandello del Lario by the Como Lake at the foot of the alps in northern Italy.

MGS-01 Corsa (1225 cc) 2004 -. Otto Cilindri (500 cc) 1955 - 1957. Bialbero (350 cc) 1954 - 1957. Bialbero (250 cc) 1953 - 1955.

Quattro Cilindri (500 cc) 1952 - 1954. Gambalunghino (250 cc) 1949 - 1952. Gambalunga (500 cc) 1946 - 1951. Dondolino (500 cc) 1946 - 1951.

Bicilindrica (500 cc) 1933 - 1951. Albatros (250 cc ) 1928 - 1933. 250 cc Compressore 1938. 250 cc SS 1928 - 1933.

C 4V (500 cc) 1924 - 1927. Norge 1200 (1134 cc) 2005 -. Griso (1064 cc) 2005 -. Breva V1100 (1064 cc) 2005 -.

Breva V750 i.e. (744 cc) 2002 -. V11 - V11 Le Mans (1064 cc) 1998 -. California Vintage (1064 cc) 2005 -. California - California EV (1064 cc).

Stone - Stone Touring (1064 cc). Nevada Classic 750 i.e. (744 cc). V11 Sport (1064 cc) 1998 - 2001. Quota 1100 ES (1064) 1998 - 2001.

V10 Centauro (992 cc) 1998 - 2001. 1100 Sport (1064 cc) 1994 - 1997. Daytona 1000 IE (992 c) 1991 - 1999. Nevada 350 (346,2 cc) 1991 - 2001.

1000 GT (949 cc) 1987 - 1993. California III (948,8 cc) 1987 - 1993. Le Mans 1000 (948,8 cc) 1984 - 1988. V65 Lario (643,4 cc) 1984 - 1989.

850 T5 (844,05 cc) 1983 - 1987. V35 Custom (346,2 cc) 1982 - 1987. V65 (643,4 cc) 1982 - 1987. California II (948,8 c) 1981 - 1987.

Le Mans III (844 cc) 1980 - 1985. V50 Monza (490,29 cc) 1980 - 1985. V1000 Idroconvert (948,8 cc) 1971 - 1980. V35 (346,2 cc) 1977 - 1980.

V50 (490,29) 1977 - 1979. 1000 SP (948,8 cc) 1977 - 1985. V850 Le Mans (844,05 cc) 1975 - 1980. Nuovo Falcone 500 (499 cc) 1971 - 1976.

V7 750 Sport (748,39 cc) 1971 - 1973. V7 Special 750 (757,49 cc) 1968 - 1974. V7 700cc (703,72 cc) 1967 - 1977. Trotter Special M (48,89 cc) 1966 - 1973.

Dingo 4 marce (48,89 cc) 1963 - 1976. Dingo 3 marce (48,89 cc) 1963 - 1976. Stornello 125 cc (123,1 cc) 1960 - 1975. Lodola Sport (175 cc) 1956 - 1966.

Zigolo (98 cc) 1953 - 1966. Cardellino 73 cc (73 cc) 1956 - 1965. Galletto 160 cc (159,5 cc) 1950 - 1966. Falcone (498,4 cc) 1950 - 1967.

Astore (498,4 cc) 1949 - 1953. Motoleggera 65 cc (64 cc) 1946 - 1954. Dondolino 500 cc (499 cc) 1946 - 1951. Airone (246 cc) 1939 - 1957.

Alce (498,4 cc) 1939 - 1945. GTS (498,4 cc) 1934 - 1940. GT 17 500 cc (499 cc) 1932 - 1939. Sport 15 (498,4 cc) 1931 - 1939.

Sport 14 (498,4 cc) 1929 - 1930. GT "Norge" (498,4 cc) 1928 - 1930. Sport 15 (498,4 cc) 1923 - 1928. Normale (498,4 cc) 1921 - 1924.

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