Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software.
The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software.
Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999.
Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software.
In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful.
Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions
Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music.
A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems.
With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance.
Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list.
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For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list. They are in a relatively mild state of racing tune, so that they are extremely reliable and can go years between motor rebuilds.. Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. The engines are all built by one engine builder, certified to produce the prescribed power, and sealed to discourage tampering. With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance. Since 1991, the professionally organized Star Mazda Series has been the most popular format for sponsors, spectators, and upward bound drivers. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems. Formula Mazda Racing features open wheel race cars with Mazda engines, adaptable to both oval tracks and road courses, on several levels of competition.
Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. Wankel engines are barred from international Formula One racing, as well as from United states midget racing, after Gene Angelillo won the North East Midget Racing Association championship in 1985 with a car powered by a 13B engine, and again in 1986 in a car powered by a 12A engine. A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. Mazdas have also enjoyed substantial success in World Land Speed competition, SCCA competition, drag racing, pro rally competition (the Familia appeared in the WRC several times during the late '80s and early '90s), the One Lap of America race, and other venues. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music. This prototype racer uses the Renesis Wankel from the RX-8. Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Mazda will return to prototype racing in 2005 with the introduction of the Courage C65 LMP2 car at the American Le Mans race at Road Atlanta.
Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions. Mazda is also the most reliable finisher at LeMans (with the exception of Honda, who have entered only three cars in only one year), with 67% of entries finishing. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful. The Sigma MC74 powered by a Mazda 12A engine was the first engine and team from outside Western Europe or the United States to finish the entire 24 hours of the Le Mans race, in 1974. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. This followed a decade of class wins from other Mazda prototypes, including the 757 and 767. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. After the race, the winning engine was publicly dismantled for internal examination, which demonstrated that despite 24 hours of extremely hard use it had accumulated very little wear.
A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. This led to a ban on rotary engines in the Le Mans race starting in 1992, which was eventually rescinded. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). In 1991, a four-rotor Mazda 787B (2622 cc actual, rated by FIA formula at 4708 cc) won the 24 Hours of Le Mans auto race outright, the only non-piston engine ever to win at Le Mans, as well as the only team from outside Western Europe or the United States. In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. The RX7 won the IMSA Grand Touring Under Two Liter (GTU) championship each year from 1980 through 1987, inclusive. A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software. Following that, the RX-7 won its class in the IMSA 24 hours of Daytona race ten years in a row, starting in 1982.
as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). After substantial success by the Mazda RX-2 and Mazda RX-3, the Mazda RX-7 has won more IMSA races in its class than any other model of automobile, with its one hundredth victory on September 2, 1990. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. . Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. The only modifications were racing brake pads, exhaust, and safety equipment. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999. The Cosmo placed 18th overall in a field of 72.
In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. In 1976, Ray Walle, owner of Z&W Mazda, drove a Cosmo (Mazda RX-5) from the dealership in Princeton, New Jersey, to Daytona, won the Touring Class Under 2.5 Liters at the 24 Hours of Daytona, and drove the car back to New Jersey. Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. After winning the Singapore Grand Prix in April 1969 and coming in fifth and sixth in the Spa 24 Hours (beaten only by Porsche 911s), on October 19, 1969, Mazda again entered the 84 hour Nurburgring race with four Familias; only one of which finished, winning fifth place. . The next year, Mazda raced Mazda Familia R100 M10A coupes. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software. Mazda's competition debut was on October 20, 1968 when two Mazda Cosmo Sport 110S coupes entered the 84 hour Marathon de la Route ultraendurance race at Nurburgring, one finishing in fourth place and the other breaking an axle after 81 hours.
As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. In the racing world, Mazda has had substantial success with two-rotor, three-rotor, and four-rotor cars, and private racers have also had considerable success with stock and modified Mazda Wankel-engined cars. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). This never happened, leaving the near-luxury Millenia to the Mazda brand. The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. The initial Amati products would have been the Amati 500 (which became the Mazda Millenia), and the Amati 1000 (a new rear wheel drive V12 successor to the Mazda 929). It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software. In Europe, the equivalent Xedos marque was launched, lasting just a few years.
Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. In the early 1990s Mazda almost created a luxury marque, Amati, to challenge Acura, Infiniti, and Lexus in North America. Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead. In other words, the Autozam Carol is sold at the Autozam store (which specializes in small cars), but it is sold with the Mazda marque, not as the Autozam Carol as it once was. Pauline Oliveros. Today, the former marques exist in Japan as sales channels (specialized dealerships) but no longer have specialized branded vehicles. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet. And consumers were confused as well by the explosion of similar new models.
R. Instead of having a half-dozen variations on any given platform, they were asked to work on dozens of different models. Jamie Lidell. This diversification stressed the product development groups at Mazda past their limits. Kevin Blechdom. Mazda has used a number of different marques in the Japan market, including Autozam, Eunos cars, and Anfini, although they have been phased out. Leafcutter John. The third-generation RX-7, introduced in 1993, was much liked, but few were sold, causing an end of the model's importation just three years later.
Kit Clayton. The Miata was another tremendous halo car for the company, kicking off an industry boom in the sports car segment. Monolake. Mazda finished the 1980s the same way as the 1970s, with an image-building sports car. Autechre. The two joined together on the 626's 2-door offshoots, the MX-6 and Ford Probe. Mazda built an American plant (now AutoAlliance International) to build the 626, bringing the company to Ford's attention.
The RX-7 and 626 buoyed Mazda's American fortunes enough for it to expand. Also relaunched that year was the company's entrant in the midsize market, the 626. The 1979 RX-7 rotary was the company's greatest image-builder yet, casting a halo over the rest of the model line. Even though the Wankel engine had lost its allure, Mazda persevered with the technology and found a niche for it.
But the writing was on the wall for Mazda's mainstream Wankel lineup - every one of the older "rotary" models was cancelled after 1978. Also introduced in 1976 was the Wankel-powered RX-5 Cosmo. That car, and 1977 GLC (its next-generation brother) saved the company in the United States with terrific reviews and better sales. The company's sales were slipping due to the Wankel's reputation as a gas hog, so Mazda responded with the reintroduction of a Familia-based car powered by a tiny piston engine, the 1.3 L Mizer.
Mazda had designed the REPU and RX-4 with the American market in mind, but the energy crisis was looming. 1975 had a similar lineup, minus the retired RX-2. In fact, the 808 and B1600 were the only piston-engined Mazdas offered in the United States that year. 1974 was the year of the rotary with the introduction of both the Rotary Pickup and RX-4.
Mazda quickly rose in prominence, helped in large part to their use of Wankel engines. The piston-powered 618 was gone the next year, as was the R100, but the 1.2 L 1200 was back for a single year. For 1972, the line expanded again with the addition of the RX-3 and B1600; the 1200 and 616 were replaced by the similar 808 and 618, respectively; and the boring 1800 was gone. The next year there were five cars: The compact Familia-based 1200 and R100, the larger Capella-based 616 and RX-2 and the large 1800.
Toyo Kogyo entered the United States market in 1970 with a single car, the RX-2. At the same time, the company is expected to withdraw the slow-selling MPV from the United States market. The company will introduce a new crossover SUV, the CX-7, in 2006, along with a smaller minivan, the Mazda 5, and hybrid version of the Tribute. Mazda executives have acknowledged the company's absence in many market segments worldwide, notably in the area of trucks.
In fall 2005, three vehicles based on the 6's CD3 architecture were released — the Ford Fusion, Mercury Milan, and Lincoln Zephyr. This is very different from the climate in 1996, when commentators expected Ford to impose its own engineering on Mazda and lead to the loss of Mazda's proprietary expertise. It has been widely rumored for a few years that Ford will use the Mazda 6/Atenza's platform in upcoming new cars. The new MX-5 (the "Miata" name formerly used in North America has been dropped) debuted in autumn 2005 and is claimed to share no common parts with the previous model except for the side indicator repeaters used on European cars.
By 2004, Mazda had surpassed the ailing Mitsubishi in sales. Mazda 6/Atenza, RX-8, and Mazda 3/Axela proved popular and helped change perceptions of the brand. Once the new cars arrived, however, the company quickly turned around. 2001 was a very difficult year for Mazda, as new models were in development and the company would have no new product until mid-2002.
Patterned after Mazda's Hofu plant, AAT is now an important manufacturing location for the company. In 1998, Mazda and Ford opened a new plant in Thailand, AutoAlliance Thailand. In 1994, the Mazda B-Series line was split between an international (Mazda-designed) version and North American clone of the Ford Ranger. Mazda and Ford continued joint efforts.
While technically superior, the 1998 replacement for the MX-5 (Miata) lost much of the purity of the original 1989 design, which is still preferred by many enthusiasts. Mazda was widely criticised in Europe for the sheer blandness of its late-1990s designs, including the last 323 and 626 which compared unfavourably to the previous models. To resolve this issue, Mazda commissioned for a new logo in 1998 ("Wings" or "Owl"), which it uses till this day and features in considerably larger sizes on every model. The new version is consistently used in 1990s Mazdas, but never became as well known as the lettertype.
In 1991 a new logo was introduced, but was soon swapped for a rounded-off version ("Eternal Flame") because the original had an uncomfortable resemblance to Renault's logo. The "Mazda" lettertype was introduced in 1975 as part of Japan's first CAD-assisted corporate identity redesign. In other markets, Mazda's identity crisis saw it confused over which logo to adopt. A common opinion is that the sheer number of models had overwhelmed the company - in 1993 Mazda sold seven models based on the 626, yet they only amounted to 1/3 the sales achieved by the comparable Toyota.
The number of brands was also an attempt to match Toyota and Nissan, both of which had multiple chains in Japan. However plans for Amati was pulled at the last minute, and the rumored V12-engined flagship was shelved. Eunos was to have a counterpart overseas in the US-market Amati luxury division, and Xedos in Europe. With the aim of doubling its sales, Mazda launched three new brands in Japan, Eunos, Anfini and Autozam.
It chose to do so because market research revealed that the Mazda brand has the connotation of economic, budget cars both in Japan and abroad. In the late 1980s, Mazda embarked on a disastrous attempt to diversify its brand names. The rest of the lineup was poorly-received in the United States and Japan; their popularity in Europe didn't seem to make up for the losses. Due to the high price, the third-generation RX-7 sold poorly (although continues to be a tuner car favorite), and the Miata could not sustain the company's sales.
The 1990s were a decade of decline for Mazda. Despite complaints of plaigiarising the Lotus Elan, the Miata has been very successful till this day. This model revitalized the world sports car market, which was filled at the time with expensive, heavy GT cars. Mazda finished the decade with the revolutionary Eunos Roadster (Mazda MX-5 or Miata outside Japan) sports car (for the 1989 model year).
production was initiated via a joint venture with Ford called AutoAlliance International. U.S. Mazda also began building the new-for-1988 626/MX-6 in the United States. Mazda also contributed to Ford's lineup, most notably with the MX-6-based Ford Probe.
(This is still very significant today whenever a non-Toyota tops the sales charts). The early-80s 323 (GLC in North America) and 626 were massive hits, with the 323 taking the number one spot in Japanese car sales, overtaking the Toyota Corolla. Having said that, the 80s saw the most mainstream success for Mazda. The 1980s saw Mazda transition from a niche Japanese player to a part of the global Ford empire.
The first RX-7 released in 1978 would be a strong image leader for Mazda, but actual sales revival would not come until the early 1980s. However, the 1970s also saw Mazda's first financial crisis, which led to Ford taking a 25% stake in the company. The only exception was the Mazda Chantez keicar, because other car makers vetoed the move. The Wankel "rotary" engines outperformed their piston-based competitors by a large margin, and Mazda made the most of the powerplant by putting it in almost every product they sold, from the Rotary Pickup to the RX-7, and even the large Luce sedan.
Internationally, the 1970s were the heyday of Mazda as a performance leader. Mazda also entered the United States market at the end of the decade. In just this decade, the marque progressed from a 16 horsepower (12 kW) keicar to a Wankel engined sports car, the Mazda Cosmo. The year 1960 was the birth of Mazda as an automaker.
Ford and Mazda have moved onto collaboration in a more fundamental sense, by way of platform sharing. The badge-engineered models came to an end in the early 00s, as Ford replaced the Laser with its own Focus, and Telstar with its own Mondeo. Ford also used the Mazda models to establish its own retail presence in Japan - the Autorama dealers sold these cars, plus the occasional Ford US and Ford Europe models. These models replaced the models from Ford Europe sold throughout the 1970s.
The 1979 deal paved way for Ford selling badge-engineered Mazdas in Asia and Australia, such as the Laser and Telstar. Ford has based many of its models on Mazdas, such as the Probe, late model (North American) Escort and Mercury Tracer, and the co-developed Escape/Mazda Tribute. The Ford Motor Company has owned 25% of Mazda since 1979, and its stake was increased to a 33.4% controlling interest in 1996 when Mazda fell into financial crisis. The first four-wheel car, the Mazda R360 was introduced in 1960, followed by the Mazda Carol in 1962.
The company formally adopted the Mazda name in 1984, though every automobile sold from the beginning bore that name. Toyo Kogyo moved from manufacturing machine tools to vehicles, with the introduction of the Mazda-Go in 1931, although they produced weapons for the Japanese military throughout the Second World War. Mazda began as the Toyo Cork Kogyo Co., Ltd, founded in Japan in 1920. .
As of 2005, the company produces roughly 800,000 automobiles per year with sales evenly divided among Japan, Europe, and North America. Mazda Motor Corporation (マツダ Matsuda) TYO: 7261 is a Japanese automobile maker based in Hiroshima, Japan. It was recorded for the movie Only The Strong which was released in 1993. The Zoom Zoom Zoom song (used in current commercials in Europe and Japan) was recorded long before it became the official song for Mazda.
In Japanese, the company is referred to either by its anglicised name (MAZDA Motors) or as マツダ (Matsuda), after its founder. It is also said that Mazda coincides with the anglicized pronunciation of the founder's name, Jujiro Matsuda. In North American catalogues Mazda sends out the name of the company is explained to be derived from Zoroastrian deity Ahura Mazda. Lewis Booth went back to Ford in 2003 and Mazda Director Hisakazu Imaki is now CEO.
He was followed by Ford President James Miller in 1997, and Mark Fields in 1999 until 2001, when he was tapped to lead Ford's Premier Automotive Group and handed the reins to Lewis Booth. Many Japanese media outlets at the time reacted in shock and horror, and wondered if Ford would cut jobs. Mazda had the distinction of having the first foreign CEO to head a Japanese car company, former Ford Motor Company CFO, Scottish-born Henry Wallace in 1996. Today, the B-Series/Courier/Ranger and Truck/Ranger are two entirely different truck lines in the two markets.
Internationally, however, the both the Ranger and Courier names were then applied to versions of Mazda's truck. For North America, Ford replaced the Courier with the in-house Ranger design in the 1980s, only to have the badge engineering reverse itself in 1994 as the B-Series became a Ranger clone in that market. The Courier was launched internationally in the 1970s as a clone of the Mazda. Mazda's B-Series and Ford's Courier and Ranger have an interesting history.
It is the only car not powered by a piston engine to win at Le Mans. Mazda is the only Asian automaker to have won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race, which the company accomplished in 1991 with their rotary-powered 787B. Mazda is the only manufacturer to ever produce a Miller cycle engine, as used in the 1993 Mazda Millenia. Mazda is the only remaining manufacturer of Wankel "rotary" engine automobiles, and is the only manufacturer to produce 2 and 3 rotor Wankel engines for production.