Max

For other uses, see Max (disambiguation). A Max/MSP patch written and used by Autechre

Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software.

The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software.

History

Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999.

Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software.

In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful.

Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions

Max Mathews

Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music.

A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems.

With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance.

Notable artists

  • Autechre
  • Monolake
  • Kit Clayton
  • Leafcutter John
  • Kevin Blechdom
  • Jamie Lidell
  • R. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet
  • Pauline Oliveros
  • Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead

Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list.


This page about Max includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list. In January 2006, K-M announced that all DSLR production would cease. Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. Popular with many owners, the DSLR cameras appeared to suffer from a lack of marketing and promotion, certainly in comparison to Nikon or Canon. With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance. K-M was the last of the large camera manufacturers to launch a digital SLR camera using the 35 mm AF-mount. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems. While Minolta was the inventor of the modern integrated AF SLR, it took Konica-Minolta a long time to enter the digital SLR market, a delay that may have proved fatal.

Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. It may be said that Minolta was – again - a bit too much far ahead of the times. A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. Although Minolta had launched a digital SLR system as early as 1995, the RD-175 – a 1.4 megapixel camera based on the Maxxum 500si – this camera was never successful and in 1998, this excellent camera was superseded by the RD3000, a 3 megapixel SLR based on the lens mount of the Vectis APS SLR camera line, which was equally unsuccessful and short-lived. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music. After the merger with Konica, it was thought by many that Minolta would quickly enter the digital SLR market, a belief that proved premature. Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Minolta later innovated in this line by being the first manufacturer to integrate a mechanical anti-shake system.

Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions. However, the DiMage 7 and similar 'ZSLR' cameras were not really adequate substitutes for professional SLR cameras, and initially there were many reports of slow autofocus speed and various malfunctions. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful. It added other features such as a histogram and the cameras were compatible with Minolta's flashes for modern film SLRs. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. The camera had a traditional zoom ring and focus ring on the lens barrel, and was equipped with an electronic (EVF) viewfinder rather than the direct optical reflex view of an SLR. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. Designed for use by people familiar with 35mm single-lens-reflex or SLR cameras, without the added complication of interchangeable lenses or optical reflex viewfinders, the DiMage incorporated many of the features of a higher level film camera with the simplicity of smaller compact digicams.

A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Minolta created a new category of 'ZSLR' or fixed zoom-lens SLR-type cameras with the introduction of the DiMage 7. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). Their DiMage line includes digital cameras and imaging software as well as film scanners. In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. Minolta has a line of digital point and shoot cameras to compete in the digital photography market. A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software.
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as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). All of these cameras were eventually discontinued in favor of the less expensive Maxxum 50 and 70, which were sold under the Minolta name until 2006. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. Though well received by the photographic press, the 7 and 9 did not sell to expectation or achieve any significant breakthrough with their intended customer market, who had largely gone over to Canon or Nikon. Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. Minolta also made one last attempt to enter the serious amateur and professional market with the Maxxum (Dynax) 9 in 1998, followed by the Maxxum 7. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999. In advertising literature, Minolta claimed that the Maxxum 4 was the most compact 35 mm AF SLR, and the second fastest at autofocusing, while the Maxxum 5 was the fastest at autofocusing.

In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. The Maxxum 4 is a 35 mm SLR with an A-type bayonet mount, built-in flash, autoexposure, predictive autofocus, electronically controlled vertical-traverse focal plane shutter, through-the-lens (TTL) phase-detection focusing and metering. Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. Up until Konica-Minolta announced their withdrawal plan in 2006, K-M made Maxxum/Dynax digital and film-based cameras (retaining the different names in the different markets), improving the design while maintaining the basic concepts. . The new corporation was called Konica-Minolta Ltd. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software. in 2003.

As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. In an effort to strengthen market share and acquire additional assets in film, film cameras and optical equipment, Minolta merged with another long-time Japanese camera manufacturer, Konica Ltd. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). Special features introduced by Minolta are: interactive LCD viewfinder display; setup memory; expansion program cards (discontinued); eye-activated startup; infrared frame counter. The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. Among standardized features that were first introduced on Minolta models are: multisensor light-metering coupled to multiple AF-sensors; automatic flash balance system; wireless TTL flash control; TTL controlled full-time flash sync; speedy front and rear wheels for shutter and aperture control. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software. Minolta has introduced features that became standard in all brands a few years later.

Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. Minolta eventually discontinued all APS camera production. Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead. Unfortunately, APS proved to be a technological dead end and the cameras did not sell as hoped. Pauline Oliveros. Minolta also invested heavily in APS (Advanced Photo System) film-format cameras, most notably with the Vectis line of SLR cameras beginning in 1996. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet. After the 4-digit Maxxum i line which included the 3000i, 5000i, 7000i and 8000i came the 1-digit Maxxum xi line, followed by the 3-digit si line, the 1-digit line without letters (Alpha/DynaxMaxxum 3, 4, 5, 7, 9), and finally, the Maxxum 50 and 70.

R. After protracted litigation, Minolta in 1991 was ordered to pay Honeywell damages, penalties, trial costs and other expenses in a final amount of 127.6 million dollars (source: NY Times). Jamie Lidell. corporation. Kevin Blechdom. Unfortunately for Minolta, its autofocus design was found to infringe on the patents of Honeywell, a U.S. Leafcutter John. All Maxxum cameras use the Minolta 'A' autofocus lens mount, and earlier manual-focus Minolta MC and MD lenses are incompatible with the new AF cameras.

Kit Clayton. The 7000 has TTL phase-detection focusing and metering, autoexposure and predictive autofocus. Monolake. An LCD shows aperture, shutter speed and film frame count. Autechre. A circuit on the lens relays aperture information to the camera body, and the motor for autofocus is contained within the camera body. The 7000 has two 8-bit CPUs and six integrated circuits.

That way, the only control necessary on the lens is the manual focusing ring (plus the zoom ring in the case of zoom lenses). The Maxxum 7000, the most popular of the new Maxxums, introduced the innovation of arrow buttons for setting aperture and shutter speed, rather than a shutter speed dial on the body and an aperture ring on the lens. The heavy-duty metal bodies of earlier Minoltas were abandoned in favor of lighter and less expensive plastics. They were Minolta's first line of automatic focus SLR cameras, and in fact the first true autofocus-cameras the world had seen.

In North America, they used the name 'Maxxum', in Europe the cameras were called 'Dynax' and in Japan they were named 'Alpha'. In 1985, Minolta introduced a new line of autofocus (AF) SLR cameras. Minolta, like other major manufacturers faced with low-cost competition from Asia, found it difficult to build quality P&S cameras at a cost the consumer was willing to pay, and was forced to offshore production, gradually redesigning successive cameras to reduce cost and maintain profit margins. Transitioning from older rangefinder designs to 'point-and-shoot' electronic, autofocus/autowind cameras was applauded by most camera buyers, but decried by those who missed the old Minolta quality.

Minolta was quick to enter the highly competitive 35mm compact camera market in the 1980s. As Minolta's autofocus Maxxums were proving successful, Minolta invested fewer resources in its manual focus line as time went on. Further cost savings were made internally, where some operating components were changed from metal to plastic. The advanced vertical metal shutter design of the older cameras was rejected in favor of a cheaper horizontal cloth-curtain shutter, reducing flash sync to a very slow 1/60th second.

The new amateur-level X-570, X-700, and related models offered additional program and metering features designed to appeal to newer photographers, at a lower cost. Minolta decided to abandon the extremely high level of design and parts specification of its earlier XD/XE line. Minolta continued to offer 35mm MF SLR cameras in its X370, X-570, and X-700 from 1981, but slowly repositioned its cameras to appeal to a broader market. Elements of the XD11 design, called the XD7 in Europe, were utilized by Leica for the Leica R4 camera.

The XM for "XK Motor" (the motorized version) may well be the most collectible Japanese 35 mm camera - in September 2004 an XM Motor of 1976 was sold for €2566, approximately 200% of its price back in 1976. Others regard the XM (XK in the Americas), a rugged camera designed for the serious amateur and professional phtographer dating from 1972, to be the quintessential Minolta. In 1977, Minolta introduced the XD-11, the first multi-mode 35 mm compact SLR system camera is considered by many to be the best manual-focus 35mm SLR Minolta ever produced, and the last serious attempt by Minolta to enter the professional and semi-professional 35mm SLR market until the Maxxum 9 in 1998. Other results were the Leica R3, which was in fact the Minolta XE-1 with a Leica viewfinder and spot light metering system.

The Leica CL was built by Minolta, to Leica specifications. Tangible results of this cooperation were the Leica CL/Minolta CL, an affordable rangefinder camera to supplement the Leica M range. Leitz desperately needed expertise in camera body electronics, and Minolta felt that they could learn from Leitz's undoubted optical expertise. In 1972, Minolta drew up a formal cooperation agreement with Leitz.

From the late 1950s to the mid-1980s, Minolta was arguably the most innovative camera manufacturer - the first Japanese manufacturer to introduce a bayonet lens mount rather than a screw mount, the first manufacturer to introduce TTL metering with full aperture, and the first manufacturer to introduce multi-mode metering. Nevertheless, the cameras appealed to serious amateur photographers with their more affordable prices and high-quality optics. This occasionally caused problems in very cold weather or extremely high-levels of use. Like the Canon Ftb, the Minolta SR/SRT design used sleeve bushings instead of bearings on its focal plane spindles, and had greater tolerances between working parts.

Well-made, the SR/SRT were not made to the level of the professional-level Nikon F or F2. In the 1960s Minolta introduced its SR and later SRT (for SR with through-the-lens metering) series 35mm SLR cameras which are widely regarded as some of the most innovative single lens reflex ( SLR) cameras of the era. Marketed at a time when other indifferent copies of the Rolleiflex TLR design were flooding the market, the Autocords soon acquired an enviable reputation for the high quality of their Rokkor optics. In the late 1950s and 1960s, Minolta competed in the medium-format rollfilm camera market with the excellent Autocord series of TLR (twin lens reflex) cameras.

An American astronaut took a Minolta Hi-Matic rangefinder 35 mm camera aboard the spaceship Friendship 7 in 1962, and in 1968, Apollo 8 orbited the moon with a Minolta Space Meter aboard. In 1950, Minolta developed a planetarium projector, the first-ever made in Japan, beginning the company's connection to astronomical optics. (Chiyoda Optics and Fine Engineering, Ltd.) and built the first Japanese-made twin-lens reflex camera, the Minoltaflex based on the German Rolleiflex. By 1937, the company reorganized as Chiyoda Kogaku Seiko, K.K.

Relying heavily on imported German technology, Nichi-Doku turned out their first product, a bellows camera called the Nifcalette, in March 1929. .
. [2].

On January 19, 2006, Konica Minolta announced that they are leaving the camera and photo business [1] and that they would sell a portion of its SLR camera business to Sony as part of its move to pull completely out of the business of selling cameras and photographic film. In 2003, Konica Corporation merged with Minolta to form Konica Minolta. It was not until 1934 that the brand name appeared on a camera, with the Minolta Vest. It is perhaps best known for making the first integrated autofocus 35 mm SLR camera system.

Minolta was founded in Osaka, Japan in 1928 as Nichi-Doku Shashinki Shōten (日独写真機商店; meaning Japan-Germany camera shop). Minolta was a Japanese worldwide manufacturer of cameras, camera accessories, photo-copiers, fax machines and laser printers. 2006: Minolta announces it is discontinuing all film and digital camera production, ending a 78-year history as a camera manufacturer. This system is targeted toward the professional photographer and has many features not duplicated by the competition.

1998: The Minolta Maxxum 9 autofocus SLR is introduced. 1996: The Minolta Vectis camera is a completely new SLR system designed around the Advanced Photo System (APS) film format. 1995: Introduction of the Minolta RD-175, an early 1.75 megapixel digital SLR camera. 1994: The company changes its name to Minolta Co., Ltd. because it no longer is primarily a camera company.

After protracted litigation, Minolta in 1991 was ordered to pay Honeywell damages, penalties, trial costs and other expenses in a final amount of 127.6 million dollars (source: NY Times). corporation. 1991: Minolta's innovative autofocus design was found to infringe on the patents of Honeywell, a U.S. Other manufacturers soon follow suit, but Minolta's innovation gives much sales success.

1985: The Minolta Maxxum 7000 becomes the world's first truly successful autofocus SLR. The Minolta X-700 manual-focus SLR is introduced; this model is sold until 1999 and is enormously successful. 1981: The Minolta CLE is the first 35 mm rangefinder camera to feature TTL metering and aperture priority auto-exposure. Subsequent cameras are built in Germany by Leica themselves.

Minolta produces the R3, R4, and R5 models in the Leica R series. 1976: The Leica R3 is introduced. 1973: The Minolta CL is the first fruit of this agreement. 1972: Minolta signs an agreement to cooperate with Leica in SLR development.

1966: The Minolta SRT101 SLR camera is Minolta's first with through-the-lens (TTL) light metering. The company officially changes its name to Minolta Camera Co., Ltd. 1962: John Glenn takes a specially modified Minolta Hi-Matic camera into space aboard Freedom 7. 1958: The Minolta SR-2 is Minolta's first single-lens reflex camera.

1937: The "Minolta Flex" is Japan's first twin-lens reflex camera. 1929: Marketed the Company's first camera, the "Nifcalette". 1928: Kazuo Tajima established Nichi-Doku Shashinki Shoten (Japan-Germany photo company; the precursor of Minolta Co., Ltd.).

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