Max

For other uses, see Max (disambiguation). A Max/MSP patch written and used by Autechre

Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software.

The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software.

History

Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999.

Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software.

In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful.

Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions

Max Mathews

Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music.

A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems.

With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance.

Notable artists

  • Autechre
  • Monolake
  • Kit Clayton
  • Leafcutter John
  • Kevin Blechdom
  • Jamie Lidell
  • R. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet
  • Pauline Oliveros
  • Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead

Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list.


This page about Max includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list. It has 12 months, broken down into two groups of six. Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. The old Icelandic calendar is not in official use anymore, but some holidays and annual feasts are still calculated according to it in Iceland. With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance. The Persian names are included in the parentheses. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems. The Iranian / Persian calendar, currently used in Iran and Afghanistan, also has 12 months.

Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. They are. A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. The names in the solar calendar are just the names of the zodiac sign in which the sun travels. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music. These are also the names used in the Indian national calendar for the newly redefined months. Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. The months in the lunar calendar are:.

Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions. The Hindu Calendar has various systems of naming the months. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful. In ordinary years, Adar 2 is simply called Adar. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Adar 1 is only added in leap years. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. The Hebrew calendar has 12 or 13 months.

A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. For details, please see Islamic calendar. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). They are named as follows:. In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. There are also twelve months in the Islamic calendar. A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software. It began at the autumn equinox:.

as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). A period of four years ending on a leap day was to be called a Franciade. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. The five or six extra days needed to approximate the tropical year were placed after the months at the end of each year. Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. There were twelve months of 30 days each, grouped into three ten-day weeks called décades. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999. This calendar was proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about twelve years from late 1793.

In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. The famous mnemonic Thirty days hath September is the most common way of teaching the lengths of the months. Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. Months existing in the Roman calendar in the past include:. . Month-by-month links are provided here: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software. One of Wikipedia's sister projects, Wiktionary, provides translations of each of the Gregorian/Julian calendar months into a dozen or more languages.

As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. For the rationale behind the unusual day lengths, see February and August. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). The Gregorian calendar, like the Julian calendar before it, has twelve months:. The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. The problems of creating reliable lunar calendars may explain why solar calendars, having months which no longer relate to the phase of the moon, and being based only on the more predictable motion of the sun against the sky, have generally replaced lunar calendars for civil use in most societies. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software. However, a Metonic calendar (such as the Hebrew calendar) will drift against the seasons by about 1 day every 200 years.

Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. The most common solution to this problem is the Metonic cycle, which takes advantage of the fact that 235 lunations are approximately 19 tropical years (which add up to not quite 6940 days). Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead. Second, the synodic month does not fit easily into the year, which makes constructing accurate, rule-based lunisolar calendars difficult. Pauline Oliveros. At the simplest level, all lunar calendars are based on the approximation that 2 lunations last 59 days: a 30 day full month followed by a 29 day hollow month — but this is only marginally accurate and quickly needs correction by using larger cycles, or the equivalent of leap days. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet. Note that for calendrical calculations, one would probably use days measured in the time scale of Universal Time, which follows the somewhat unpredictable rotation of the Earth, and progressively accumulates a difference with ephemeris time called ΔT.

R. y is years since the epoch (2000), expressed in Julian years of 365.25 days. Jamie Lidell. Note: time expressed in Ephemeris Time (more precisely Terrestrial Time) with days of 86400 SI seconds. Kevin Blechdom. 2000 12:00 TT):. Leafcutter John. Valid for the epoch J2000.0 (1 Jan.

Kit Clayton. These are not constant, so a first-order (linear) approximation of the secular change is provided:. Monolake. Here is a list of the average length of the various astronomical lunar months [1]. Autechre. The long-term average duration is 29.530 588 days (29 d 12 h 44 min 2.8 s), or about 29 ½ days. Because of the perturbations of the orbits of the Earth and Moon, the actual time between lunations may range from about 29.27 to about 29.83 days.

the Moon travelling with the Sun). e. This longer period is called the synodic month (from Greek syn hodô or σὺν ὁδῴ, with the way, i. a full circle) to catch up and return to the same position with respect to the Sun.

e. Because the Earth orbits the Sun, it takes the Moon extra time (after completing a sidereal month, i. So the appearance depends on the position of the Moon with respect to the Sun (as seen from the Earth). The cause of moon phases is that from the Earth we see the part of the Moon that is illuminated by the Sun from different angles as the Moon traverses its orbit.

The "draconic/draconitic" month refers to the mythological dragon that lives in the nodes and regularly eats the Sun or Moon during an eclipse. At this time a solar or lunar eclipse is possible. when it is at one of the nodes. e.

The three bodies are only on a line when the Moon is on the ecliptic, i. Now (as seen from the Earth) the Sun moves along the ecliptic, while the Moon moves along its own orbit that is inclined on the ecliptic. It is important for predicting eclipses: these take place when the Sun, Earth and Moon are on a line. It lasts 27.212 220 days (27 d 5 h 5 min 35.8 s), or about 27 ¼ days.

Hence the time it takes the Moon to return to the same node is again shorter than a sidereal month: this is called the draconic, nodical, or draconitic month. The plane of the Moon's orbit precesses over a full circle in about 18.6 years, so the nodes move backwards over the ecliptic with the same period. The line of intersection of these planes defines two points on the celestial sphere: the ascending and descending nodes. The orbit of the Moon lies in a plane that is tilted with respect to the plane of the ecliptic: it has an inclination of about five degrees.

The apparent diameter of the full moon varies with the full moon cycle which is the beat period of the synodic and anomalistic month, and also the period after which the apsides point to the Sun again. The apparent diameter of the Moon varies with this period, and therefore this type of month has some relevance for the prediction of eclipses (see Saros), whose extent, duration, and appearance (whether total or annular) depend on the exact apparent diameter of the Moon. This longer period is called the anomalistic month, and has an average length of 27.554 551 days (27 d 13 h 18 min 33.2 s), or about 27 1/2 days. It takes the Moon longer to return to the same apsis because it moved ahead during one revolution.

In particular, the position of the extreme points (the line of the apsides: perigee and apogee), makes a full circle in about nine years. However, the orientation (as well as the shape) of this orbit is not fixed. Like all orbits, the Moon's is an ellipse rather than a circle. the analogous tropical year of the Sun.

This slightly shorter period is known as tropical month; cf. Therefore it takes the Moon less time to return to an ecliptic longitude of zero than to the same point amidst the fixed stars: 27.321 582 days (27 d 7 h 43 min 4.7 s). Because of precession, this point moves back slowly along the ecliptic. It is customary to specify positions of celestial bodies with respect to the vernal equinox.

This type of "month" has appeared among cultures in the Middle East, India, and China in the following way: they divided the sky in 27 or 28 lunar mansions, characterized by asterisms (apparent groups of stars), one for each day that the Moon follows its track among the stars. The actual period of the Moon's orbit as measured in a fixed frame of reference is known as a sidereal month, because it is the time it takes the Moon to return to the same position on the celestial sphere among the fixed stars (Latin: sidus): 27.321 661 days (27 d 7 h 43 min 11.5 s) or about 27 ⅓ days. Most Jews currently follow a precalculated calendar, but the Karaites rely on actual moon observations. Therefore the beginning and lengths of months in these calendars can not be accurately predicted.

The date and time of this actual observation depends on the exact geographical longitude as well as latitude, atmospheric conditions, the visual acuity of the observers, etc. Moreover, many cultures (most notably those using the ancient Hebrew (Jewish) calendar and the Islamic calendar) start a month with the first appearance of the thin crescent of the new moon after sunset over the western horizon. The motion of the Moon in its orbit is very complicated and its period is not constant. .

Synodic months are still the basis of many calendars. From excavated tally sticks, researchers have deduced that people counted days in relation to the Moon's phases as early as the Paleolithic age. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of moon phases; such months (lunations) are synodic months and last ~29.53 days. The month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as some natural period related to the motion of the Moon.

Willmann-Bell, Richmond VA; ISBN 0-943396-33-6. 8000. D. to A.

C. Chapront (1991): Lunar tables and programs from 4000 B. Chapront-Touzé, J. ^  Derived from ELP2000-85: M.

Haustmánuður (mid September - mid October, "autumn month"). Tvímánuður (mid August - mid September, "two" or "second month"). Heyannir (mid July - mid August, "hay business month"). Sólmánuður (mid June - mid July, "sun month").

Skerpla (mid May - mid June, another forgotten goddess). Harpa (mid April - mid May, Harpa is a female name, probably a forgotten goddess, first day of Harpa is celebrated as Sumardagurinn fyrsti). Náttleysi ("Nightless days"). Einmánuður (mid March - mid April, "lone" or "single month").

Góa (mid February - mid March, "Góa's month, see Nór"). Þorri (mid January - mid February, "frozen snow month"). Mörsugur (mid December - mid January, "fat sucking month"). Ýlir (mid November - mid December, "Yule month").

Gormánuður (mid October - mid November, "slaughter month" or "Gór's month"). Skammdegi ("Short days"). Esfand (اسفند)‎, 29 days, 30 in leap years. Bahman (بهمن)‎, 30 days.

Dey (دی)‎, 30 days. Azar (آذر)‎, 30 days. Aban (آبان)‎, 30 days. Mehr (مهر)‎, 30 days.

Shahrivar (شهریور)‎, 31 days. Mordad (مرداد)‎, 31 days. Tir (تیر)‎, 31 days. Khordad (خرداد)‎, 31 days.

Ordibehesht (اردیبهشت)‎, 31 days. Farvardin (فروردین)‎, 31 days. Miina. Kumbha.

Makara. Dhanus. Vrishcika. Tulaa.

Kanyaa. Simha. Kataka. Mithuna.

Vrishabha. Mesha. Phaalguna. Maagha.

Pausha. Maargashiirsha. Kaartika. Aashvayuja.

Bhaadrapada. Shraavana. Aashaadha. Jyaishtha.

Vaishaakha. Chaitra. Adar 2, 29 days. Adar 1, 30 days, intercalary month.

Shevat, 30 days. Tevet, 29 days. Kislev, 29/30 days. Heshvan, 29/30 days.

Tishri, 30 days. Elul, 29 days. Av, 30 days. Tammuz, 29 days.

Sivan, 30 days. Iyyar, 29 days. Nisan, 30 days. Dhul Hijja ذو الحجة (or Thw al-Hijjah).

Dhul Qadah ذو القعدة (or Thw al-Qi`dah). Shawwal شوّال. Ramadhan رمضان. Sha'aban شعبان.

Rajab رجب. Jumaada-ul-Akhir (or Jumaada al-THaany) (Jumaada II) جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني. Jumaada-ul-Awwal (Jumaada I) جمادى الأول. Rabi`-ul-Akhir (or Rabi` al-THaany) (Rabi' II) ربيع الآخر أو ربيع الثاني.

Rabi`-ul-Awwal (Rabi' I) ربيع الأول. Safar صفر. Muharram ul Haram (or shortened to Muharram) محرّم. Fructidor.

Thermidor. Messidor. Summer:. Prairial.

Floréal. Germinal. Spring:. Ventôse.

Pluviôse. Nivôse. Winter:. Frimaire.

Brumaire. Vendémiaire. Autumn:. Sextilis, renamed to August in honor of Caesar Augustus.

Quintilis, renamed to July in honor of Julius Caesar. Mercedonius, an occasional month after February to realign the calendar. December, 31 days. November, 30 days.

October, 31 days. September, 30 days. August, 31 days. July, 31 days.

June, 30 days. May, 31 days. April, 30 days. March, 31 days.

February, 28 days, 29 in leap years, or 30 on certain occasions in related calendars. January, 31 days.

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