Max

For other uses, see Max (disambiguation). A Max/MSP patch written and used by Autechre

Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software.

The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software.

History

Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999.

Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software.

In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful.

Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions

Max Mathews

Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music.

A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems.

With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance.

Notable artists

  • Autechre
  • Monolake
  • Kit Clayton
  • Leafcutter John
  • Kevin Blechdom
  • Jamie Lidell
  • R. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet
  • Pauline Oliveros
  • Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead

Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list.


This page about Max includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list. (Doing so is known as cross-dressing, and is generally stigmatized.). Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. In terms of outward appearance, few men in Western cultures wear cosmetics or clothing generally associated with female gender roles. With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance. home) until the 19th century, beginning with industrialization. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems. A number of the above stereotypes were not perceived in the same way as today (i.e., their applications to particular aspects and spheres of life, such as work vs.

Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. All should be taken with a grain of salt, given the enormous variations among actual men and women. A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. Some of these differences have been supported by scientific research; others have not. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music. Below are a few stereotypical claims sometimes made about men in relation to women:. Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. These differences are very difficult to quantify for both scientific and political reasons.

Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions. Enormous debate in Western societies has focused on perceived social, intellectual, or emotional differences between men and women. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful.
. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Additionally, 20% of males, particularly in the U.S., the Philippines, and South Korea, as well as Jews and Muslims from all countries, have experienced circumcision, a process of altering the penis from its natural state by removing the foreskin. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. (See also gender identity, gender role and transman.).

A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. For example, several men have been born without a typical male physiology (estimates range between one in 2,000 and one in 100,000), or some individuals with XY chromosomes can have an hormonal or genetic difference (such as androgen insensitivity syndrome), or another intersex condition; some of those intersex people, and others, who have had a sex assigned at birth seek reassignment later in their lives. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). Biological factors are usually not the sole determinants of whether a person considers themselves a man or is considered a man or not. In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. As well, some age-related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease appear to be more common among men, though whether this is due to a genuinely higher incidence or because men have lower life expectancies than women is uncertain. A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software. For example, autism and color blindness are more common in men than women.

as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). However, there are some sex-related illnesses that occur only, or more frequently, in men. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. In general, men suffer from many of the same illnesses as women. Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. Most, but not all, men have the karyotype 46/XY. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999. The study of male reproduction and associated organs is called andrology.

In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. In contrast to women, men have sex organs that are mostly considered to be external, although many parts of the male reproductive system are internal as well (such as the prostate). Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. But these secondary traits are also often related to reproduction in some manner. . The secondary sex characteristics, such as body hair and muscle growth, are involved in attracting a mate or in defeating rivals. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software. The concept of fatherhood and family exists in every human society.

As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. Since sperm that enters a woman's uterus and then fallopian tubes goes on to fertilize an egg which develops into a fetus or child, the male reproductive system plays no necessary role during the gestation. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). The male reproductive system is oriented around producing and ejaculating semen which carries sperm and thus genetic information. The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. Just as in women, the sex organs of a man are part of the reproductive system, consisting of the penis, testicles, vas deferens and other sperm cords, and the prostate gland. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software. In terms of sex, men have various sexual characteristics that differentiate them from women.

Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. For this reason, many avoid using either man or boy to describe a young man and prefer colloquial terms such as bloke, chap, fellow, guy or the like. Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead. For many, the word man implies a certain degree of maturity and responsibility that young men in particular often feel unprepared for; yet they may also feel too old to be called a boy. Pauline Oliveros. A boy is a male human child. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet. Many cultures have rites of passage to symbolize a man's coming of age, such as confirmation in some branches of Christianity, bar mitzvah in Judaism, or even just the celebration of the eighteenth or twenty-first birthday.

R. Manhood is the period in a male's life after he has transitioned from a boy. Jamie Lidell. have all come to refer mainly to males, with residual generic meaning. Kevin Blechdom. Interestingly, exactly the same thing has happened to the Latin word homo: in the Romance languages, homme, uomo, hombre, homem etc. Leafcutter John. In the 20th century, the generic meaning of man declined still further (but survives in compounds mankind, everyman, no-man's land, etc), and it is probable that future generations will see it as totally archaic, and use it solely to mean "adult male".

Kit Clayton. [1]. Monolake. Man does continue to carry its original sense of "human" however, resulting in an asymmetry sometimes criticized as sexist. Autechre. In Middle English man displaced wer as term for "male human," whilst wyfman (which eventually evolved into woman) was retained for "female human". In Old English the words wer and wīf (also wǣpmann and wīfmann) were used to refer to "a man" and "a woman" respectively, while mann was gender neutral.

The original sense of the word is preserved in mankind, from Old English mancynn. were-wolf and were-gild). Restricted use in the sense "adult male" only began to occur in late Old English, around 1000 AD, and the word formerly expressing male sex, wer had died out by 1300 (but survives in e.g. Sometimes, the word is connected with the root *men- "to think" (cognate to mind).

Sanskrit/Avestan manu-, Russian муж (muzh) "man, male"). It is derived from a Proto-Indo-European root *man- (cf. also German Mann, Old Norse maðr, Gothic manna "man"). The word developed into Old English man, mann "human being, person," (cf.

This is indeed the oldest usage of "man". The term "man" (from Proto-Germanic mannaz "man, person") and words derived from it can designate any or even all of the human race regardless of their gender or age. .
.

The term man (irregular plural: men) is a term used to indicate either a person generally, or a male person specifically. A man is a male human adult, in contrast to an adult female, which is a woman. Connell (ed.), Jeff Hearn (ed.), Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities, Sage Publications 2004. Michael Kimmel (ed.), Robert W.

Connell, Masculanities, Cambridge : Polity Press, 1995. Robert W. Pierre Bourdieu, Masculine Domination, Paperback Edition, Stanford University Press 2001. Andrew Perchuk, Simon Watney, Bell Hooks, The Masculine Masquerade: Masculinity and Representation, MIT Press 1995.

[2]. Less tidy (dirtier) than women. More prone to abstract thinking than women. More technically and organizationally skilled than women.

More self-controlled and less emotional. More self-confident (even proud) and exhibit better leadership skills than women. More competitive but also more stubborn than women. More courageous and adventuresome than women.

Men do tend to be more aggressive outside of the home. However, in interpersonal relationships, most research has found that men and women are equally aggressive. More aggressive than women.

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