Max

For other uses, see Max (disambiguation). A Max/MSP patch written and used by Autechre

Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software.

The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software.

History

Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999.

Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software.

In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful.

Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions

Max Mathews

Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music.

A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems.

With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance.

Notable artists

  • Autechre
  • Monolake
  • Kit Clayton
  • Leafcutter John
  • Kevin Blechdom
  • Jamie Lidell
  • R. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet
  • Pauline Oliveros
  • Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead

Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list.


This page about Max includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list. [12] Introduction to Dairy Science,Guelph. Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. This has the effect that the milk is transformed into a relatively stable foam, which occupies a much larger volume than the original liquid. With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance. Casein, together with other components, thereby forms a tough film which surrounds the water vapour bubbles of boiling milk, preventing them from breaking. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems. On heating, this subtle architecture is destroyed: milk reaches a temperature (below boiling point of water) in which protein molecules are irreversibly changed in their spatial arrangement (denatured).

Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. At and below room temperature, droplets are arranged in a way that protects them from coalescing. A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. Proteins have the ability of coating bubbles and stabilizing foams; milk is an emulsion of very small fat droplets coated by casein. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music. The reason behind the quick expansion of milk on heating is due to its chemical composition. Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Milk does not actually reach boiling point faster than water.

Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions. The most durable form of milk is milk powder which is produced from milk by removing almost all water. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful. Condensed milk, made by removing most of the water, can be stored for many months, unrefrigerated. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Sterilized milk, which is heated for a much longer period of time, will last even longer, but also lose more nutrients and assume a still different taste. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. The spoilage of milk can be forestalled by using ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment; milk so treated can be stored unrefrigerated for several months until opened.

A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Most milk is pasteurized by heating briefly and then refrigerated to allow transport from factory farms to local markets. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). In order to prevent spoilage, milk can be kept refrigerated and stored between 1 and 4 degrees Celsius. In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. Through pasteurization, however, these lactic acid bacteria are mostly destroyed, which means that other germs can grow unfettered and thus cause decomposition. A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software. The ensuing acidity in turn prevents other germs from growing, or slows their growth significantly.

as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). The naturally-occurring lactic acid bacteria in raw milk, under suitable conditions, quickly produce large amounts of lactic acid. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. Pasteurized cow's milk, on the other hand, spoils in a way that makes it unsuitable for consumption, causing it to assume an unpleasant odor and pose a high danger of food poisoning if ingested. Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. There are four noted periods of milk decay:. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999. This fermentation process is exploited in the production of various dairy products such as cheese and yogurt.

In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. This is the result of fermentation: lactic acid bacteria turning the milk sugar into lactic acid. Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. When raw milk is left standing for a while, it turns sour. . [11]. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software. Donkey and horse milk have the lowest fat content, while the milk of seals contains more than 50% fat.

As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. In Russia and Sweden, small moose dairies also exist. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). In addition to cows, the following animals provide milk for dairy products:. The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. Whole milk is recommended to provide sufficient fat for developing toddlers who have graduated from breast milk or infant formula. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software. The best-selling variety of milk is semi-skimmed; in some countries full-cream (whole) milk is generally seen as less healthy and skimmed milk is often thought to lack taste.

Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. For skimmed or semi-skimmed milk, all of the fat content is removed and then some (in the case of semi-skimmed milk) is returned. Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead. Full cream, or whole milk, has the full milk fat content (about 3-4% if Friesian- or Holstein-breed are the source). Pauline Oliveros. In the United States, skim milk is also known as "fat free" milk, due to USDA regulations stating that any food with less than 1/2 gram of fat per serving can be labeled "fat free". Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet. In Britain, it is possible to get Channel Island milk, which is 5.5% fat.

R. Modern commercial dairy processing techniques involve first removing all of the butterfat, and then adding back the appropriate amount depending on which product is being produced on that particular line. Jamie Lidell. Generally all store-bought milk in Canada has been homogenized, yet the term is also used as a name to describe butterfat content for a specific variety of milk. Kevin Blechdom. "Homogenized" milk (or "Homo milk" in short) refers to milk which is 3.25% butterfat. Leafcutter John. Note: In Canada "whole" milk refers to unhomogenized milk.

Kit Clayton. and Canada is sold as:. Monolake. Milk in the U.S. Autechre. In some countries these are:. Cow's milk is generally available in several varieties.

Condensed milk is distributed in metal cans, 250 and 125 ml paper containers and 100 and 200 ml squeeze tubes, and powdered milk (skim and whole) is distributed in boxes or bags. Milk comes in a variety of containers with local variants:. Many people feel that such "UV protected" milk tastes better. Ultraviolet light from fluorescent lighting can destroy some of the proteins in milk so many companies that once distributed milk in transparent or highly translucent containers are now using thicker materials that block the harmful rays.

Most people purchase milk in plastic jugs or bags or in waxed-paper cartons. Glass milk containers are rare these days. Milk preserved in this fashion does not need to be refrigerated before opening and has a longer shelf life than milk in ordinary packaging. Milk preserved by the UHT process is sold in boxes often called a "brick" that lack the peak of the traditional milk carton.

In the US, pictures of missing children were printed on the larger milk cartons as a public service until it was determined that this was disturbing to children. The half-pint milk carton is the traditional unit as a component of school lunches. Recently milk has been sold in smaller resealable bottles made to fit in automobile cup holders. First the gallon and half-gallon sizes were sold in plastic jugs while the smaller sizes were sold in milk cartons.

Now milk is increasingly sold in plastic bottles. In the United States bottles were replaced with milk cartons, tall boxes with a square cross-section and a peaked top that can folded outward upon opening to form a spout. In New Zealand, milk is no longer distributed in glass bottles. In the UK, milk can be delivered daily by a milkman who travels his local milk round (route) using a battery-powered milk float, although this is becoming less popular as a result of supermarkets selling milk at cheaper prices.

Prior to the widespread use of plastics, milk was often distributed to consumers in glass bottles, and before that in bulk that was ladled into the customer's container. People buy it chilled at grocery or convenience stores or similar retail outlets. In many countries milk used to be delivered to households daily, but economic pressure has made milk delivery much less popular, and in many areas daily delivery is no longer avialable. Because of the perishable nature of milk, expeditious distribution is desirable.

http://www.notmilk.com/kradjian.html. This article, published by PETA, highlights some of the debate. Also there has been some controversy over whether or not humans, or any other mammals, are designed to consume milk after infancy. The following studies are used to support this position:.

Overconsumption of Cow's milk is argued to be unhealthy primarily due to its fat and cholesterol content. [2]. Overweight individuals who drink milk may benefit from decreased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Studies show possible links between low-fat milk consumption and reduced risk of arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, and obesity.

A serving (1 cup or 250 ml) of 2%-fat milk contains 285 mg of calcium, which represents 22% to 29% of the daily recommended intake (DRI) of calcium for an adult, depending on the age, 8 grams of protein, and a number of other nutrients (either naturally or through fortification):. Raw Milk Versus Pasteurized Milk. The resulting pasteurized product is said to contribute to its own indigestability, be less nutritious, and turn rancid (as opposed to sour) with age. Those preferring raw milk argue that the pasteurization process also kills beneficial microorganisms and important nutritional constituents.

South Australia has the highest consumption of flavoured milk per person, where Farmers Union Iced Coffee outsells Coca-Cola, a success shared only by Inca Kola in Peru and Irn-Bru in Scotland. Chocolate-flavored milk has been sold for many years, followed recently by other flavors of milk and cream. Milk often has flavoring added to it for better taste or as a means of improving sales. Milk, sold commercially in countries where the cattle (and often the people) live indoors, commonly has vitamin D added to it to make up for lack of exposure to UVB radiation.

This mechanically reduces the size of the fat globules, so that they will not separate out into a cream layer. A complementary process for commercial milk is homogenization. In many countries it is illegal to sell milk that is not pasteurized. Dairies print expiration dates on each container, after which stores will remove any unsold milk from their shelves.

Pasteurized milk is still perishable and must be stored cold by both suppliers and consumers. Pasteurization kills many harmful microorganisms by heating the milk for a short time and then cooling it for storage and transportation. Milk produced for commercial consumption usually undergoes several processes. Half-and-half is used for creaming coffee and similar uses.

In the United States, a blended mixture of half cream and half milk is often sold in smaller quantities and is called half-and-half. The cream is often sold as a separate product with its own uses. Upon standing, fresh milk has a tendency to separate into a high-fat cream layer on top of a larger, skim-milk layer. Most dairies are local companies, as opposed to large or nationwide companies found in the southern hemisphere.

In North America a dairy facility processes milk and products obtained from milk (dairy products), such as cream, butter, and cheese. Dairy farming has become such a large business that in many countries the process is highly automated, with farmers using machines that attach directly to the teats of the cow's udder to speed milking, and breeds of cattle, such as Holstein, specially bred for increased milk production. It is the most commonly consumed form of milk. In the Western world, cow's milk is extracted on an industrial scale for human consumption and industrial uses.

Some human populations (most notably Europeans) retain the ability to digest lactose into adulthood. In humans, production of lactase can decline in adulthood, leading to an inability to digest milk; this is known as lactose intolerance. Lactose in milk is digested with the help of the enzyme lactase. Factors such as the type of protein; the proportion of protein, fat, and sugar; the levels of various vitamins and minerals; and the size of the butterfat globules and the strength of the curd are among those than can vary.[1] For example:.

The composition of milk differs widely between species. . It can reduce the risk of many diseases in both mother and baby. The early lactation milk is known as colostrum, and carries the mother's antibodies to the baby.

Human milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by the female expressing her milk to be saved and fed later. It can also be used to mean:. It is also processed into dairy products such as cream, butter, yoghurt, ice-cream, gelato, cheese, casein, whey protein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk, and many other food-additive and industrial products. The female ability to produce milk is one of the defining characteristics of mammals and provides the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to digest more diverse foods.

Milk most often means the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals. The milk has dehydrated and become hard and chalky). Dry (beyond use. A period of aromatic decay sets in accompanied by mould).

Coagulation (beyond use. Curdling (separation of curd and whey will occur but may still be consumable). Milk is still consumable at this stage). Rancid (also called "on the turn".

Reindeer. Water buffalo. Yaks. Camels (including the South American camelids).

Donkeys. Horses. Goats. Sheep.

Skim (no fat). 1/2 % (very low fat). 1 % (low fat). 2 % (reduced fat).

Whole varieties. Skimmed (about 0.1% fat). Semi-skimmed ("reduced fat" or "low fat", about 1.5-1.8% fat). Full cream (or "whole" in North America, about 3.25% fat).

The bag is then placed in a plastic jug and the corner cut off before the milk is poured. South Africa: Commonly sold in 1 litre bags. Most UHT-milk is packed in 1 litre paper containers with a sealed plastic spout. Australia and New Zealand: Distributed in a variety of sizes, most commonly in Tetra Paks for up to 1 litres, and plastic screw-top bottles beyond that.

United Kingdom: Most stores stock the equivalents of old Imperial sizes: 568 ml (1 pint), 1.136 l (2 pints), 2.273 l (4 pints) or, rarely, a combination including both metric and imperial sizes). Parts of Europe: Sizes of 500 millilitres, 1 litre (the most common), 2 litres and 3 litres are commonplace. 4 litre plastic jugs are also available. Canada: A 1 1/3 litre plastic bag (sold as 4 litres in 3 bags) is the most common, while 2 litre, 1 litre, 500 millilitre, and 250 millilitre cartons are also available.

The US single-serving size is usually the half-pint (about 240 ml). customary units) of rigid plastic or, occasionally for sizes less than a gallon, waxed cardboard. United States: Commonly sold in gallon, half-gallon and quart containers (U.S. A review published by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research states that at least 11 human population studies have linked dairy product consumption and prostate cancer.

There is no evidence that any such problem is specific to milk. A study suggests a correlation between high calcium intake and prostate cancer.[10]. [8][9]. Two studies show a correlation between high galactose consumption, and high rates of ovarian cancer.

A February 2005 study found a positive association between acne and the consumption of whole milk, skim milk, and other dairy products in high-school-age women.[7]. Researchers were surprised by their conclusion that weight gain was associated with dietary calcium and low-fat or skim milk, but not dairy fat.[6]. A study published in June 2005 suggests that consumption of milk by 9- to 14-year-old children is associated with weight gain, although the researchers identify that excessive calorie intake is the cause rather than dairy specific factors. Critics of milk claim that plant-based sources of calcium are preferable, on the grounds that animal proteins in milk causes leaching or excretion of calcium from bones.[5] Such critics refute the claim that milk prevents osteoporosis and make the counterclaim that milk, in fact, contributes to that disease.

Studies have failed to associate high calcium intakes with lower risk of hip and forearm fractures in men[3] or women[4]. Critics dispute the claim that drinking large amounts of milk can reduce the risk of bone fractures, especially in the elderly. Certain ethnic groups may be more susceptible to these effects. For those individuals, milk may induce symptoms such as cramping, bloating, gas, and diarrhoea.

Up to 70% of humans have an incomplete ability to digest milk, lactose intolerance. Low-fat and non-fat forms of milk may mitigate any such risk. Some milk is rich in saturated fat, which studies have linked to increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Conjugated linoleic acid - beneficial fatty acid that inhibits several types of cancer in mice, has been shown to kill human skin cancer, colorectal cancer and breast cancer cells in in vitro studies, and may help lower cholesterol and prevent atherosclerosis; only available in milk from grass-fed cows.

Thiamine - B-vitamin important for cognitive function, especially memory. Selenium - cancer-preventive trace mineral. Potassium and Magnesium - for cardiovascular health. Vitamin A - critical for immune function.

Biotin and Pantothenic Acid - B vitamins important for energy production. Vitamin B12 and Riboflavin - necessary for cardiovascular health and energy production. Iodine - a mineral essential for thyroid function. Vitamins D and K - essential for bone health.

Cow's milk contains, on average, 3.4% protein, 3.6% fat, and 4.6% lactose, and supplies 66 kcal of energy per 100 grams. Human milk contains, on average, 1.1% protein, 4.2% fat, 7.0% lactose (a sugar), and supplies 72 kcal of energy per 100 grams. Crop milk, the regurgitated substance pigeons feed their young. A non-animal substitute such as soy milk, rice milk, and almond milk.

The white juice and the processed meat of the coconut in more-or-less liquid form, used especially in Thai, Indian (Kerala), and Polynesian cuisine.

08-01-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.