Max

For other uses, see Max (disambiguation). A Max/MSP patch written and used by Autechre

Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software.

The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software.

History

Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999.

Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software.

In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful.

Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions

Max Mathews

Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music.

A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems.

With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance.

Notable artists

  • Autechre
  • Monolake
  • Kit Clayton
  • Leafcutter John
  • Kevin Blechdom
  • Jamie Lidell
  • R. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet
  • Pauline Oliveros
  • Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead

Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list.


This page about Max includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list. Perry, Gardner-Webb University (Published May 8, 2000) Note 3: Douglas Brinkley, Wheels for the World, 2003. Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. Note 1: First hand account of Charles Sorensen from his autobiography, My Forty Years with Ford (1956)[2] Note 2: Essay by Stephen C. With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance. Many steel Model T parts are still manufactured today, and even fibreglass replicas of their distinctive bodies, which are popular for T-bucket style hot rods (as immortalized in the Jan and Dean surf music song, "Bucket T", which was later recorded by The Who). In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems. Almost 170,000 motors were built after car production ceased.

Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. However Model T motors continued to be produced until August 4, 1941. A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. On May 27, 1927, Ford Motor Company stopped manufacturing Model T cars. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music. Read the history of Kingsford on the back of the package. Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. He also used wood scraps to make charcoal and sold it under the brand name "Kingsford", still a leading brand of charcoal.

Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions. Then he disassembled the crates and used the preformed wood pieces in the bodies of his cars. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful. He specified how to make the wood crates that outside suppliers used to ship him parts. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Henry employed vertical integration of the industries need to create his cars. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. By the 1920s the price had fallen to $300 (about $3,300 in 2005 inflation-adjusted dollars) because of increasing efficiencies of assembly line technique and volume.

A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. It was sold in the beginning at a price of $850 when competing cars often cost $2000-$3000. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). In fact, it was so successful that Ford did not purchase any advertising between 1917 and 1923; in total, more than 15 million Model Ts were manufactured, more than any other model of automobile for almost a century. In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. The Model T was a great commercial success, and by the time Henry made his 10 millionth car, 9 out of 10 of all cars in the entire world were Fords. A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software. That year Ford produced more cars than all other automakers combined.

as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). By 1914, the assembly process for the Model T had been so streamlined it took only 93 minutes to assemble a car. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. Black paint, Japan Black, was cheaper and only later it was replaced by pyroxylin lacquers. Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. Henry Ford is commonly reputed to have made the statement "Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black." Actually, Model Ts in different colors were produced from 1908 to 1914, and then again from 1926 to 1927; however, to speed assembly, between 1915 and 1925 it was only available in black. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999. The Model T was the first automobile mass produced on assembly lines with completely interchangeable parts, marketed to the middle class.

In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. In 1910, after assembling nearly 12,000 Model Ts, Henry Ford moved the company to the new Highland Park complex. Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. Ford's Piquette plant could not keep up with demand for the Model T and only 11 cars were built there during the first full month of production. . Its durability was phenomenal with many Model Ts and their parts still in use 80 years later. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software. As can be seen, the Model T originally employed some advanced technology; e.g., its use of vanadium steel.

As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. The headlights were originally acetylene lamps made of brass, but eventually the car gained electric lights. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). Ford also developed some truck bodies for this chassis. The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. The chassis was available so trucks could be built to suit. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software. Later models included closed cars, sedans, coupes and trucks.

Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. The early cars did not have an opening door for the driver. Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead. Many of the early cars were open-bodied touring cars and roadsters, these being cheaper to make than closed cars. Pauline Oliveros. The horn and numerous small parts were also brass. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet.
There were few major changes throughout the life of this model; early ones had a brass radiator and headlights.

R. Wheelbase was 99 inches; while standard tread width was 56 inches, 60 inch tread could be obtained on special order, "for Southern roads". Jamie Lidell. The old nomenclature for tire size changed from 30X3 to 21" (rim diameter) X 4.50 (tire width). Kevin Blechdom. Tires were pneumatic 30 inches in diameter, 3.5 inches wide in the rear, 3 inches in the front. Leafcutter John. Wheels were wooden "artillery wheels", with steel wire wheels available in 1926 and 27 from Ford.

Kit Clayton. The previously mentioned parking brake lever operated band brakes on the outside of the rear brake drums. Monolake. One of the three foot pedals applied a band around a drum in the transmission, thus stopping the rear wheels from turning. Autechre. The Model T did not have a service brake as we know it. This steel was so superior to other manufacturers that Henry twisted many axles eight times and sent them to dealers to be put on display.

The front axle was drop forged as a single piece of vanadium steel. Model T suspension employed a transversely mounted semi-elliptical spring for each of the front and rear axles, which were "live," i.e., not an independent suspension. All gears were vanadium steel running in an oil bath. Power reached the differential through a single universal joint attached to a torque tube which drove the rear axle; some models (typically trucks) could be equipped with an optional two speed rear axle shifted by a floor mounted lever.

Reverse gear was engaged by one of three foot pedals. The drive bands would sometimes fall out of adjustment, allowing the car to creep, particularly when cold, adding yet another hazard to attempting to start the car; that of the person cranking being forced backward while still holding the crank as the car crept forward even though it was nominally in neutral. To disengage the drivetrain, neutral was located by the parking/emergency brake lever, pulling the hand lever back engaged the brake while disengaging the drive gears. Shifting was accomplished by means of floor pedals with no clutching required (throttle control was maintained by a lever on the steering column).

Ironically, one feature of the car would be considered relatively state of the art today; there was no clutch pedal. Its transmission was a planetary gear type billed as "three speed", although by today's standards it would be considered a two speed, in that one speed was actually reverse. The car's 10 gallon fuel tank was mounted to the frame beneath the front seat; one variant had the carburetor modified to run on ethyl alcohol, to be made at home by the self-reliant farmer. In keeping with the goal of ultimate reliability and simplicity, this system was retained even after the car became equipped with batteries for the lighting system.

A certain amount of skill and experience was required to find the optimal choice of magneto or battery and the optimal timing for any speed and load. The resulting spark was routed to the proper spark plug by a timer mounted on top of the ignition, the ancestor of the modern distributor; ignition timing was adjusted manually by rotating this component by a lever mounted on the steering column. A virtue of this system was that it would still run if the batteries died, although starting with the crank became even more difficult on magneto. Without an electric starting system to supply current for the ignition, a unique magneto system was used (which produced only a low voltage which had to be stepped up by a coil); in order to assure easier starting, however, a self-contained dry cell powered system could be manually switched in, then back to magneto for high speed operation.

It was started by a hand crank in front which took more effort than most women could exert, and could kick back and break the operator's arm if he forgot to retard the spark and was foolish enough to push the crank downwards rather than pulling it up. Recent accounts credit the default-configuration Model T with fuel economy on the order of 25 to 30 miles per gallon. The engine had side valves and 3 main bearings. The Model T had a front-mounted, 177 inĀ³ (2.9 L) 4 cylinder motor in a block producing 20 horsepower (15 kW) for a top speed of 45 mph (72 km/h).

Avery, Charles Lewis.1 2 3. Sorensen, Martin's assistant; Harold Wills,draftsman and toolmaker; Clarence W. Martin, the factory superintendent; Charles E. The team consisted primarily of Peter E.

The assembly line concept was an evolution by trial and error of a team. Others at Ford have claimed to have put the idea forth to Henry Ford. Martin who seemed dubious at the time but encouraged him to proceed. He reported the idea of an assembly line to Peter E.

Klann upon his return from visiting a Chicago slaughterhouse. The revolutionary Model T factory assembly line system was introduced to Ford Motor Company by William C. Galamb and Eugene Farkas. The Ford Model T car was designed by Henry Ford, Childe Harold Wills and two Hungarian emigrants named Joseph A.

. For some reason, the follow-on was the Model A and not the Model U. The production model immediately before the Model T was the Ford Model S [1], an upgraded version of the company's largest success to that point, the Model N. Although he started at the Model A, there were not 19 production models; some were only prototypes.

There were several cars produced or prototyped by Henry Ford from the founding of the company in 1903 until the Model T came along. Cars built before 1919 are classed as veteran cars and later models vintage cars. The first production Model T was built on September 27, 1908 at the Piquette Plant in Detroit, Michigan. It is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile, the car which "put America on wheels"; this was due to some of Ford's innovations, including assembly line production instead of individual hand crafting, as well as the concept of paying the workers a wage proportionate to the cost of the car, so that they would provide a ready made market.

The Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie and the Flivver) was an automobile produced by Henry Ford's Ford Motor Company from 1908 through 1927.

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