Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software.
The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software.
Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999.
Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software.
In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful.
Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions
Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music.
A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. In addition, Max can be used to author audio plugin software for major audio production systems.
With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received quite a bit of attention as the development environment of choice for those serious about laptop music / laptop video performance.
Many other artists use Max/MSP/Jitter, but prefer not to mention it. For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list.
This page about Max includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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For more on this subject, see this discussion on the Max/MSP mailing list. Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Max documents (called patchers) can be bundled into standalone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. The mere act of using the j spelling is interpreted by some as a form of colonial aggression. A large number of people use Max, even if they aren't aware of it. A cultural side-effect of the fact that Mexicans use México /'mexiko/ and Spaniards sometimes use Méjico is the occasional boiling-over of negative sentiment towards the old colonial oppressor. Additionally, the real-time image processing capability of Max also makes it the first MUSIC-N program capable of doing other things than music. Also, in the placenames "Oaxaca" and "Xalapa", the x is pronounced as /x/; in "Xochimilco", however, it sounds as a /ʃ/. Max is named for Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of MUSIC, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Today, even outside of the country, México is preferred over Méjico by ratios ranging from 10-to-1 (in Spain) to about 280-to-1 (in Costa Rica).
Apple has a very similar program called Quartz Composer focused on graphical compositions. The Real Academia Española states that both spellings are correct, and most dictionaries and guides recommend México first, and present Méjico as a variant. Reaktor is generally considered easier to use and learn than Max, albeit less powerful. Mexicans have tended to demand that other Spanish-speakers use this spelling, rather than following the general rule, and the demand has largely been respected. Native Instruments markets a similar software called Reaktor. It is regarded as more authentic and less jarring to the reader's eye. Puckette himself released an entirely re-designed program in the mid-1990s called Pd ("pure data", alternately "public domain"), which has a number of fundamental differences from the IRCAM original. In Mexico, it has become almost a matter of national pride to maintain the otherwise archaic x spelling in the name of the country.
A later version of the program was developed in Java (jMax) and is open-source. Thus, although xabón is now incorrect and archaic, alongside many millions of people called "Jiménez", there also are plenty called "Giménez" or "Ximénez" — a matter of personal choice and tradition. IRCAM developed and maintained a concurrent version of Max for the NeXT (and later SGI and Linux), called Max/FTS (FTS standing for "Faster Than Sound", and being analogous to a forerunner to MSP enhanced by a hardware DSP board on the computer). Proper nouns and their derivatives are optionally allowed to break this rule. In addition, a number of sibling and Max-like programs exist. The old pronunciation is maintained in French "Quichotte", and the English word "quixotic" maintains the spelling while pronouncing it with its English value.). A second major package called Jitter was released in 2003, adding real-time video, 3-D, and matrix processing capability to the software. (Another example is the old spelling of Don Quixote which is now Don Quijote.
as a "control" language using MIDI or some other protocol). So, modern Spanish has ejercicio, ejército, jabón, perplejo, etc. Called MSP, this "add-on" package for Max allowed for the manipulation of digital audio signals in real-time, allowing users to create their own synthesizers and effects processors (Max had previously been designed to interface with hardware synthesizers, samplers, etc. It was j/g that was chosen. Max has a number of extensions and incarnations; most notably, a set of audio extensions to the software appeared in 1997. The coalescence of the two phonemes into a single new one encouraged scholars to use the same letter for the sound, regardless of its origin (Spanish scholars have always tried to keep the orthography of their language faithful to the spoken tongue). The current commercial version of Max has been distributed by Zicarelli's company, Cycling'74, since 1999. The /ʒ/ sound also started to be pronounced this way.
In the early 1990s a commercial version of the program (developed and extended by David Zicarelli) was released by Opcode Systems. Words like Ximénez, exercicio, xabón and perplexo started to be pronounced with a /x/ (this phonetic symbol represents the sound in the word "loch"). Max was originally written by Miller Puckette at IRCAM in the 1980s to give composers access to an authoring system for interactive computer music. Over the centuries, the pronunciation of Spanish changed. . These old pronunciations of j and x are still found in Portuguese and Ladino. Because of its extensible design and graphical interface (which in a novel way represents the program structure and the GUI as presented to the user simultaneously), Max is widely regarded as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software. Meanwhile, the letter j (or, rather, the letter i when used as a consonant, since j had not been invented yet) was used for the /ʒ/ sound (as in "vision"), as was g before e or i.
As a result, Max has a large userbase of programmers not affiliated with Cycling'74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. Ximénez); consequently, the letter x was used to write down words like Mexitli. An API allows third-party development of new routines (called "external objects"). The Nahuatl language had a /ʃ/ sound (like English "shop"), and this sound was written x in Spanish (e.g. The Max program itself is highly modular, with most routines existing in the form of shared libraries. When the Spaniards encountered this people and transcribed their language, they naturally did so according to the spelling rules of the Castilian language of the time. It has been used for over fifteen years by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists interested in creating interactive software. So, Mexico is the home of the people of Mexitli (the Mexicas), co meaning "place" and ca meaning "people".
Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling'74. The Mexi part of the name is from Mexitli, the war god, whose name was derived from metztli (the moon) and xictli (navel) and thus meant "navel (probably implying 'child') of the moon". Jonny Greenwood of Radiohead. Mexico is named after its capital city, whose name comes from the Aztec city Mexico-Tenochtitlan that preceded it. Pauline Oliveros. The two most widely known universities in Mexico are Mexico City's National Autonomous University of Mexico, founded in 1551 and Monterrey's Institute of Technology and Higher Studies, both renowned in Latin American education. Luke DuBois / The Freight Elevator Quartet. The Mexican distance learning secondary education is also transmitted to some Central American countries and to Colombia, and it is used in some southern regions of the United States as a method of bilingual education.
R. Schools that use this system are known as telesecundarias in Mexico. Jamie Lidell. In 2005 this system included 30,000 connected schools, 3 million students and 300,000 teachers, who use televised lectures and education science programs, pre-recorded and transmitted through "EduSat", via satellite. Kevin Blechdom. In the 1970's, Mexico became the first country to establish a system of "distance-learning" satellite secondary education, aimed for the little towns and rural communities. Leafcutter John. Even though different bilingual education programs have existed since the 1960s for the indigenous communities, after a constitution reform in the late 1990s, these programs have had a new thrust, and free text books are produced in more than a dozen indigenous languages.
Kit Clayton. Primary and secondary education (9 years) is free and mandatory. Monolake. In 2004, the literacy rate was at 92%, and the youth literacy rate (ages 15-24) was 96%. Autechre. Mexico has made impressive improvements in education in the last two decades. Scandinavian languages and traditions can also be heard in Chihuahua, like Swedish and Norwegian in Nueva Escandinavia and other Scandinavian colonies in the north of the country.
Another important French village in Mexico is Santa Rosalía in Baja California Sur, where French language and culture/architecture are still found. Another important French group were the "Barcelonettes" from the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, whom interestingly the whole town and surrounding towns immigrated specifically to Mexico to find jobs and work in merchendising, they are very notorious in Mexico City, Puebla, and Veracruz. These French immigrants came from Haute-Saône département in France, especially from Champittle and Borgonge. French is also heard in Veracruz, Jicaltepec, San Rafael and Mentideros, where the architecture and food is also very French.
Other strong German communities lie in Sinaloa (Mazatlan), Nuevo Leon, Chiapas (Tapachula) and other parts of Puebla (Nueva Necaxa) where the German culture and language have been preserved to different extents. Other German communities lie in Puebla, Mexico City, Sinaloa and Chiapas, with the largest German school outside of Germany being in Mexico City (Alexander von Humboldt school), these represent the large German populations where they still try to preserve the German culture and language. A similar case is that of the Plautdietsch language, spoken by the descendants of German and Dutch Mennonite immigrants in the states of Chihuahua and Durango. In Huatusco and Colonia Gonzalez, Veracruz, Veneto is still heard too.
Nowadays, most of the people who live in the city of Chipilo (and many of those who have migrated to other cities) still speak the unaltered Veneto dialect spoken by their great-grandparents making the Veneto dialect an unrecognized minority language in the city of Puebla. While other European immigrants assimilated into the Mexican culture, the people of Chipilo retained their language. The immigrants that founded the city of Chipilo in 1882 came from the Veneto region in northern Italy, and thus spoke a northern variant of the Venetian dialect. With respect to other European languages brought by immigrants, the case of Chipilo, in the state of Puebla, is unique, and has been documented by several linguists like Carolyn McKay.
There are also Mennonite colonies in Chihuahua where education is delivered in English. expatriate communities such as those along the coast of Baja California and the town of San Miguel de Allende. English is the main language spoken in U.S. Also, the majority of private schools in Mexico offer what they like to describe as "bilingual" education, both in Spanish and English.
border, in big cities, and in beach resorts. It is also spoken along the U.S. As a result, English language skills are much in demand and can lead to an increase in the salary offered by a company. Although Spanish is the official language of Mexico, English is widely used in business.
The Mexican government has promoted and established bilingual education programs in indigenous rural communities. Of these Nahuatl, and Maya are each spoken by 1.5 million, while others, such as Lacandon, are spoken by fewer than 100. The government officially recognizes 62 Amerindian languages. About 7% of the population speak an Amerindian language.
Spanish is the official language of Mexico and is spoken by the majority of the population. Main article: Languages of Mexico. Islam is mainly practiced by members of the Arab, Turkish, and other expatriate communities, though there is a very small number of the indigenous population in Chiapas state that practice Islam.  Judaism has been practiced in Mexico for centuries, and there are estimated to be more than 45,000 Jews in Mexico today.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) has a growing presence in the major border cities of northeastern Mexico, and over 1,000,000 members nationwide. . Wolf, the Guadalupe symbol links family, politics, and religion; the colonial past and the independent present; and the Indian and the Mexican. According to anthropologist Eric R.
The Virgin of Guadalupe has long been a symbol enshrining the major aspirations of Mexican society. Some of the country's Catholics (notably those of indigenous background) syncretize Catholicism with various elements of Aztec or Mayan religions. Also, 6% of the population adheres to various Protestant faiths (mostly Pentecostal), and the remaining 5% of the population adhering to other religions or professing no religion. It is the second nation with the largest Catholic population, behind Brazil and before the United States.
Mexico is predominantly Roman Catholic (about 89% of the population). The most common reasons for death in 2001 were heart problems (14.6% for men 17.6% for women) and Cancer (11% for men and 15.8% for women). The mortality rate in 1970 was 9.7/1000 people and by 2001 the rate had dropped to 4.9/1000 for men and 3.8/1000 for women. The lowest levels are found in Chiapas (72.9), Oaxaca (73.2) and Guerrero (73.2 years), although the first two have had the highest increase (19.9 and 22.3% respectively).
The Federal District has a life expectancy of the same level as Baja California. The states with the highest life expectancy are Baja California (75.9 years) and Nuevo Leon (75.6 years). Life expectancy in Mexico increased from 34.7 for men and 33 years for women in 1930 to 72.1 for men and 77.1 years for women in 2002. 4.2% of male immigrants and 3.8% of female immigrants did not have formal education while 20.2% of male immigrants and 17.7% of female immigrants had a college degree [INEGI, 2004.
More than 54.6% of the immigrant population are 15 years old or younger, while 9% are 50 or older. The five states with more immigrants are Baja California (12.1% of total immigrants), Federal District (11.4%), Jalisco (9.9%), Chihuahua (9%) and Tamaulipas (7.3%). The official figures for foreign-born citizens in Mexico are 493,000 (since 2004), with a majority (86.9%) of these born in the United States (with the exception of Chiapas, where the majority of immigrants are from Central America). A clear example of the latter phenomenon is provided by San Miguel de Allende and many towns along the Baja California peninsula and around Guadalajara, Jalisco.
This may be due to the growing economic and business interdependence of the two countries under NAFTA, and also that Mexico is considered an excellent choice for retirees. Mexico is the country where the greatest number of U.S citizens live outside the United States. The states of Aguascalientes (0.2%), Coahuila (0.2%), Zacatecas (0.2%) and Nuevo León (0.5%) have the lowest proportion of speakers of indigenous languages ([INEGI, 2004]). Judging by the proportion of people speaking indigenous languages, the states with the highest proportion of indigenous people are Yucatán (37.3%), Oaxaca (37.1%), Chiapas (24.6%) and Quintana Roo (23%).
In 2004, the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatic had estimated this figure to be 12,089,094 (~11.4% of Mexico's population) of indigenous people of which, more than one million do not speak Spanish and almost five million are bilingual (INEGI, 2004). However, the Mexican government does not collect racial information during censuses. According to the Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas ("The National Council for the Development of Indigenous People") the Amerindian population in Mexico is approximately 12.7 million. In Mexico the biggest foreign colonies are:.
There are also a few Lebanese and Arabs. Mexico has a sizeable population of Asians numbering around 200,000, many of them Chinese, the majority of which reside in Mexicali, Baja California and Japanese. The PRI governments in power for most of the 20th century had a policy of granting asylum to fellow Latin Americans fleeing political persecution in their home countries. Mexico is also home for many other Latin American groups: mostly Argentines, but also Brazilians, Cubans, Nicaraguans, Colombians and Venezuelans.
The remaining 1% includes Afro-Mexicans, Asians, Jews, and Middle Easterners. Some 9% is white (of European descent), the majority being from Spain, though there are also large numbers of people of German, Italian, French, Portuguese, British, Irish, Russian (Molokans), Dutch, Greek, and Scandinavian (particularly in Nueva Escandinavia, Chihuahua) ancestry. According to the CIA World Factbook, about 60% of the population is mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white), another 30% is Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian. Mexico is ethnically and culturally diverse.
With an estimated 2005 population of about 106.5 million, Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. Main article: Demographics of Mexico
However more than 85% of the trade is still done with the United States. Mexico has opened its markets to free trade like few other countries have done, lowering its trade barriers with more than 40 countries in 12 Free Trade Agreements, including Japan and the European Union. Trade with the United States and Canada has tripled since NAFTA was implemented in 1994. dollar.
Positive developments in 2001 included a drop in inflation to 6.5%, a sharp fall in interest rates, and a strong peso that appreciated 5% against the U.S. Following 6.9% growth in 2000, real GDP fell 0.3% in 2001, with the United States' economic slowdown appearing to be the principal cause. Income distribution is very unequal, with the top 20% of income earners accounting for 55% of income. Mexico still needs to overcome many structural problems as it strives to modernize its economy and raise living standards.
Private consumption became the leading driver of growth, accompanied by increased employment and higher wages. A strong export sector helped to cushion the economy's decline in 1995 and led the recovery in 1996–1999. The administration of President Ernesto Zedillo (1994–2000) continued a policy of privatizing and expanding competition in sea ports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity, natural gas distribution, and airports which was initiated by his predecessors Miguel de la Madrid and Carlos Salinas. The number of state-owned enterprises in Mexico has fallen from more than 1,000 in 1982 to fewer than 200 in 1999.
Mexico has a free-market economy with a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. According to the director for Colombia and Mexico of the World Bank, the population below the poverty level has decreased from 24.2% to 17.6% in the general population and from 42% to 27.9% in rural areas from 2000-2004 . Since the economic crisis of 1994–1995 the country has made an impressive economic recovery. According to the World Bank, Mexico ranks 12th in the world in regard to GDP and has the highest per capita income in its region; and it is firmly established as an upper middle-income country.
Estimates of the number of dead range from 6,500 to 30,000 (see 1985 Mexico City earthquake). On September 19, 1985, an earthquake measuring approximately 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Michoacán and inflicted severe damage on Mexico City. South of the point, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months.
The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Mexico's major rivers include the Río Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande) and the Usumacinta on its northern and southern borders, respectively, together with the Grijalva, Balsas, Pánuco, and Yaqui in the interior. The terrain and climate vary from rocky deserts in the north to tropical rain forest in the south. Mexico is about one-fourth the size of the United States.
(See list of mountains in Mexico). The center of Mexico is a great, high plateau, open to the north, with mountain chains on the east and west and with ocean-front lowlands lying outside of them. In the east are the Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Campeche, which is formed by Mexico's other peninsula, the Yucatán. Baja California in the west is a 1,250-km peninsula and forms the Gulf of California.
Mexico is bordered by the United States to the north, and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. Its width is varied, from more than 2000 km in the north and less than 220 km at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the south. Situated in the southwestern part of mainland North America and roughly triangular in shape, Mexico stretches more than 3000 km from northwest to southeast. The following is a list of the biggest Metropolitan Areas of Mexico in order of population:.
Much of the capital city's metropolitan area overflows the limits of the Federal District. It enjoys more limited local rule than the nation's "free and sovereign states": only since 1997 have its citizens been able to elect a Head of Government, whose powers are still more curtailed than those of a state governor.
Mexico is divided into 31 states (estados) and a federal district. The three most important political parties in Mexico are the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), the National Action Party (PAN), and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). His victory ended the Institutional Revolutionary Party's 71-year hold on the presidency. Fox began his six-year term on December 1, 2000.
The PRI did not lose a senate seat until 1988 or a gubernatorial race until 1989. It wasn't until July 2, 2000, that Vicente Fox of the opposition "Alliance for Change" coalition, headed by the National Action Party (PAN), was elected president. After it was founded in 1929, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) monopolized all the political branches. There is no vice-president in the republic. The president is elected by universal adult suffrage for a six-year term and may not hold office a second time.
The president also legislates by executive decree in certain economic and financial fields, using powers delegated from Congress. Congress has played an increasingly important role since 1997, when opposition parties first formed a majority in the legislature. Historically, the executive is the dominant branch, with power vested in the president who promulgates and executes the laws of the Congress. The 1917 Constitution provides for a federal republic with powers separated into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches.
Mexico’s political model has much in common with that of the United States. On March 23, 2005, the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America was signed by the elected leaders of those countries. On January 1, 1994, Mexico became a full member of the North American Free Trade Agreement, joining the United States of America and Canada in a large and prosperous economic bloc. In 2000, after seventy years, the PRI lost a presidential elections to a candidate of the National Action Party (PAN), Vicente Fox.
Through the electoral reforms started by president Carlos Salinas de Gortari and consolidated by president Ernesto Zedillo, by the mid 1990s the PRI had lost its majority in Congress. It was not until the 1980s that the PRI lost the first state governorship, an event that marked the beginning of the party's loss of hegemony. Accused many times of fraud, the PRI's candidates held almost all public offices until the end of the 20th century. However the management of the economy collapsed several times afterwards.
This was in spite of falling foreign confidence in investment, first through the assumption of mineral rights and subsequent nationalisation of the oil industry into Pemex during the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas del Río. During the next four decades, Mexico experienced impressive economic growth, and historians call this period "El Milagro Mexicano", the Mexican Miracle. The creation of the National Revolutionary Party (which later became the Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI), in 1929 ended the struggles, uniting all generals and combatants of the revolution. Revolutionary forces defeated the federal army, but were left with internal struggles, leaving the country in conflict for two more decades.
His fraudulent victory in the 1910 elections sparked the Mexican Revolution. Growing social inequalities, restricted freedom of the press, and his insistence to be reelected for a fifth term led to massive protests. His mandate, however, was mostly undemocratic and benefited the middle and upper classes, while the Amerindian indigenous population continued to live in precarious conditions. This period of relative peace and prosperity is known as the "Porfiriato".
Foreign investment allowed the development of the oil industry and the construction of a railroad system across the country. After Juárez's death, Mexico experienced economic growth under the liberal and pro-European rule of Porfirio Díaz. From then on, Juárez remained in office until his death in 1872. In mid-1867, following repeated losses in battle to the Republican Army, Maximilian was captured and murdered by Juárez's soldiers, along with his last loyal generals, in Querétaro.
Napoleon III of France, Emperor of France, returned Maximillian as Emperor of Mexico from 1864 to 1867. However, after his death, the city was lost in early 1863, following a renewed French attack which penetrated as far as Mexico City, forcing Juárez to organize an itinerant government. General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated the French Army (arguably the most powerful in the world at the time) at the city of Puebla on May 5, 1862, celebrated as Cinco de Mayo ever since. The Second Mexican Empire was then overthrown by President Benito Juárez, with diplomatic and logistical support from the United States and the military expertise of General Porfirio Díaz.
In the 1860s, the country again suffered a military occupation, this time by France, seeking to establish the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria as Emperor of Mexico, with support from the Roman Catholic clergy and conservative criolloss. Mexico was defeated by the United States, resulting in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo, where the United States purchased the remaining disputed territories for $15 million, from which were formed the modern states of California, Nevada, and Utah, and most of Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado (see Mexican-American War). This resulted in the Mexican-American War from 1846 to 1848. Mexico then also declared war on 23 May.
Polk requested a declaration of war and the US Congress voted in favor on 13 May 1846. President James K. Mexican troops then attacked and captured one of the American detachments near the Rio Grande. Mexico saw this as an US intervention on internal affairs by supporting a rebel province.
The US government sent troops to Texas in order to secure the territory ignoring the Mexican demands of withdrawal. In 1845, voters in Texas approved to be annexed by the United States, and was passed by Congress and signed into law by President John Tyler. Texas won its independence in 1836, further reducing the territory of the fledgling republic. The inhabitants of Tejas, calling themselves Texans and led mainly by relatively recently-arrived English-speaking settlers, declared independence from Mexico at Washington-on-the-Brazos, giving birth to the Republic of Texas.
While negotiations eventually brought Yucatán to again recognize Mexican sovereignty, Santa Anna's army turned to the northern rebellion. Both areas sought independence from the Mexican government. As president, in 1834 Santa Anna abrogated the federal constitution, causing insurgencies in the southern state of Yucatán and the northernmost portion of the northern state of Coahuila y Tejas. The first Republic was formed with Guadalupe Victoria as its first president, followed in office by Santa Anna.
The Empire soon fell to rogue republican forces led by Antonio López de Santa Anna. It also forbade the importation of slaves, a condition that, like the others, was largely ignored. Soon after achieving its independence from Spain, the Mexican government, in an effort to populate its sparsely-settled hinterlands, awarded land grants in a remote area of the northernmost state of Coahuila y Tejas to hundreds of immigrant families from the United States, on the condition that the settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship. After independence, Spanish possessions in Central America which also proclaimed independence were all incorporated into Mexico from 1822 to 1823, with the exception of Chiapas.
Then, as the war escalated, the objective changed to independece from Spain. The initial intention of the movement then, was to be obtain independence from France, but still being part of Spain. Actually, Hidalgo declared the independence from France, as José Bonaparte (Napoleon's brother), also known in Mexico as Pepe Botella (Spanish: Bottle Joe, as he had a fame of a heavy drinker), was ruling Spain at that time. On September 16, 1810, independence from Spain was declared by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Catholic priest in the small town of Dolores, causing a long war that eventually led to the official recognition of independence from Spain in 1821 and the creation of the First Mexican Empire.
At the end of the 16th century, New Spain was an underpopulated country with abandoned cities, which would be the main cause of collapse of the Mesoamerican cultures. Of the estimated 15 to 20 million of the original prehispanic population, less than two million survived. There were three separate epidemics that decimated the population: Smallpox (1520-1521), measles ( 1545-1548) and typhus (1576-1581). Most of the settlers had developed an immunity from childhood, but the indigenous peoples had not.
Spanish settlers brought with them smallpox, typhus, and other diseases. Louis) and "Vera Cruz" ("True Cross"). Numerous churches and other buildings were constructed in the Spanish style, and cities were named after various saints and objects of veneration, such as "San Luis Potosí" (after St. During the following centuries, under Spanish rule, a new culture developed that combined the customs and traditions of the indigenous peoples with that of Catholic Spain.
In modern México, mestizo has became more a cultural term, since a Native American that abandons his traditional ways is considered a mestizo, also most Afromexicans prefer to be considered mestizo, since they feel more identified with this group. Mestizos, while they no longer have a separate legal status from other groups, comprise approximately 60% of the population. With independence, the caste system and slavery were abolished. Mestizos and criollos were not allowed in the upper levels of the government, and eventually they joined forces for the independence of México.
Those who were wealthy enough also tried to have a Spanish wife, who was sent to give birth in Spain to prevent their children from becoming criollos. The Spanish "peninsulares" tried by all means to keep their status, even if they took native women. Mestizos and then mulattos were next, followed by the unmixed natives, zambos (amerindian mixed with black), and blacks, respectively. There were even two different kinds of whites, those born in Spain, or "peninsulares", and in a lower level, those born in America, or "criollos".
Each different mix had a name and different privileges or prohibitions. A system was created to keep each mix in a different social level: "El sistema de castas" (the caste system). But even if mixes were allowed, the white population tried to keep their status. As a result of these unions, as well as concubinage, a vast class of people known as "Mestizos" and mulattos came into being.
However, they eventually mixed with the population resulting in only a few black communities left to date (see Afro-Mexican). After the native population was decimated by epidemics and forced labor, black slaves were imported, and for a time in certain areas they even outnumbered the white populations (few modern Mexicans are aware of or acknowledge this). The first Spanish colonists were mainly only males, so they took native women, and although rarely, also black women. Unlike the English-speaking colonists of North America, the majority of the Spanish colonists married the natives, and were even encouraged to do so by Queen Isabella during the earliest days of colonization.
Bartolome later repented when he saw the treatment given to the black slaves. Due to some horrifying instances of abuse against the indigenous peoples, Bishop Bartolome de las Casas suggested bringing black slaves to replace them. Although officially they could not become slaves, the system, known as encomienda, came to signify the oppression and exploitation of natives, although its originators did not set out with such intent. Eventually, the natives were declared minors, and forbidden to read and write, so they would always need a white man in charge of them to be responsible of their indoctrination.
The Mesoamerican sex education system was set aside and replaced by church education; even some foods associated with religion, like amaranto, were forbidden. Hundreds of thousands of codices were destroyed, priests and teachers were persecuted, and the temples and statues of the gods were destroyed. As a result, a second wave of missionaries began a process attempting to completely erase the old beliefs, and thus wiped out many aspects of Mesoamerican culture. While it was an important god, because it was the god of the conquerors,they did not see why they had to abandon their old beliefs.
The colonists brought with them the Catholic faith, to which the population seemingly converted rapidly, but soon they found that the natives had adopted "the god of the heavens", as they called it, as just one of their gods. Particularly fierce were the "Chichimeca wars" in the north of Mexico (1576-1606). After the fall of Tenochtitlan, it would take decades of continuous war to pacify Mesoamerica. The arrival of the Spanish in the early 16th century and their defeat of the Mexica in 1521 marked the beginning of the 300 year-long colonial period of Mexico as New Spain.
The small Spanish force was reinforced with thousands of indian allies, who were schooled on European warfare. Tlaxcalteca and other nahuatl nations were forced into such wars, so they joined the Spaniard forces against the Aztec. In order to acquire captives in time of peace, the Aztec resorted to ritual warfare, or flower war. This penchant for human sacrifice proved to be the undoing of the Aztecs, for when they confronted the Spaniards, who fought to the death, their less effective weapons made resistance difficult.
As a result, Aztec warfare was conducted with an aim to only injure the enemy, so that he could later be sacrificed, and weapons were constructed with this in mind. This belief was common throughout nahuatl people. The Aztecs' religious beliefs were based on a fear that the universe would cease functioning without a constant offering of human sacrifice. There were two types of schools: the telpochcalli, for practical and military studies, and the calmecac, for advanced learning in writing, astronomy, statesmanship, theology, and other areas.
The Mexica, one of the Aztec groups, were the first people in the world to practice mandatory education for all people, regardless of gender, rank, or station. For them, highly-civilized arts, sculpture, architecture, engraving, feather-mosiac work, and the invention of the calendar were due to the former inhabitants of Tula, the Toltecs, who reached the height of their civilization in the tenth and eleventh centuries. Latecomers to Mexico's central plateau, the Mexica, or Aztec, as they were sometimes called in memory of Aztlán, the starting point of their tribes wanderings, never thought of themselves as anything but heirs of the brilliant civilizations that had preceded them. Many made war with them, but almost all found themselves within these four spheres of influence.
Other regional power players made economic and political alliances with these four civilizations over the span of 4,000 years. They consolidated power and distributed influence in matters of trade, art, politics, technology, and theology. These four civilizations extended their reach across Mexico and beyond like no others. While many city-states, kingdoms, and empires competed with one another for power and prestige, Mexico had four major, unifying civilizations: The Olmec, Teotihuacan, Toltec, and the Aztec.
In turn, they radiated influence outwards onto neighboring cultures. These cities, among several others, blossomed as centers of commerce, ideas, ceremonies, and theology. At different points in time, three different Mexican cities were the largest cities in the world: Teotihuacan, Tenochtitlan, and Cholula. In fact, the later Mexican civilizations would all carefully build their cities and ceremonial centers according to specific astronomical events.
These very early and ancient count-markings were associated with astronomical events and underscore the influence that astronomical activities had upon Mexican natives, even before they possessed civilization. Archaic inscriptions on rocks and rock walls all over northern Mexico (especially in the state of Nuevo León) demonstrate an early propensity for counting in Mexico. These indigenous civilizations are credited with many inventions: pyramid-temples, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, writing, highly-accurate calendars, fine arts, intensive agriculture, engineering, an abacus, a complex theology, and the wheel. For more than 3,000 years, Mexico was the site of several Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Aztec, the Olmec, Teotihuacan, the Toltec, Mixtec, Zapotec and the Mayan.
and the beginning of intensive farming between 1800 and 1500 BC. Evidence shows the explosion of pottery works by 2300 B.C. Ancient Mexicans began to selectively breed corn plants around 8,000 B.C. Hunter-Gatherer peoples are thought to have discovered and habitated its territory more than 28,000 years ago.
. It is the northernmost and westernmost country in Latin America, and also the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered by the United States to the north, and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. ISBN 0844227838.
"When in Mexico, Do as the Mexicans Do." In depth information about life in Mexico, including culture, history, economy, language and more in 176 comprehensive pages. Kernecker, Herbert. Beezley, editors, The Oxford History of Mexico, 736 pages, Oxford University Press 2000, ISBN 0195112288 – 20 essays, also covers cultural history. Meyer, William H.
Michael C. Maciel, Mexico's Cinema: A Century of Film and Filmmakers, SR Books 1999, ISBN 0842026827 – comprehensive survey. Joanne Hershfield, David R. Julia Preston and Samuel Dillon, Opening Mexico: The Making of a Democracy, Farrar Straus and Giroux, 2004, hardcover, 608 pages, ISBN 0374226687 – recent history since the Tlatelolco massacre of 1968 told by two journalists.
A history of Modern Mexico 1810-1996, 896 pages – Perennial 1998, ISBN 0060929170 - standard work by a renowned Mexican author. Enrique Krauze, Mexico: Biography of Power. Cockcroft, Mexico's Hope: An Encounter with Politics and History, 320 pages, Monthly Review Press 1999, ISBN 0853459258 – leftist view of Mexican history. James D.
African. British, Irish, Dutch and Russian. Arab and Lebanese. Central American and South American.
Jewish. East Asian. American and Canadian. Argentinean.
German, Italian and French. Spanish. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (0.7 million). Cuernavaca, Morelos (0.7 million).
Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes (0.7 million). Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro (0.8 million). Mérida, Yucatán (0.8 million). San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí (0.8 million).
Torreón, Coahuila (1.1 million). Toluca, México (1.2 million). León, Guanajuato (1.2 million). Tijuana, Baja California (1.5 million).
Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (1.8 million). Puebla, Puebla (2.6 million). Monterrey, Nuevo León (3.6 million). Guadalajara, Jalisco (4.7 million).
Mexico City, Distrito Federal (22.0 million). Mexican general election, 2006. Mexican general election, 2000.