Marmalade (band)

Marmalade were a Scottish pop group, highly successful during the early 1970s. Their first hit record was a cover of the Beatles' "Ob-la-di", predictably performed in orange suits, which went to #1 in the UK charts. The harmony-based band went on to produce a string of early 1970s hits including "Reflections of My Life" and "Rainbow", using the lead vocals of Dean Ford and the higher harmonies of bass player Graham Knight. They toured extensively and even gave rise to a cocktail - the Marmaladdie. The band was managed by Peter Walsh, a 60s and 70s pop entrepreneur whose portfolio also included artists like the Bay City Rollers, Billy Ocean, the Troggs and Blue Mink.

When pianist Junior Campbell left the band to become a "one hit wonder", Marmalade began a series of line-up changes including the loss of drummer Alan Whitehead and suffered poor publicity from the UK's News of the World. An attempt to fit into the UK's move to "progressive" music met with limited success.

The group still survives today, primarily because of the leadership of Graham Knight.


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The group still survives today, primarily because of the leadership of Graham Knight. The word muse is used figuratively to denote someone who inspires an artist. An attempt to fit into the UK's move to "progressive" music met with limited success. The poet Sappho of Lesbos was also paid the very great compliment of being called "the tenth Muse". When pianist Junior Campbell left the band to become a "one hit wonder", Marmalade began a series of line-up changes including the loss of drummer Alan Whitehead and suffered poor publicity from the UK's News of the World. One side-effect of this movement was the use of the word "museum" (originally, "cult place of the Muses") to refer to a place for the public display of knowledge. The band was managed by Peter Walsh, a 60s and 70s pop entrepreneur whose portfolio also included artists like the Bay City Rollers, Billy Ocean, the Troggs and Blue Mink. nine Muses), and was attended by Voltaire and Benjamin Franklin.

They toured extensively and even gave rise to a cocktail - the Marmaladdie. A popular Masonic lodge in pre-Revolutionary Paris was called Neuf Soeurs ("nine sisters", i.e. The harmony-based band went on to produce a string of early 1970s hits including "Reflections of My Life" and "Rainbow", using the lead vocals of Dean Ford and the higher harmonies of bass player Graham Knight. Many Enlightenment figures sought to re-establish a "Cult of the Muses" in the 18th century. Their first hit record was a cover of the Beatles' "Ob-la-di", predictably performed in orange suits, which went to #1 in the UK charts. The Library of Alexandria and its circle of scholars were formed around a mousaion ("museum" or shrine of the Muses) close by the tomb of Alexander the Great. Marmalade were a Scottish pop group, highly successful during the early 1970s. Muse-worship was also often associated with the hero-cults of poets: the tombs of Archilochus on Thasos and Hesiod and Thamyris (whom they blinded) in Boeotia all played host to festivals in which poetic recitations were accompanied by sacrifices to the Muses.

The Muses were especially venerated in Boeotia, near Helicon, and in Delphi and the Parnassus, where Apollo became known as Mousagetes "Muse-leader". The Muses were also occasionally referred to as Corycides or Corycian nymphs after a cave on Mount Parnassos called the Corycian Cave. Other fountains, called Hippocrene and Pirene were also important to the Muses. They were sometimes called Aganippids because of their association with a fountain called Aganippe.

Local cults of the Muses were often associated with springs or fountains. When Pythagoras arrived at Croton, his first advice to the Crotoniates was to build a shrine of the Muses at the center of the city, to promote civic harmony and learning. And Dante Alighieri, in Canto II of The Inferno:. ..

Two classic examples: Homer, Book I of The Odyssey:. Originally the invocation of the Muse was an indication that the speaker was working inside the poetic tradition, according to the established formulae. They have served as aid to an author, or as the true speaker for which an author is only a mouthpiece. The muses are typically invoked at or near the beginning of an epic poem or story.

They blinded Thamyris for his hubris in challenging them to a contest. They also gathered the pieces of the dead body of Orpheus, son of Calliope, and buried them. The Muses judged the contest between Apollo and Marsyas. Solon sought to perpetuate his political reforms by establishing recitations of his poetry—complete with invocations to his practical-minded Muses—by Athenian boys at festivals every year.

For poet and lawgiver Solon (fragment 13), the Muses were the key to the good life, since they brought both prosperity and friendship. Herodotus, whose primary medium of delivery was public recitation, named each one of the nine books of his Histories after a different Muse. In the archaic period, before the widespread availability of books, this included nearly all of learning: the first Greek book on astronomy, by Thales, was set in dactylic hexameter, as were many works of pre-Socratic philosophy; both Plato and the Pythagoreans explicitly included philosophy as a sub-species of mousike (Strabo 10.3.10). The Muses were therefore both the embodiments and sponsors of performed metrical speech: mousike, whence "music", was the art of the Muses.

The word is probably derived from the Indo-European root *men-, which is also the source of Greek Mnemosyne, Latin Minerva, and English "mind", "mental" and "memory". In Pindar, to "carry a mousa" is "to sing a song". Greek mousa is a common noun as well as a type of goddess: it literally means "song" or "poem". In Roman, Renaissance and Neoclassical art, Muses depicted in sculptures or paintings are often distinguished by certain props or poses, as emblems. Euterpe (music) carries a flute; Calliope (epic poetry) carries a writing tablet; Clio (history) carries a scroll and books; Erato (lyric poetry) is often seen with a lyre and a crown of roses; Melpomene (tragedy) is often seen with a tragic mask; Polyhymnia (sacred poetry) is often seen with a pensive expression; Terpsichore (dancing) is often seen dancing and carrying a lyre; Thalia (comedy) is often seen with a comic mask; and Urania (astronomy) carries a staff pointed at a celestial globe.

However, the association of specific muses with specific art forms is a later innovation, and has been called pedantic. Together, they form a complete picture of the subjects proper to poetic art in the archaic period. The canonical nine Muses are:. Together, they form the complete picture of the preconditions of poetic art in cult practice.

9.29.1). According to Pausanias there were three original Muses: Aoide ("song", "voice"), Melete ("practice" or "occasion") and Mneme ("memory") (Paus. Compare the Roman inspiring nymphs of springs, the Camenae. For Alcman and Mimnermus, they were even more primordial, springing from Uranus and Gaia.

According to Hesiod's Theogony, they are the daughters of Zeus, king of the gods, and Mnemosyne, goddess of memory. The Olympian system set Apollo as their leader, Apollon Mousagetes.. They were water nymphs, associated with the springs of Helicon and Pieris. In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek Μουσαι, Mousai) are nine archaic goddesses who embody the right evocation of myth, inspired through remembered and improvised song and traditional music and dances.

Urania (astronomy). Thalia (comedy). Terpsichore (dancing). Polyhymnia (sacred poetry).

Melpomene (tragedy). Erato (lyric poetry). Clio (history). Calliope (epic poetry).

Euterpe (music).

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