Louis Braille

Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. It has been adapted to almost every known language.

Biography

Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France.

At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly.

"Louis Braille" in braille

That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet.

Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system.

Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris.

Legacy

The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system.

Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world.


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Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world. Authorities who wish to extradite him to the U.S to face murder charges in respect of his wife and daughter. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system. On February 9, 2005, Neil Entwistle was arrested at a London Tube Station at the request of the U.S. The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Around the time of the murders, Neil had vanished off to England, where he is originally from. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris. Rachel had been shot twice; once in her torso and once in the head and Lillian had been killed by a single gunshot to her torso.

Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. Rachel, along with her infant daughter, Lillian, were found in bed, shot to death in the master bedroom of their rented home in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Rachel Elizabeth Entwistle (December 14, 1978) - (January 20, 2006) was the wife of Neil Entwistle, an unemployed British computer programmer. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system. To list an article for deletion after adding {{subst:afd}} at the top, you have to do the following:. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. For more information, particularly on merging or moving the article during the discussion, read the Guide to deletion.
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The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedia's deletion policy.
Please share your thoughts on the matter at this article's entry on the Articles for deletion page.
You are welcome to edit this article, but please do not blank this article or remove this notice while the discussion is in progress. Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots.

Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right.

At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. .

It has been adapted to almost every known language. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing.

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