Louis Braille

Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. It has been adapted to almost every known language.

Biography

Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France.

At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly.

"Louis Braille" in braille

That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet.

Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system.

Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris.

Legacy

The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system.

Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world.


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Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world. Without a Trace can currently be seen on Thursdays at 10 pm ET on CBS. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system. In 2003, the TNT Network acquired syndication rights to the series for US$1.4 million per episode. The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. But in season 3, information is not shown.). He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris. In Hong Kong, the TVB Pearl showed information of missing persons, provided by Hong Kong Police, after each episodes in the first two seasons.

Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. (Although, in Australia, the Nine Network usually shows information on missing persons in that country before episodes. Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. This is generally not the case for showings in other countries. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system. This is not the case all the time: for example, at the end of an episode where the missing person attempted to commit suicide, a promotion for a suicide help line was aired in place of the missing persons report. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. One thing that sets it apart from most of the other current crime-solving TV dramas is that, at the end of most episodes, they show information about a real-life missing person.

The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. Also in the background of the cases are the team's outside lives, such as romances and divorce and how these cases can be taken personally. Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. However, like some real-life cases, sometimes the team does not find the person in time to help them out. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet. Unlike many real-life missing persons cases, the person is often found at the end of the episode. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. The show was the first to ever score strong ratings opposite longtime NBC hit ER.

Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. It was created by Hank Steinberg, and produced by Jerry Bruckheimer. That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. It debuted as part of the CBS fall line-up in 2002. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly. The show is about an FBI missing person unit; each episode typicially follows the investigation into one person's disappearance. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. Without a Trace is an American television show set in New York City.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. Turkey: CNBC-E. However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write. Japan: NHK (new episodes), SUPER CHANNEL (reruns). They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). New Zealand: TV2. At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. Singapore: Channel 5.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France. Germany: Kabel 1. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment. Finland: mtv3. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. France: France 2 (it can be watched on wednesdays at 9 pm during summer holidays). The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. United Kingdom: E4 (new episodes and reruns), Channel 4(new episodes, usually broadcast a week after E4).

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. Taiwan: Public Television Service. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write. Malaysia: Ntv7. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Hong Kong: TVB Pearl. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Spain: Antena 3 (new episodes), AXN (reruns).

At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. Israel: Israel 10. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. Italy: RaiDue, Saturday at 21:00. Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. Australia: Nine Network, Arena (Pay TV). . United States: CBS, TNT Network (syndication).

It has been adapted to almost every known language. Roselyn Sanchez - Special Agent Elena Delgado (2005-). Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. A theory is that it could be Danny Alvarez, as his brother calls him that, but then that might also be an alias.). Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Enrique Murciano - Special Agent Danny Taylor (This may not be his real name. Poppy Montgomery - Special Agent Samantha "Sam" Spade.

Marianne Jean-Baptiste - Special Agent Vivian "Viv" Johnson. Eric Close - Special Agent Martin Fitzgerald. Anthony LaPaglia - Special Agent John Michael 'Jack' Malone, head of the unit.

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