Louis Braille

Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. It has been adapted to almost every known language.

Biography

Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France.

At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly.

"Louis Braille" in braille

That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet.

Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system.

Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris.

Legacy

The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system.

Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world.


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Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world. There have also been summer competitions in roller-ski biathlon, mountain bike biathlon and orienteering biathlon. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system. Two common variations on biathlon are summer biathlon, where skiing is replaced by a cross-country run, and archery biathlon (or ski archery), where the rifle is replaced by a longbow. The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Since 2002 the stadium has hosted a special end-of-year mixed team event, now called the "Veltins Biathlon World Team Challenge". He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris. *The Veltins-Arena, located in Gelsenkirchen and renamed from Arena AufSchalke in July 2005, is the stadium of German football club FC Schalke 04.

Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. (Due to the complicated shooting range equipment, which absolutely has to work in order to hold successful races, biathlon is a highly demanding sport for organisers.). Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. World Cup events and World Championships in biathlon have traditionally been held at the following relatively few locations. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system. Since 2004, this race format has been obsolete at the World Cup level. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. The skiers must enter the shooting area together, and must also finish within 15 seconds of each other, otherwise a time penalty of 1 minute is added to the total time.

The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. In case of a miss, the two non-shooting biathletes must ski a penalty loop of 150 m. Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. Two athletes must shoot in the prone shooting round, the other two in the standing round. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet. A team consists of four biathletes, but unlike the case of the Relay competition, all team members start at the same time. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. The first-leg participants start all at the same time, and as in cross-country skiing relays, every athlete of a team must touch the team's next-leg participant to perform a valid exchange.

Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. If after eight bullets there are still misses, one 150 m penalty loop must be taken for each miss. That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. For every round of five targets there are eight bullets available, though the last three can only be loaded one at a time from trays at the shooting range. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly. Teams consist of four biathletes, who each ski 7.5 km (men) or 6 km (women), with two shooting rounds; one prone, one standing. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. As in the Sprint competition, the biathletes start in intervals.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. For each missed target a fixed penalty time, usually one minute, is added to the skiing time of the biathlete. However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write. The biathlete shoots four times, in the order of prone, standing, prone, standing, totalling 20 targets. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). The 20 km Individual race (15 km for women) is the oldest biathlon event. At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. This is a smaller number than the 60 in the Pursuit since here all of them start at the same time.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France. Here again, to avoid unwanted congestion, World Cup Mass starts are held with only the 30 top ranking athletes on the start line. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment. As in Sprint races, competitors must ski one 150 m penalty loop for each miss. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. In this 15 km (12.5 km for women) competition, there are four bouts of shooting; two standing, two prone. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. In the Mass start, all biathletes start at the same time and the first across the finish line wins.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. To prevent awkward and/or dangerous crowding in the skiing track, and undercapacity at the shooting range, World Cup Pursuits are held with only the 60 top ranking biathletes after the preceding race. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write. The distance is 12.5 km for men and 10 km for women, there are four shooting bouts (two prone, two standing), and each miss means a penalty loop of 150 m. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. The contestant crossing the finish line first is the winner. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. In a Pursuit, biathletes' starts are separated by their time difference from a previous race, most commonly a Sprint.

At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. Competitors' starts are staggered, normally by 30 seconds, but sometimes by only 20 seconds. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. For each miss, a penalty loop of 150 m must be skied before the race can be continued. Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. The biathlete shoots twice, once prone and once standing, for a total of 10 shots. . The sprint is 10 km for men and 7.5 km for women.

It has been adapted to almost every known language. On all modern biathlon ranges, the targets are self-indicating, in that they flip from black to white when hit, giving the biathlete as well as the spectators instant visual feedback for each shot fired. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. Prone shooting target diameter is 45 mm, standing is 115 mm. Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. There are five circular targets to be hit in each shooting round. The target range shooting distance is 50 m.

The rifles use .22 LR ammunition and are bolt action. The biathlete carries the 3.5 kg small bore rifle including ammunition in magazines on her/his back during the race. Minimal ski length is 4 cm less than the height of the skier. No other equipment than skis and ski poles may be used for moving along the track.

All cross-country skiing techniques are permitted in biathlon, which means that the free technique is usually the preferred one, being the fastest. The large display screens commonly set up at biathlon arenas, as well as the information graphics shown as part of the TV picture, will typically list the split time of the fastest contestant at each intermediate point and the time differences to the first five to ten runners-up. To keep track of the contestants' progress and relative standing throughout a race, split times (intermediate times) are taken at several points along the skiing track and upon finishing each shooting round. For each shooting round, the biathlete must hit five targets; each missed target must be "atoned for" in one of three ways, depending on the competition format:.

As in most races, the contestant with the shortest total time wins. Depending on the shooting performance, extra distance or time is added to the contestant's total running distance/time. In short, a biathlon competition consists of a race in which contestants ski around a cross-country track, and where the total distance is broken up by either two or four shooting rounds, half in prone position, the other half standing. However, the concise description given below, along with the section on competition format, should be enough for a spectator to understand what is going on at a biathlon stadium whether actually being there or at home watching a televised biathlon event.

The complete rules of biathlon is given in the official IBU rule book (see External links, below). Contrary to the Olympics and World Championships (BWCH), the World Cup (BWC) is an entire winter season of (mostly) weekly races, where the medalists are those with the highest sums of World Cup points at the end of the season. The following articles list major international biathlon events and medalists. Presidents of the UIPMB/IBU:.

In 1993, the biathlon branch of the UIPMB created the International Biathlon Union (IBU), which officially separated from the UIPMB in 1998. In 1948, the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne et Biathlon (UIPMB) was founded, to standardise the rules for biathlon and pentathlon. At Albertville in 1992, women were first allowed in Olympic biathlon. The first World Championship in the sport was held in 1958 in Austria, and in 1960 the sport was finally included in the Olympic Games.

Called military patrol, the combination of skiing and shooting was demonstrated at the Olympic Winter Games in 1924, 1928, 1936 and 1948, but did not gain Olympic recognition then, as the small number of competing countries disagreed on the rules (see also Governing body, below). Gradually the sport became more common throughout Scandinavia as an alternative training for the military. The first known competition took place in 1767 when border patrol companies competed against each other. The sport has its origins in an exercise for Norwegian soldiers.

. The broadcast distribution being one indicator, the constellation of a sport's main sponsors usually gives a similar indication of popularity: for biathlon, these are the Germany-based companies E.ON Ruhrgas (energy), Krombacher (beer), and Viessmann (boilers and other heating systems). Biathlon events are broadcast most regularly where the sport enjoys its greatest popularity, namely Germany (ARD, ZDF), Norway (NRK), Finland (YLE), Sweden (SVT), Russia (RTR), Belarus (TVR), Slovenia (RTV), and Estonia (ETV); it is also broadcast on European-wide Eurosport. Another popular variant is summer biathlon, which combines cross-country running with riflery.

Biathlon, however, refers specifically to the winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. The name biathlon is commonly confused with duathlon, the term used to describe any sporting event made up of two disciplines. by having to use an "extra cartridge" (placed at the shooting range) to finish off the target; only three such "extras" are available for each round, and a penalty loop must be made for each of the targets still remaining after expending the "extras". by having one minute added to one's total skiing time, or.

by making a skiing round in a 150 m penalty loop, typically taking 20–30 seconds for top-level biathletes to complete (running time depending on weather/snow conditions),. Biathlon World Cup champions. Biathlon World Championships. Olympic medalists in biathlon.

From  1992: Anders Besseberg (Norway). 1988–1992: Igor Novikov (USSR/Russia). 1960–1988: Sven Thofelt, (Sweden). 1949–1960: Gustaf Dyrssen (Sweden).

1948–1949: Tom Wiborn (Sweden).

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