Louis Braille

Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. It has been adapted to almost every known language.

Biography

Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France.

At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly.

"Louis Braille" in braille

That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet.

Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system.

Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris.

Legacy

The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system.

Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world.


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Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world. First included in Super Robot Wars F Final, characters and mecha from Evangelion have since become extremely popular parts of the series, and have appeared in Super Robot Wars Alpha, Alpha 3, MX, and other releases. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system. Aspects of Evangelion have made numerous appearances in the Super Robot Wars series by Banpresto. The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Currently, there is no definitive information on what the movie will focus on.[3]. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris. Hideaki Anno, the director of the anime, will not be directing this live-action film, and a director has yet to be chosen.

Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. It is estimated to be released as late as 2010. Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Production of a live action version of Evangelion was announced in May 2003 by the American company ADV Films (which holds world-wide rights to the series outside of Asia and Australia), and will be made by ADV, Gainax, and Weta Workshop Ltd. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system. This later inspired a manga, which uses most of the Evangelion characters in a "normal" schoolyard drama series. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. While Girlfriend of Steel was shoehorned into the original plot, the sequel to the game, Girlfriend of Steel 2, takes place in a complete alternate universe.

The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. The series has also spawned various computer games, including Girlfriend of Steel. Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. A large deal of the merchandise has an amusingly detached or hilarious non-relation to the dark nature of the series, which is why Hideaki Anno is so opposed to them. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet. Merchandise for Evangelion still comes out fairly regularly despite the fact that it is a decade old. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. The manga is also translated into Brazilian Portuguese by Conrad Editora, Mexican Spanish by Editorial Vid, Argentinian Spanish by Editorial Ivrea and French by Glénat, Swedish by Bonnier Carlsen and Polish by Rafal Rzepka.

Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. The manga is translated into English in North America by VIZ Media and in Singapore by Chuang Yi, and the Singaporean translation is imported to Australia by Madman Entertainment. That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. In Japan, the manga is serialized in the magazine Shonen Ace. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly. The manga is currently still in production, though its first volume was actually released prior to the airing of Evangelion's first episode. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. Other changes include a decrease in the number of Angels and the ealier arrival of Kaworu Nagisa.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. It covers a similar story as the series, but from the perspective of Shinji Ikari, whose personality is altered to be somewhat more decisive than his anime incarnation. However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write. A manga of the series, drawn by series character designer Yoshiyuki Sadamoto, was published by Kadokawa Shoten. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). "N² mine", as translated by ADV, is technically not an error since Japanese word heiki (兵器) is a term that means weapon; but fails a semantic test as mines are not used in the same manner they are used in the series (for example, being dropped from planes and being used in suicide missions). At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. Furthermore, the word "Angel" can be seen appearing on video screens in NERV HQ during Angel attacks, and this was the case in the original version of the series as broadcast in Japan; it is not an alteration to the ADV release.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France. Unlike the translation of "Children" into "Child", which was altered by ADV, the use of "Angel" in the English dub was specified by Anno and Gainax. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment. It should be noted, however, that the English angel is derived from the Greek for "messenger" (ἄγγελος, ου, ὁ). However, the conditions in the school were not much better. The Japanese word used to refer to the Angels is shito (使徒), which literally means "messenger" or "apostle." The usual Japanese word for "angel" is tenshi (天使). The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. The English language dub produced by ADV, however, uses the word "Child" instead of "Children.".

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. Shinji is the "Third Children," not the "Third Child.") This is intentional, and not a translation error. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write. "Children," the plural of "Child," is used to refer to each of the Eva pilots in the singular (i.e. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Nerv is the German term for "nerve". This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Seele is the German term for "soul".

At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. The term Gehirn is German for "brain". His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. There are frequent allusions to the biblical Adam and Eve throughout the series, as well as to the Evangelion's relationship with the Tree of Life. Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. Additionally, the term "Eva", a frequent abbreviation of Evangelion used in the anime, is the name of the biblical Eve in Greek, coming from the Hebrew name "Chavva" meaning "breath" or "life". . This dual meaning may be the reason both the series itself and the "mecha" are called Evangelion.

It has been adapted to almost every known language. It only came to mean "good message" or "good news" over time and eventually became most commonly associated with the Christian gospels. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. Initially, the word meant "good messenger", the prefix "eu" meaning "good" and "angelion" meaning "messenger" (from the same word that means "angel") and was used to describe the runners who brought news in ancient Greece. Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Evangelion is an anglicised version of the Greek "εὐαγγέλιον" (euangelion) for "good news", and is typically translated "gospel" in the Bible. The Japanese term for the first book in the Bible is "Souseiki," perhaps a wordplay (with two different beginning and ending kanji) with "Shin Seiki" in the Japanese title.

Genesis (γένεσις, εωσ, ἡ) means "origin, source" or "birth, race" and is also the Greek title for the first book of the Hebrew Scriptures, describing the creation of the universe and early Hebrew history. Neon, the neuter form of the word "Neos" (νέον, νέα, νέον), literally means "new" or "young". It literally translates to "New Beginning Gospel" and is read in two parts. The title, Neon Genesis Evangelion (νέον γένεσις εὐαγγέλιον), appears to be wholly Greek.

The decision to call the series Neon Genesis Evangelion in English was originally made by Gainax, and not, as some fans have believed, by translators. The two translate literally from Japanese and a borrowed term from Greek, respectively, as "New Era/Century" and "Gospel". The Japanese title for the series, Shin Seiki Evangelion, is composed of two parts: "Shin Seiki" and "Evangelion". Some of these more confusing lines were re-recorded for the 'Platinum Edition' DVD in 2004.

In some aspects they can be misleading, and even contradictary to the original, causing increased confusion towards the show, and increasing the likelihood of outrightly wrong interpretations for numerous English-speaking audiences. The translated dubbed versions of the series and movies of Evangelion were done by ADV Films and Manga Entertainment. Numerous webcomics, such as Okashina Okashi, Tsunami Channel and Punks and Nerds have featured Evangelion tributes. English image board 4chan has a meme ("zOMG! It's Rei!") based on the character Rei Ayanami.

In the online community, Eva is a common source of parody. Anno is believed to be featured as a guest voice in the piece, taking on the roles of the "Space God" and "Black Space God". The drama is set after episode 26 and has the characters discussing a sequel to the show, clearly breaking the fourth wall. In the Eva soundtrack Addition, a twenty minute audio drama was included that reunited the entire voice acting cast, titled "After the End".

Even Anno himself decided to poke fun at his work. It is interesting to note that despite EVA 05 being mentioned as a good guy in the film, the series of the toyline is still referred as "Neon Genesis Evangelion" and that the graphics on the blister card (with Japanese writing) are left untouched; some movies and shows usually rename or repackage an existing product with a generic name/graphic logo to save money from royalty fees. However, Jake rejects the offer after telling him that his parents do not allow him to accept gifts. In another scene, we see Robin Williams's character, Sy, offering the figure to Jake for free.

The first time we see the figure, is when the York family visits the SavMart (a parody of Walmart) chain store, whereas the character Jake (Dylan Smith) begs his mother to buy him the "Eva" 05 action figure. In the 2002 movie "One Hour Photo" starring Robin Williams, the "Evangelion" real model action figure by Bandai, can be seen in several parts of the movie. Furthermore, "Evangelion" has also been referenced in American media as well. Gainax's own His and Her Circumstances and FLCL had a few Eva parodies, as did Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi and even Invader Zim's Christmas Episode had a cameo parody of Evangelion.

The same can be said for both WarGrowlmon and Gallantmon Crimson Mode, as they were modeled after EVA-01. In the Digimon Tamers series, a lot of Evangelion elements were used in the backstories for the three main children, their friends, and D-Reaper. Evangelion has also been explicitly referenced and parodied. Evangelion also introduced a new wave of fans who are far less interested in the technical aspects of science fiction anime and more interested in analyzing the metaphysical symbolism that they perceived, in contrast to Gundam and many previous anime which were presented as hard science.

Indeed, the style set and created by Evangelion has become the standard for most mecha shows since the late 90s. Evangelion however changed this with its fast and sleek Evas, making a noticeable contrast to the arguably bulky and cumbersome looking Patlabors and Transformers of the past. Previously, almost all mecha or giant robot shows took their "mechanical suit" designs from Gundam, Mazinger, and other similar shows from the 60s, 70s and 80s. Evangelion also dramatically changed the design of giant robots in many animated works.

Some feel that RahXephon is another work that bears strong influence from this series. While many find that the video game Xenogears (1998) shows obvious and major signs of being heavily influenced by Evangelion, its creators (Xenogears co-creator/co-writer Soraya Saga in particular) have denied this vehemently. More superficially, "Evangelion" started a wave of using Christian symbolism in other anime and related fields. The show "His and Her Circumstances" (1999) which was also directed by Hideaki Anno shares many of the techniques (the experimental 'ripping-apart' of the animation and use of real photographs) and portrayed psychological conflicts in much the same way.

The psychological nature of the show influenced later works such as Revolutionary Girl Utena (1997) and Serial Experiments Lain (1997), both of which, like Eva, center around an ambiguous world-changing event to come. However, as much as Evangelion owes to the past, it also has a large influence on a variety of anime shows in the present as well. This is a direct echoing of Jean Paul Sartre's assertion in his book Being and Nothingness, in which he views consciousness as the ultimate factor in determining reality - it is a power which can negate certain things, and create a new subjective reality in the process. In other words, he is absolutely free to create the world as he wants, to negate only what he wishes, and leave only what he knows will give him happiness.

To view it another way, only by negating certain possibilities does Shinji's reality form. Through Shinji's own free will, he is able to create the ground, rules, in fact the whole world around him. It is depicted as a simple white background in which the only drawn figure is Shinji, floating about in absolute nothingness. As well, in the very final televised episode, Shinji is shown a world in which there is absolute possibility.

Rei has no soul of her own, and loses her "self" in each reincarnation; Shinji is desperately trying to overcome a lack of self confidence; and Asuka covers up her own despair and inner turmoil by acting overconfident and giving the appearance that she is self-assured. Viewers will note that Rei, Shinji, and Asuka can each be seen to resemble a different kind of Despair. Namely, that Despair comes in three forms: Despair at not being conscious of having a self; Despair at not willing to be oneself; and even Despair at willing to be oneself. The Sickness Unto Death is a book written by Søren Kierkegaard (one of the first, and most religiously-oriented Existentialists) regarding the human condition as a type of Despair.

For instance, episode 16's title was translated as "Sickness Unto Death, And..." in the English subtitled version. However, there are more specific instances of Existentialism's influence on Evangelion. Though open to speculation, this is evident in both the televised and Movie endings of the series. As such, the Human Instrumentality Project of Evangelion is an attempt to break down the barriers that separate mankind, and Shinji's ultimate decision is whether or not the limitations and inherent freedoms of the human condition as individual creatures are good things, or whether they should be denied.

However, according to Existentialism, human beings, partly because of their isolation, are uniquely free to choose their own interpretations of events, to create their own realities and most importantly, to own these realities as true expressions of their world and themselves. Essentially human beings are alone, without any sort of method by which to break away from such loneliness. Because human beings are physically trapped within their own bodies, their thoughts and actions are trapped within their own realm of knowledge, never to be shared in their most personal form with anyone else. The core tenet of Existentialism is that human beings ultimately influence their own reality, through the choices they make.

Its central themes are heavily based on Freudian Psychoanalysis mentioned above as it concerns the characters and general plot creation, as well as Existentialism, which itself owes much to Psychoanalysis. Evangelion is a work with a variety of different source materials for its core composition. The only major edits that viewers have noticed is the deletion of when Mistao and Asuka curse; it was replaced with a censor bleep. At this point, the rumors were supressed, and to everyone's suprise, Evangeleion aired with mostly no edits.

Also, at the time Evangelion was airing on The Anime Network, and many guessed that Evangelion wouldn't air because it was already on TAN. Many speculated that this wouldn't happen, because of what had happened to ADV and CN over Evangelion and Giant Robot Week. This surfaced again with the rumors that Evangelion would air on Adult Swim. Some believed that ADV Films were very disatified of the airings, and had put Evangelion on a "black list," along with (rumored) the rest of the ADV library.

When Neon Genesis Evangelion aired on Toonami's Giant Robot Week in 2003, it was obvious that much of the episode that was aired (Episodes 1 and 2) were heavily edited, including edits to Misato's binge drinking and, for some odd reason, the absense of Pen-Pen, Evangelion's Mascot. It can be argued also that the wide distribution of his series through ADV Films and television in Europe, Australia, and the Americas has also contributed to his standing. This general opinion changed somewhat when the twin Evangelion movies came out in the late 90's, bringing Anno more respect and recognition as a filmmaker as well as fair amounts of fans of his work. It can also be argued that the show's content was, in the end, more influenced by Anno than by Bandai, though despite creative conflicts between the sponsors and the director, the series was not widely perceived during its run (1995-96) as being the work of a visionary director or auteur such as Hayao Miyazaki.

In response to this, fans argue that the show reveals an extremely complex understanding of psychological theory and that if the show was strictly a commercial venture, it would not have such an uncommercial ending. Additionally, the primary corporate backers were toy companies Bandai and Sega, giving rise to the criticism that the series was simply intended as a strictly commercial venture. Despite being generally highly regarded, the series has received criticism due to the many religious and psychological references, which some viewers saw as being superficial. He made his live-action debut with "Love and Pop" in 1998 (posters were designed by longtime collaberator Yoshiyuki Sadamoto), then went back to animation with the 26-episode "His and Her Circumstances", then made the live-action "Shiki-Jistu" in 2001 (which used brief pieces of animation in key scenes), and was uninvolved with animation until his participation in supervising (but not directing) the 2004 Cutey Honey OAV Project.

The shift in tone and style corresponded with a shift in Anno's worldview that would lead him to abandon the "otaku lifestyle" and temporarily leave anime for live action film making. (It is also worth noting here that in this episode the Angels were going to speak to Shinji, but the creative team dropped this in favor of a more original concept in which the Angel shows Shinji various images within his mind, while he 'talks' to himself.) Several sources (interview with Kazuya Tsurumaki, interview with Hiroki Azuma) seem to indicate that although Evangelion was sketchily pre-planned, the story details were open to alteration, possibly for the purpose of adapting to audience demands or more likely (regarding Anno's tastes and fights with sponsors) free directorial decision making. On the other hand there is some evidence that Anno's frustrations began earlier than End of Evangelion, and that this film was the culmination of a growing anger as evidenced by the sudden shift in tone around episode 16. In addition, the plot of End of Evangelion does seem to match that of the TV series, providing closure to things such as the Instrumentality Project, the true purpose of NERV, and the private agenda of Gendou Ikari.

The deaths of these two characters correspond to events in End of Evangelion and would tend to disprove the theory that the tragic and violent end of various characters in End of Evangelion is due to Anno's frustration towards some fans. The theory of a pre-planned ending in addition to episodes 25 and 26 is backed up by some evidence, including a still in the intro depicting Unit 01 with wings and still-frame shots of the deaths of Misato and Ritsuko which appeared in the TV ending. Others have argued that Anno intended End of Evangelion to be the proper climax all along but that he was unable to show it because of budget restraint and television content laws. Some believe that it was a manifestation of Anno's frustrations with the fan culture that attacked his original ending, and used End of Evangelion as revenge against those.

Despite the success of End of Evangelion, its ending was considered controversial by many fans. (Blockbusters in Japan usually make $40-60 million, and a movie is considered to have done well if it makes more than $10 million). The film made around $12 million at the Japanese box office. End of Evangelion.

The project was completed later in the year, and contained the complete section of Rebirth, i.e. Due to scheduling difficulties, they released Death and Rebirth consisting of a character-based recap of the entire series (Death) and half of the "proper" ending to Evangelion (Rebirth). Prompted by these responses, Gainax launched the project to create a movie with a "proper" ending for the series in 1997. Among these were death threats and letters of disappointment from fans who thought Anno had ruined the series for them.

After the ending of the TV series, Gainax and Hideaki Anno received numerous letters and emails from fans, both congratulating and criticizing the last two episodes. However, when aired again in a time slot more suitable for adults, its popularity exploded and rekindled many adults' interest in anime. When first aired in Japan at a time slot intended for teenagers, Evangelion was not especially popular. For example, we can see in a paragraph, circa 1990, from literary theorist Victor Burgen which might be described as "Eva in a nutshell":.

Though the religious and biological concepts are sometimes (perhaps intentionally) used in ways different from how contemporary Christianity or biology used them, Anno's use of Freudian jargon and psychoanalytical theory is fairly up to date with what was contemporary theory at the time. Evangelion is thick with allusions to biological, military, religious, and psychological concepts. The feeling of constant anxiety in Evangelion can be seen as a reflection of the constant anxiety Japan felt after the attacks destroyed the image of Japan as a clean, violence-free society. The series started broadcast after the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995, and production occurred around the period of the attack.

It fully embraced the style of mecha anime, and in particular shows a large influence from Yoshiyuki Tomino's Space Runaway Ideon; particularly, there are scenes in End of Evangelion which are clear homages to the last movie for the Ideon series. Evangelion, however, shows the reversal of this trend. Mamoru Oshii had been quoted as saying that nobody wanted to watch "simple anime-like works" anymore. For example, Miyazaki's My Neighbor Totoro (1988), and Kiki's Delivery Service (1989) were both low-key works, and Akira (1988) took most of its influence from American comic books.

From the period from 1984 to the release of Evangelion, most highly acclaimed anime had a style somehow distanced from the usual styles of anime. The list goes on and on, with multiple equally plausible interpretations existing, and references to areas other than Judeo-Christian concepts also appear, most notably concepts held by Freudian psychology. (Some fans have also chosen to interpret the triplet nature of the magi to represent the Holy Trinity of Christianity, or—in the field of psychology—the Freudian concept of the Ego, superego, and id of the unconscious mind, among others.) The Tree of Sephiroth (Tree of Life)—an illustration of ten orbs showing the relationship between heaven and earth—is also mentioned. The Magi supercomputers are collectively named after the "Magi" (wise men, or astrologers) who were mentioned in one of the synoptic Gospels as having visited Jesus at his birth.

It has been theorized that Kaoru represents Jesus, as he is an Angel in human form (although Christianity actually teaches that Jesus is not an angel, but rather God in human form). The angels may well be in reference to the angels of God from the Hebrew and Christian texts. The Christian crucifix sign is often shown, frequently as energy beams shooting up skyward. It is clear that Adam and Eve (in other languages, such as Spanish and Portuguese, called Eva) are a direct reference to the first human beings from the book of Genesis.

In assistant director Kazuya Tsurumaki's own words: "We just thought the visual symbols of Christianity looked cool." Whether this mindset changed during the course of making the series, influencing the intended depth of meaning of the symbols, is another question altogether. The staff of the project have said that they originally used Christian symbolism (Christianity is practiced by around only 1% of the population in Japan) only to give the project a unique edge against other giant robot shows. The most prominent symbolism takes its inspiration from Judeo-Christian sources and frequently displays related symbols. Their interpretation will vary from individual to individual.

from outside sources, and the varied meanings that may be found in them. One of the many intriguing features of Evangelion is its extensive use of symbols, imagery, etc. In the 7th DVD of the Platinum Collection, it is shown that episodes 25 & 26 and End of Evangelion are in fact just two separate endings to the series, such as multiple endings in video games, and have no real connection to one another other than both are separate continuations of episode 24. Yet another group of fans sees the final two episodes as being a part of the introspective detours from the second half of End of Evangelion.

The line is sometimes considered to be a reference to the end of Space Runaway Ideon, in which case it ironically implies a pyrrhic victory and death. Others believe that the characters are congratulating Shinji for finding his own identity, as his realization that he is an individual identity is the deciding factor in whether or not Instrumentality will occur (therefore, the characters are congratulating Shinji because his decision to remain an individual means that they can all remain individuals) -- this interpretation is reconcilable with End of Evangelion. Some fans believe that the final scene of episode 26 where all of the characters are shown telling Shinji, "Congratulations" is a sign that Shinji accepts the Instrumentality Project and therefore is at odds with End of Evangelion. The highly stylized nature of these episodes leaves them very open to interpretation.

There is some debate as to whether The End of Evangelion is a complement to, or a replacement of the TV episodes 25 and 26. In End of Evangelion, Shinji is directly involved in the initiation of Instrumentality, but ultimately rejects it at the last moment. The specifics of Instrumentality are not explored in the series, either. The ending is left open to interpretation: clearly, Shinji eventually overcomes his issues with others and comes to accept being with them, but whether Instrumentality follows through or if it occurs at all are left unanswered, directly.

In the series, episodes 25 and 26 consist of abstract introspection by the characters, especially Shinji. The plot of The End of Evangelion and the plot of the series seem to diverge at the end of series episode 24. When everyone comes to this state, they will no longer feel the pain or loneliness that would typically precipitate from interaction between humans; it is comparable, but not equal, to death. This causes their bodies to revert to LCL.

This artificial evolution strives to merge all human souls into one by disposing the individuals of their AT-Fields that separate egos from each other. SEELE is the main driving force behind this project, for reasons unknown, but they mention that humanity must evolve or it will die, thus the need for a forced evolution. Considering the religious implications of the term "evangelion", this event was said to bring about the salvation of mankind in the context of a newly created Earth and humanity's becoming one with God. The secret second task, the Human Instrumentality Project, intends to start an artificial evolution of mankind.

While Ritsuko does mention at the beginning of the series that the Evas do have some biological components to them, the extent to which the Evas are biological is not immediately apparent; it is finally revealed, towards the end of the series, that Eva's are essentially Angels (made from Adam, the first Angel, except unit 01 which is almost certainly made from Lilith, the second Angel) onto which mechanical components are incorporated during its creation — part of the reason being to restrain and control them. It is later apparent that the Evas are not really "robots" but rather living, biomechanical organisms, in contrary to the popular belief of the general public. That is not to say that it is impossible to synchronize in such a situation, as is shown in an experiment in Episode 14, in which Rei and Shinji synchronize with each other's Evas. Each Eva has its own designated pilot, due to the bond between the pilot's soul and the soul of the Eva; otherwise, any other person who tries to synchronize (simply put, to technically work as one mind) with the Eva is more likely to be refused.

Though unit 02 does not ever go truly berserk, Asuka says in "The End of Evangelion" that she feels the presence of her mother protecting her in the Eva. Unit 00 goes berserk and lashes out at the tormentors of Ritsuko Akagi's mother, apperently attempting to kill Rei. One example is when Unit 01 goes "berserk," acts without control of its pilot or NERV and refuses to shut down (or in one instance, to start without Shinji). The Evas also appear to behave under the influence of the soul inside it.

It is frequently speculated that qualifying pilots must have lost a mother, whose soul is used as the soul of the Eva. Pilots are selected by the Marduk Institute, which is later discovered to be composed of about 108 ghost companies, (108 is the number of sins in Japanese Buddhism, and the number of beads on a typical Buddhist rosary/mala) but Gendou Ikari and Ritsuko Akagi are actually in charge of selecting pilots. The Evas have the outward appearance of massive humanoid robots and can apparently be piloted only by children conceived after the Second Impact. NERV carries out two tasks: to defend the Earth from Angel attack with a small number of Evangelions (Evas), and the Human Instrumentality Project, which, according to Gendou, is the path to becoming one with God.

NERV is, in theory, under the control of SEELE, but NERV has its own agenda, driven by its commander Gendou Ikari. In the conflict with Angels, mankind is represented by the mysterious organizations NERV, GEHIRN (which started out as the investigation team for the Second Impact but became NERV later on), SEELE, and the Marduk Institute. The true nature of the Second Impact was concealed from the general public, who was led to believe that the devastation was caused by a small meteorite, traveling close to the speed of light, impacting in Antarctica. On September 13 an attempt was made to capture it which ended in apparent failure when it proceeded to self-destruct, creating what would be called the Second Impact.

In 2000, a group of scientists conducted an expedition in Antarctica where a large being of light, deemed by them as the first Angel, Adam, was discovered. Other designs, such as the sleek Evangelions, created a great counterbalance to the bulky super robots of old. The attractive designs of the three main female leads, Asuka, Rei, and Misato have been immortalized in the dōjinshi community and in subsequent anime. The character designs have also contributed to the popularity of Evangelion.

There have also been many hypotheses on the nature of the relationships between the characters, including:. The characters' personalities reflect their tactics, and their interactions reveal the nature of each in respect to each other. A commonly held theory (also supported within the series itself) as to the meaning behind the characters is that Rei, Asuka, Shinji, and Misato all represent different methods people use to validate their own existence/individuality and separate themselves from their fellow human beings (analogous to the concept of AT-Fields). Most characters are, in their own way, socially maladjusted, and the patterns of relationships between the characters are complex.

Fellow pilots Rei Ayanami, a silent girl frequently mistaken for being unemotional; and Asuka Langley Soryu, a fiery, proud, red-headed girl; are also primary characters, as well as Shinji's father and NERV commander Gendo Ikari, NERV's head of strategy and tactics Misato Katsuragi, and NERV's head scientist, Ritsuko Akagi. For many years he had lived away from his father with one of his teachers until he was summoned mysteriously at the start of the series. The main character of Evangelion is Shinji Ikari, a shy, dour adolescent boy and Eva pilot.
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For the rest of Latin America, and between 2000 and 2003 (in numerous occasions) Neon Genesis Evangelion was broadcast on the Argentinian-based, anime and animation satellite channel Locomotion (which later, on August of 2005, became Animax).. The series was also internationally broadcast in Latin America by cable channel I-Sat during 2003 and 2004. Neither of the movies have been broadcast. None of the airings have suffered censorship and/or cuts.

After the series ended was re-broadcast twice. In Chile, the television series was broadcast by Chilevision during the time slot between 6:00 and 6:30 PM in 2004 with episodes dubbed into Latin American Spanish. DVDs and manga are available in major stores. At the same time, the now-extinct Locomotion channel aired the series in Brazillian Portuguese language.

The series was dubbed in Portuguese. It was soon moved to after midnight. Many believed the schedule a mistake, since the timing meant that many small children could watch it. It started on the 8th of December 1997.

In Portugal, the series is fairly popular, since it was originally aired weekend mornings on the most popular channel in Portugal (SIC). There never had been a completely and professionally synchronised German version until the release of the Platinum Edition DVD set in 2005 by ADV Films. the original Japanese version subtitled with more or less correct German translations. e.

In Germany NGE was broadcast in 1998 and again in December 2000/January 2001 by VOX once a week after midnight as a subtitled version, i. The Evangelion movies were never broadcast on TV, but were released in 2005 on DVD by Panini Video, changing a few voice actors. The manga, also translated in Italian, was released by Panini Comics (previously called Planet Manga). Dynamic Italia didn't cut or censor the series in any way: they also put in the Italian version the unreleased scenes from Japanese Home Video edition.

It enjoyed great success. In Italy, the series was first released on VHS/DVD by Dynamic Italia (now called Dynit) and was then broadcast, dubbed in Italian, on the local MTV. The entire series and the two movies are now available on DVD through Madman Entertainment[1], along with a new "Platinum" edition of the series, remastered from a fully restored video source. The success of Evangelion prompted SBS to gain the rights to several other anime series and many anime features, including the two Evangelion movies, which it later broadcast in their entirety, with both Death and Rebirth and The End of Evangelion screened again in 2005.

As a result, SBS broadcast Evangelion twice a week, with the original run shown on Saturdays at 8:30pm, beginning on the 2nd of January 1999, and the second run shown on Mondays at 8:30pm, beginning on the 22nd of March, 1999. Consequently, SBS decided to rebroadcast the entire series, despite the fact that it had not yet fully completed the original run. News of the broadcast slowly spread, and as a result, there was an upsurge of viewers midway through the season. This was the first anime series to be broadcast on SBS, and in prime time.

In Australia, the series was broadcast by SBS Television. This ended around episode 16 when the block that aired the two shows was canceled and the shows themselves moved to 5 a.m. In these showings the show had no edits to the episode's content but occasionaly sped up the ending in favor of airing the next episode preview alongside the ending theme. Later Evangelion and Nadesico were repeated on the channel.

In the United Kingdom, the show and its accompanying films were released on VHS and DVD by ADV Films and Manga Entertainment's UK divisions and has aired on the UK's Sci-Fi Channel along with Martian Successor Nadesico and Blue Gender during the Summer of 2002 and finished its run in the January of 2003. This second showing was edited considerably less than the previous showing, though, allegedly due to its poor time slot, the series has not fared as well as it has in some other countries. It is also shown on Saturday nights at 1:00 a.m. starting October 20, 2005.

The entire series began airing on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim block Thursday nights at 12:30 a.m. The first two episodes were aired on Cartoon Network's Toonami block as part of a special called "Giant Robot Week" in 2003 (albeit in very heavily edited forms which, among other edits, hid Misato's mass consumption of beer and omitted the character Pen-Pen altogether). The series was one of a small number of anime to have the honor of being broadcast on San Francisco Bay Area PBS member station KTEH (in Japanese with English subtitles,) and has also been broadcast on The Anime Network. Most of the voice actors used in the English dubbed versions are the same in each version.

In the United States, the television series debuted on VHS and later on DVD by ADV Films, while the movies are distributed by Manga Entertainment.
. The two movies were subsequently re-edited and re-released as a single movie, Revival of Evangelion (1998). Death and Rebirth is essentially a highly condensed re-edit of the series (Death) plus the first half of The End of Evangelion (Rebirth), while The End of Evangelion is a fully developed extension to the end of episode 24, intended as an alternate presentation of the series ending.

Evangelion consists of 26 television episodes which were first aired on TV Tokyo from October 4, 1995, to March 27, 1996, and was followed by two movies: Death and Rebirth and The End of Evangelion, each first screened in 1997. . The unedited/DVD versions are recommended only for ages 16 and up due to disturbing scenes of violence, emotional trauma, and upsetting sexual themes. The first two episodes were also shown once on Toonami, albeit in a highly edited form.

The show premiered on Adult Swim on Thursday, October 20, 2005, although it had been previously debuted in the United States on KTEH, a PBS station located in San Jose, California. The television series aired in Japan from 1995 to 1996, ran for 26 episodes, and was released on VHS and DVD in North America and the UK by ADV Films. As a result, characters in the anime display a variety of mood disorders and problems with emotional health, especially depression, trauma, and separation anxiety disorder. The creator/director, Hideaki Anno, suffered from a long period of depression prior to creating Evangelion; much of the show is based on his own experiences in dealing with depression and in psychoanalytic theory he learned from his psychotherapy.

Although the series starts as a regular mecha anime, the focus tends to shift from action to flashbacks and analyses of the primary characters, particularly the main character Shinji Ikari. Conventional weapons are useless against the Angels, and the only known defense against them are the biomechanical mechas created by the paramilitary organization NERV, the Evangelions (Evas). Just as humanity is finishing its recovery from this disaster, Tokyo-3 began suffering attacks by strange monsters referred to as Angels. It takes place in 2015, fifteen years after the catastrophic Second Impact, reportedly caused by a meteor strike, which wiped out half of Earth's population and tilted its axis.

Neon Genesis Evangelion (新世紀エヴァンゲリオン Shin Seiki Evangerion?) is a Japanese animated television series, begun in 1995, directed and written by Hideaki Anno, and produced by Gainax. New York: Routledge. 104–123). Benjamin (Ed.), Abjection, Melancholia, and Love: The Work of Julia Kristeva (pp.

Fletcher and A. In J. Geometry and Abjection. (1990).

^  Burgen, V. Madman's Homepage. ^  Madman Entertainment(2006). Cruel Angel's Thesis (musical theme).

List of Neon Genesis Evangelion topics. List of Neon Genesis Evangelion media. Neon Genesis Evangelion Official Expanded Universe. Neon Genesis Evangelion Timeline.

Neon Genesis Evangelion glossary. Characters in Neon Genesis Evangelion. Evangelion (mecha). Angel (Neon Genesis Evangelion).

Truman and Douglas MacArthur. Toji and Kensuke are a parody on Harry S. Toji and Kensuke represent pacifism and militarism. Ritsuko represents the industrialised and technocratic north, while Misato stands for the rural south.

Ritsuko and Misato represent the Antagonism of intellect and emotion. Shinji and Asuka represent Orient and Occident. Gendo, Shinji, and Rei represent the three parts of the Christian Trinity. The five children each represent the 5 stages of Death: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and Acceptance.

Rei, Shinji, and Asuka represent the three categories of Despair according to Søren Kierkegaard. Shinji, Rei, and Asuka are respective archetypes of three personality disorders: avoidant (cluster C), schizoid (cluster A), and narcissistic (cluster B). Shinji, Rei, and Asuka represent the Japanese gods Susanoo, Amaterasu, and Ama-no-Uzume. Rei and Asuka represent the Thanatos and Eros drives in Shinji's psyche, Shinji himself represents the Destrudo.

Shinji, Rei, and Asuka represent the Ego, Superego and Id.

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