Louis Braille

Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. It has been adapted to almost every known language.

Biography

Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France.

At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly.

"Louis Braille" in braille

That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet.

Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system.

Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris.

Legacy

The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system.

Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world.


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Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world.
. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system. On February 5, 2006, she joined John Legend and Stevie Wonder at the Super Bowl XL pre-game show in performing a medley of Wonder's hits. The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. In July 2005, Joss performed at the London Live 8 concert, and did a duet with James Brown on UK chat show Friday Night with Jonathan Ross. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris. hit when it debuted at #32 (where it ultimately would peak) on the Billboard Hot 100.

Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. Their performance of "Cry Baby"/"Piece of My Heart" was released as a single, and, through aid of strong digital downloads, became Stone's first top forty U.S. Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. She was also nominated three times at the 2005 Grammy Awards, where she sang barefoot on stage with rock legend Melissa Etheridge. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system. In February 2005, Stone was nominated for three Brit Awards, of which she won two; Best Female and Best Urban Act. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Follow-up singles "Right to Be Wrong" and "Spoiled" both made the top forty, and "Don't Cha Wanna Ride?" the top twenty.

The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. The lead single, "You Had Me", became her first top ten in the UK. Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. Billboard 200, after peaking at #11. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet. It proved to be an even bigger success than her first album, as it debuted at #1 in the UK (breaking the record for the youngest female ever to top the albums charts there, a record previously held by Avril Lavigne) and just missed the top ten of the U.S. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. After achieving critical acclaim for The Soul Sessions, Stone recorded an album full of original songs in 2004 titled Mind, Body & Soul.

Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. Much of this R&B album was scrapped following the success of the Soul Sessions, which remains by far her biggest selling album, even though it was recorded with the same criteria and in the same amount of time as most studio demos. That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Joss was already working on an R&B debut album when the Soul Sessions were recorded. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly. The second single, "Super Duper Love (Are You Diggin' On Me?)", also reached the top twenty. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. The lead single, "Fell in Love with a Boy", which was a reworking of The White Stripes' song "Fell in Love with a Girl", reached the top twenty of the UK singles chart.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. Billboard 200 album chart. However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write. Released in late 2003, it reached the top 5 in the UK albums chart, and also made the top forty of the U.S. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). The album consists of classic soul tracks by Wright, Franklin, Laura Lee and Bettye Swann. At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. She also worked with contemporary acts Angie Stone and The Roots.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France. She collaborated with people with solid credentials in the Miami soul scene such as Betty Wright, Benny Latimore, Timmy Thomas and Little Beaver. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment. She then flew to Miami to start work on her debut album, The Soul Sessions. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. In 2002, she decided to back her ability by flying out from England for an audition in New York City with S-Curve CEO Steve Greenberg. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. You've got to have good vocals to sing soul music and I always liked it ever since I was little.".

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. She told MTV News, "I kind of clicked into soul music more than anything else because of the vocals. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write. At 14, she appeared on Star for a Night on BBC Television singing Franklin's "(You Make Me Feel Like A) Natural Woman". Braille was completely blind by the age of four. She grew up listening to American R&B and soul music performed by such artists as Aretha Franklin; as a result, she developed a throaty style of singing like her idols. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Joss Stone was born in Dover, Kent, England in 1987 and spent her teenage years in Devon.

At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. . His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. She is known for performing barefoot. Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. She is also the head spokeswoman for Gap, replacing Sarah Jessica Parker. . Joss Stone (born Joscelyn Eve Stoker on April 11, 1987) is an English soul singer.

It has been adapted to almost every known language. 2005: "Cry Baby"/"Piece of My Heart" (with Melissa Etheridge) #32 U.S. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. Misc.

    . Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. 2005: "Don't Cha Wanna Ride?" #20 UK. 2005: "Spoiled" #32 UK.

    2004: "Right To Be Wrong" #29 UK. 2004: "You Had Me" #9 UK, #6 Portugal. Mind, Body & Soul

      . 2004: "Super Duper Love (Are You Diggin' On Me?)" #18 UK.

      2004: "Fell in Love with a Boy" #18 UK. The Soul Sessions

        . Certification: Platinum). 2004: Mind, Body & Soul #1 (Debut) UK, #11 U.S., (U.S.

        Certification: Gold). 2003: The Soul Sessions #4 UK, #39 U.S., (U.S.

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