Louis Braille

Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. It has been adapted to almost every known language.

Biography

Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France.

At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly.

"Louis Braille" in braille

That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet.

Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system.

Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris.

Legacy

The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system.

Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world.


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Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world. The civil and criminal trials of Simpson were not the only important legal cases that were spawned by the deaths of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman on June 12, 1994. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system. In June 2004, Simpson had planned a long series of news appearances to mark the tenth anniversary of the killings, but ended up being displaced by another story – the death and funeral of former President Reagan. The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Carroll responded to the criticism by proclaiming "we respect our Heisman Trophy winners.". He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris. The Southern California coach Pete Carroll allowed Simpson to come onto the field and mingle with the players and pose for pictures.

Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. Prior to the 2004 Orange Bowl football game featuring Simpson's USC Trojans, the former football star showed up unannounced at a USC practice. Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Also, Simpson considered becoming a news commentator for actor Robert Blake's murder trial. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system. There were plans for him to have a reality TV show in the style of The Osbournes in 2003. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. In 2001, he was involved in a road rage case that received some publicity, but he was again found not guilty.

The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. In 1998 at the end of an interview conducted by Ruby Wax for BBC1, Simpson mimed stabbing her with a banana while mimicking the theme music from Psycho. Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. He was accused of illegally accessing signals from DirecTV. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet. He seemed to have a knack for appearing in news stories that often had nothing directly to do with him. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. Even after his two trials Simpson was never far from the news.

Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. In 2000, Simpson won custody of his children in a second trial. That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. The ruling was thrown out when an appeals court determined that it was wrong to exclude evidence from the murder trial [1]. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly. In late 1998 Simpson won a custody trial filed by the Browns. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. When Simpson was acquitted, he was given back custody over the children.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. While Simpson was in prison during the murder trial, Nicole Brown's parents, Louis and Juditha Brown, had custody over Simpson's younger children Sidney and Justin. However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write. It is still speculated among most people that he is guilty. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). Simpson has not filed for bankruptcy. At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. In Florida a person's residence cannot be seized to collect a debt under most circumstances.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France. He subsequently moved from California to Miami, Florida. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment. A 2000 Rolling Stone article reported that Simpson also still makes a significant income by signing autographs. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. However, California law protects pensions from being used to satisfy judgments, so Simpson was able to continue much of his lifestyle based on his NFL pension. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. Simpson was ordered to pay $33,500,000 in damages.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. Attorney for plaintiff Fred Goldman (father of Ronald Goldman) was Daniel Petrocelli. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write. On February 4, 1997 a civil jury in Santa Monica, California found Simpson liable for the wrongful death of Ronald Goldman, battery against Ronald Goldman, and battery against Nicole Brown. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. With the damage done to his public reputation, his acting career was ruined. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. There have been significant criticisms of the prosecution and some still feel that Simpson should have been found guilty.

At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. After one of the most widely publicized arrests and trials in American history, Simpson was found not guilty. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. Simpson was soon charged with their murders. Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. On June 12, 1994 his former wife Nicole Brown and friend Ronald Goldman were found dead outside Brown's condominium. . He was paying substantial child support.

It has been adapted to almost every known language. Simpson had pleaded no contest to a domestic violence charge and was separated from Nicole. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. He also hosted an episode of Saturday Night Live but he was the only host not invited to attend the program's 25th anniversary celebration special in 1999. Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Besides his acting career, Simpson had stints as a commentator for Monday Night Football and The NFL on NBC. Simpson was spokesman for the pX Corporation, and he appeared in comic book ads for Dingo shoes.

He would often be shown running through airports, as if to suggest he was back on the football field. He was a spokesman for the Hertz rental-car company (Ford vehicles are usually found in Hertz rental fleets, hence the nickname 'Simpsons' for the cars). Simpson's amiable persona and natural charisma landed him numerous endorsement deals. Simpson was considered for the lead role in The Terminator, before it was decided audiences might not accept him as a villain.

After his retirement from football, Simpson went on to a successful film career with parts in films such as the television mini-series Roots, and the motion pictures The Cassandra Crossing, Capricorn One, The Towering Inferno, and The Naked Gun trilogy. They had two children, Sydney Brooke Simpson (born October 17, 1985) and Justin Ryan Simpson (born August 6, 1988), and were divorced in 1992. On February 2, 1985 Simpson married Nicole Brown. That same year Simpson and Marguerite were divorced.

In 1979, Aaren drowned in the family's swimming pool a month before her second birthday. Simpson (born April 21, 1970) and Aaren Lashone Simpson (born September 24, 1977). Simpson (born December 4, 1968), Jason L. Together they had three children: Arnelle L.

Whitley. On June 24, 1967 Simpson married Marguerite L. Simpson has eight siblings named George, Sue, Emily, Abraham, Kyra, Kirsten, Bryant, and Jim. Away from football but within sports, he won the 1975 American Superstars competition.

He is a member of the Bills' Wall of Fame. After being traded to the San Francisco 49ers in 1978, Simpson retired from the NFL the following year, and on January 23, 1985 became the first Heisman Trophy winner elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Simpson went on to earn All-Pro honors five times and amassed 11,236 rushing yards during his career. He also had back-to-back 200 yard performances in both 1973 and 1976.

Over his career, Simpson ran for an NFL record 6 200-yard games, three of which occurred in 1973. His 1973 performance earned him the Hickok Belt as top professional athlete of the year. "The Juice" powered one of the league's top rushing offenses, and ran behind the famed "Electric Company" offensive line. Simpson's yards per game average was ten yards higher than that of the closest competitor.

Eric Dickerson holds the 16-game season and overall records with 2,105 yards rushing in 1984). Although his 2,003 yard season has subsequently been eclipsed by four running backs, only Barry Sanders managed to match Simpson by rushing for 2,000 or more yards in 14 games (Weeks 3-16 of the 1997 season; including Weeks 1 & 2, Sanders rushed for 2,053 yards. In 1973 Simpson ran for a then-record 2,003 yards, becoming the first player ever to eclipse the 2,000 yard mark, and was voted the league's Most Valuable Player. Simpson was selected by the American Football League's Buffalo Bills, who held the first selection in the draft after finishing 1-12-1 in 1968 - the worst record in professional football.

After originally playing in Junior College at the City College of San Francisco, his talent landed him at the University of Southern California (USC) and won him the Heisman Trophy, Maxwell Award, the nickname "The Juice", and the distinction of being the first player selected in the 1969 professional football draft after winning the Heisman Trophy. While attending Galileo High School in San Francisco, Simpson played for the school's football team, the Galileo Lions. . He was found liable and responsible for their deaths in civil court in 1997.

He was acquitted in criminal court in 1995 after a lengthy, highly publicized and controversial trial. Although considered to be one of the greatest running backs of all time, Simpson is now best known for being charged with the murder of his wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman in 1994. Orenthal James Simpson (born July 9, 1947 in San Francisco, California), publicly known by the initials O.J., and nicknamed The Juice, was a Hall of Fame former college and professional football player and film actor. The Naked Gun 33⅓:The Final Insult (1994).

The Naked Gun 2½: The Smell of Fear (1991). The Naked Gun - From the Files of Police Squad! (1988). Capricorn One (1978). The Cassandra Crossing (1976).

The Towering Inferno (1974). The Klansman (1974). was a former football player, was in a police chase, and was in a controversial murder trial within the scope of the three PS2 GTA games. B.J.

Simpson. Smith is a parody of O.J. In the popular Grand Theft Auto series of videogames, the character B.J. Simpson's search for his wife's killer was parodied in the Doonesbury comic strip.

was referenced prior to the murder case in an episode of Seinfeld, "The Masseuse", in which Elaine suggests her then-boyfriend, Joel Rifkin, change his name to O.J. O.J. Simpson has since abandoned his trademarks. Ritchie convinced the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit that he had standing to challenge Simpson's trademarks under the Lanham Act.

Ritchie argued that because of the whole sequence of events from 1994 through 1997, Simpson's very name had become immoral and scandalous and thus could not be protected as a trademark. Ritchie, challenged the validity of Simpson's trademarks under a federal statute that bars immoral, deceptive, or scandalous subject matter. A New Hampshire intellectual property attorney, William B. Kaelin settled his lawsuit for an undisclosed amount.

The district court granted summary judgment to the defendant, but on appeal, Kaelin convinced the Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit that he had a valid claim for defamation. Simpson's houseguest on the night of the murders, Brian "Kato" Kaelin, sued Globe Communications for $15 million after it ran a headline in one of its tabloid newspapers insinuating that Kaelin was the real murderer. Their subsequent legal battle with the IRS culminated in the rule that they could not apply the drop in their house's value as a casualty loss deduction on their income tax return, because it was only temporary. The media circus and hordes of curious tourists tormented them (and the rest of Simpson's neighbors) for the next four years.

Gerald Chamales and his wife, Kathleen, bought a house next to Simpson's just ten days before the murders of which he was accused.

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