Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille, a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. It has been adapted to almost every known language.
Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write.
At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment.
Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France.
At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write.
In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly."Louis Braille" in braille
That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet.
Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system.
Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris.
The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system.
Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world.
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Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world. . Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system. On July 2, 2005, the tip of the whaleback feature broke off, causing a rockfall that sent ash and dust several hundred meters into the air. The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. While geologists warn that an eruption similar to the May 1980 eruption is still possible, the chances are low. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris. Helens VolcanoCam  located at Johnston Ridge is able to view the new dome especially at night when the glow of new magma is visible via the camera's infrared capabilities.
Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. The Mount St. Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. If the growth of the new dome continues at its current pace, the new dome could replace the amount of material lost in the 1980 eruption (estimated at 3.7 billion cubic yards or 2.85 km3) within the next 40-50 years. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system. The 'whaleback' feature is disintegrating steadily but continues to be extruded as solidified lava pushes upward from underneath it. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Growth of the new dome continues steadily and has not abated, and small earthquakes continue to be observed every few minutes.
The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. As of May 5, 2005, the highest point on the new dome was 7,675 feet (2339 m), 688 feet (210 m) below the highest point of the volcano. Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. The release was accompanied by a 2.5 earthquake. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet. This activity was not considered a large eruption, merely a minor release of pressure consistent with the nature of ongoing dome building. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. Helens had major activity again on March 8, 2005 when a 36,000-foot plume of steam and ash emerged, which was visible from Seattle, Washington and rained ash on Yakima, Washington.
Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. Mount St. That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. The total amount of glacier lost by this date was estimated to be between 5 and 10 percent, but the flow of water out from the crater had changed by almost nothing as the porous nature of the floor of the crater caused the water to be absorbed like a giant sponge. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly. The diameter of the new dome was about 1,700 feet (518 m) at this time and it then contained about 50 million cubic yards (38.5 million m3) of material. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. The 'whaleback' feature measured approximately 1,550 feet (472 m) in length and 500 feet (152 m) in width.
In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. This brought its elevation to 1,363 feet (415 m) above the 1980 crater floor, approximately 2,000 feet (610 meters) above the surface of the crater glacier, and 721 feet (220 meters) below the highest point of the volcano. However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write. On February 1, 2005, the new lava dome on Mount Saint Helens measured 7,642 feet (2,329 m) in elevation. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). Currently, the whaleback is still growing but crumbling nearly as rapidly as it is growing. At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. The edges of it began crumbling rapidly, forming loose material around the new dome.
Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France. This interesting feature was very hot but fragile. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment. Included in the new dome was a feature dubbed the 'whaleback' (named such due to its close resemblance to the back of a whale), which was a long shaft of solidified magma being exuded by pressure of magma underneath it. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. Magma reached the surface of the volcano around October 11, 2004, resulting in the building of a new lava dome on the existing dome's south side. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. Helens became active again in autumn 2004, indicated initially by hundreds and then thousands of localized earthquakes, and followed by several significant emissions of steam and ash.
At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. Mount St. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write. Later, in 1995, 1998, and 2001, earthquake swarms were recorded beneath the crater, though without explosive activity. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Between 1989 and 1991, a series of seismic events occurred, sometimes accompanied by small explosions from the dome. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. that is growing.
At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. Until the beginning of the volcanic activity of 2004, it was considered the only glacier in the lower 48 states of the U.S. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. As of 2004, it covers about 0.36 square mile (0.93 km2). Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. Beginning with the winter snows of 1980-1981, a still unnamed horse shoe-shaped glacier began to evolve in the shadow of the crater. . Numerous small explosions and dome-building eruptions occurred during this time.
It has been adapted to almost every known language. Helens, with a new lava dome forming in the crater. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. Between 1980 and 1986, activity continued on St. Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille, a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. In addition, 200 homes, 47 bridges, and 185 miles (300 km) of highway were destroyed. Fifty-seven people were killed along with 1500 elk, 5000 deer, and an estimated 11 million fish.
Helens' height by about 1300 feet (400 m) and left a 1 to 2 mile (1.6 to 3.2 km) wide and 0.5 mile (800 m) deep crater with its north end open in a huge breach. The removal of the north side of the mountain reduced St. Helens released an amount of energy equivalent to 27,000 Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs and ejected more than a cubic kilometer of material. In all, St.
on May 18 the vertical ash column declined in stature and less severe outbursts continued through the night and following several days. By around 5:30 p.m. A total of 3.9 million cubic yards (3.0 million m3) of material was transported by the lahars. The lahars flowed many miles down the Toutle River and Cowlitz River, destroying bridges and lumber camps.
Helens mixed with ice, snow, and water to create lahars (volcanic mudflows). The collapse of the northern flank of St. The plume moved eastward at an average speed of 60 miles per hour (95 km/h), with ash reaching Idaho by noon. For more than nine hours, a vigorous plume of ash erupted, eventually reaching 12 to 15 miles (20 to 25 km) above sea level.
This eruption was a 5 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index scale. Helens burst forth into a large-scale pyroclastic flow which flattened vegetation and buildings in an area of over 230 square miles (600 km2). The magma inside of St. This was the largest known debris avalanche in recorded history.
With little warning, a second Richter magnitude 5.1 earthquake triggered a massive collapse of the north face of the mountain on May 18. By the end of April, the north side of the mountain started to bulge. Steam venting started on March 27. Helens woke up on March 20, 1980, with a Richter magnitude 5.1 earthquake.
Mount St. The vent apparently was at or near Goat Rocks on the northeast flank. There were at least a dozen small eruptions between 1831 to 1857 of ash reported as well, including a fairly large one in 1842. The ash drifted northeast over central and eastern Washington, northern Idaho and western Montana.
The 1800 eruption probably rivalled the May 18, 1980 eruption in size, although unlike the 1980 eruption, it did not result in massive destruction of the cone. As with the Kalama cycle, the sequence of events started with an explosion of dacite tephra followed by an andesite lava flow and then culminated with the emplacement of a dacite dome. The 57 year long Goat Rocks Eruptive Period started in 1800 and is the first cycle for which oral and written records exist. 150 years of quiet returned to the volcano.
Helens reached its greatest height and highly symmetrical form by the time the Kalama eruptive cycle ended on or around 1647. St. Lateral explosions excavated a notch in southeast crater wall. Large parts of the dome's sides broke away and mantled parts of the volcano's cone with talus.
The several hundred foot high dome filled and overtopped an explosion crater already at the summit. This cycle ended with the emplacement of a large dacite dome at the volcano's summit. Later, pyroclastic flows raced down over the andesite lava and into the Kalama River valley. Helens' summit crater down the volcano's southeast flank.
After that, blocky andesite lava flowed from St. The next phase of this 150 year long cycle saw the eruption of less silica-rich lava in the form of andesitic ash that formed at least eight alternating light and dark-colored layers of ash. The source for at least some of these debris flows may have come from the explosion of a dacite dome close to or at the summit. Helens' west flanks and into the Kalama River drainage system.
Large pyroclastic flows and mudflows subsequently rushed down St. Ash and pumice piled to a thickness of three feet (1 m) six miles (9.5 km) northeast from the volcano and two inches (5 cm) deep 50 miles (80 km) away in the same direction. At least seven different beds were laid down in the most voluminous eruptive cycle for 3000 years. In 1482, another large eruption rivaling the 1980 eruption in volume is known to have occurred.
The eruption in 1480 was several times larger than the May 18, 1980 eruption. Roughly 700 years of dormancy was broken about the year 1480 when large amounts of pale gray dacite pumice and ash started to erupt in the Kalama eruptive cycle. This period ended with the emplacement of dacite domes, including Sugar Bowl around the year 800. Helens' north flank.
Sometime around the year 400, the Sugar Bowl Eruptive Period began with small quantities of ash and lava erupted from St. Another 400 or so years of dormancy ensued. Also around the 1st century, mudflows moved 30 miles (50 km) down Toutle and Kalama river valleys and may have reached the Columbia River. Others, such as Cave Basalt (known for its system of lava tubes), flowed up to 8 to 9 miles (13 to 15 km) from their vents.
Large lava flows of andesite and basalt covered parts of the mountain, including one around the year 100 that traveled all the way into the Lewis and Kalama river valleys. Also different was the presence of significant lava flows in addition to the previously much more common fragmented and pulverized lavas and rocks (tephra). It was during the Castle Creek Period that the pre-1980 summit cone started to form. Helens' lava, which diversified by adding olivine and basalt to the mix.
The next eruptive cycle, the Castle Creek Eruptive Period, began roughly around 400 BC and is characterized by a change in composition of St. A large mudflow partly filled 40 miles (65 km) of the Lewis River valley sometime between 1000 BC to 500 BC. Helens' flanks and came to rest in nearby valleys. Numerous dense nearly red hot pyroclastic flows sped down St.
This cycle, which lasted until about 800 BC, is characterized by smaller volume eruptions. Helens came alive again around 1200 BC after 400 years of dormancy. At the beginning of the Pine Creek Eruptive Period, St. All told there may have been up to 2.5 cubic miles (10 km3) of material ejected in this cycle.
Rainier National Park and trace amounts have been found as far northeast as Banff National Park in Alberta and as far southeast as eastern Oregon. This eruptive cycle lasted until about 1600 BC and left 18 inch (46 cm) deep deposits of material 50 miles (80 km) distant in what is now Mt. Helens during the Holocene, judging by the volume of one of the tephra layers from that eruptive period. St.
An eruption in 1900 BC was the largest known eruption from Mt. Starting around 2500 BC, the Smith Creek Eruptive Period began with eruptions of large amounts of ash and yellowish-brown pumice covered thousands of square miles. The period since about 2500 BC is called the "Spirit Lake Stage". 20–18,000 years ago), and the "Swift Creek Stage" (roughly 13–8,000 years ago).
The early eruptive stages of the volcano are known as the "Ape Canyon Stage" (around 40–35,000 years ago), the "Cougar Stage" (ca. Repeated eruptions of pyroclastic flows, pumice, and ash followed until about 8500 BC when the volcano went dormant for roughly 6000 years. The four stages were interspersed with very long periods of dormancy or low activity levels lasting for up to a few thousand years. Helens is known to have erupted in four major stages, the present having begun around 2500 BC after 6000 years of dormancy.
St. Mt. Parts of this ancestral cone were fragmented and transported by glaciers 14,000 to 18,000 years ago during the last ice age. Helens' eruptive cycles).
36,000 years ago a large mudflow cascaded down the volcano (mudflows were very significant forces in all of St. Helens started growth in the Pleistocene 37,600 years ago with dacite and andesite eruptions of pumice and ash. According to geological evidence, St. Following the 1980 eruption, the area was left to gradually return to its natural state preceding the devastation.
Helens National Volcanic Monument, a 110,000 acre (445 km2) area around the mountain and within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. Congress established the Mount St. In 1982, President Ronald Reagan and the U.S. Helens.".
Their film became a popular and top-selling documentary "The Eruption of Mount St. A second eruption occurred on May 25, but the crew survived and were rescued two days following the second eruption by National Guard helicopter pilots. Their compasses, however, spun in circles and they quickly became lost. Helens on May 23 to document the destruction.
A film crew, led by Seattle filmmaker Otto Seiber, was dropped by helicopter on St. President Jimmy Carter surveyed the damage and stated it looked more desolate than a moonscape. U.S. Had the eruption occurred one day later, when loggers would have been at work, rather than on a Sunday, the death toll would almost certainly have been much higher.
In total, 57 people were killed or never found. His body was never found after the May 18, 1980 eruption, which left a huge crater open to the north (see geology section below). Helens eruption, 84 year old innkeeper Harry Truman, who had lived near the mountain for over 50 years, became nationally famous when he decided not to evacuate before the impending eruption, despite repeated pleas by local authorities. During the lead-up to the 1980 Mount St.
This was the first reported activity from the volcano since 1854 and the last until 1980. The lack of a significant ash layer associated with this event indicates that it was a small eruption, which may have been nothing more than billowing clouds of steam and dust. to be in a state of eruption". Helens, or some other mount to the southward, is seen . . .
On April 17, 1857 the Republican, a Steilacoom, Washington newspaper, reported that "Mount St. Warre's work showed erupting material from a vent about a third of the way down from the summit on the mountain's west or northwest side (possibly at Goat Rocks), while one of Kane's field sketches shows smoke emanating from about the same location. Warre sketched the eruption in 1845 and two years later Canadian painter Paul Kane created watercolors of the gently smoking mountain. British lieutenant Henry J.
The story went that the injured man sought treatment at Fort Vancouver but the contemporary fort commissary steward, Napolean McGilvery, disclaimed knowledge of the incident. Burnett in October 1843 recounted a story of a Native American man who badly burned his foot and leg in either lava or hot ash while hunting for deer. Future California governor Peter H. Ash from this eruption may have reached The Dalles, Oregon 48 miles (80 km) southeast of the volcano.
Helens in eruption on November 22, 1842. The Reverend Josiah Parrish in Champoeg, Oregon witnessed Mount St. All these eruptions were likely phreatic (steam explosions). Large ash clouds were reported for this small volume outburst and mild explosions followed for 15 years.
In either late fall or early winter 1842 the so-called "Great Eruption" was seen by settlers and missionaries in the area. Another member of the expedition later described "cellular basaltic lavas" at the mountain's base. Exploring Expedition, saw the peak (then quiescent) from off the mouth of the Columbia River in 1841. James Dwight Dana of Yale University, while sailing with the Charles Wilkes U.S.
He sent an account to the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, which published his letter in January 1836. Meredith Gairdner, then working for the Hudson's Bay Company stationed at Fort Vancouver (the first geologist apparently viewed the volcano 6 years later). Helens eruption was made in March 1835 by Dr. The first authenticated eyewitness report of a St.
They did report the presence of quicksand and clogged channel conditions at the mouth of the Sandy River near Portland, suggesting an eruption by Mount Hood sometime in the previous decades. Helens from the Columbia River but did not report any eruption in progress or recent evidence of one. In late 1805 and early 1806 members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition spotted St. Alarmed by the "dry snow", the Nespelim of northeastern Washington spent a great deal of time in prayer and dance instead of collecting food for winter and therefore had a hard winter.
Much later geologists and historians determined that the eruption took place in 1800 and was the start of the 57 year long Goat Rocks Eruptive Period (see geology section below). Years later, the mountain was visited by its first major eruption after explorers, traders, and missionaries heard reports of an erupting volcano in the area. Vancouver named the mountain for British diplomat Alleyne Fitzherbert, 1st Baron St Helens on October 20, 1792, as it came into view when the Discovery passed into the mouth of the Columbia River. Helens by Europeans was by Royal Navy Commander George Vancouver and the officers of HMS Discovery on May 19, 1792, while they were surveying the northern Pacific Ocean coast from 1792 to 1794.
The first recorded sighting of Mount St. Helens, but some land owned by Washington is in private hands. Gifford Pinchot National Forest surrounds Mount St. The community nearest the volcano is Cougar, Washington which is in the Lewis River valley about 11 miles (18 km) south-southwest of the peak.
That major north-south highway skirts the low-lying cities of Castle Rock, Longview and Kelso along the Cowlitz River and passes through Vancouver, Washington-Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area less than 50 miles (80 km) to the southwest. Washington State Route 504, locally known as the Spirit Lake Memorial Highway, connects with the heavily traveled Interstate 5 at Exit 49, about 34 miles (55 km) to the west of the mountain. Helens is in Skamania County, Washington the best access routes to the mountain run through Cowlitz County, Washington on the west. Although Mount St.
The southern and eastern sides of the volcano drain into an upstream impoundment, the Swift Reservoir, which is directly south of the volcano's peak. The Lewis River is impounded by three dams for hydroelectric power generation. Helens a year, according to National Weather Service data. The streams are fed by abundant rain and snow that dump an average of about 140 inches (3.6 m) of water on Mount St.
Streams that head on the volcano enter three main river systems — the Toutle River on the north and north-west, the Kalama River on the west, and the Lewis River on the south and east. At the pre-eruption timberline (upper limit of trees) the width of the cone was about 4 miles (6.4 km). The mountain is about 6 miles (9.5 km) across at its base which is at an altitude of about 4,400 feet (1340 m) on the northeastern side and about 4,000 feet (1220 m) elsewhere. The peak rose more than 5,000 feet (1500 m) above its base, where the lower flanks merge with adjacent ridges.
It stood out prominently, however, from surrounding hills because of the symmetry and the extensive snow and ice-cover of the pre-1980 summit cone, earning it the nickname, "Fujiyama of America" or "Mount Fuji of America". Its summit altitude made it only the fifth highest peak in Washington. Helens was not one of the highest peaks in the Cascade Range. Even before its loss of height, Mount St.
The volcano is also known to have been the most active in the Cascades within the last 10,000 years. It was formed only within the last 40,000 years, and the pre-1980 summit cone started to grow only about 2200 years ago. Helens is geologically young compared to the other major Cascade volcanoes. Mount St.
Helens. Mount Hood, the nearest major volcanic peak in Oregon, is about 60 miles (95 km) southeast of Mount St. These "sister and brother" volcanic mountains are each about 50 miles (80 km) from Mount Rainier, the giant of Cascade volcanoes. Helens is 34 miles (55 km) almost due west of Mount Adams, which is in the eastern part of the Cascade Range.
Mount St. . Helens is a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire which includes over 160 active volcanoes. Mount St.
Helens' 1980 eruption. These were destroyed in St. The largest of the dacite domes formed the previous summit; another formed Goat Rocks dome on the northern flank. Helens includes layers of basalt and andesite through which several domes of dacite lava have erupted.
Mount St. Helens is a great cone of rubble consisting of lava rock interlayered with ash, pumice and other deposits. Like most other volcanoes in the Cascade Range, St. However, the scale of it still pales in comparison to far larger debris avalanches that have occurred in the geological past elsewhere on Earth.
The debris avalanche from the 1980 eruption was up to 0.7 cubic miles (2.3 km3) in volume, making it the largest in recorded history. Helens for more detail). The eruption caused a massive debris avalanche, reducing its summit from 9,677 feet (2,950 m) to 8,364 feet (2,550 m) in elevation and replacing it with a mile-wide (1.5 km-wide) horseshoe-shaped crater (see geology section or 1980 eruption of Mount St. Fifty-seven people were killed and 250 homes, 47 bridges, 15 miles (24 km) of railways and 185 miles (300 km) of highway were destroyed.
That eruption was the most deadly and economically destructive volcanic eruption in the history of the United States. It is most famous for the catastrophic eruption on May 18, 1980. This volcano is well known for its ash explosions and pyroclastic flows. It was named for British diplomat Lord St Helens who was a friend of George Vancouver, an explorer who made a survey of the area in the late 18th century.
The mountain is part of the Cascade Range and was initially known as Louwala-Clough which means "smoking or fire mountain" in the language of the local native Americans, the Klickitats. It is located 96 miles (154 km) south of Seattle and 53 miles (85 km) northeast of Portland, Oregon. Helens is an active stratovolcano in Skamania County, Washington, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Mount St.