Louis Braille

Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. It has been adapted to almost every known language.

Biography

Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France.

At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly.

"Louis Braille" in braille

That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet.

Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system.

Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris.

Legacy

The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system.

Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world.


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Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world. As a result, Sheridan battled ([[3]]) media speculation that she had undergone extensive plastic surgery. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system. Between the time of Knots Landing and Desperate Housewives, Sheridan's appearance underwent a (see [[2]]) noticeable change. The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. In January, 2005, Sheridan announced her engagement to Swedish actor, Nicklas Soderblom, but the engagement was called off in October, 2005. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris. Many years later, Sheridan was involved in an unsuccessful attempt to get Garrett off of drugs.

Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. Her longest relationship was a six-year involvement (1979 - 1985) with teen idol Leif Garrett; she met him when she was fifteen years old and for a time lived with him in his mother's home. Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Sheridan was married to actor Harry Hamlin from 1991 through 1993, and dated singer Michael Bolton for a time, with whom she has again been linked (as of 2006). Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system. The skit -- which showed Sheridan in just a towel, which she dropped to attract Owens' attention -- was widely condemned as being sexually suggestive (see video[[1]]) and ABC was forced to apologize for airing it. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. The citation was later dropped on March 14, 2005.

The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. On November 15, 2004, Sheridan was cited by the FCC for the introductory skit which opened that evening's Monday Night Football telecast, in which Terrell Owens and the Eagles played the Dallas Cowboys at Texas Stadium. Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. Blackwell in 2004. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet. Sheridan was recognized by a "worst dressed" accolade from Mr. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. She was also the step-daughter of the late actor Telly Savalas during the length of her mother's marriage to Savalas, by whom she has a half-brother, troubled actor Nick Savalas.

Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. She is not, however, the grand-daughter of the venerated British actress Dinah Sheridan as has been wrongly asserted in the past. That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Sally Sheridan), but her father has never been identified. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly. She is the daughter of British actress Sally Adams (a.k.a. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. In 1990 she won the Soap Opera Digest Award for "Outstanding Lead Actress: Prime Time" for that role; the following year she won in the "Outstanding Heroine: Prime Time" category.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. Sheridan's greatest fame has come from primetime drama: she debuted in 1984's Paper Dolls and was very popular as "Paige Matheson" on the CBS night-time soap Knots Landing. However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write. Nicollette Sheridan (born November 21, 1963, in Worthing, Sussex, England) is a British actress who is probably best known for her role as "Edie Britt" on the primetime dramedy Desperate Housewives. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). Desperate Housewives (2004-present). At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. Deadly Visions (2004).

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France. Deadly Betrayal (2003). Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment. Haven't We Met Before? (2002). However, the conditions in the school were not much better. The Spiral Staircase (2000). The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. Dead Husbands (1998).

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. Knots Landing: Back to the Cul-de-Sac (1997) (miniseries). Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write. Murder in My Mind (1997). Braille was completely blind by the age of four. The People Next Door (1996). This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Indictment: The McMartin Trial (1995).

At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. Virus (1995). His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. Silver Strand (1995). Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. Shadows of Desire (1994). . A Time to Heal (1994).

It has been adapted to almost every known language. Somebody's Daughter (1992). Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. Lucky/Chances (1990) (miniseries). Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Deceptions (1990). Knots Landing (cast member from 1986-1993).

Dark Mansions (1986). Dead Man's Folly (1986). Paper Dolls (1984) (canceled after 13 episodes). The Cleaner (2006) (currently filming).

Lost Treasure (2003). .com for Murder (2002). Raw Nerve (1999). I Woke Up Early the Day I Died (1998).

Beverly Hills Ninja (1997). Spy Hard (1996). Noises Off (1992). The Sure Thing (1985).

08-05-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.