Louis Braille

Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. It has been adapted to almost every known language.

Biography

Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France.

At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly.

"Louis Braille" in braille

That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet.

Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system.

Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris.

Legacy

The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system.

Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world.


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Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world. There are various Pokémon manga series, four of which were released in English by Viz Communications, and seven of them released in English by Chuang Yi. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system. This game included digital versions cards from the original set of cards and the first two expansion (Jungle and Fossil), but also included several cards exclusive to the game.
A sequel to this game exists, but was not released outside of Japan. The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. It was also released in the US and Europe in 2000. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris. In 1998, Nintendo released a Game Boy Color version of the trading card game in Japan.

Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. Nintendo discontinued its production of e-Reader compatible cards with the release of EX FireRed & LeafGreen. Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. With the “Expedition” expansion, they introduced the Pokémon-e Trading Card Game, the cards in which (for the most part) are compatible with the Nintendo e-Reader. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system. However, with the release of Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire Game Boy video games, Nintendo took back the card game from Wizards of the Coast and started publishing the cards themselves. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Initially, it was published by Wizards of the Coast, the company most famous for Magic: The Gathering.

The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. The Pokémon Trading Card Game is a collectible card game based on Pokémon, first introduced to North America in 1999, and in Japan at an earlier date. Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. Whilst Chronicles can be seen on YTV in Canada and in the United Kingdom on Toonami UK (as of May 2005), Pokémon Sunday can only be seen on TV Tokyo. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet. Housoukyoku originally aired on TV Tokyo but has since ended its run. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. In other countries the English language adaptations air on the following channels:.

Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. The English adaptation can be seen on Kids WB in the United States. That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Two series from Advanced Generation have been aired, with the third series currently airing in the United States and elsewhere. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly. In the English language release, the original series was split into four separate series spanning five seasons while Advanced Generation was split into separate series. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. There is also a television program in Japan titled Pokémon Sunday, a live action Pokémon-themed variety show hosted by the Pokémon Research Team.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. The English adaptation of this series, Pokémon Chronicles, combines the episodes from this series as well as various other made-for-TV specials (originally unrelated to Housoukyoku) that have not previously been released in English. However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write. A spin-off series, entitled Shu-kan Pokémon Ho-so-kyoku (also referred to as Pokémon Hoso) is a spinoff of the first, and tells the adventures within the continuity of Pocket Monsters Advanced Generation, starring many of the recurring characters in Pocket Monsters. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). This part of the series is loosely based upon Pokémon FireRed, LeafGreen, and Emerald. At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. Misty meets with them through this part of the journey as they go to the Kanto contests and the Battle Frontier.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France. Afterward, Ash goes back to his home region of Kanto and visits new areas around there with the current team. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment. This series is based on the third generation games. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. Brock (from the original series) soon catches up with Ash, but Misty has returned to Cerulean City to tend to her duties as a gym leader. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. Her brother Max accompanies them, and though he isn't a trainer, he knows massive amounts of handy information.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. Ash takes on the role of a teacher and mentor for a beginner Pokémon trainer in this series named May. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write. Ash catches a Snorunt, a Treecko, and a Tailow, all of which evolve: Snorunt into Glalie, Treecko into Grovyle and Tailow into Swellow. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. The saga continues into Pocket Monsters Advanced Generation (in Japan) where Ash and company travel to Hoenn, a southern region in the Pokémon World. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. These names, in turn, were taken from the two people who produced the franchise - Pokémon creator Satoshi Tajiri and gaming legend Shigeru Miyamoto, who helped Tajiri to launch the series.

At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. The names of Ash and Gary were derived from the characters' Japanese names, Satoshi and Shigeru. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. Gary (whose grandfather was none other than Professor Oak, the man in charge of giving new trainers their first Pokémon) was well known and acompanied by a squad of cheerleaders. Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. In the original series Ash's main rival was another trainer from Pallet Town, Gary Oak. . Accompanying Ash on his journeys were Brock, the Pewter City Gym Leader; Misty, the youngest of the Gym Leaders sisters from Cerulean City; and Tracey Sketchit, an artist and “Pokémon watcher”.

It has been adapted to almost every known language. This series is based on the first and second generation games. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. The first, and the most familiar, is Pocket Monsters or simply Pokémon (often referred to as Pokémon: Gotta Catch Em All to distinguish it from the later series), which details the adventures of Ash Ketchum as he travels through Kanto, the Orange Islands, and Johto on a quest to become the greatest Pokémon Master of all time. Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. There are several Pokémon anime series based on the video games. The review of this demo is currently available at GameSpot as well as many other sites.

However, Nintendo has produced a demo for the Nintendo Revolution (exclusive only to major game related companies such as GameSpot and IGN) known as the “Big Pokémon Hunter” game where the goal was to zoom with the controller and find different Pokémon. A Pokémon game for the new Nintendo Revolution has currently not been announced by Nintendo. Whilst the appearence of any Pokémon characters has not been explicitly confirmed, they are highly likely to be featured in the game (considering the abundance of Pokémon references in the first two games in the series). Revolution/DX.

will appear on their forthcoming codenamed Nintendo Revolution console, tentatively titled Super Smash Bros. Nintendo has also stated that a version of Super Smash Bros. Melee, the player can collect many different trophies of a variety of characters from numerous Nintendo games, including several Pokémon characters. In Super Smash Bros.

A randomly-chosen Pokémon is released from the Pokéball, using one of its attacks to affect other players. In both games, many different Pokémon can be used in a match by throwing the Pokéball item. They kept their positions, Pikachu was still an initial character while Jigglypuff was still an unlockable character, but two new Pokémon also appeared (joining Jigglypuff as unlockable characters: Mewtwo and Pichu.). Melee.

The pair returned in the 2001 GameCube sequel, Super Smash Bros. Pikachu appeared as an initially available character while Jigglypuff was an unlockable one. Two of the most popular Pokémon, Pikachu and Jigglypuff, were picked to appear as two of the 12 characters in Nintendo's beat-'em-up game Super Smash Bros., which was released in 1999 for the Nintendo 64. They include:.

A number of Pokémon games are currently in development. It came out on October 3rd, 2005. The most recent game to be released was Pokémon XD for the GameCube. A handful of these spinoffs are remade in subsequent “generations”; for example, Pokémon Pinball: Ruby and Sapphire is very similar to Pokémon Pinball but with newer Pokémon, and Pokémon Stadium 2 is largely identical to Pokémon Stadium but for the compatibility with Pokémon Gold and Silver.

The series has also diversified into various spin-offs, such as pinball games, virtual pets, simulated photography, and racing. A third version of Ruby and Sapphire, called Pokémon Emerald, was released on May 1, 2005. The most recent full fledged game has been FireRed and LeafGreen which are remakes of Red and Blue. The Game Boy Advance first saw the release of Ruby and Sapphire.

Gold and Silver were followed by the exclusively Game Boy Color version, Crystal. Pokémon Red and Blue were followed by Pokémon Yellow (in Japan, Red and Green were followed by Blue which was subsequently followed by Yellow). Each generation of Pokémon games so far has followed a pattern of two complementing versions followed later by at least one other version with some extras. This was done by collecting eight Gym Badges by beating the eight Gym Leaders and then defeating the Elite Four, plus the current League Champion.

Another, perhaps easier, goal was to finish the game's storyline by becoming the Pokémon League Champion. While battling monsters is nothing new to RPGs, many players found themselves nearly addicted to finding, fighting, and capturing every Pokémon in the game. The ultimate goal of these games was to catch at least one member of all the different species of Pokémon (151, though the 151st could only be caught in-game in the Japanese version), and to do so, players had to trade for Pokémon not available in the version they had. These games were nearly identical, save for the fact that each version had a select group of Pokémon that the other version did not.

The first games in the series were Pokémon Red and Blue' (Red and Green in Japan, followed by a Blue, and a special edition Yellow version). [1]. This makes it the second biggest-selling games franchise ever (after Nintendo's Mario series). Accumulative sold units (including home console versions) reach 143 million copies.

These games have sold over 100 million copies to date. These role-playing games (and their sequels, remakes and English language translations) are still considered the “main” Pokémon games, and the games which most fans of the series are referring to when they use the term “Pokémon games.”. The original Pokémon games were Japanese RPGs with an element of strategy, and were created by Satoshi Tajiri for the Game Boy. Popular Japanese magazine Coro Coro has stated that their mid-February issue will reveal a new Pokémon, most likely one that will be related to the new movie, Pokémon Ranger and the Prince of the Sea, as there has been debate over whether the “Prince of the Sea” is actually the only Pokémon (other than Pikachu) so far guaranteed to appear in the film, Kyogre.

Mime), and Munchlax (pre-evolution of Snorlax). The known fourth generation Pokémon are: Manyula (evolution of Sneasel), Bonsly (pre-evolution of Sudowoodo), Lucario, Manene (pre-evolution of Mr. In addition, the anime has also featured the capture of three out of the five currently known fourth generation Pokémon. A handful of new Pokémon from this generation have made cameo appearances in the seventh and eighth Pokémon movies (Pokémon: Destiny Deoxys and Mew and the Wave Guiding Hero: Lucario, respectively), as well as Pokémon XD and Pokémon Mysterious Dungeon Blue & Red.

Slated to be introduced in Pokémon Ranger: the Road to Diamond and Pearl for the Nintendo DS. The first Pokémon RPGs for home consoles, these titles introduced the desert country of Orre, as well as corrupted shadow Pokémon, and “Snag”ging, the ability to steal/rescue them from their trainers and eventually “purify” them. All five GBA games are compatible the storage program Pokémon Box: Ruby & Sapphire for Nintendo GameCube, and also with Pokémon Colosseum and Pokémon XD: Gale of Darkness. This generation was rounded out on handhelds by Pokémon FireRed and LeafGreen for the GBA, enhanced remakes of the first two Pokémon games, including a playable female character (based on concept art for a playable female the original designers considered but were unable to implement), new items and regions, move tutors, and all the features of the 2nd and 3rd generations, excluding the day/night system and (except in Japan) e-reader compatibility.

The Emerald version also shipped with the GBA wireless adapter for wireless battles. These 3 versions all appeared on the Game Boy Advance. Emerald version also saw a return of the Pokémon battle dance when encountering an enemy Pokémon. The third game in this series was Pokémon Emerald, which updated the PokéNAV's Trainers Eyes feature for a return to the mobile phone system of the previous generation (but modified, allowing players to contact Pokémon Gym Leaders for rematches, but no longer allowing them to remove NPC trainers).

These versions also introduced the ability to grow berries in certain places, each which had set lengths of time for their flowering, and the ability to make “Secret Bases” in trees or caves in which dolls, tables, chairs, plants, and other objects could be placed. However, this generation saw the loss of the Night and Day system, although the time mechanic did exist to the extent that a clock appeared and that certain Pokémon would only evolve into certain Pokémon at specific times of the day or night. Starting over by hearkening back to Red and Blue, Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire added another 135 Pokémon from the Hoenn region, as well as Pokémon natures (30 distinct Pokémon personality types), Pokémon Abilities (always-on special innate abilities), Pokéblocks and Pokémon Contests , and two-on-two Pokémon battles. These games were compatible with Pokémon Stadium 2 (with the exception of Crystal).

However, the other two still had to be found in the normal way. Crystal version also featured a slight alteration of the encounter with the 3 Legendary Pokémon, in which the player would eventually encounter Suicune and be able to catch it. It was also the first to feature Pokémon who would do a battle dance when encountered, and signposts indicating the entering of a route, town and occasionally building or cave. This generation of the games was completed by Pokémon Crystal, which was most notably the only GBC-exclusive Pokémon RPG and the first which allowed the player to choose the protagonist's sex.

The game also featured the newly created Pokégear which consisted of. The games also introduced two new types of Pokémon, the Steel and Dark types. Beginning with Pokémon Gold and Silver, this generation introduced an additional one hundred Pokémon, the “Mystery Gift” function with the GBC's IR port, customization of the protagonist's bedroom, the ability to pick Berries with healing properties, and Apricorns which could then be given to a character who would fashion them into custom Poké Balls, as well as the concepts of equipping Pokémon with items, Pokémon genders, breeding Pokémon, baby Pokémon and wild (random placement) one-per-game Pokémon such as Suicune, Entei and Raikou (3 new Legendary Pokémon), which would appear randomly around the newly created land of Johto. Remakes of the first two games, called Pokémon FireRed and Pokémon LeafGreen, were released in the 3rd “Advance” generation.

These games were compatible with the N64 game Pokémon Stadium. This generation also introduced the idea of a rival trainer whom the player faced a number of times, as well as a team of evil Pokémon trainers; however, Pokémon Red and Blue focus on the entire mostly-faceless organization of Team Rocket, while besides the normal Team Rocket trainers, Jessie, James, and Meowth (also recurring characters from the anime) also appear only in Pokémon Yellow. These versions of the games revolved around the country of Kanto. This generation was completed by the game Pokémon Yellow: Special Pikachu Edition, loosely based upon the anime, in which the player started with a Pikachu who refused to go into its Poké Ball.

In Japan, the first generation included Pokémon Red, Green, and later Blue, while other regions started with Red and Blue, but never got a Green. The 1st generation introduced the original 151 Pokémon, as well as the basic concepts of trading and battling Pokémon. Started with Pokémon Red and Blue. Two-on-two battles appeared in the anime long before appearing in the games, and Pokémon Abilities are similar to Pokémon Powers, introduced long before in the Pokémon Trading Card Game.

Some of the general concepts were introduced elsewhere, before being introduced in the games. These generations are roughly chronological divisions by release; a handful of Pokémon from a subsequent generation appear in the anime, manga, or trading card game before the main Game Boy games which demarcate the generation are released, but the anime, manga, and even (of late) the card game divides itself into sagas or generations by the same scheme as the games. Each generation introduces a slew of new Pokémon and a handful of new general concepts, usually without replacing any old Pokémon or concepts. Each of these generations has been first introduced in a pair of Pokémon video games for the Game Boy or its successors (including the Nintendo DS), beginning with Pokémon Red and Blue.

There have been four generations, defined by the Pokémon which appear therein. All of the licensed Pokémon properties overseen by the Pokémon Company are divided roughly by generation. Some still use the catchphrase. The game's catchphrase in the English versions of the franchise used to be “Gotta catch 'em all!”, although it is now no longer officially used.

This was a very touchy subject to Tajiri, as he didn't want to further fill the gaming world with pointlessly violent games. The Pokémon creatures never bleed or die, only faint. The Pokémon games allowed players to catch, collect, and train hundreds of cute and monstrous pets, known as Pokémon (short for Pocket Monsters), with various abilities, and battle them against each other to build their strength and evolve them into more powerful Pokémon. First introduced in Japan as a pair of Game Boy games—Pocket Monster Red and Green—in 1996, the franchise arrived in the west in 1998 as Pokémon Red and Blue.

The concept of Pokémon evolved from insect collecting, a simple pastime many Japanese children (including Pokémon's creator, Satoshi Tajiri, as a child) had enjoyed in the past. . As of 2006, Pokémon USA Inc., a subsidiary of Japan's Pokémon Co., will oversee all Pokémon licensing outside of Asia. These figures have grown from the 151 monsters - including #151 Mew - from the original Pokémon Red/Blue games.

The franchise has 386 unique monsters that lie at the heart of the Pokémon series (391 including currently known Pokémon from future games). Pokémon is also the collective name for the fictional creatures within the Pokémon universe. The name Pokémon is a portmanteau of its Japanese name, “Pocket Monsters” (ポケットモンスター Poketto Monsutā). It has been merchandised into anime, manga, trading cards, toys, and much more.

Pokémon (ポケモン Pokemon, pronounced /'poʊ.kɛ.mɑn/, although frequently, and even intentionally mispronounced /poʊ.ki.'mæn/), is a video game franchise, created by Satoshi Tajiri and published by Nintendo for several of their systems, most importantly the Game Boy.
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. It was divided into four tanko-bon, each with four separate titles in North A.

Pokémon (The Electric Tale of Pikachu a.k.a Dengeki Pikachu), a sho-nen manga created by Toshihiro Ono. Channel Ten's Cheez TV and Cartoon Network/Toonami in Australia. Kids Central in Singapore. TF1 and Jetix in France.

RTL 2 in Germany. RTÉ Two in Ireland. Toonami UK in the United Kingdom. YTV in Canada.

Pokémon Trozei - Nintendo DS, 2006. Pokémon Mysterious Dungeon Red Rescue Force and Blue Rescue Force, for GBA and DS respectively, 2005. Pokémon Diamond and Pearl - Nintendo DS, 2006. This feature is also related to the appearance and evolution of Pokémon on specific days and times, and is part of a Day and Night system in which the sun shone from 6am to 6pm, but from 6pm to 6am the land became dark.

A watch function including time and day of the week and the ability to change between Summer Time or Mean Time. There is also a station stating where certain Pokémon could be found. A radio, where the radio station chosen would influence the rate at which the player encountered wild Pokémon. A mobile phone to communicate with in-game trainers for conversation or the potential of a rematch.

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