Louis Braille

Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. It has been adapted to almost every known language.

Biography

Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France.

At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly.

"Louis Braille" in braille

That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet.

Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system.

Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris.

Legacy

The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system.

Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world.


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Today, braille has been adapted to almost every major national language and is the primary system of written communication for visually impaired persons around the world. She added: “Based upon forensic information late Tuesday afternoon that linked the .22 handgun owned by Joseph Materazzo both to Neil Entwistle and to Rachel, we believed we had probable cause to seek an arrest warrant for Neil Entwistle’s arrest.”. Thomas Armitage, along with a group of four blind men, established the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind (later the Royal National Institute of the Blind), which published books in Braille's system. “He was then in Worksop with his parents.”. The significance of the braille system was not identified until 1868, when Dr. He was on an 8:15 flight to the United Kingdom on that day. He had always been plagued by ill health, and he died in Paris of tuberculosis in 1852 at the age of 43; his body would be disinterred in 1952 (the centenary of his death) and honored with re-interrment in the Panthéon in Paris. on Saturday morning, January 22.

Although he was admired and respected by his pupils, his braille system was not taught at the Institute during his lifetime. “He purchased a one-way ticket on British Airways at approximately 5:00 a.m. Braille became a well-respected teacher at the Institute where he had been a student. As we know, he was observed at Logan Airport. Braille and his friend Pierre Foucault went on to develop a machine to speed up the somewhat cumbersome system. “What we believe happened next was that Neil Entwistle returned the gun to his father-in-law’s home in Carver, then made preparations to leave the country. In 1839 Braille published details of a method he had developed for communication with sighted people, using patterns of dots to approximate the shape of printed symbols. Obviously the murder was effected, but the suicide was not.

The first book in braille was published in 1827 under the title Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. “We believe possibly this was intended to be a murder suicide, but we cannot confirm that. Braille later extended his system to include notation for mathematics and music. “At sometime on Friday morning, Neil Entwistle - with a firearm we believe he had secured at sometime before that from father in-law Joseph Materazzo - shot Rachel Entwistle in the head and then proceeded to shoot baby Lillian, who was lying on the bed next to her mother. The Braille system also offered numerous benefits over Valentin Haüy's raised letter method, the most notable being the ability to both read and write an alphabet. Martha Coakley told a press conference after Entwistle’s arrest: “On Thursday night (January 19, 2006), Rachel was alive and had spoken with family members. The six dot system allowed the recognition of letters with a single fingertip apprehending all the dots at once, requiring no movement or repositioning which slowed recognition in systems requiring more dots. And he added that the family had “always been confident that the person who did this would be brought to justice.”.

Braille's system, "braille", used only six dots and corresponded to letters, whereas Barbier used twelve dots corresponding to sounds. “God didn’t do this - there is evil among us.”. That year, Braille began inventing his raised-dot system with his father's stitching awl, finishing at age fifteen. He was a trusted husband and father and it’s incomprehensible how that love and trust was betrayed in the ultimate act of violence. Although the code ended up being too difficult for the average soldier, Braille picked it up quickly. “Rachel and Lilian loved Neil very much. Barbier shared his invention called "night writing," a code of twelve raised dots that let soldiers share top-secret information on the battlefield without having to speak. Flaherty said: “The family is deeply saddened at the arrest of Neil Entwistle.

In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. while a Metropolitan Police team arrived about lunchtime and left with black bin liners containing undisclosed items taken from the garage and house where he previously lived with brother Russell. However, because the raised letters were made using paper pressed against copper wire, the students never learned to write. Local officers interviewed the couple from 10:00 a.m. They were also taught how to read by feeling raised letters (a system devised by the school's founder, Valentin Haüy). His arrest followed detailed searches by two teams of officers at his parents' house. At the school, the children were taught basic craftsman's skills and simple trades. Entwistle did not put up a struggle.

Braille, a bright and creative student, became a talented cellist and organist in his time at the school, playing the organ for churches all over France. He had been stopped around mid-day while he sat on a London Underground train at west London’s Royal Oak tube station, by officers who had been tailing him since a warrant for his arrest was issued the previous evening. Braille was served stale bread and water, and students were sometimes beaten and locked up as punishment. Earlier, Middlesex County District Attorney Martha Coakley - the same person who successfully prosecuted nanny Louise Woodward - explained why a warrant for his arrest had been issued and reminded journalists that Entwistle was “innocent until proven guilty”. However, the conditions in the school were not much better. The previous day, Lawyer Joe Flaherty, a spokesman for Entwistle’s inlaws, said in reaction to his arrest that it was “incomprehensible how love and trust was betrayed in the ultimate act of violence”. The scholarship was his ticket out of the usual fate for the blind: begging for money on the streets of Paris. She added that Entwistle "had always been inclined to consent" to an extradition request.

At the age of ten, Braille earned a scholarship to the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles (Royal Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris. He believes he will receive a fair and proper hearing in the United States on these very serious allegations.". Despite his disability, Braille continued to attend school, with the support of his parents, until he was required to read and write. "He's anxious that a delay may cause his late wife's family, and his own, additional distress. Braille was completely blind by the age of four. Outside the court afterwards, Yale Law School-educated Seddon - who did not indicate whether her client intended to plead guilty - told reporters: "He has consented at the earliest opportunity because he wants to cooperate with the authorities in any way that he can. This destroyed his left eye, and sympathetic ophthalmia led to loss of vision in his right. Just a few hours later, a Home Office minister signed Entwistle's extradition order.

At the age of three, Braille injured his left eye with a stitching awl from his father's workshop. At a three-minute Bow Street hearing infront of Judge Nicholas Evans, Entwistle's lawyer Judith Seddon said he had decided to agree to being returned to the US as soon as possible. His father, Simon-René Braille, was a harness and saddle maker. However, he changed his mind overnight. Braille was born in Coupvray near Paris, France. Saying little else - except confirmation of his name, age, and address - he was then remanded in custody until a hearing the following day. . At a brief central London Bow Street magistrates court hearing, he requested not be sent back to the US ”at this stage”.

It has been adapted to almost every known language. Entwistle appeared in court after being arrested in London on February 9. Braille is read by passing one's fingers over characters made up of an arrangement of one to six embossed points. In addition, DNA matching his slain wife Rachel was found on the gun's muzzel. Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. However, as well as confirming that a set of keys to Materazzo's house were found in the car Entwistle parked at Boston's Logan Airport before his flight, DNA matching Entwistle was found on the handle of a .22 handgun owned by Materazzo. Finding the house locked, he then decided to fly to England and see his parents.

Unable to bring himself to end his life with a knife, he then got in the family car and drove to his father-in-law Joseph Materazzo's house to get a .22 handgun. He didn't call 911, but instead decided to kill himself. EST, he says he found they had been shot dead and covered their bodies with a blanket. When he returned at around 11:00 a.m.

He told them both his wife and daughter were in bed. EST three days previously to go on an errand. They say he told them that he left his Hopkinton home at around 9:00 a.m. On January 23, Hopkinton Police rang Entwistle at his parents Clifford and Yvonne's home in Worksop, Nottinghamshire, England.

EST on the morning of January 21, and boarded a British Airways flight that left at 8:15 a.m. Hours after their deaths, Entwistle bought a one-way ticket to London about 5:00 a.m. Autopsy results showed the mother died of a gunshot wound to the head and the baby died of a gun shot to the stomach. Although the murders happened on January 20, 2006 the bodies of 27-year-old Rachel and 9-month-old Lillian were not found until January 22, in the master bedroom of the couple's rented Hopkinton, Massachusetts home where the Entwistles had moved into just ten days earlier.

English-born Neil and American-born Rachel were married on Sunday, August 10, 2003 in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Neil Entwistle (September 18, 1978) is the husband of Rachel Entwistle and father of Lillian Entwistle and is charged with their murder.

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