Judaism

For a discussion of Jews as an ethnicity or ethnic group see the article on Jew.

Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. It is one of the first recorded monotheistic faiths and one of the oldest religious traditions still practiced today. The tenets and history of Judaism are the major part of the foundation of other Abrahamic religions religions, including Christianity and Islam. For all of these reasons, Judaism has been a major force in shaping the world.

Introduction

Judaism does not easily fit into common Western categories, such as religion, race, ethnicity, or culture. This is because Jews understand Judaism in terms of its 4,000-year history. During this time, Jews have experienced slavery, anarchic self-government, theocratic self-government, conquest, occupation, and exile; they have been in contact, and have been influenced by ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Persian, and Hellenic cultures, as well as modern movements such as the Enlightenment and the rise of nationalism. Thus, Daniel Boyarin has argued that "Jewishness disrupts the very categories of identity, because it is not national, not genealogical, not religious, but all of these, in dialectical tension."

The seven-branched Menorah is an ancient symbol of Judaism. It was used in the Temple in ancient Jerusalem.

According to both traditional Jews and critical historical scholars, a number of qualities distinguish Judaism from the other religions that existed when it first emerged. The first characteristic is monotheism. This notion is derived directly from the Torah (the Hebrew Bible) where God makes it part of the Ten Commandments: "...I am the Lord your God. Do not have any other gods before Me. Do not represent [such] gods by any carved statue or picture of anything in the heaven above, on the earth below, or in the water below the land. Do not bow down to [such gods] or worship them. I am God your Lord, a God who demands exclusive worship" [1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten_Commandments#Exodus_20.2FDeuteronomy_5)

The Jewish understanding of this is that:

  1. "I am the Lord your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt..." The belief in the existence of God, that God exists for all time, that God is the sole creator of all that exists, that God determines the course of events in this world. This is the foundation of Judaism. To turn from these beliefs is to deny God and the essence of Judaism.
  2. "You shall have no other gods besides Me...Do not make a sculpted image or any likeness of what is in the heavens above..." One is required to believe in God and God alone. This prohibits belief in or worship of any additional deities, gods, spirits or incarnations. To deny the uniqueness of God, is to deny all that is written in the Torah. It is also a prohibition against making or possessing objects that one or other may bow down to or serve such as crucifixes, and any forms of paintings or artistic representations of God. One must not bow down to or serve any being or object but God. [2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten_Commandments#Jewish_interpretation)

The significance of this idea lies in that Judaism holds that an omniscient and omnipotent God created humankind as recorded in the Book of Genesis, in the Creation according to Genesis starting with the very first verse of Genesis 1:1: "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." While in polytheistic religions, the gods are limited by the preoccupation of personal desires irrelevant to humankind, by limited powers, and by the interference of other powers, in Judaism, God is unlimited and fully available to care for Creation.

Second, the Torah (i.e. The Hebrew Bible) specifies a number of laws, known as the 613 mitzvot, to be followed by the Children of Israel. Other religions at the time were characterized by temples in which priests would worship their gods through sacrifice. The Children of Israel similarly had a Temple in Jerusalem, priests, and made sacrifices -— but these were not the sole means of worshiping God.

As a matter of practical worship (in comparison to other religions) Judaism seeks to elevate everyday life to the level of the ancient temples' worship by worshipping God through the spectrum of daily activites and actions. It has traditionally maintained that this is how the individual would merit rewards in the afterlife, called gan eden (Hebrew: "Garden of Eden") or olam haba ("World to Come").

Religious view of the development of Judaism

According to Orthodox Judaism and most religious Jews, the Biblical patriarch Abraham was the first Jew. Rabbinic literature records that he was the first to reject idolatry and preach monotheism. As a result, God promised he would have children. His first child was Ishmael and then he had Isaac, who God said would carry on his work and inherit the Land of Israel (then called Canaan) after having been exiled and redeemed. God sent the patriarch Jacob and his children to Egypt; after they eventually became enslaved, God sent Moses to redeem the Israelites from slavery. After the Exodus from Egypt, God led them to Mount Sinai and gave them the Torah, and eventually brought them to the land of Israel.

God set the descendants of Aaron, Moses' brother, to be a priestly class within the Israelite community. They first officiated in the tabernacle (a portable house of worship), and later their descendants were in charge of worship in the Temple in Jerusalem

Once the Jews had settled in the land of Israel, the tabernacle was planted in the city of Shiloh for over 300 years during which time God provided great men, and occasionally women, to rally the nation against attacking enemies, some of which were sent by God as a punishment for the sins of the people. This is described in the Book of Joshua and the Book of Judges. As time went on, the spiritual level of the nation declined to the point that God allowed the Philistines to capture the tabernacle in Shiloh.

The people of Israel then told Samuel the prophet that they had reached the point where they needed a permanent king like other nations had, and described in the Books of Samuel. God knew this was not best for the Jews, but acceded to this request and had Samuel appoint Saul, a great but very humble man, to be their king. When the people pressured Saul into going against a command conveyed to him by Samuel, God told Samuel to appoint David in his stead.

Once David was established as king, he told the prophet Nathan that he would like to build a permanent temple. As a reward for his actions, God promised David that he would allow his son to build the temple and the throne would never depart from his children. David himself was not allowed to build the temple because he had been involved in many wars, making it inappropriate for him to build a temple representing peace. As a result, it was David's son Solomon who built the first permanent temple according to God's will, in Jerusalem. This era is described in the Books of Kings.

After Solomon's death, the kingdom was split into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Israel had a number of kings, but after a few hundred years God allowed Assyria to conquer Israel and exile its people because of the rampant idolatry in the kingdom. The southern kingdom of Judah, whose capital was Jerusalem, home of the Temple, remained under the rulership of the house of David. However, as in the north, idolatry increased to the point that God allowed Babylonia to conquer it, destroy the temple which had stood for 410 years and exile its people to Babylonia, with the promise that they would be redeemed after seventy years. These events are recored in the Book of Isaiah and the Book of Jeremiah.

After seventy years the Jews were allowed back into Israel under the leadership of Ezra, and the temple was rebuilt, as recorded in the Book of Ezra and the Book of Nehemiah. The Second Temple stood for 420 years after which it was destroyed by the Roman general (later emperor) Titus. This is the state in which it is to remain until a descendant of David arises to restore the glory of Israel (the current existence of the Islamic Dome of the Rock is not relevent to the Rabbinical view.)

The Torah given on Mount Sinai was summarized in the five books of Moses. Together with the books of the prophets is called the Written Torah. The details and interpretation of the law, which are called the Oral Torah or oral law were originally unwritten. However as the persecutions of the Jews increased and the details were in danger of being forgotten, rabbinic tradition holds that these oral laws were recorded in the Mishnah, and the Talmud, as well as other holy books.

Critical historical view of the development of Judaism

Although monotheism is fundamental to Rabbinic Judaism, according to many critical Bible scholars the Torah often implies that the early Israelites accepted the existence of other gods. However, they viewed their God as the Creator and the one that mankind was morally bound to worship alone. But by the Hellenic period most Jews had come to believe that their God was the only God (and thus, the God of everyone), and that the record of His revelation (the Torah) contained within it universal truths. This attitude may reflect growing Gentile interest in Judaism (some Greeks and Romans considered the Jews a most "philosophical" people because of their belief in a God that cannot be represented visually), and growing Jewish interest in Greek philosophy, which sought to establish universal truths.

Jews began to grapple with the tension between the particularism of their claim that only Jews were required to obey the Torah, and the universalism of their claim that the Torah contained universal truths. The result is a set of beliefs and practices concerning both identity, ethics, one's relation to nature, and one's relation to God, that privilege "difference" -— the difference between Jews and non-Jews; the differences between locally variable ways of practicing Judaism; a close attention to different meanings of words when interpreting texts; attempts to encode different points of view within texts, and a relative indifference to creed and dogma.

The subject of the Hebrew Bible is an account of the Israelites' (also called Hebrews) relationship with God as reflected in their history from the beginning of time until the building of the Second Temple (approx. 350 BCE). This relationship is generally portrayed as contentious, as Jews struggle between their faith in God and their attraction for other gods, and as some Jews (most notably and directly, Abraham, Jacob -- later known as Israel—and Moses) struggle with God. Modern scholars also suggest that the Torah consists of a variety of inconsistent texts that were edited together in a way that calls attention to divergent accounts (see Documentary hypothesis).

Religious doctrine and Principles of Faith

Main article: Jewish principles of faith

While Judaism has always affirmed a number of Jewish principles of faith, it has never developed a fully binding "catechism". It is difficult to generalize about Jewish theology because Judaism is non-creedal; that is, there is no agreed-upon dogma (set of orthodox beliefs) that most Jews believed were required of Jews. While individual Jewish rabbis, or sometimes entire groups, at times agreed upon a firm dogma, other rabbis and groups disagreed. With no central agreed-upon authority, no one formulation of Jewish principles of faith could take precedent over any other.

This approach to religious doctrine dates back at least two thousand years. For example, the ancient historian Josephus emphasized practices and traditions rather than beliefs when he describes the characteristics of an apostate (a Jew who does not follow traditional customs) and the requirements for conversion to Judaism (circumcision, and adherence to traditional customs). Despite the above, in Orthodox Judaism some principles (e.g. the Divine origin of the Torah) are considered important enough that public rebellion against them can put one in the category of "apikoros" (heretic).

Over the centuries, a number of clear formulations of Jewish principles of faith have appeared; most of them have much in common, yet they differ in certain details. A comparison of them demonstrates a wide array of tolerance for varying theological perspectives. Generally, however, the thirteen principles of faith expressed by Maimonides are considered authorative descriptions of Jewish beliefs:

  • God is one - Judaism is based on strict unitarian monotheism, the belief in one God, the eternal creator of the universe and the source of morality. The idea of God as a duality or trinity is heretical for Jews to hold; it is considered akin to polytheism.
  • God is all powerful (omnipotent), as well as all knowing (omniscient). The different names of God are ways to express different aspects of God's presence in the world. See the entry on Names of God in Judaism.
  • God is non-physical, non-corporeal, and eternal. All statements in the Hebrew Bible and in rabbinic literature which use anthropomorphism are held to be linguistic conceits or metaphors, as it would otherwise be impossible to talk about God.
  • To God alone may one offer prayer. Any belief that an intermediary between man and God could be used, whether necessary or even optional, has traditionally been considered heretical.
  • The Hebrew Bible, and much of the beliefs described in the Mishnah and Talmud, are held to be the product of divine Revelation. How Revelation works, and what precisely one means when one says that a book is "divine", has always been a matter of some dispute. Different understandings of this subject exist among Jews.
  • The words of the prophets are true.
  • Moses was the chief of all prophets.
  • The Torah (five books of Moses) is the primary text of Judaism.
  • God will reward those who observe His commandments, and punish those who violate them.
  • God chose the Jewish people to be in a unique covenant with God; see Jews as a chosen people.
  • The messianic age. There will be a moshiach (Jewish Messiah), or perhaps a messianic era.
  • The soul is pure at birth. People are born with a yetzer ha'tov, a tendency to do good, and with a yetzer ha'ra, a tendency to do bad. Thus, human beings have free will and can choose the path in life that they will take.
  • People can atone for sins through words and deeds, and without intermediaries. The liturgy of the Days of Awe (Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur) states that prayer, repentance and tzedakah (dutiful giving of charity) atone for sin. Atonement is deemed only meaningful if accompanied by sincere decision to cease unacceptable actions, and then only if appropriate amends to others are honestly undertaken. It covers wrongdoings by which a person has fallen short of divine wishes in his daily life, and thus there is always a "way back" to God. In Judaism, sin is more considered in terms of a wrongful action, contravening divine commandment to live a holy life, than wrongful thought. A more detailed discussion of the Jewish view of sin is available in the entry on sin.

The traditional Jewish bookshelf

Jews are often called the "people of the book," and Judaism has an age-old intellectual tradition focusing on text-based Torah study. The following is a basic, structured list of the central works of Jewish practice and thought. For more detail, see Rabbinic literature.

  • The Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and Jewish bible study, which include:
    • Mesorah
    • Targum
    • Jewish Biblical exegesis (also see Midrash below)
  • Works of the Talmudic Era (classic rabbinic literature)
    • The Mishnah and its commentaries.
    • The Tosefta and the minor tractates.
    • The Talmud:
      • The Jerusalem Talmud and its commentaries.
      • The Babylonian Talmud and its commentaries.
    • Midrashic Literature:
      • Halakhic Midrash
      • Aggadic Midrash
  • Halakhic literature
    • The Major Codes of Jewish Law and Custom
      • The Mishneh Torah and its commentaries.
      • The Tur and its commentaries.
      • The Shulhan Arukh and its commentaries.
    • Other books on Jewish Law and Custom
    • The Responsa literature
  • Jewish Thought and Ethics
    • Jewish philosophy
    • Kabbalah
    • Hasidic works
    • Jewish ethics and the Mussar Movement
  • The Siddur and Jewish liturgy
  • Piyyut (Classical Jewish poetry)

Related Topics

  • Torah databases (electronic versions of the Traditional Jewish Bookshelf)
  • List of Jewish Prayers and Blessings

Jewish Law and interpretation

Main article: Halakha

The basis of Jewish law and tradition ("halakha") is the Torah (the five books of Moses). According to rabbinic tradition there are 613 commandments in the Torah. Some of these laws are directed only to men or to women, some only to the ancient priestly groups, the Kohanim and Leviyim (members of the tribe of Levi), some only to those who practice farming within the land of Israel. Many laws were only applicable when the Temple in Jerusalem existed, and fewer than 300 of these commandments are still applicable today.

While there have been Jewish groups which claimed to be based on the written text of the Torah alone (e.g. the Sadducees, the Karaites), most Jews believed in what they call the oral law. These oral traditions originated in the Pharisee sect of ancient Judaism, and were latter recorded in written form and expanded upon by the Rabbis.

Rabbinic Judaism has always held that the books of the Tanakh (called the written law) have always been transmitted in parallel with an oral tradition. To justify this viewpoint, Jews point to the text of the Torah, where many words are left undefined, and many procedures mentioned without explanation or instructions; this, they argue, means that the reader is assumed to be familiar with the details from other, i.e. oral, sources. This parallel set of material was originally transmitted orally, and came to be known as "the oral law".

By time of Rabbi Judah Ha-Nasi (200 CE), after the destruction of Jerusalem, much of this material was edited together into the Mishnah. Over the next four centuries this law underwent discussion and debate in both of the world's major Jewish communities (in Israel and Babylon), and the commentaries on the Mishnah from each of these communities eventually came to be edited together into compilations known as the two Talmuds. These have been expounded by commentaries of various Torah scholars during the ages.

Halakha, the rabbinic Jewish way of life, then, is based on a combined reading of the Torah, and the oral tradition - the Mishnah, the halakhic Midrash, the Talmud and its commentaries. The Halakha has developed slowly, through a precedent-based system. The literature of questions to rabbis, and their considered answers, is referred to as responsa (in Hebrew, '"Sheelot U-Teshuvot".) Over time, as practices develop, codes of Jewish law are written that are based on the responsa; the most important code, the Shulkhan Arukh, largely determines Jewish religious practice up till today.

What makes a person Jewish?

Main article: Who is a Jew

According to Jewish law, someone is considered to be a Jew if he or she was born of a Jewish mother or converted in accord with Jewish Law. (Recently, the American Reform and Reconstructionist movements have included those born of Jewish fathers and gentile mothers, if the children are raised practicing Judaism only.) All mainstream forms of Judaism today are open to sincere converts.

A Jew who ceases to practice Judaism is still considered a Jew, as is a Jew who does not accept Jewish principles of faith and becomes an agnostic or an atheist; so too with a Jew who converts to another religion. However, in the latter case, the person loses standing as a member of the Jewish community and becomes known as an apostate. In the past, family and friends were said to often formally mourn for the person, though this is rarely done today.

The question of what determines Jewish identity was given new impetus when, in the 1950s, David ben Gurion requested opinions on mihu Yehudi ("who is a Jew") from Jewish religious authorities and intellectuals worldwide. The question is far from settled and occasionally resurfaces in Israeli politics.

Jewish philosophy

Main article: Jewish philosophy

Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. Early Jewish philosophy was influenced by the philosophy of Plato, Aristotle and Islamic philosophy. Major Jewish philosophers include Solomon ibn Gabirol, Saadia Gaon, Maimonides and Gersonides. Major changes occurred in response to the enlightenment (late 1700s to early 1800s) leading to the post-Enlightenment Jewish philosophers, and then modern Jewish philosophers such as Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, Mordecai Kaplan, Abraham Joshua Heschel, Will Herberg, Emmanuel Levinas, Richard Rubenstein, Emil Fackenheim, and Joseph Soloveitchik.

Jewish denominations

Main article: Jewish denominations

Over the past two centuries the Jewish community has divided into a number of Jewish denominations; each has a different understanding of what principles of belief a Jew should hold, and how one should live as a Jew. Unlike Christian denominations, these doctrinal differences have not fundamentally split Jewish denominations, which continue to overlap on many issues. It would not be unusual for a Conservative Jew to attend either an Orthodox or Reform synagogue, for example.

  • Orthodox Judaism holds that the Torah was written by God and dictated to Moses, and that the laws within it are binding and unchanging. Orthodox Jews generally consider a 16th century CE law code, the Shulkhan Arukh, to be the definitive codification of Jewish law, and assert a continuity between pre-Enlightenment Judaism and modern-day Orthodox Judaism. Orthodox Judaism consists of Modern Orthodox Judaism and Haredi Judaism. Hasidic Judaism is a sub-set of Haredi Judaism. Most of Orthodox Judaism holds to one particular form of Jewish theology, based on Maimonides' 13 principles of Jewish faith.
  • Reform Judaism (outside of the USA also known as Progressive Judaism, and in the U.K. as Liberal Judaism) originally formed in Germany in response to the Enlightenment. Reform Judaism initially defined Judaism as a religion, rather than as a race or culture; rejected the ritual prescriptions and proscriptions of the Torah; and emphasized the ethical call of the Prophets. Reform Judaism developed a prayer service in the vernacular and emphasized decorum during services. Today, many Reform congregations have returned to Hebrew prayers and encourage some degree of legal observance.
  • Conservative Judaism. Outside of the USA it is known as Masorti (Hebrew for "Traditional") Judaism. "Masorti" is its official title in the State of Israel as well, although most Israelis use the word in a more general sense (see below). Conservative Judaism formed in the United States in the late 1800s through the fusion of two distinct groups: former Reform Jews who were alienated by that movement's emphatic rejection of Jewish law, and former Orthodox Jews who had rejected belief in the "oral law" (which claims continuity between God's revelation at Sinai and Jewish law as codified in the Shulkhan Arukh) in favor of the critical study of Jewish texts and history. Conservative Jews emphasize that Jews constitute a nation as well as a religion. Conservative scholars emphasize their identification with the Amoraim, the sages of the Talmud, who embraced open debates over interpretations (and reinterpretations) of Jewish law.
  • Reconstructionist Judaism started as a stream of philosophy by a rabbi within Conservative Judaism, and later became an independent movement emphasizing reinterpreting Judaism for modern times.

Many religious Jews do not look at one's denomination as a valid way of designating Jews; instead they view Jews by the level of their religious observance. According to most Orthodox Jews, Jewish people who do not keep the laws of Shabbat and Yom Tov (the holidays), Kashrut, and family purity are considered non-religious. Any Jew who keeps at least those laws would be considered observant and religious).

Jewish denominations in Israel

Even though all of these denominations exist in Israel, Israelis tend to classify Jewish identity in ways that are different than diaspora Jewry. Most Jewish Israelis classify themselves as "secular" (hiloni), "traditional" (masorti), or Haredi. "Secular," or non-observant, Judaism is more popular among Israeli families of western (European) origin, whose Jewish identity may be a very powerful force in their lives, but who see it as largely independent of traditional religious belief and practice. This portion of the population largely ignores organized religious life, be it of the official Israeli rabbinate (Orthodox) or of the liberal movements common to diaspora Judaism (Reform, Conservative).

The term "traditional" (masorti) is most common among Israeli families of "eastern" origin (i.e. Middle East, Central Asia and North Africa). This term, as commonly used, has nothing to do with the official Masorti (Conservative) movement.

There is a great deal of ambiguity in the ways "secular" and "traditional" are used in Israel. They often overlap, and they cover an extremely wide range in terms of ideology and religious observance.

The term "Orthodox" (Ortodoxi) is unpopular in Israeli discourse (among both "secular" and "religious" alike). Nevertheless, the spectrum covered by "Orthodox" in the diaspora exists in Israel, again with some important variations. The "Orthodox" spectrum in Israel is a far greater percentage of the Jewish population in Israel than in the diaspora, though how much greater is hotly debated. Various ways of measuring this percentage, each with its pros and cons, include the proportion of religiously observant Knesset members, the proportion of Jewish children enrolled in religious schools, and statistical studies on "identity".

What would be called "Orthodox" in the diaspora includes what is commonly called dati (religious) or haredi (ultra-Orthodox) in Israel. The former term includes what is called "Religious Zionism" or the "National Religious" community, as well as what has become known over the past decade or so as haredi-leumi (nationalist haredi), which combines a largely haredi lifestyle with nationist ideology.

Haredi applies to a populace that can be roughly divided into three separate groups along both ethnic and ideological lines: (1) "Lithuanian" (non-hasidic) haredim of Ashkenazic origin; (2) Hasidic haredim of Ashkenazic origin; and (3) Sephardic haredim. The third group is the largest, and has been the most politically active since the early 1990s.

Karaism

Unlike the above denominations, which were ideological reactions that resulted from the exposure of traditional rabbinic Judaism to the radical changes of modern times, Karaite Judaism did not begin as a modern Jewish movement. The followers of Karaism believe they are the remnants of the non-Rabbinic Jewish sects of the Second Temple period, such as the Saducees, though others contend they are a sect started in the 8th and 9th centuries. The Karaites, or "Scripturalists," accept only the Hebrew bible and what they view as the Peshat/"Plain or Simple Meaning";, and do not accept non-biblical writings as authoritative. Some European Karaites do not see themselves as part of the Jewish community, while most do.

The main article Jewish views of religious pluralism describes how Judaism views other religions; it also describes how members of each of the Jewish religious denomination view the other denominations.

Jewish prayer and practice

Prayers

Main article: Jewish services

There are three main daily prayer services, named Shacharit, Mincha (literally: flour-offering) and Maariv or Arvit. All services include a number of benedictions called the Amidah or the Shemonah Esrei ("eighteen"), which on weekdays consists of nineteen blessings (one was added in the time of the Mishna, but the name remains). Another key prayer in many services is the declaration of faith, the Shema which is recited at shacharit and maariv. Most of the prayers in a traditional Jewish service can be said in solitary prayer, but Kaddish and Kedusha require a group of ten adult men (or men and women in some branches of Judaism) called a minyan (prayer quorum). There are also prayers and benedictions recited throughout the day, such as those before eating or drinking.

There are a number of common Jewish religious objects used in prayer. The tallit is a Jewish prayer shawl. A kippah or yarmulke (skullcap) is a head covering worn during prayer by most Jews, and at all times by more orthodox Jews — especially Ashkenazim. Phylacteries or tefillin, boxes containing the portions of the Torah mandating them, are also worn by religious Jews during weekday morning services.

The Jewish approach to prayer differs slightly between the various branches of Judaism, although all use the same set of prayers and texts, the frequency of prayer, the number of prayers recited at various religious events, and whether one prays in a particular liturgical language or the vernacular differs from denomination to denomination, with Conservative and Orthodox congregations using more traditional services, while Reform and Reconstructionist synagogues are more likely to incorporate translations, contemporary writings, and abbreviated services.

Shabbat

Main article: Shabbat

Shabbat, the weekly day of rest lasting from Friday night to Saturday night, celebrates God's creation as a day of rest that commemorates God's day of rest upon the completion of creation. It plays an important role in Jewish practice and is the subject of a large body of religious law. Some consider it the most important Jewish holiday.

Jewish holidays

Main article: Jewish holidays

The Jewish holy days celebrate central themes in the relationship between God and the world, such as creation, revelation, and redemption. Some holidays are also linked to the agricultural cycle.

Three holidays celebrate revelation by commemorating different events in the passage of the Children of Israel out of slavery in Egypt to their return to the land of Canaan. They are also timed to coincide with important agricultural seasons. They are also pilgramage holidays, for which the Children of Israel would journey to Jerusalem to offer sacrifices to God in His Temple.

  • Pesach or Passover celebrates the Exodus from Egypt, and coincides with the barley harvest. It is the only holiday that centers on home-service, the Seder. Pesach occurs on the 15th of Nissan; Nissan is the first month of the Jewish calendar, because it was in this month that the Children of Israel left Egypt.
  • Shavuot or Pentacost or Feast of Weeks celebrates Moses' giving of the Ten Commandments to the Israelites, and marks the transition from the barley harvest to the wheat harvest.
  • Sukkot, or The Festival of booths or the Festival of the ingathering commemorates the wandering of the Children of Israel through the desert. It is celebrated through the construction of temporary booths that represent the temporary shelters of the Children of Israel during their wandering. It coincides with the fruit harvest, and marks the end of the agricultural cycle.
  • Rosh Hashanah, also Yom Ha-Zikkaron (the day of remembrance) or Yom Teruah (the day of the sounding of the shofar). Called the Jewish New Year because it celebrates the day that the world was created, and marks the advance in the calendar from one year to the next, although it occurs in the seventh month, Tishri. It is also a holiday of redemption, as it marks the beginning of the atonement period that ends ten days later with Yom Kippur.
  • Yom Kippur, or The Day of Atonement, also called "the Sabbath of Sabbaths," is a holiday centered on redemption; a day of atonement and fasting for sins committed during the previous year. Many consider this the most important Jewish holiday.

There are many minor holidays as well, including Purim, which celebrates the events told in the Biblical book of Esther, and Chanukkah, which is not established in the Bible but which celebrates the successful rebellion by the Maccabees against the Seleucid Empire.

Torah readings

The core of festival and Sabbath prayer services is the public reading of the Torah, along with connected readings from the other books of the Jewish Bible, called Haftarah. During the course of a year, the full Torah is read, and the cycle begins again every autumn during Simhat Torah (“rejoicing in the Torah”).

Dietary laws: Kashrut

Main article: Kashrut

The laws of kashrut ("keeping kosher") are the Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with Jewish law is termed kosher, and food not in accord with Jewish law is termed treifah or treif. From the context of the laws in the book of Leviticus, the purpose of kashrut is related to ritual purity and holiness. Reform and Reconstructionist Jews do not keep kosher, Orthodox Jews and some Conservative Jews do keep kosher, to varying degrees of strictness.

Family purity

Main article: Niddah

The laws of niddah ("menstruant", often referred to euphemistically as "family purity") and various other laws regulating the interaction between men and women (e.g. tzeniut, modesty in dress) are perceived, especially by Orthodox Jews, as vital factors in Jewish life.

The laws of niddah dictate that sexual intercourse cannot take place while the woman is having a menstrual flow, and she has to count seven "clean" days and immerse in a mikvah (ritual bath).

Life-cycle events

Life-cycle events occur throughout a Jew's life that bind him/her to the entire community.

  • Brit milah - Welcoming male babies into the covenant through the rite of circumcision.
  • Bar mitzvah and Bat mitzvah - Celebrating a child's reaching the age of majority, becoming responsible from now on for themselves as an adult for living a Jewish life and following halakha.
  • Marriage
  • Shiv'ah (mourning) - Judaism has a multi-staged mourning practice. The first stage is called the Shiv'ah (literally "seven", observed for one week) during which it is traditional to sit at home and be comforted by friends and family, the second is the shloshim (observed for one month) and for those who have lost one of their parents, there is a third stage, avelut yud bet chodesh, which is observed for eleven months.

Community leadership

Classical priesthood

Judaism does not have a clergy, in the sense of full-time specialists required for religious services. Technically, the last time Judaism had a clergy was prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 C.E., when priests attended to the Temple and sacrifices. The priesthood is an inherited position, and although priests no longer have clerical duties, they are still honored in many Jewish communities

  • Kohen (priest) - patrilineal descendant of Aaron, brother of Moses. In the Temple, the kohanim were charged with performing the sacrifices. Today, a Kohen is the first one called up at the reading of the Torah, performs the priestly blessing, as well as complying with other unique laws.
  • Levi (Levite) - Patrilineal descendant of Levi the son of Jacob. Today, a Levite is called up second to the reading of the Torah.

Prayer leaders

From the times of the Mishna and Talmud to the present, Judaism has required specialists or authorities for the practice of very few rituals or ceremonies. A Jew can fulfil most requirements for prayer by himself. Some activities -- reading the Torah and haftarah (a supplementary portion from the Prophets or Writings); the prayer for mourners; the blessings for bridegroom and bride; the complete grace after meals -- require a minyan, the presense of ten adults (Orthodox Jews and some Conservative Jews require ten adult men; some Conservative Jews and Reform Jews include women in the minyan).

The most common professional clergy in a synogogue are:

  • Rabbi of a congregation - Jewish scholar who is charged with answering the legal questions of a congregation. Orthodox Judaism requires semicha (Rabbinical ordination). A congregation does not necessarily require a Rabbi. Some congregations have a Rabbi but also allow members of the congregation to act as shatz or baal koreh (see below).
    • Hassidic Rebbe - Rabbi who is the head of a Hassidic dynasty.
  • Hazzan (cantor) - a trained vocalist who acts as shatz. Chosen for a good voice, knowledge of traditional tunes, understanding of the meaning of the prayers and sincerity in reciting them. A congregation does not need to have a dedicated hazzan.

Jewish prayer services do involve two specified roles, which are often, but not always, filled by a Rabbi and/or Hazzan in many congregations:

  • Shaliach tzibur or Shatz (leader -- literally "agent" or "representative" -- of the congregation) leads those assembled in prayer, and sometimes prays on behalf of the community. When a shatz recites a prayer on behalf of the congregation, he is not acting as an intermediary but rather as a facilitator. The entire congregation participates in the recital of such prayers by saying amen at their conclusion; it is with this act that the shatz's prayer becomes the prayer of the congregation. Any adult capable of speaking Hebrew clearly may act as shatz (Orthodox Jews and some Conservative Jews allow only men to act as shatz; some Conservative Jews and Reform Jews allow women to act as shatz as well).
  • Baal koreh (master of the reading) reads the weekly Torah portion. The requirements for acting as baal koreh are the same as those for the shatz.

Note that these roles are not mutually exclusive. The same person is often qualified to fill more than one role, and often does.

Many congregations, especially larger ones, also rely on a:

  • Gabbai (sexton) - Calls people up to the Torah, appoints the shatz for each prayer session if there is no standard shatz, and makes certain that the synagogue is kept clean and supplied.

The three preceding positions are usually voluntary and considered an honor. Since the Enlightenment large synagogues have often adopted the practice of hiring rabbis and hazzans to act as shatz and baal koreh, and this is still typically the case in most Conservative and Reform congretations. However, in most Orthodox synagogues these positions are filled by laypeople.

Specialized religious roles

  • Dayan (judge) - expert in Jewish law who sits on a beth din (rabbinical court) for either monetary matters or for overseeing the giving of a bill of divorce. A dayan always requires semicha.
  • Mohel - performs the brit milah (circumcision). An expert in the laws of circumcision who has received training from a qualified mohel.
  • Shochet (ritual slaughterer) - slaughters all kosher meat. In order for meat to be kosher, it must be slaughtered by a shochet who is expert in the laws and has received training from another shochet, as well as having regular contact with a rabbi and revising the relevant guidelines on a regular basis.
  • Sofer (scribe) - Torah scrolls, tefillin (phylacteries), mezuzahs (scrolls put on doorposts), and gittin (bills of divorce) must be written by a sofer who is an expert in the laws of writing.
  • Rosh yeshivah - head of a yeshiva. Somebody who is an expert in delving into the depths of the Talmud, and lectures the highest class in a Yeshiva.
  • Mashgiach of a yeshiva - expert in mussar (ethics). Oversees the emotional and spiritual welfare of the students in a yeshiva, and gives lectures on mussar.
  • Mashgiach over kosher products - supervises merchants and manufacturers of kosher food to ensure that the food is kosher. Either an expert in the laws of kashrut, or (generally) under the supervision of a rabbi who is expert in those laws.

Jewish religious history

Main article: Jewish history

Jewish history is an extensive topic, this section will cover the elements of Jewish history of most importance to the Jewish religion and the development of Jewish denominations.

Ancient Jewish religious history

Jews trace their religious lineage to the biblical patriarch Abraham through Isaac and Jacob. After the Exodus from Egypt, the Jews came to Canaan, and settled the land. A kingdom was established under Saul and continued under King David and Solomon with its capital in Jerusalem. After Solomon's reign the nation split into two kingdoms, the Kingdom of Israel (in the north) and the Kingdom of Judah (in the south). The Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Assyrian ruler Shalmaneser V in the 8th century BCE and spread all over the Assyrian empire, where they were assimilated into other cultures and become known as the Ten Lost Tribes. The Kingdom of Judah continued as an independent state until it was conquered by a Babylonian army in the early 6th century BCE, destroying the First Temple that was at the centre of ancient Jewish worship. The Judean elite was exiled to Babylonia, but later at least a part of them returned to their homeland after the subsequent conquest of Babylonia by the Persians seventy years later, a period known as the Babylonian Captivity. A new Second Temple was constructed, and old religious practices were resumed.

After a Jewish revolt against Roman rule in 66 CE, the Romans all but destroyed Jerusalem; only a single "Western Wall" of the Second Temple remained. Following a second revolt, Jews were not allowed to enter the city of Jerusalem and most Jewish worship was forbidden by Rome. Following the destruction of Jerusalem and the expulsion of the Jews, Jewish worship stopped being centrally organized around the Temple, and instead was rebuilt around rabbis who acted as teachers and leaders of individual communities. No new books were added to the Jewish Bible after the Roman period, instead major efforts went into interpreting and developing Jewish law.

Historical Jewish groupings (-1700)

Around the first century CE there were several small Jewish sects: the Pharisees, Sadducees, Zealots, Essenes, and Christians. After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE., these sects vanished. Christianity survived, but by breaking with Judaism and becoming a separate religion; the Pharisees survived but in the form of Rabbinic Judaism (today, known simply as "Judaism").

Some Jews in the 8th and 9th centuries adopted the Sadducees' rejection of the oral law of the Pharisees/Rabbis recorded in the Mishnah (and developed by later Rabbis in the two Talmuds), intending to rely only upon the Tanakh. These included the Isunians, the Yudganites, the Malikites, and others. They soon developed oral traditions of their own which differed from the Rabbinic traditions, and eventually formed the Karaite sect. Karaites exist in small numbers today, mostly living in Israel. Rabbinical and Karaite Jews each hold that the others are Jews, but that the other faith is erroneous.

Over time Jews developed into distinct ethnic groups — amongst others, the Ashkenazi Jews (of Central and Eastern Europe with Russia); the Sephardi Jews (of Spain, Portugal and North Africa) and the Yemenite Jews, from the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. This split is cultural, and is not based on any doctrinal dispute, although the distance did result in minor differences in practice and prayers.

Hasidism

Main article: Hasidic Judaism

Hasidic Judaism was founded by Israel ben Eliezer (1700-1760), also known as the Ba'al Shem Tov (or Besht). His disciples attracted many followers; they themselves established numerous Hasidic sects across Europe. Hasidic Judaism eventually became the way of life for many Jews in Europe. Waves of Jewish immigration in the 1880s carried it to the United States.

Early on, there was a serious schism between the Hasidic and non-Hasidic Jews. European Jews who rejected the Hasidic movement were dubbed by the Hasidim as mitnagdim, (lit. "opponents"). Some of the reasons for the rejection of Hasidic Judaism were the overwhelming exuberance of Hasidic worship; their untraditional ascriptions of infallibility and alleged miracle-working to their leaders, and the concern that it might become a messianic sect. Since then all the sects of Hasidic Judaism have been subsumed into mainstream Orthodox Judaism, particularly Haredi Judaism.

The Enlightenment and Reform Judaism

Main article: Haskalah

In the late 18th century CE Europe was swept by a group of intellectual, social and political movements known as the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment led to reductions in the European laws that prohibited Jews to interact with the wider secular world, thus allowing Jews access to secular education and experience. A parallel Jewish movement, Haskalah or the "Jewish Enlightenment," began, especially in Central Europe, in response to both the Enlightenment and these new freedoms. It placed an emphasis on integration with secular society and a pursuit of non-religious knowledge. The thrust and counter-thrust between supporters of Haskalah and more traditional Jewish concepts eventually led to the formation of a number of different branches of Judaism: Haskalah supporters founded Reform Judaism and Liberal Judaism, while traditionalists founded many forms of Orthodox Judaism, and Jews seeking a balance between the two sides founded Conservative Judaism. A number of smaller groups came into being as well.

The Holocaust

While the Holocaust did not immediately affect Jewish denominations, its great loss of life caused a radical demographic shift, ultimately affecting the makeup of organized Judaism the way it is today. A Jewish day of mourning, Yom HaShoah, was inserted into the Jewish calendar, commemorating the Holocaust.

The present situation

In most western nations, such as the United States of America, Israel, Canada, United Kingdom and South Africa, a wide variety of Jewish practices exist, along with a growing plurality of secular and non-practicing Jews. For example, in the world's largest Jewish community, the United States, according to the 2001 National Jewish Population Survey (http://www.ujc.org/content_display.html?ArticleID=83784), 4.3 million out of 5.1 million Jews had some sort of connection to the religion. Of that population of connected Jews, 80% participated in some sort of Jewish religious observance, but only 48% belonged to a synagogue.

Religious (and secular) Jewish movements in the USA and Canada perceive this as a crisis situation, and have grave concern over rising rates of intermarriage and assimilation in the Jewish community. Since American Jews are marrying at a later time in their life than they used to, and are having fewer children than they used, the birth rate for American Jews has dropped from over 2.0 down to 1.7 (the replacement rate is 2.1). (This is My Beloved, This is My Friend: A Rabbinic Letter on Intimate relations, p.27, Elliot N. Dorff, The Rabbinical Assembly, 1996). Intermarriage rates range from 40-50% in the US, and only about a third of children of intermarried couples are raised Jewish. Due to intermarriage and low birth rates, the Jewish population in the US shrank from 5.5 million in 1990 to 5.1 million in 2001. This is indicative of the general population trends among the Jewish community in the Diaspora, but a focus on population masks the diversity of current Jewish religious practice, as well as growth trends among some communities, like haredi Jews.

In the last 50 years there has been a general increase in interest in religion among many segments of the Jewish population. All of the major Jewish denominations have experienced a resurgence in popularity, with increasing numbers of younger Jews participating in Jewish education, joining synagogues, and becoming (to varying degrees) more observant. Complementing the increased popularity of the major denominations has been a number of new approaches to Jewish worship, including feminist approaches to Judaism and Jewish renewal movements. There is a separate article on the Baal teshuva movement, the movement of Jews returning to observant Judaism. Though this gain has not offset the general demographic loss due to intermarriage and acculturation, many Jewish communities and movements are growing.

Judaism and other religions

Christianity and Judaism

There are a number of articles on the relationship between Judaism and Christianity. These articles include:

  • Comparing and contrasting Judaism and Christianity
  • Judeo-Christian
  • Christianity and anti-Semitism
  • Jewish view of Jesus
  • Cultural and historical background of Jesus

Since the Holocaust, there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christians groups and the Jewish people; the article on Christian-Jewish reconciliation studies this issue.

Messianic Judaism (sometimes Hebrew Christianity) is the common designation for a number of Christian groups which include varying degrees of Jewish practice. These groups have attracted tens (and perhaps hundreds) of thousands of Jews and Christians to their ranks; members identify themselves as Jews. These groups are viewed highly negatively by all Jewish denominations, which typically see them as covert and deceptive attempts to convert Jews to Christianity, a view Messianic-Jewish groups strongly contest.

Some Jews have joined other faiths, such as Judeo-Paganism and neo-paganism. Some adherents to those movements identify themselves as Jews nonetheless.

Islam and Judaism

Main article: Islam and Judaism

Under Islamic rule, Judaism has been practiced for almost 1500 years and this has led to an interplay between the two religions which has been positive as well as negative at times. The period around 900 to 1200 in Moorish Spain came to be known as the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain.

The 20th century animosity of Muslim leaders towards the Zionism, the political movement of Jewish self-determination, has led to a renewed interest in the relationship between Judaism and Islam.

Other relevant material:

  • Similarities between the Bible and the Qur'an
  • Islam and anti-Semitism

This page about Judaism includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Judaism
News stories about Judaism
External links for Judaism
Videos for Judaism
Wikis about Judaism
Discussion Groups about Judaism
Blogs about Judaism
Images of Judaism

Other relevant material:. The station eventually became today's San Francisco's KCBS-AM. The 20th century animosity of Muslim leaders towards the Zionism, the political movement of Jewish self-determination, has led to a renewed interest in the relationship between Judaism and Islam. Herrold started the world's first radio broadcasting station on the corner of First and San Fernando streets in San Jose, as "Station FN". The period around 900 to 1200 in Moorish Spain came to be known as the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain. Most people associate San Jose's technology leadership with computers, but in 1909 Charles D. Under Islamic rule, Judaism has been practiced for almost 1500 years and this has led to an interplay between the two religions which has been positive as well as negative at times. The glossy, monthly San Jose Magazine focuses more on the people and culture of San Jose than on "hard news", but has won awards for its news coverage from the Bay Area's most prestigious media organization, the Peninsula Press Club.

Main article: Islam and Judaism. The bilingual weeklies La Oferta and El-Observador have articles and advertisements in both English and Spanish. Some adherents to those movements identify themselves as Jews nonetheless. The publisher of the Mercury News, Knight Ridder, also publishes the daily Nuevo Mundo, serving San Jose's large Hispanic community along with other Spanish-speaking residents, and Viet Mercury, serving San Jose's large Vietnamese community. Some Jews have joined other faiths, such as Judeo-Paganism and neo-paganism. In addition to the major English-language newspapers, the daily San Jose Mercury News and the weekly alternative Metro Silicon Valley, San Jose is served by a variety of other local print media. These groups are viewed highly negatively by all Jewish denominations, which typically see them as covert and deceptive attempts to convert Jews to Christianity, a view Messianic-Jewish groups strongly contest. The following lists include only local media.

These groups have attracted tens (and perhaps hundreds) of thousands of Jews and Christians to their ranks; members identify themselves as Jews. San Jose is served by local media as well as that of San Francisco and national media. Messianic Judaism (sometimes Hebrew Christianity) is the common designation for a number of Christian groups which include varying degrees of Jewish practice. See also attractions in adjacent communities in Santa Clara County. Since the Holocaust, there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christians groups and the Jewish people; the article on Christian-Jewish reconciliation studies this issue. Some notable people who moved to San Jose include:. These articles include:. Some notable people born in San Jose include:.

There are a number of articles on the relationship between Judaism and Christianity. [19] (http://sjlibrary.org/index.htm). Though this gain has not offset the general demographic loss due to intermarriage and acculturation, many Jewish communities and movements are growing. The Calabazas Branch has four primary language-specific collections: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Russian, in addition to its English texts. There is a separate article on the Baal teshuva movement, the movement of Jews returning to observant Judaism. The East San Jose Carnegie Branch Library, a Carnegie library opened in 1908, is the last Carnegie library in Santa Clara County still operating as a public library, and is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Complementing the increased popularity of the major denominations has been a number of new approaches to Jewish worship, including feminist approaches to Judaism and Jewish renewal movements. Additionally, the city has 20 neighborhood branches, including the Biblioteca Latinoamericana, specializing in Spanish language works.

In the last 50 years there has been a general increase in interest in religion among many segments of the Jewish population. All of the major Jewish denominations have experienced a resurgence in popularity, with increasing numbers of younger Jews participating in Jewish education, joining synagogues, and becoming (to varying degrees) more observant. The library is the largest (built all at once) west of the Mississippi River, with a 1.5 million item collection. This is indicative of the general population trends among the Jewish community in the Diaspora, but a focus on population masks the diversity of current Jewish religious practice, as well as growth trends among some communities, like haredi Jews. Library, combining the collections of the city's system with the San Jose State library when it opened in 2003. Due to intermarriage and low birth rates, the Jewish population in the US shrank from 5.5 million in 1990 to 5.1 million in 2001. The San Jose City Library system is unique, with the main branch, the Martin Luther King, Jr. Intermarriage rates range from 40-50% in the US, and only about a third of children of intermarried couples are raised Jewish. There is also the nonsectarian K-12 Harker School.

(This is My Beloved, This is My Friend: A Rabbinic Letter on Intimate relations, p.27, Elliot N. Dorff, The Rabbinical Assembly, 1996). [18] (http://www.city-data.com/city/San-Jose-California.html) Valley Christian High School is a protestant high school in the North Valley neighborhood. Since American Jews are marrying at a later time in their life than they used to, and are having fewer children than they used, the birth rate for American Jews has dropped from over 2.0 down to 1.7 (the replacement rate is 2.1). There are two Baptist high schools, Liberty Baptist School and White Road Baptist Academy. Religious (and secular) Jewish movements in the USA and Canada perceive this as a crisis situation, and have grave concern over rising rates of intermarriage and assimilation in the Jewish community. Many Roman Catholic churches operate schools, including four high schools:. Of that population of connected Jews, 80% participated in some sort of Jewish religious observance, but only 48% belonged to a synagogue. Private schools in San Jose are primarily run by religious groups.

For example, in the world's largest Jewish community, the United States, according to the 2001 National Jewish Population Survey (http://www.ujc.org/content_display.html?ArticleID=83784), 4.3 million out of 5.1 million Jews had some sort of connection to the religion. The following districts use the "feeder" system:. In most western nations, such as the United States of America, Israel, Canada, United Kingdom and South Africa, a wide variety of Jewish practices exist, along with a growing plurality of secular and non-practicing Jews. In addition to the main San Jose Unified School District, the unified school districts are Milpitas Unified School District, Morgan Hill Unified School District, and Santa Clara Unified School District. A Jewish day of mourning, Yom HaShoah, was inserted into the Jewish calendar, commemorating the Holocaust. The result is a patchwork of local school districts in the areas annexed after 1954.1 Public education in the city is provided by four high school districts, fourteen elementary districts, and four unified school districts (which provide both elementary and high schools). While the Holocaust did not immediately affect Jewish denominations, its great loss of life caused a radical demographic shift, ultimately affecting the makeup of organized Judaism the way it is today. The city's legislators pushed a bill through the California Legislature, removing that requirement, and ending much of the opposition.

A number of smaller groups came into being as well. When San Jose began expanding, rural school districts became one of the major opponents, as their territory and tax base was taken by the city. The thrust and counter-thrust between supporters of Haskalah and more traditional Jewish concepts eventually led to the formation of a number of different branches of Judaism: Haskalah supporters founded Reform Judaism and Liberal Judaism, while traditionalists founded many forms of Orthodox Judaism, and Jews seeking a balance between the two sides founded Conservative Judaism. Prior to 1954, California law required cities and school districts to have the same boundaries. It placed an emphasis on integration with secular society and a pursuit of non-religious knowledge. Most San Jose students go to schools in the San Jose Unified School District. A parallel Jewish movement, Haskalah or the "Jewish Enlightenment," began, especially in Central Europe, in response to both the Enlightenment and these new freedoms. In addition, San Jose residents attend several other area universities, including Santa Clara University, De Anza College in Cupertino, Stanford University in Palo Alto, and the University of California, Berkeley.

The Enlightenment led to reductions in the European laws that prohibited Jews to interact with the wider secular world, thus allowing Jews access to secular education and experience. The University of California, Santa Cruz operates Lick Observatory atop Mount Hamilton. In the late 18th century CE Europe was swept by a group of intellectual, social and political movements known as the Enlightenment. San Jose's community colleges, San Jose City College and Evergreen Valley College, offer associate degrees, general education units to transfer to CSU and UC schools, and adult and continuing education programs. Main article: Haskalah. The San Jose campus of Golden Gate University offers business bachelor and MBA degrees. Since then all the sects of Hasidic Judaism have been subsumed into mainstream Orthodox Judaism, particularly Haredi Judaism. Lincoln Law School of San Jose offers law degrees, catering to working professionals.

Some of the reasons for the rejection of Hasidic Judaism were the overwhelming exuberance of Hasidic worship; their untraditional ascriptions of infallibility and alleged miracle-working to their leaders, and the concern that it might become a messianic sect. Silicon Valley College offers bachelor's and associate degrees useful for workers in high technology industries. "opponents"). Located in downtown San Jose since 1870, the university's 30,000 students in bachelor's and master's degree programs are primarily commuters from many areas in the South Bay. National Hispanic University, with an enrollment of 600, offers associate and bachelor's degrees and teaching credentials to its students, focusing on Hispanic students. European Jews who rejected the Hasidic movement were dubbed by the Hasidim as mitnagdim, (lit. The largest and most well known is San Jose State University, the original campus of the California State University system. Early on, there was a serious schism between the Hasidic and non-Hasidic Jews. San Jose is home to several colleges and universities.

Waves of Jewish immigration in the 1880s carried it to the United States. Cable television is provided by Comcast. Hasidic Judaism eventually became the way of life for many Jews in Europe. Telephone service is provided primarily by SBC Communications. His disciples attracted many followers; they themselves established numerous Hasidic sects across Europe. Natural gas and electricity are provided by PG&E. Hasidic Judaism was founded by Israel ben Eliezer (1700-1760), also known as the Ba'al Shem Tov (or Besht). About ten percent of the treated wastewater is sold for irrigation ("water recycling") in San Jose, Santa Clara, and Milpitas, through local water providers San José Municipal Water System, City of Milpitas Municipal Services, City of Santa Clara Water & Sewer Utility, Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Jose Water Company, and Great Oaks Water Company.

Main article: Hasidic Judaism. Wastewater treatment happens at the San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant, which treats and cleans the wastewater of the more than 1,500,000 people that live and work in the 300 square mile (780 km²) area encompassing San Jose, Santa Clara, Milpitas, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Gatos, Saratoga, and Monte Sereno. This split is cultural, and is not based on any doctrinal dispute, although the distance did result in minor differences in practice and prayers. The list includes all plastic categories 1 through 7; aerosol cans and paint cans; polystyrene including "packing peanuts" and hard foam packing, such as in electronic and computer products' boxes; aluminum furniture; small metal appliances; metal pots and pans (including cast iron); and clean cotton, linen, polyester, rayon, and wool fabrics (for example, blankets, clothes, cloth diapers, rags, and sheets). Over time Jews developed into distinct ethnic groups — amongst others, the Ashkenazi Jews (of Central and Eastern Europe with Russia); the Sephardi Jews (of Spain, Portugal and North Africa) and the Yemenite Jews, from the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. The no-sorting convenience and unusually long list of recyclable items has resulted in San Jose being one of very few cities that can boast that it recycles 64% of its waste. Rabbinical and Karaite Jews each hold that the others are Jews, but that the other faith is erroneous. Garbage, wastewater treatment, and recycling services are overseen by the city of San Jose's Environmental Services Department.

Karaites exist in small numbers today, mostly living in Israel. Great Oaks provides exclusively well water, while the other two provide water from multiple sources, including well water, and surface water from the Los Gatos Creek watershed, Santa Clara Valley Water District, and the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's Hetch Hetchy reservoir. They soon developed oral traditions of their own which differed from the Rabbinic traditions, and eventually formed the Karaite sect. Potable water is provided primarily by the private-sector San Jose Water Company, with some by the Great Oaks Water Company, and ten percent by the public-sector San Jose Municipal Water System. These included the Isunians, the Yudganites, the Malikites, and others. Cargo rail service to San Jose is provided by Union Pacific Railroad. Some Jews in the 8th and 9th centuries adopted the Sadducees' rejection of the oral law of the Pharisees/Rabbis recorded in the Mishnah (and developed by later Rabbis in the two Talmuds), intending to rely only upon the Tanakh. Seagoing container traffic goes through the Port of Oakland.

Christianity survived, but by breaking with Judaism and becoming a separate religion; the Pharisees survived but in the form of Rabbinic Judaism (today, known simply as "Judaism"). The old port at Alviso was never upgraded to handle cargo containers and is now closed. After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE., these sects vanished. Although it touches San Francisco Bay, the city has no seaport. Around the first century CE there were several small Jewish sects: the Pharisees, Sadducees, Zealots, Essenes, and Christians. San Jose residents also use San Francisco International Airport, a major international hub located 35 miles (56 km) to the northwest, and Oakland International Airport, another medium-sized airport located 35 miles (56 km) to the north. No new books were added to the Jewish Bible after the Roman period, instead major efforts went into interpreting and developing Jewish law. San Jose is served by the medium-sized Mineta San Jose International Airport, two miles (3 km) northwest of downtown.

Following the destruction of Jerusalem and the expulsion of the Jews, Jewish worship stopped being centrally organized around the Temple, and instead was rebuilt around rabbis who acted as teachers and leaders of individual communities. Over the years, many plans to bring BART to San Jose have been suggested, but none have been built. Following a second revolt, Jews were not allowed to enter the city of Jerusalem and most Jewish worship was forbidden by Rome. During holidays, historic streetcars from the San Jose History Museum operate on the light rail lines in downtown. The VTA also operates many bus routes in San Jose and the surrounding communities, as well as offering paratransit services to local residents. After a Jewish revolt against Roman rule in 66 CE, the Romans all but destroyed Jerusalem; only a single "Western Wall" of the Second Temple remained. Commuter rail service to San Jose is provided by Amtrak, Caltrain (commuter rail service to San Francisco and Gilroy), ACE (commuter rail service to Pleasanton and Stockton), and a local light-rail system connecting downtown to Mountain View, Milpitas, and Almaden Valley, operated by the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA). A new Second Temple was constructed, and old religious practices were resumed. San Jose contains many expressways of the Santa Clara County expressway system.

The Judean elite was exiled to Babylonia, but later at least a part of them returned to their homeland after the subsequent conquest of Babylonia by the Persians seventy years later, a period known as the Babylonian Captivity. The San Jose area has a well-developed freeway system, including three Interstate highways—I-280, I-880, and I-680—in addition to several federal and state highways, US 101, CA-85, CA-87, CA-17, and CA-237. The Kingdom of Judah continued as an independent state until it was conquered by a Babylonian army in the early 6th century BCE, destroying the First Temple that was at the centre of ancient Jewish worship. In August, 2004, the Authority hosted the USA All-Star 7-Aside Rugby Championships at Watson Bowl, east of Downtown. The Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Assyrian ruler Shalmaneser V in the 8th century BCE and spread all over the Assyrian empire, where they were assimilated into other cultures and become known as the Ten Lost Tribes. Olympic team trials for judo, taekwondo, trampolining and rhythmic gymnastics at the San Jose State Event Center. After Solomon's reign the nation split into two kingdoms, the Kingdom of Israel (in the north) and the Kingdom of Judah (in the south). In 2004, the San Jose Sports Authority hosted the U.S.

A kingdom was established under Saul and continued under King David and Solomon with its capital in Jerusalem. The Pac-10 Women's Basketball Championship is held at the HP Pavilion as well as either the men's or women's West Regional tournament during the NCAA's March Madness. After the Exodus from Egypt, the Jews came to Canaan, and settled the land. In college sports, the San Jose State Spartans are the local college team, but most of the city's population support either the Stanford Cardinal, the Cal Golden Bears, or the Santa Clara Broncos. Jews trace their religious lineage to the biblical patriarch Abraham through Isaac and Jacob. The city has also been selected to be one of five host cities for the inaugural Dew Action Sports Tour season; the San Jose event will be held in September 2005. Jewish history is an extensive topic, this section will cover the elements of Jewish history of most importance to the Jewish religion and the development of Jewish denominations. The San Jose Grand Prix, scheduled to be held in July 2005, will bring Champ Car racing on a temporary road course on Downtown streets.

Main article: Jewish history. The SAP Open (formerly the Sybase Open) is an annual men's tennis tournament held at the HP Pavilion. However, in most Orthodox synagogues these positions are filled by laypeople. In addition to professional teams, San Jose hosts several sporting events. Since the Enlightenment large synagogues have often adopted the practice of hiring rabbis and hazzans to act as shatz and baal koreh, and this is still typically the case in most Conservative and Reform congretations. Previously, San Jose was home to the:. The three preceding positions are usually voluntary and considered an honor. San Jose is the home of the:.

Many congregations, especially larger ones, also rely on a:. [16] (http://www.sjredevelopment.org/101204/5-1DowntownTheaterUpdate.pdf) (caution, PDF). The same person is often qualified to fill more than one role, and often does. [15]  (http://www.siliconvalley.com/mld/mercurynews/news/columnists/leigh_weimers/10045287.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp) Including sporting events, the HP Pavilion averages 184 events a year, or roughly one event for every two days, which is significantly higher than the average for NHL arenas. Note that these roles are not mutually exclusive. The HP Pavilion is one of the most active venues for events in the world. According to Billboard Magazine and Pollstar, the arena sold the most tickets to non-sporting events of any venue in the United States, and third in the world after the Manchester Evening News Arena in Manchester, England, and the Bell Centre in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, for the period from January 1 – September 30, 2004. Jewish prayer services do involve two specified roles, which are often, but not always, filled by a Rabbi and/or Hazzan in many congregations:. In addition, the annual Cinequest Film Festival in downtown has grown to over 60,000 attendees per year, becoming an important festival for independent films.

The most common professional clergy in a synogogue are:. The city is home to many performance arts, including Opera San Jose, Symphony Silicon Valley, Ballet San Jose Silicon Valley, the San Jose Repertory Theatre, and American Musical Theatre of San Jose. Some activities -- reading the Torah and haftarah (a supplementary portion from the Prophets or Writings); the prayer for mourners; the blessings for bridegroom and bride; the complete grace after meals -- require a minyan, the presense of ten adults (Orthodox Jews and some Conservative Jews require ten adult men; some Conservative Jews and Reform Jews include women in the minyan). The sharks can still be found in their new owners' homes and businesses. A Jew can fulfil most requirements for prayer by himself. After the exhibition, the sharks were auctioned off and the proceeds donated to charity. From the times of the Mishna and Talmud to the present, Judaism has required specialists or authorities for the practice of very few rituals or ceremonies. Many displays were removed early because of vandalism.

The priesthood is an inherited position, and although priests no longer have clerical duties, they are still honored in many Jewish communities. Large models of sharks were decorated in a variety of clever, colorful, or creative ways by local artists and were then displayed for months at dozens of locations around the city. Technically, the last time Judaism had a clergy was prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 C.E., when priests attended to the Temple and sacrifices. In 2001, the city sponsored SharkByte, an exhibit of decorated sharks, based on the mascot of the hockey team, the San Jose Sharks, and modeled after Chicago's display of decorated cows [14] (http://www.chicagotraveler.com/cows_on_parade.htm). Judaism does not have a clergy, in the sense of full-time specialists required for religious services. [13] (http://www.morrill.org/books/quetzalcoatl.shtml) And the statue of Thomas Fallon, met strong resistance from those who felt that these people were largely responsible for the decimation of early native populations. Life-cycle events occur throughout a Jew's life that bind him/her to the entire community. Two examples, include the statue of Quetzalcoatl (the plumed serpent) in downtown which was controversial in its planning because some religious groups felt that it was pagan, and controversial in its implementation because many felt that the final statue by Robert Graham did not closely resemble a winged serpent, and was more noted for its expense than its aesthetics.

The laws of niddah dictate that sexual intercourse cannot take place while the woman is having a menstrual flow, and she has to count seven "clean" days and immerse in a mikvah (ritual bath). Within the early efforts at public art, there are notable controversies. tzeniut, modesty in dress) are perceived, especially by Orthodox Jews, as vital factors in Jewish life. Of particular note, the Mineta Airport expansion will incorporate a program of Art & Technology into its development. The laws of niddah ("menstruant", often referred to euphemistically as "family purity") and various other laws regulating the interaction between men and women (e.g. There is a considerable amount throughout the downtown area, and a growing collection in the City's neighborhood newer civic locations including libraries, parks, and fire stations. Main article: Niddah. The City was one of the first to adopt a public art ordinance at 2% of capital improvement building project budgets, and the results of this commitment are beginning to have an impact on the visual landscape of the City.

Reform and Reconstructionist Jews do not keep kosher, Orthodox Jews and some Conservative Jews do keep kosher, to varying degrees of strictness. Public art is an evolving attraction in the city. From the context of the laws in the book of Leviticus, the purpose of kashrut is related to ritual purity and holiness. The new City Hall, designed by Richard Meier & Partners opened in 2005 and is a notable addition to the growing collection of municipal building projects. Food in accord with Jewish law is termed kosher, and food not in accord with Jewish law is termed treifah or treif. The Children's Discovery Museum, Tech Museum of Innovation, and the San Jose Repertory Theater building have experimented with bold colors and unusual exteriors. The laws of kashrut ("keeping kosher") are the Jewish dietary laws. Municipal building projects have experimented more with architectural styles than have most private enterprises.

Main article: Kashrut. Because the downtown area is in the flight path to nearby Mineta International Airport, there is a permanent height limit for all buildings. During the course of a year, the full Torah is read, and the cycle begins again every autumn during Simhat Torah (“rejoicing in the Torah”). San Jose's downtown architecture is noted more for its limited height than for any particular buildings. The core of festival and Sabbath prayer services is the public reading of the Torah, along with connected readings from the other books of the Jewish Bible, called Haftarah. Related topics: Maps of San Jose, California. There are many minor holidays as well, including Purim, which celebrates the events told in the Biblical book of Esther, and Chanukkah, which is not established in the Bible but which celebrates the successful rebellion by the Maccabees against the Seleucid Empire. Out of the total population, 10.3% of those under the age of 18 and 7.4% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

They are also pilgramage holidays, for which the Children of Israel would journey to Jerusalem to offer sacrifices to God in His Temple. 8.8% of the population and 6.0% of families are below the poverty line. They are also timed to coincide with important agricultural seasons. The per capita income for the city is $26,697. Three holidays celebrate revelation by commemorating different events in the passage of the Children of Israel out of slavery in Egypt to their return to the land of Canaan. Males have a median income of $49,347 versus $36,936 for females. Some holidays are also linked to the agricultural cycle. The median income for a household in the city is $70,243, and the median income for a family is $74,813.

The Jewish holy days celebrate central themes in the relationship between God and the world, such as creation, revelation, and redemption. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 102.5 males. Main article: Jewish holidays. For every 100 females there are 103.3 males. Some consider it the most important Jewish holiday. The median age is 33 years. It plays an important role in Jewish practice and is the subject of a large body of religious law. In the city the population is spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 35.4% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, and 8.3% who are 65 years of age or older.

Shabbat, the weekly day of rest lasting from Friday night to Saturday night, celebrates God's creation as a day of rest that commemorates God's day of rest upon the completion of creation. The average household size is 3.20 and the average family size is 3.62. Main article: Shabbat. 18.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 4.9% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The Jewish approach to prayer differs slightly between the various branches of Judaism, although all use the same set of prayers and texts, the frequency of prayer, the number of prayers recited at various religious events, and whether one prays in a particular liturgical language or the vernacular differs from denomination to denomination, with Conservative and Orthodox congregations using more traditional services, while Reform and Reconstructionist synagogues are more likely to incorporate translations, contemporary writings, and abbreviated services. There are 276,598 households out of which 38.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% are married couples living together, 11.7% have a female householder with no husband present, and 26.4% are non-families. Phylacteries or tefillin, boxes containing the portions of the Torah mandating them, are also worn by religious Jews during weekday morning services. 30.17% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

A kippah or yarmulke (skullcap) is a head covering worn during prayer by most Jews, and at all times by more orthodox Jews — especially Ashkenazim. The racial makeup of the city is 47.49% White, 3.50% African American, 0.77% Native American, 26.86% Asian, 0.40% Pacific Islander, 15.94% from other races, and 5.04% from two or more races. The tallit is a Jewish prayer shawl. There are 281,841 housing units at an average density of 622.3/km² (1,611.8/mi²). There are a number of common Jewish religious objects used in prayer. The population density is 1,976.1/km² (5,117.9/mi²). There are also prayers and benedictions recited throughout the day, such as those before eating or drinking. As of the census2 of 2000, there are 894,943 people, 276,598 households, and 203,576 families residing in the city.

Most of the prayers in a traditional Jewish service can be said in solitary prayer, but Kaddish and Kedusha require a group of ten adult men (or men and women in some branches of Judaism) called a minyan (prayer quorum). [12] (http://www.mostlivable.org/cities/sanjose/home_accolades.html). Another key prayer in many services is the declaration of faith, the Shema which is recited at shacharit and maariv. are invested in San Jose and Silicon Valley companies. All services include a number of benedictions called the Amidah or the Shemonah Esrei ("eighteen"), which on weekdays consists of nineteen blessings (one was added in the time of the Mishna, but the name remains). patents than any other city, the average worker productivity in San Jose is double the national average, and 35 percent of venture capital funds in the U.S. There are three main daily prayer services, named Shacharit, Mincha (literally: flour-offering) and Maariv or Arvit. San Jose residents produce more U.S.

Main article: Jewish services. [11] (http://www.fedc.com/ACCRACostofLivingIndex2ndQuarter2004.htm) Housing costs in the city are the primary reason for the high cost of living, although the costs in all areas tracked by ACCRA are above the national average. Despite the high cost of living, San Jose households have the highest disposable income on any large American city. The main article Jewish views of religious pluralism describes how Judaism views other religions; it also describes how members of each of the Jewish religious denomination view the other denominations. only New York City and San Francisco are more expensive. Some European Karaites do not see themselves as part of the Jewish community, while most do. The cost of living in San Jose and the surrounding areas is among the highest in California and the nation; in the U.S. The Karaites, or "Scripturalists," accept only the Hebrew bible and what they view as the Peshat/"Plain or Simple Meaning";, and do not accept non-biblical writings as authoritative. [10] (http://www.sanjoseca.gov/planning/factsheet/employment.html).

The followers of Karaism believe they are the remnants of the non-Rabbinic Jewish sects of the Second Temple period, such as the Saducees, though others contend they are a sect started in the 8th and 9th centuries. Sizable government employers include the city, Santa Clara County, and San José State University. Unlike the above denominations, which were ideological reactions that resulted from the exposure of traditional rabbinic Judaism to the radical changes of modern times, Karaite Judaism did not begin as a modern Jewish movement. The city lists 25 companies with 1,000 employees or more, including the headquarters of Adobe Systems, BEA Systems, Cisco, and eBay, as well as major facilities for Flextronics, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Hitachi and Lockheed Martin. The third group is the largest, and has been the most politically active since the early 1990s. As of 2003, the city reported 355,000 jobs within the city limits and an unemployment rate of 8.7%. Haredi applies to a populace that can be roughly divided into three separate groups along both ethnic and ideological lines: (1) "Lithuanian" (non-hasidic) haredim of Ashkenazic origin; (2) Hasidic haredim of Ashkenazic origin; and (3) Sephardic haredim. During the peak of the tech bubble, employment, housing prices, and traffic congestion peaked, but all eased as the economy slowed during the first few years of the 21st century.

The former term includes what is called "Religious Zionism" or the "National Religious" community, as well as what has become known over the past decade or so as haredi-leumi (nationalist haredi), which combines a largely haredi lifestyle with nationist ideology. San Jose considers itself "the Capital of Silicon Valley." As such, its economy rises and falls with high-tech employment in the Bay Area. What would be called "Orthodox" in the diaspora includes what is commonly called dati (religious) or haredi (ultra-Orthodox) in Israel. Downtown San Jose experiences the lightest rainfall in the city, while South San Jose, only 10 miles (16 km) distant, experiences more rainfall and slightly more extreme temperatures. Various ways of measuring this percentage, each with its pros and cons, include the proportion of religiously observant Knesset members, the proportion of Jewish children enrolled in religious schools, and statistical studies on "identity". Again, like most of the Bay Area, San Jose is made up of dozens of microclimates. The "Orthodox" spectrum in Israel is a far greater percentage of the Jewish population in Israel than in the diaspora, though how much greater is hotly debated. Snow fell on the valley floor in San Jose most recently in January of 1976, about an inch (25 mm) that melted soon after the sun rose.

The term "Orthodox" (Ortodoxi) is unpopular in Israeli discourse (among both "secular" and "religious" alike). Nevertheless, the spectrum covered by "Orthodox" in the diaspora exists in Israel, again with some important variations. The snow level drops as low as 2,000 ft (610 m) above sea level occasionally each winter, coating nearby Mount Hamilton with light snow that seldom lasts a day> This sometimes snarls traffic travelling on State Route 17 towards Santa Cruz. They often overlap, and they cover an extremely wide range in terms of ideology and religious observance. During the winter, hillsides and fields turn green with native grasses and vegetation, although deciduous trees are bare; with the coming of the annual summer dry period, the vegetation dies and dries, giving the hills a golden cover, which some find beautiful but which also provides fuel for frequent grass fires. There is a great deal of ambiguity in the ways "secular" and "traditional" are used in Israel. Rain occurs primarily in the months from October through April or May, with hardly any rainfall from June through September. This term, as commonly used, has nothing to do with the official Masorti (Conservative) movement. With the light rainfall, San Jose experiences over 300 days a year of full or significant sunshine.

Middle East, Central Asia and North Africa). Temperatures between night and day can vary by 30 or 40 °F (17 to 22 °C). The term "traditional" (masorti) is most common among Israeli families of "eastern" origin (i.e. The highest temperature ever recorded in San Jose was 109 °F (42.8°C); the lowest was 21 °F (-6 °C). This portion of the population largely ignores organized religious life, be it of the official Israeli rabbinate (Orthodox) or of the liberal movements common to diaspora Judaism (Reform, Conservative). January's average high is 59 °F (15 °C) and average low is 42 °F (6 °C), with overnight freezes several nights each year; July's average high is 84 °F (29 °C) and average low is 58 °F (14 °C), with heat exceeding 100 °F (38 °C) several days each year. "Secular," or non-observant, Judaism is more popular among Israeli families of western (European) origin, whose Jewish identity may be a very powerful force in their lives, but who see it as largely independent of traditional religious belief and practice. However, temperatures are generally moderate.

Most Jewish Israelis classify themselves as "secular" (hiloni), "traditional" (masorti), or Haredi. It also avoids San Francisco's omnipresent fog most of the year. Even though all of these denominations exist in Israel, Israelis tend to classify Jewish identity in ways that are different than diaspora Jewry. Unlike San Francisco, which is exposed to the ocean or Bay on three sides and whose temperature therefore varies relatively little year-round and overnight, San Jose lies more inland, protected on three sides by mountains. This shelters the city from rain and makes it more of a semiarid, near-desert area, with a mean annual rainfall of only 14.4 inches (366 mm), compared to some other parts of the Bay Area, which can get up to four times that amount. Any Jew who keeps at least those laws would be considered observant and religious). San Jose, like most of the Bay Area, has a Mediterranean climate tempered by the presence of the San Francisco Bay. According to most Orthodox Jews, Jewish people who do not keep the laws of Shabbat and Yom Tov (the holidays), Kashrut, and family purity are considered non-religious. Some residents object to the deep yellow color of the streetlights, saying they are distracting because they are the same shade of yellow as traffic lights and other illuminated traffic warnings--image of the similarity here (http://www.baddesigns.com/strlt.html).

Many religious Jews do not look at one's denomination as a valid way of designating Jews; instead they view Jews by the level of their religious observance. To recognize the city's efforts, the asteroid 6216 San Jose was named after the city. It would not be unusual for a Conservative Jew to attend either an Orthodox or Reform synagogue, for example. Due to the proximity to Lick Observatory atop Mount Hamilton, San Jose has taken several steps to reduce light pollution, including replacing all street lamps with low pressure sodium lamps. Unlike Christian denominations, these doctrinal differences have not fundamentally split Jewish denominations, which continue to overlap on many issues. The lowest point in San Jose is at sea level at the San Francisco Bay in Alviso; the highest is 4,372 feet (1,333 m) at Copernicus Peak, Mount Hamilton. Over the past two centuries the Jewish community has divided into a number of Jewish denominations; each has a different understanding of what principles of belief a Jew should hold, and how one should live as a Jew. military from 1870 to 1945.

Main article: Jewish denominations. Along the southern part of the river is the neighborhood of Almaden Valley, originally named for the mercury mines which produced mercury needed for gold extraction from quartz during the California gold rush as well as mercury fulminate blasting caps and detonators for the U.S. Major changes occurred in response to the enlightenment (late 1700s to early 1800s) leading to the post-Enlightenment Jewish philosophers, and then modern Jewish philosophers such as Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, Mordecai Kaplan, Abraham Joshua Heschel, Will Herberg, Emmanuel Levinas, Richard Rubenstein, Emil Fackenheim, and Joseph Soloveitchik. The Guadalupe River runs from the Santa Cruz Mountains (which separate the South Bay from the Pacific Coast) flowing north through San Jose, ending in the San Francisco Bay at Alviso. Major Jewish philosophers include Solomon ibn Gabirol, Saadia Gaon, Maimonides and Gersonides. The other faults near San Jose are the Monte Vista Fault, South Hayward Fault, Northern Calaveras Fault, and Central Calaveras Fault. Early Jewish philosophy was influenced by the philosophy of Plato, Aristotle and Islamic philosophy. The Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 also did some damage to parts of the city.

Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. The Daly City Earthquake of 1957 caused some damage. Main article: Jewish philosophy. Earlier significant quakes rocked the city in 1839, 1851, 1858, 1864, 1865, 1868, and 1891. The question is far from settled and occasionally resurfaces in Israeli politics. The most serious earthquake, in 1906, damaged many buildings in San Jose as described earlier. The question of what determines Jewish identity was given new impetus when, in the 1950s, David ben Gurion requested opinions on mihu Yehudi ("who is a Jew") from Jewish religious authorities and intellectuals worldwide. San Jose lies near the San Andreas Fault; a major source of earthquake activity in California.

In the past, family and friends were said to often formally mourn for the person, though this is rarely done today. The total area is 1.86% water. However, in the latter case, the person loses standing as a member of the Jewish community and becomes known as an apostate. 452.9 km² (174.9 mi²) of it is land and 8.6 km² (3.3 mi²) of it is water. A Jew who ceases to practice Judaism is still considered a Jew, as is a Jew who does not accept Jewish principles of faith and becomes an agnostic or an atheist; so too with a Jew who converts to another religion. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 461.5 km² (178.2 mi²)1. (Recently, the American Reform and Reconstructionist movements have included those born of Jewish fathers and gentile mothers, if the children are raised practicing Judaism only.) All mainstream forms of Judaism today are open to sincere converts. San Jose is located at 37°18'15" North, 121°52'22" West (37.304051, −121.872734)¹.

According to Jewish law, someone is considered to be a Jew if he or she was born of a Jewish mother or converted in accord with Jewish Law. As of 2005, there are seven sister cities (aka twinned towns): Okayama, Japan (established in 1957); San José, Costa Rica (1961); Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico (1975); Tainan, Taiwan (1975); Dublin, Ireland (1986); Pune, India (1992); and Ekaterinburg, Russia (1992). Main article: Who is a Jew. The Office of Economic Development coordinates the San Jose Sister City Program. The literature of questions to rabbis, and their considered answers, is referred to as responsa (in Hebrew, '"Sheelot U-Teshuvot".) Over time, as practices develop, codes of Jewish law are written that are based on the responsa; the most important code, the Shulkhan Arukh, largely determines Jewish religious practice up till today. [7] (http://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/10/22/vietnamese.shooting.ap/) [8] (http://www.kron4.com/Global/story.asp?S=2355136&nav=5D7lRMbK) [9] (http://www.indybay.org/news/2004/10/1701805.php). The Halakha has developed slowly, through a precedent-based system. [6] (http://www.morganquitno.com/cit05pop.htm#500,000+) However, reports of police brutality have become more common.

Halakha, the rabbinic Jewish way of life, then, is based on a combined reading of the Torah, and the oral tradition - the Mishnah, the halakhic Midrash, the Talmud and its commentaries. [5] (http://www.sjpd.org/CrimeStats.cfm) In 2003 and 2004 the city was ranked as the safest American city with a population over 500,000 by the Morgan Quitno Awards. These have been expounded by commentaries of various Torah scholars during the ages. During the 1990s and 2000s, the crime rate has consistently fallen. Over the next four centuries this law underwent discussion and debate in both of the world's major Jewish communities (in Israel and Babylon), and the commentaries on the Mishnah from each of these communities eventually came to be edited together into compilations known as the two Talmuds. San Jose has consistently been ranked as one of the safest large cities in the United States. By time of Rabbi Judah Ha-Nasi (200 CE), after the destruction of Jerusalem, much of this material was edited together into the Mishnah. The LAFCO also defines a subset of the Sphere as an 'Urban Service Area' (indicated by the red line in the map), effectively limiting development to areas where urban infrastructure (sewers, electrical service, etc.) already exists.

This parallel set of material was originally transmitted orally, and came to be known as "the oral law". The Santa Clara County LAFCO has set boundaries of San Jose's 'Sphere of Influence' (indicated by the blue line in the map near the top of the page) as a superset of the actual city limits (the yellow area in the map), plus parts of the surrounding unincorporated county land, where San Jose can, for example, prevent development of fringe areas to concentrate city growth closer to the city's core. oral, sources. The goal of a LAFCO is to try to avoid uncontrolled urban sprawl. To justify this viewpoint, Jews point to the text of the Torah, where many words are left undefined, and many procedures mentioned without explanation or instructions; this, they argue, means that the reader is assumed to be familiar with the details from other, i.e. Like all California cities except San Francisco, both the levels and the boundaries of what the city government controls is determined by the local county Local Agency Formation Commission (http://www.santaclara.lafco.ca.gov) (LAFCO). Rabbinic Judaism has always held that the books of the Tanakh (called the written law) have always been transmitted in parallel with an oral tradition. 3.

These oral traditions originated in the Pharisee sect of ancient Judaism, and were latter recorded in written form and expanded upon by the Rabbis. Other city officers elected by the council are the city attorney, city auditor, and city clerk. the Sadducees, the Karaites), most Jews believed in what they call the oral law. The council elects the manager for an indefinite term, and may at any time remove the manager, or the electorate may remove the manager through a recall election. While there have been Jewish groups which claimed to be based on the written text of the Torah alone (e.g. The city manager is the chief administrative officer of the city, and must present an annual budget for approval by the city council. Many laws were only applicable when the Temple in Jerusalem existed, and fewer than 300 of these commandments are still applicable today. This council member has the right to act as mayor during the temporary absence of the mayor, but does not have the right of succession to the mayor's office upon a vacancy.3.

Some of these laws are directed only to men or to women, some only to the ancient priestly groups, the Kohanim and Leviyim (members of the tribe of Levi), some only to those who practice farming within the land of Israel. The council elects a vice-mayor from the members of the council at the second meeting of the year following a council election. According to rabbinic tradition there are 613 commandments in the Torah. Council members and the mayor are limited to two successive terms in office, although a council member that has reached the term limit can be elected mayor, and vice versa. The basis of Jewish law and tradition ("halakha") is the Torah (the five books of Moses). Council members and the mayor are elected to four-year terms; the even-numbered district council members beginning in 1994; the mayor and the odd-numbered district council members beginning in 1996. Main article: Halakha. The mayor has no veto powers.

Related Topics. The San Jose City Council is made up of ten council members elected by districts, and a mayor elected in an at-large election. During city council meetings, the mayor presides, and all eleven members can vote on any issue. For more detail, see Rabbinic literature. The city has a council-manager government with a city manager nominated by the mayor and elected by the city council. The following is a basic, structured list of the central works of Jewish practice and thought. San Jose is a charter city under California law, giving it the power to enact local ordinances that may conflict with state law, within the limits provided by the charter. Jews are often called the "people of the book," and Judaism has an age-old intellectual tradition focusing on text-based Torah study. A large portion of the Santa Clara Valley still contained commercial orchards.

Generally, however, the thirteen principles of faith expressed by Maimonides are considered authorative descriptions of Jewish beliefs:. Highway 101, which touched only the outermost edges of the city and was still a rural route or controlled by traffic lights in some areas. A comparison of them demonstrates a wide array of tolerance for varying theological perspectives. The only freeway through or near San Jose was U.S. Over the centuries, a number of clear formulations of Jewish principles of faith have appeared; most of them have much in common, yet they differ in certain details. Many people's view of San Jose is still formed by the Dionne Warwick hit from the 1960s, "Do You Know the Way to San Jose?" Written by Burt Bacharach and Hal David (neither of whom had spent time there and chose the name because it suited the tune), it includes the lyrics, "there's a lot of space in San Jose; there'll be a place where I can stay" and "I may go wrong and lose my way," and contrasts it to Los Angeles, "a great big freeway." In 1960, the population of San Jose was only 204,000, just over a fifth of the 2003 population. the Divine origin of the Torah) are considered important enough that public rebellion against them can put one in the category of "apikoros" (heretic). 2.

Despite the above, in Orthodox Judaism some principles (e.g. The average 2003 home price in Santa Clara County was approximately 330 percent of the national average. For example, the ancient historian Josephus emphasized practices and traditions rather than beliefs when he describes the characteristics of an apostate (a Jew who does not follow traditional customs) and the requirements for conversion to Judaism (circumcision, and adherence to traditional customs). As a result, housing costs in San Jose and the rest of the Bay Area rose faster than the national average in the 1980s and 1990s; between 1976 and 2001, San Jose's housing costs increased by 936 percent, the fastest growth in the nation over that time. This approach to religious doctrine dates back at least two thousand years. However, the city council passed another General Plan in 1994 with the original 1974 urban growth boundaries intact. With no central agreed-upon authority, no one formulation of Jewish principles of faith could take precedent over any other. By 1980, the city's population was 630,000; it reached 782,000 by 1990; and 894,943 by 2000—at which point Santa Clara County as a whole had 1,682,585 residents.

While individual Jewish rabbis, or sometimes entire groups, at times agreed upon a firm dogma, other rabbis and groups disagreed. However, with the boom of the electronics industry, specifically personal computers and integrated circuits, San Jose and the surrounding areas' population continued to grow rapidly. It is difficult to generalize about Jewish theology because Judaism is non-creedal; that is, there is no agreed-upon dogma (set of orthodox beliefs) that most Jews believed were required of Jews. 2. While Judaism has always affirmed a number of Jewish principles of faith, it has never developed a fully binding "catechism". The plan's goal was to bring population growth down to a more manageable level. Main article: Jewish principles of faith. The result was that there was no land available to build housing.

Modern scholars also suggest that the Torah consists of a variety of inconsistent texts that were edited together in a way that calls attention to divergent accounts (see Documentary hypothesis). To the west, communities such as Campbell and Cupertino had incorporated as cities to avoid being annexed to San Jose, while expansion to the north was impossible because of San Francisco Bay. This relationship is generally portrayed as contentious, as Jews struggle between their faith in God and their attraction for other gods, and as some Jews (most notably and directly, Abraham, Jacob -- later known as Israel—and Moses) struggle with God. Under Mineta, the city adopted the "General Plan" that restricted development of land inside the incorporated area of San Jose and banned development in an additional 200 mi² east and south of the city, an area known as San Jose's sphere of influence. 350 BCE). Following Hamann's retirement, anti-growth city councils came to power, cemented with the 1971 election of Norman Mineta as mayor. The subject of the Hebrew Bible is an account of the Israelites' (also called Hebrews) relationship with God as reflected in their history from the beginning of time until the building of the Second Temple (approx. 1.

The result is a set of beliefs and practices concerning both identity, ethics, one's relation to nature, and one's relation to God, that privilege "difference" -— the difference between Jews and non-Jews; the differences between locally variable ways of practicing Judaism; a close attention to different meanings of words when interpreting texts; attempts to encode different points of view within texts, and a relative indifference to creed and dogma. When Hamann left office in 1969, San Jose had grown to 495,000 residents and 136 mi². Jews began to grapple with the tension between the particularism of their claim that only Jews were required to obey the Torah, and the universalism of their claim that the Torah contained universal truths. Hamann's efforts resulted in an annual population growth rate of over eight percent. This attitude may reflect growing Gentile interest in Judaism (some Greeks and Romans considered the Jews a most "philosophical" people because of their belief in a God that cannot be represented visually), and growing Jewish interest in Greek philosophy, which sought to establish universal truths. Hamann also spent significant time on the East Coast, selling San Jose as an ideal place for businesses to expand into. But by the Hellenic period most Jews had come to believe that their God was the only God (and thus, the God of everyone), and that the record of His revelation (the Torah) contained within it universal truths. Hamann instituted an aggressive growth program by annexation of adjacent areas, such as Alviso, Cambrian Park, and other neighborhoods, and a program of dispersed urbanization, sometimes called "los angelization".

However, they viewed their God as the Creator and the one that mankind was morally bound to worship alone. At the time, the city had a population of 95,000 and a total area of only 17 mi². Although monotheism is fundamental to Rabbinic Judaism, according to many critical Bible scholars the Torah often implies that the early Israelites accepted the existence of other gods. Hamann (nicknamed "Dutch") became city manager in 1950. However as the persecutions of the Jews increased and the details were in danger of being forgotten, rabbinic tradition holds that these oral laws were recorded in the Mishnah, and the Talmud, as well as other holy books. P. The details and interpretation of the law, which are called the Oral Torah or oral law were originally unwritten. A.

Together with the books of the prophets is called the Written Torah. [4] (http://www.uniteddefense.com/co/history.htm). The Torah given on Mount Sinai was summarized in the five books of Moses. FMC's military business would later be spun off into United Defense. This is the state in which it is to remain until a descendant of David arises to restore the glory of Israel (the current existence of the Islamic Dome of the Rock is not relevent to the Rabbinical view.). [2] (http://www.fmc.com/Corporate/V2/GeneralDetail/0,1478,16,00.html) [3] (http://www.fmctechnologies.com/FTI/__about_history_action/1,1114,1,00.html?) In 1941 the company received an order from the United States War Department for one thousand LVTs, bringing defense contracts to San Jose for the first time. The Second Temple stood for 420 years after which it was destroyed by the Roman general (later emperor) Titus. 1 Food Machinery Corporation (FMC) was founded in San Jose as the Bean Spray Pump Company in 1883.

After seventy years the Jews were allowed back into Israel under the leadership of Ezra, and the temple was rebuilt, as recorded in the Book of Ezra and the Book of Nehemiah. The Del Monte cannery in Midtown was the largest employer in the city for many years. These events are recored in the Book of Isaiah and the Book of Jeremiah. In 1922, the first commercial farming of broccoli in the US was started in San Jose, by brothers Stephano and Andrea D'Arrigo. However, as in the north, idolatry increased to the point that God allowed Babylonia to conquer it, destroy the temple which had stood for 410 years and exile its people to Babylonia, with the promise that they would be redeemed after seventy years. Prunes, grapes, and apricots were some of the major crops. The southern kingdom of Judah, whose capital was Jerusalem, home of the Temple, remained under the rulership of the house of David. For nearly two centuries a farming community, San Jose produced a significant amount of fruits and vegetables until the 1960s, and many past and current names of teams, streets, buildings, and so on reflect its agricultural beginnings.

Israel had a number of kings, but after a few hundred years God allowed Assyria to conquer Israel and exile its people because of the rampant idolatry in the kingdom. Photos of the lynchings were even used as Nazi propaganda. After Solomon's death, the kingdom was split into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah. It is also notable as the last public lynching in California's history. This era is described in the Books of Kings. The case drew international attention to San Jose, for the kidnapping, lynching, and for the praise that Governor James Rolph directed to those who participated. As a result, it was David's son Solomon who built the first permanent temple according to God's will, in Jerusalem. About 10,000 residents (approximately 1/6 of the city's population at the time) stormed the jail and lynched the two men who had confessed to the killing.

David himself was not allowed to build the temple because he had been involved in many wars, making it inappropriate for him to build a temple representing peace. The 1933 kidnapping and murder of Brooke Hart resulted in mob violence in San Jose. As a reward for his actions, God promised David that he would allow his son to build the temple and the throne would never depart from his children. The 8-year-old San Jose High School's three-story stone and brick structure also collapsed, and many other buildings were severely damaged. Once David was established as king, he told the prophet Nathan that he would like to build a permanent temple. The all-brick Agnews Asylum (later Agnews State Hospital) suffered possibly the worst damage in the San Jose area, killing over 100 people as the walls and roof collapsed. When the people pressured Saul into going against a command conveyed to him by Samuel, God told Samuel to appoint David in his stead. The city was still primarily rural and the population much smaller than San Francisco, so houses and businesses were not so closely built, providing no opportunity for a major fire like the one that destroyed the city up the Peninsula.

God knew this was not best for the Jews, but acceded to this request and had Samuel appoint Saul, a great but very humble man, to be their king. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake, with its epicenter near Daly City [1] (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2004/04/11/BAGB163KV81.DTL) between San Jose and San Francisco, devastated the few large buildings in San Jose. The people of Israel then told Samuel the prophet that they had reached the point where they needed a permanent king like other nations had, and described in the Books of Samuel. In 1989, the city of San Jose filed suit against France and the Eiffel estate, claiming that the Eiffel Tower was a copyright infringement of the Electric Light Tower; the suit was eventually dismissed. As time went on, the spiritual level of the nation declined to the point that God allowed the Philistines to capture the tabernacle in Shiloh. It collapsed during a gale in 1915. This is described in the Book of Joshua and the Book of Judges. It didn't provide sufficient illumination, and by 1884 was used only for ceremonial purposes.

Once the Jews had settled in the land of Israel, the tabernacle was planted in the city of Shiloh for over 300 years during which time God provided great men, and occasionally women, to rally the nation against attacking enemies, some of which were sent by God as a punishment for the sins of the people. Owen of the San Jose Mercury News, the city council authorized the construction of the San Jose Electric Light Tower, ostensibly to replace the gas streetlights that had illuminated downtown San Jose since 1861. They first officiated in the tabernacle (a portable house of worship), and later their descendants were in charge of worship in the Temple in Jerusalem. In 1881, because of a forceful campaign by editor J.J. God set the descendants of Aaron, Moses' brother, to be a priestly class within the Israelite community. It also served as the state's first capital with the first and second sessions of the California Legislature, known as the Legislature of a Thousand Drinks, being held there in 1850 and 1851. The legislature was unhappy with the location, as no buildings suitable for a state government were available in the city, and took up State Senator Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo's offer to build a new capital on land he donated to the state in what is now Benicia. After the Exodus from Egypt, God led them to Mount Sinai and gave them the Torah, and eventually brought them to the land of Israel. state of California, the first mayor was Josiah Belden.

God sent the patriarch Jacob and his children to Egypt; after they eventually became enslaved, God sent Moses to redeem the Israelites from slavery. On March 27, 1850, San Jose became the first incorporated city in the U.S. As a result, God promised he would have children. His first child was Ishmael and then he had Isaac, who God said would carry on his work and inherit the Land of Israel (then called Canaan) after having been exiled and redeemed. The importance of the mercury industry at the time explains why the local newspaper is named the Mercury News. According to Orthodox Judaism and most religious Jews, the Biblical patriarch Abraham was the first Jew. Rabbinic literature records that he was the first to reject idolatry and preach monotheism. The cinnabar deposits had been discovered during the Mexican era, and mining operations began in 1845, the first operating mine in the province. It has traditionally maintained that this is how the individual would merit rewards in the afterlife, called gan eden (Hebrew: "Garden of Eden") or olam haba ("World to Come"). During the California Gold Rush period, the New Almaden Mines just south of the city were the largest mercury mines in North America (mercury was used to help separate gold from ore).

As a matter of practical worship (in comparison to other religions) Judaism seeks to elevate everyday life to the level of the ancient temples' worship by worshipping God through the spectrum of daily activites and actions. Fallon would later become the seventh mayor of San Jose. The Children of Israel similarly had a Temple in Jerusalem, priests, and made sacrifices -— but these were not the sole means of worshiping God. Sloat, and raised it over the pueblo on July 14, as the California Republic agreed to join the United States following the start of the Mexican-American War. Other religions at the time were characterized by temples in which priests would worship their gods through sacrifice. Fallon received an American flag from John D. The Hebrew Bible) specifies a number of laws, known as the 613 mitzvot, to be followed by the Children of Israel. During the Bear Flag Revolt, Captain Thomas Fallon led a small force from Santa Cruz and captured the pueblo without bloodshed on July 11, 1846.

Second, the Torah (i.e. In 1797, the pueblo was moved from its original location, near the present-day intersection of Guadalupe Parkway and Taylor Street, to a location in what is now Downtown San Jose, surrounding Pueblo Plaza (now Plaza de César Chávez). The significance of this idea lies in that Judaism holds that an omniscient and omnipotent God created humankind as recorded in the Book of Genesis, in the Creation according to Genesis starting with the very first verse of Genesis 1:1: "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." While in polytheistic religions, the gods are limited by the preoccupation of personal desires irrelevant to humankind, by limited powers, and by the interference of other powers, in Judaism, God is unlimited and fully available to care for Creation. In 1778, the pueblo had a population of 68. The Jewish understanding of this is that:. Mission San José de Guadalupe was not founded until 1797, about 20 miles (30 km) north of San Jose in what is now Fremont.) The town was founded by the colonists led to California by de Anza, as a farming community to provide food for the presidios of San Francisco and Monterey. I am God your Lord, a God who demands exclusive worship" [1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten_Commandments#Exodus_20.2FDeuteronomy_5). (Mission Santa Clara, the closest mission, was founded earlier in 1777, three miles (5 km) from the original pueblo site in neighboring Santa Clara.

Do not represent [such] gods by any carved statue or picture of anything in the heaven above, on the earth below, or in the water below the land. Do not bow down to [such gods] or worship them. El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe was founded by José Joaquin Moraga on November 29, 1777, the first settlement not associated with a mission or a military post (presidio) in Alta California. Do not have any other gods before Me. De Anza returned to Mexico City before any of the settlements were actually founded, but his name lives on in many buildings and street names. This notion is derived directly from the Torah (the Hebrew Bible) where God makes it part of the Ten Commandments: "...I am the Lord your God. He selected the sites of the Presidio of San Francisco and Mission San Francisco de Asís in what is now San Francisco; on his way back to Monterey, he sited Mission Santa Clara de Asís and the pueblo San José in the Santa Clara Valley. The first characteristic is monotheism. He left the colonists at Monterey in 1776, and explored north with a small group.

According to both traditional Jews and critical historical scholars, a number of qualities distinguish Judaism from the other religions that existed when it first emerged. Late in 1775, Juan Bautista de Anza led an expedition to bring colonists from New Spain to California and to locate sites for two missions, one presidio, and one pueblo (town). Thus, Daniel Boyarin has argued that "Jewishness disrupts the very categories of identity, because it is not national, not genealogical, not religious, but all of these, in dialectical tension.". It is likely that Don Pedro Fages, the military governor at Monterey, passed through the area on his 1772 expedition to explore the East Bay. During this time, Jews have experienced slavery, anarchic self-government, theocratic self-government, conquest, occupation, and exile; they have been in contact, and have been influenced by ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Persian, and Hellenic cultures, as well as modern movements such as the Enlightenment and the rise of nationalism. Permanent European presence in the area came with the 1770 founding of the Presidio of Monterey and Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo by Gaspar de Portolá and Father Junípero Serra, about sixty miles (100 km) to the south. This is because Jews understand Judaism in terms of its 4,000-year history. For thousands of years before the arrival of European settlers, the area now known as San Jose was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone Native Americans.

Judaism does not easily fit into common Western categories, such as religion, race, ethnicity, or culture. After over 150 years as an agricultural center, increased demand for housing from soldiers and other veterans returning from World War II and starting families, as well as aggressive expansion during the 1950s and 1960s led first to San Jose being a bedroom community for Silicon Valley in the 1970s, then attracting businesses to the city; by 1990 the city was calling itself the Capital of Silicon Valley. For all of these reasons, Judaism has been a major force in shaping the world. It served as the first capital of California after statehood was granted in 1850. The tenets and history of Judaism are the major part of the foundation of other Abrahamic religions religions, including Christianity and Islam. San José was the first town in the Spanish colony of Nueva California (later Alta California), founded in 1777 as a farming community to provide food for nearby military installations. It is one of the first recorded monotheistic faiths and one of the oldest religious traditions still practiced today. The San Francisco Bay Area, of which San Jose forms part, is the fourth largest in the U.S.

Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. and not to the urban area. Islam and anti-Semitism. All of these figures refer to the area within the city limits, which is the sense in which the word "city" is normally used in the U.S. Similarities between the Bible and the Qur'an. Census Bureau estimates for 2004 indicate San Jose has overtaken Detroit as the United States' tenth most populous city; according to the formal 2000 count, it is ranked eleventh. Cultural and historical background of Jesus. As of 2005, it reported an estimated population of 944,857, making it the most populous city in Northern California (it surpassed San Francisco in 1989) and third most populous city in the state, after Los Angeles and San Diego.

Jewish view of Jesus. The city is located at the south end of the San Francisco Bay, within the informal boundaries of Silicon Valley, and is the largest city in the San Francisco Bay Area. Christianity and anti-Semitism. However, it is still more commonly spelled without the diacritic mark. Judeo-Christian. On April 3, 1979, the city council adopted San José as the spelling of the city name on the city seal and official stationery. Comparing and contrasting Judaism and Christianity. state of California and is the county seat of Santa Clara County.

Either an expert in the laws of kashrut, or (generally) under the supervision of a rabbi who is expert in those laws. San José (officially the City of San José) is a large city in the U.S. Mashgiach over kosher products - supervises merchants and manufacturers of kosher food to ensure that the food is kosher. The Weather Channel data for San Jose (http://www.weather.com/activities/other/other/weather/climo-monthly-graph.html?locid=USCA0993&from=search). Mashgiach of a yeshiva - expert in mussar (ethics). Oversees the emotional and spiritual welfare of the students in a yeshiva, and gives lectures on mussar. 2E. Somebody who is an expert in delving into the depths of the Talmud, and lectures the highest class in a Yeshiva. Bruno, Andy; INCONSISTENCY ACCENTED BY SAN JOSE AND SAN JOSE; San Jose Mercury News; February 15, 1996, p.

Rosh yeshivah - head of a yeshiva. Arbuckle, Clyde; Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose; 1985. Sofer (scribe) - Torah scrolls, tefillin (phylacteries), mezuzahs (scrolls put on doorposts), and gittin (bills of divorce) must be written by a sofer who is an expert in the laws of writing. 3San Jose City Charter (http://www.sanjoseca.gov/clerk/Charter.htm). In order for meat to be kosher, it must be slaughtered by a shochet who is expert in the laws and has received training from another shochet, as well as having regular contact with a rabbi and revising the relevant guidelines on a regular basis. 2San Jose case study, part one: the urban-growth boundary (http://www.ti.org/vaupdate31.html). Shochet (ritual slaughterer) - slaughters all kosher meat. 1Flashback: A short political history of San Jose (http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/PoliSci/faculty/christensen/flashback.htm).

An expert in the laws of circumcision who has received training from a qualified mohel. KEZR 106.5 MHz - music mix, Infinity Broadcasting. Mohel - performs the brit milah (circumcision). KBRG 100.3 MHz - Entravision. A dayan always requires semicha. KUFX 98.5 MHz - classic rock, Citicasters (slogan name is "98.5 KFOX"). Dayan (judge) - expert in Jewish law who sits on a beth din (rabbinical court) for either monetary matters or for overseeing the giving of a bill of divorce. KSJO 92.3 MHz - Spanish language music, Citicasters.

Gabbai (sexton) - Calls people up to the Torah, appoints the shatz for each prayer session if there is no standard shatz, and makes certain that the synagogue is kept clean and supplied. KSJS 90.5 MHz - San Jose State University. The requirements for acting as baal koreh are the same as those for the shatz. KMTG 89.3 MHz - San Jose Unified School District. Baal koreh (master of the reading) reads the weekly Torah portion. FM

    . Any adult capable of speaking Hebrew clearly may act as shatz (Orthodox Jews and some Conservative Jews allow only men to act as shatz; some Conservative Jews and Reform Jews allow women to act as shatz as well). KLIV 1590 kHz - Empire Broadcasting.

    The entire congregation participates in the recital of such prayers by saying amen at their conclusion; it is with this act that the shatz's prayer becomes the prayer of the congregation. KSJX 1500 kHz - Multicultural Radio Broadcasting. When a shatz recites a prayer on behalf of the congregation, he is not acting as an intermediary but rather as a facilitator. KZSF 1370 kHz. Shaliach tzibur or Shatz (leader -- literally "agent" or "representative" -- of the congregation) leads those assembled in prayer, and sometimes prays on behalf of the community. KLOK-AM 1170 kHz - Entravision. A congregation does not need to have a dedicated hazzan. AM

      .

      Chosen for a good voice, knowledge of traditional tunes, understanding of the meaning of the prayers and sincerity in reciting them. Channel 52: KICU - independent. Hazzan (cantor) - a trained vocalist who acts as shatz. Channel 50: KTEH - PBS. Hassidic Rebbe - Rabbi who is the head of a Hassidic dynasty. Channel 49: KSTS - Telemundo. Some congregations have a Rabbi but also allow members of the congregation to act as shatz or baal koreh (see below).

        . Channel 41: KKPX - PAX.

        A congregation does not necessarily require a Rabbi. Channel 12: KNTV - NBC. Orthodox Judaism requires semicha (Rabbinical ordination). ATSC (digital television)

          . Rabbi of a congregation - Jewish scholar who is charged with answering the legal questions of a congregation. Channel 65: KKPX - PAX. Today, a Levite is called up second to the reading of the Torah. Channel 54: KTEH - PBS.

          Levi (Levite) - Patrilineal descendant of Levi the son of Jacob. Channel 48: KSTS - Telemundo. Today, a Kohen is the first one called up at the reading of the Torah, performs the priestly blessing, as well as complying with other unique laws. Channel 36: KICU - independent, "Action 36, Cable 6". In the Temple, the kohanim were charged with performing the sacrifices. Channel 11: KNTV - NBC, "NBC 11", originally an ABC affiliate (San Jose's first television station). Kohen (priest) - patrilineal descendant of Aaron, brother of Moses. NTSC (traditional analog)

            .

            The first stage is called the Shiv'ah (literally "seven", observed for one week) during which it is traditional to sit at home and be comforted by friends and family, the second is the shloshim (observed for one month) and for those who have lost one of their parents, there is a third stage, avelut yud bet chodesh, which is observed for eleven months. Winchester Mystery House, a sprawling, 160-room Victorian mansion built by Sarah Winchester. Shiv'ah (mourning) - Judaism has a multi-staged mourning practice. Peralta Adobe, a restored adobe home showing the lifestyle of Spanish and Mexican California. Marriage. Sikh Gurdwara, the largest Gurdwara (a Sikh temple) in the United States. Bar mitzvah and Bat mitzvah - Celebrating a child's reaching the age of majority, becoming responsible from now on for themselves as an adult for living a Jewish life and following halakha. Lick Observatory, home of what was once the largest telescope in the world.

            Brit milah - Welcoming male babies into the covenant through the rite of circumcision. Joseph, the oldest parish in California. Many consider this the most important Jewish holiday. Cathedral Basilica of St. Yom Kippur, or The Day of Atonement, also called "the Sabbath of Sabbaths," is a holiday centered on redemption; a day of atonement and fasting for sins committed during the previous year. Spartan Stadium, home of San Jose State University football and the Major League Soccer's San Jose Earthquakes. It is also a holiday of redemption, as it marks the beginning of the atonement period that ends ten days later with Yom Kippur. San Jose Municipal Stadium, home of the minor league San Jose Giants.

            Called the Jewish New Year because it celebrates the day that the world was created, and marks the advance in the calendar from one year to the next, although it occurs in the seventh month, Tishri. San Jose Convention Center. Rosh Hashanah, also Yom Ha-Zikkaron (the day of remembrance) or Yom Teruah (the day of the sounding of the shofar). HP Pavilion - home of the NHL's San Jose Sharks. It coincides with the fruit harvest, and marks the end of the agricultural cycle. The Tech Museum of Innovation. It is celebrated through the construction of temporary booths that represent the temporary shelters of the Children of Israel during their wandering. San Jose Museum of Art.

            Sukkot, or The Festival of booths or the Festival of the ingathering commemorates the wandering of the Children of Israel through the desert. Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, home of the largest collection of Egyptian relics in the western United States. Shavuot or Pentacost or Feast of Weeks celebrates Moses' giving of the Ten Commandments to the Israelites, and marks the transition from the barley harvest to the wheat harvest. Portuguese Historical Museum. Pesach occurs on the 15th of Nissan; Nissan is the first month of the Jewish calendar, because it was in this month that the Children of Israel left Egypt. Mexican Heritage Plaza, a museum and cultural center for Mexican Americans in the area. It is the only holiday that centers on home-service, the Seder. public library west of Mississippi River.

            Pesach or Passover celebrates the Exodus from Egypt, and coincides with the barley harvest. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library, the largest U.S. Reconstructionist Judaism started as a stream of philosophy by a rabbi within Conservative Judaism, and later became an independent movement emphasizing reinterpreting Judaism for modern times. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies, home of the largest Beethoven collection outside Europe. Conservative scholars emphasize their identification with the Amoraim, the sages of the Talmud, who embraced open debates over interpretations (and reinterpretations) of Jewish law. Ira F. Conservative Judaism formed in the United States in the late 1800s through the fusion of two distinct groups: former Reform Jews who were alienated by that movement's emphatic rejection of Jewish law, and former Orthodox Jews who had rejected belief in the "oral law" (which claims continuity between God's revelation at Sinai and Jewish law as codified in the Shulkhan Arukh) in favor of the critical study of Jewish texts and history. Conservative Jews emphasize that Jews constitute a nation as well as a religion. History Park at Kelley Park.

            "Masorti" is its official title in the State of Israel as well, although most Israelis use the word in a more general sense (see below). Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose. Outside of the USA it is known as Masorti (Hebrew for "Traditional") Judaism. San Jose Municipal Rose Garden, 5½ acre (22,000 m²) park in the Rose Garden neighborhood, featuring over 4,000 rose bushes. Conservative Judaism. Raging Waters, water park with water slides and other water attractions. Today, many Reform congregations have returned to Hebrew prayers and encourage some degree of legal observance. Plaza de César Chávez, a small park in Downtown, hosts outdoor concerts and the Christmas in the Park display.

            Reform Judaism developed a prayer service in the vernacular and emphasized decorum during services. Overfelt Gardens, including the Chinese Cultural Garden. Reform Judaism initially defined Judaism as a religion, rather than as a race or culture; rejected the ritual prescriptions and proscriptions of the Torah; and emphasized the ethical call of the Prophets. Kirk Park, home to the San Jose Young People's Theater. as Liberal Judaism) originally formed in Germany in response to the Enlightenment. Kelley Park, including diverse facilities such as Happy Hollow Park & Zoo (a child-centric amusement park), the Japanese Friendship Garden, History Park at Kelley Park, and the Portuguese Historical Museum within the history park. Reform Judaism (outside of the USA also known as Progressive Judaism, and in the U.K. [20] (http://www.sanjoseca.gov/prns/regionalparks/pfp/).

            Most of Orthodox Judaism holds to one particular form of Jewish theology, based on Maimonides' 13 principles of Jewish faith. Donated by Emma Prusch to demonstrate the valley's agricultural past, it includes a 4-H barn (the largest in San Jose), community gardens, a rare-fruit orchard, demonstration gardens, picnic areas, and expanses of lawn. Hasidic Judaism is a sub-set of Haredi Judaism. Emma Prusch Farm Park, 43.5 acres (176,000 m²) in East San Jose. Orthodox Judaism consists of Modern Orthodox Judaism and Haredi Judaism. Alum Rock Park, 718 acres (2.9 km²) in East San Jose, the oldest municipal park in California. Orthodox Jews generally consider a 16th century CE law code, the Shulkhan Arukh, to be the definitive codification of Jewish law, and assert a continuity between pre-Enlightenment Judaism and modern-day Orthodox Judaism. Almaden Quicksilver County Park, 4,147 acres (17 km²) of former mercury mines in South San Jose.

            Orthodox Judaism holds that the Torah was written by God and dictated to Moses, and that the laws within it are binding and unchanging. Amy Tan, best-selling novelist, author of The Joy Luck Club. List of Jewish Prayers and Blessings. Smothers Brothers musical comedy duo. Torah databases (electronic versions of the Traditional Jewish Bookshelf). Mike Honda, member of the United States House of Representatives. Piyyut (Classical Jewish poetry). César Chávez, farm labor leader.

            The Siddur and Jewish liturgy. Steve Wozniak, cofounder of Apple Computer. Jewish ethics and the Mussar Movement. Pat Tillman, American football player, Army Ranger. Hasidic works. Jim Plunkett, American football quarterback. Kabbalah. Norman Mineta, former Mayor of San Jose, United States Secretary of Transportation.

            Jewish philosophy. Peggy Fleming, 1968 Winter Olympics figure skating gold medalist. Jewish Thought and Ethics

              . Chuck Berry, guitarist and singer (birthplace is disputed (http://www.answers.com/topic/chuck-berry)). The Responsa literature. Presentation High School [17] (http://www.dsj.org/educate/schools_results.asp). Other books on Jewish Law and Custom. Notre Dame High School.

              The Shulhan Arukh and its commentaries. Bellarmine College Preparatory. The Tur and its commentaries. Archbishop Mitty High School. The Mishneh Torah and its commentaries. Los Gatos Union School District. The Major Codes of Jewish Law and Custom

                . Los Gatos-Saratoga Joint Union High School District receives students from
                  .

                  Halakhic literature

                    . Cupertino Union School District. Aggadic Midrash. Fremont Union High School District receives students from:
                      . Halakhic Midrash. Orchard Elementary. Midrashic Literature:
                        . Oak Grove.

                        The Babylonian Talmud and its commentaries. Mount Pleasant Elementary. The Jerusalem Talmud and its commentaries. Franklin-McKinley. The Talmud:

                          . Evergreen Elementary. The Tosefta and the minor tractates. Berryessa Union.

                          The Mishnah and its commentaries. Alum Rock Union. Works of the Talmudic Era (classic rabbinic literature)

                            . East Side Union High School District receives students from:
                              . Jewish Biblical exegesis (also see Midrash below). Union School Districts. Targum. Moreland.

                              Mesorah. Luther Burbank. The Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and Jewish bible study, which include:

                                . Campbell Union. A more detailed discussion of the Jewish view of sin is available in the entry on sin. Cambrian. In Judaism, sin is more considered in terms of a wrongful action, contravening divine commandment to live a holy life, than wrongful thought. Campbell Union High School District receives students from:
                                  .

                                  It covers wrongdoings by which a person has fallen short of divine wishes in his daily life, and thus there is always a "way back" to God. Golden State Warriors of the National Basketball Association. Atonement is deemed only meaningful if accompanied by sincere decision to cease unacceptable actions, and then only if appropriate amends to others are honestly undertaken. San Jose Lasers of the American Basketball League. The liturgy of the Days of Awe (Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur) states that prayer, repentance and tzedakah (dutiful giving of charity) atone for sin. San Jose CyberRays of the Women's United Soccer Association. People can atone for sins through words and deeds, and without intermediaries. San Jose Giants of the California League of minor league baseball.

                                  Thus, human beings have free will and can choose the path in life that they will take. San Jose Stealth of the National Lacrosse League. People are born with a yetzer ha'tov, a tendency to do good, and with a yetzer ha'ra, a tendency to do bad. St Joseph's Hurling Club. The soul is pure at birth. San Jose Earthquakes of Major League Soccer. There will be a moshiach (Jewish Messiah), or perhaps a messianic era. San Jose SaberCats of the Arena Football League.

                                  The messianic age. San Jose Sharks of the National Hockey League. God chose the Jewish people to be in a unique covenant with God; see Jews as a chosen people. God will reward those who observe His commandments, and punish those who violate them. The Torah (five books of Moses) is the primary text of Judaism.

                                  Moses was the chief of all prophets. The words of the prophets are true. Different understandings of this subject exist among Jews. How Revelation works, and what precisely one means when one says that a book is "divine", has always been a matter of some dispute.

                                  The Hebrew Bible, and much of the beliefs described in the Mishnah and Talmud, are held to be the product of divine Revelation. Any belief that an intermediary between man and God could be used, whether necessary or even optional, has traditionally been considered heretical. To God alone may one offer prayer. All statements in the Hebrew Bible and in rabbinic literature which use anthropomorphism are held to be linguistic conceits or metaphors, as it would otherwise be impossible to talk about God.

                                  God is non-physical, non-corporeal, and eternal. See the entry on Names of God in Judaism. The different names of God are ways to express different aspects of God's presence in the world. God is all powerful (omnipotent), as well as all knowing (omniscient).

                                  The idea of God as a duality or trinity is heretical for Jews to hold; it is considered akin to polytheism. God is one - Judaism is based on strict unitarian monotheism, the belief in one God, the eternal creator of the universe and the source of morality. One must not bow down to or serve any being or object but God. [2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten_Commandments#Jewish_interpretation). To deny the uniqueness of God, is to deny all that is written in the Torah. It is also a prohibition against making or possessing objects that one or other may bow down to or serve such as crucifixes, and any forms of paintings or artistic representations of God.

                                  This prohibits belief in or worship of any additional deities, gods, spirits or incarnations. "You shall have no other gods besides Me...Do not make a sculpted image or any likeness of what is in the heavens above..." One is required to believe in God and God alone. To turn from these beliefs is to deny God and the essence of Judaism. This is the foundation of Judaism.

                                  "I am the Lord your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt..." The belief in the existence of God, that God exists for all time, that God is the sole creator of all that exists, that God determines the course of events in this world.

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