JonBenét Ramsey

JonBenét Patricia Ramsey (August 6, 1990 – December 25, 1996) was a child beauty pageant queen who was found murdered in the basement of her family's home in Boulder, Colorado at the age of six the day after Christmas. The crime, which still remains unsolved, attracted intense nationwide media interest. The tantalizing clues of the case have inspired numerous books and articles that attempt to solve the mystery.

JonBenét was born at Northside Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. The name is an amalgam of her father's first and middle names, John Bennett. The family moved to Colorado when she was one year old.

JonBenét held a number of titles, including (in no specific order): Little Miss Charlevoix Michigan, Colorado State All-Star Kids Cover Girl, America's Royal Miss, National Tiny Miss Beauty, Little Miss Merry Christmas, and Little Miss Colorado, Little Miss Sunburst.

JonBenét's grave lies in Saint James Episcopal Cemetery in Marietta, Georgia, next to the grave of Elizabeth Ramsey (d. 1992), a child from John's first marriage who died in an automobile accident. Also buried nearby is JonBenét's grandmother. A total of 12 Ramsey headstones lie in the cemetery.^ 

In fictional portrayals of her life, JonBenét has been played by Dyanne Iandoli, Mackenzie Rosman, and Julia Granstrom.

The murder case

At 5:52AM on December 26, 1996, Patsy Ramsey (JonBenét's mother) telephoned 9-1-1. She told the operator, "we have a kidnapping", and explained that "there's a note left and our daughter is gone". She said she had just gotten up and found the ransom note.

An initial police search of the Ramsey home found nothing. JonBenét's body was found later that day by John Ramsey (JonBenét's father) in a basement room of the home. A garrote made from a length of nylon cord and the handle of a paintbrush had been used to strangle her; her skull had suffered severe blunt trauma; and she may have been sexually assaulted. The "official" cause of death was asphyxia by strangulation associated with craniocerebral trauma.

The police did not find any signs of forced entry into the home.

The note

Investigators determined that the lengthy ransom note was written on a pad of paper that belonged to the Ramsey family. The Sharpie felt-tip pen used to write the note was found in a container on the Ramseys' kitchen counter, along with other pens of the same type.

There were no fingerprints found on the note.

The text of the note has many odd features, among them the $118,000 demanded. Perhaps coincidentally, John Ramsey earned a bonus that year of $118,117.50.

Recent developments

In December 2003, forensic investigators extracted enough material from a mixed blood sample found on the deceased's underwear to establish a DNA profile. The DNA belongs to an unknown male. The DNA was submitted to the FBI's Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a database containing over 1.6 million DNA profiles, mainly from convicted felons. The sample has yet to find a match in the database, though it continues to be checked for partial matches on a weekly basis.


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The sample has yet to find a match in the database, though it continues to be checked for partial matches on a weekly basis. Its is also shown in syndication within the United States. The DNA was submitted to the FBI's Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a database containing over 1.6 million DNA profiles, mainly from convicted felons. The Amazing Race is broadcast on various international television networks. The DNA belongs to an unknown male. Main problems include:. In December 2003, forensic investigators extracted enough material from a mixed blood sample found on the deceased's underwear to establish a DNA profile. Despite The Amazing Race's recent surge of popularity, the show is not without its share of criticism and controversy.

Perhaps coincidentally, John Ramsey earned a bonus that year of $118,117.50. The popularity of the series has also spawned local races [3] [4], some which have been mistaken for actual filming of the television program. The text of the note has many odd features, among them the $118,000 demanded. TARCon gives fans an opportunity to meet past and present racers and host Phil Keoghan. There were no fingerprints found on the note. The event is held in New York City and is organized by Television Without Pity, a popular television website. The Sharpie felt-tip pen used to write the note was found in a container on the Ramseys' kitchen counter, along with other pens of the same type. TARCon is a convention and viewing party held after the evening of the season finale.

Investigators determined that the lengthy ransom note was written on a pad of paper that belonged to the Ramsey family. Thanks to word-of-mouth and the Emmy wins, popularity of The Amazing Race has recently surged, and is now one of the most-watched reality shows on the air. The police did not find any signs of forced entry into the home. Reportedly, it was saved by calls to CBS President Les Moonves from celebrity fans including Sarah Jessica Parker. The "official" cause of death was asphyxia by strangulation associated with craniocerebral trauma. Even with extensive critical praise the show faced low Nielsen Ratings for the first several seasons, facing cancelation a number of times. A garrote made from a length of nylon cord and the handle of a paintbrush had been used to strangle her; her skull had suffered severe blunt trauma; and she may have been sexually assaulted. The Amazing Race is notable in that it is one of the few reality shows to grow substantially more popular in subsequent seasons.

JonBenét's body was found later that day by John Ramsey (JonBenét's father) in a basement room of the home. It only contains countries that fielded actual route markers, challenges or finish mats.. An initial police search of the Ramsey home found nothing. Note: The table does not include airport stopovers, such as Japan. She said she had just gotten up and found the ransom note. ° Vatican City fielded a Fast Forward in Season 1; however, it was neither used nor shown.. She told the operator, "we have a kidnapping", and explained that "there's a note left and our daughter is gone". While the complete set of official rules has not been released to the public, certain rules have been revealed during the various editions of the race:.

At 5:52AM on December 26, 1996, Patsy Ramsey (JonBenét's mother) telephoned 9-1-1. Failure to do so can result in time penalties, which can negatively affect finishing position in that leg of the race. . All teams must abide by the rules set at the beginning of the race. In fictional portrayals of her life, JonBenét has been played by Dyanne Iandoli, Mackenzie Rosman, and Julia Granstrom. In this case, after the other two teams finish, they are informed that the race is over at their next Route Marker (Joe and Bill, Season 1; David and Jeff, Season 4). A total of 12 Ramsey headstones lie in the cemetery.^ . On occasion, the third place team has fallen so far behind the other two teams that they cannot finish the race in a timely manner.

Also buried nearby is JonBenét's grandmother. Ideally, all three remaining teams arrive at the Finish Line within a reasonable amount of time. 1992), a child from John's first marriage who died in an automobile accident. All other teams win lesser amounts of money on a sliding scale based on their finishing order, as follows:. JonBenét's grave lies in Saint James Episcopal Cemetery in Marietta, Georgia, next to the grave of Elizabeth Ramsey (d. The first team to reach the Finish Line wins the race and $1 million. JonBenét held a number of titles, including (in no specific order): Little Miss Charlevoix Michigan, Colorado State All-Star Kids Cover Girl, America's Royal Miss, National Tiny Miss Beauty, Little Miss Merry Christmas, and Little Miss Colorado, Little Miss Sunburst. At the Finish Line, host Phil Keoghan and all the eliminated teams wait for the remaining teams to arrive.

The family moved to Colorado when she was one year old. Remaining teams must complete one or more tasks before receiving the clue directing them to the Finish Line. The name is an amalgam of her father's first and middle names, John Bennett. city. JonBenét was born at Northside Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. The second part of the leg has teams traveling to a final destination, usually located in a major U.S. The tantalizing clues of the case have inspired numerous books and articles that attempt to solve the mystery. This first part of the leg includes intermediate destination(s) where the teams must travel to complete a series of tasks (Alaska, United States Seasons 1 and 2; Hawaii, United States, Seasons 3, 4, and 6; Calgary, Canada, Season 5; Puerto Rico, United States, Season 7; Montreal and Toronto, Canada, Season 8).

The crime, which still remains unsolved, attracted intense nationwide media interest. Three teams compete in the last leg of the race. JonBenét Patricia Ramsey (August 6, 1990 – December 25, 1996) was a child beauty pageant queen who was found murdered in the basement of her family's home in Boulder, Colorado at the age of six the day after Christmas. This usually results in teams who believe they are coming in last checking in at the pit stop wearing every single article of clothing they have just in case it's a non-elimination leg, making for a rather comical sight in some cases. In addition to being stripped of all their money and starting the next leg without an allowance, teams were forced to surrender all their possessions, except for their passports and the clothes they were wearing, for the remainder of the Race. Starting in Season 7, the penalty for arriving last during a non-elimination leg became more severe.

Teams generally beg from locals or even the other teams during the Pit Stop to rebuild their cash reserves. Additionally, the last team to arrive begins the next leg with zero dollars to their name, meaning they do not receive the money given to the other teams at the start of the leg and may not collect money during the Pit Stop. These teams are required to turn over all the money they accumulated throughout the race. Season 5 introduced a penalty to the team arriving last at a Pit Stop in a non-elimination leg.

Beginning in Season 5, the statement "The last team to arrive may be eliminated" has been used on every leg with the exception of the first. In Seasons 3-4, the clue preceding the Pit Stop ended with the statement "The last team to arrive will be eliminated" in the first few legs, and "The last team to arrive may be eliminated" after a certain point. In Seasons 1-2, the clue preceding the Pit Stop ended with the statement, "The last team to arrive will be eliminated," except in non-elimination legs. Racers are not told in advance which legs are non-elimination legs.

Each race has a number of predetermined non-elimination legs, in which the last team to arrive at the Pit Stop is not eliminated and is allowed to continue on the race. Season 8 also had a double-length leg, which worked the same as Season 7's; in addition, the 2-hour finale took place over a double-length leg. Season 7 had another, this time with teams meeting host Phil Keoghan on the usual Pit Stop mat at the halfway point, only to have him hand them the next clue instead of checking them in. The second half of the leg featured a second Detour and second Roadblock.

The televised episode ended without a Pit Stop with a 'To Be Continued' message. Season 6 introduced the first double-length leg shown over two episodes. (Despite a flat tire, Uchenna and Joyce only finished 10 minutes behind the #1 team Ron and Kelly.) The longest amount of time Phil waited at a pit stop for the last team to arrive was more than 24 hours, due to the last team having flight problems and missing their departure time at the previous pit stop - see Season 2. The record for the shortest amount of time that Phil waited for the last team to arrive was around 10 minutes on the 11th leg of the 7th season.

Alternately, host Phil Keoghan may go out to the team's location to eliminate them if they can't/won't finish a task (Marshall and Lance, Season 5, Lena and Kristy, Season 6). Occasionally, on an elimination leg, if all other teams have checked in and the last team is very far behind, Route Markers may instruct them to go directly to the Pit Stop without completing the rest of the leg (Peggy and Claire, Shola and Doyin, Mary and Peach, all from Season 2, Michael and Kathy and Andre and Damon in Season 3). Teams normally complete all tasks and check in at the Pit Stop before they are eliminated. The winners of the third leg in Season 8 won free gasoline for life, from BP and ARCO (specifically, $1200 of gasoline a year for 50 years, which is $60,000 per winner).

In Season 7, cash and automobile prizes were awarded for the first time on some legs; unlike season 6, however, at least two legs did not have a prize awarded. In Season 6, prizes were given to the winners of every leg. In some legs, the first team to arrive wins a prize such as a vacation or camera, which they receive at the end of the race. The last team to arrive at the Pit Stop is eliminated, unless that leg of the race is one of the predetermined non-elimination legs (see below).

While a team arriving at 12:00 PM will depart at 12:00 AM, the total amount of rest time may be more than twelve hours, in which case the pit stop will be extended by 24 hour increments--such as one day and twelve hours (36 hours). Teams depart for the next leg of the race at the time they arrived plus twelve hours. During the Pit Stop, teams are also interviewed to provide commentary and voice-overs for the completed leg. The production staff provides food free-of-charge to the teams at the Pit Stops (food during the legs must be purchased with the money the teams receive).

Each Pit Stop is a mandatory rest period which allows teams to eat, sleep, and mingle with each other. Pit Stops are the final destination in each leg of the race.
. The Weaver family in Season 8 was the first team in the history of the Amazing Race to be yielded twice, once by the Paolo Family, and another time by the Linz Family.

In the family edition, the show said there were only two Yields, but there was another Yield on Leg 1 that didn't make it to air. Also starting in Season 6, teams are warned about an upcoming Yield in the clue immediately preceding it. Starting in Season 6, the number of Yields was reduced from one on every leg to only three in the entire race. However, each team may be Yielded by other teams an unlimited amount of times.

Like the Fast Forward, each team may use only one Yield during the game, and only one team may use each Yield. When the yielded team arrives at the Yield, they must turn over an hourglass found on the Yield sign and wait for all the sand to drain before continuing. To do this, a team places the picture of the team they wish to yield onto the Yield sign (found near one of the Route Markers). The Yield, which was introduced in Season 5, allows any one team to force another team to stop racing for a predetermined amount of time.

Similarly, NFL wives Monica and Sheree of Season 4 earned the Fast Forward but only placed 4th in the first leg (behind a three-way tie for first, the only time this has ever happened on the race).
. Dennis and Andrew during Season 3 were eliminated. Joe and Bill during Season 1 arrived last but were not eliminated due to a penalty to Nancy and Emily. In the history of the show, two teams who earned a Fast Forward still arrived last at the Pit Stop.

A Fast Forward usually results in the team arriving at the Pit Stop first, but does not guarantee it. Since each team may use only one Fast Forward during the whole race, they must decide when it is most advantageous to use it. Any team that is beaten to the Fast Forward will have wasted their time and must go back and pick up where they left off. Only one team may use each Fast Forward.

To find the Fast Forward, the team must perform the task described on the Fast Forward clue, which is found along with a regular clue at one of the Route Markers. The Fast Forward allows the first team that finds it to skip all remaining tasks on that leg of the race and proceed directly to the Pit Stop. In Season 1, even the first leg had a Roadblock, but it was not originally aired; it was included in the DVD release.
. A Roadblock is featured (although, in some episodes, not aired) in every leg except the first one.

The six-Roadblock limit was dropped for Season 8; additionally, that season's four-member-team format required some Roadblocks to be completed by two people. In contrast, Season 5 featured three teams that split the Roadblocks 11-1 or 10-1. Since there normally are twelve Roadblocks in the Race, this rule forces each team to split the Roadblocks equally between the two members (unless a team uses a Fast Forward to skip one Roadblock, in which case the split can be 6-5). Beginning in Season 6, each team member may only complete a maximum of six Roadblocks throughout the entire race.

Once a choice has been made, the teammates cannot switch roles. They then must decide which team member would be best suited to complete it. Often, a team may figure out the specific task by observing their surroundings, using common sense, or even seeing other teams already performing the Roadblock task. Before heading into a Roadblock, teams read a vague clue about the task to come, i.e., "Who's really hungry?" (for an ostrich-egg eating challenge), or "Who wants to get down and dirty?" (for a task involving making mud bricks).

A Roadblock is a task which only one team member may perform. Should a team choose to switch Detour tasks part-way through, there is no penalty, other than naturally lost time.
. Often, there may be some degree of luck involved with the "easier" option, such that a team may accomplish the task faster than if they had taken the quicker, harder, riskier option. In later seasons, the trend has been towards Detours which offer less clear-cut choices.

One task is typically an easier option that takes more time to complete, while the other is usually a difficult or frightening option that can be finished quickly. Teams must successfully complete one of the tasks described on the clue in order to receive their next clue. A Detour is a choice between two tasks, each with its own pros and cons. The Route Info clues can instruct teams to go to several types of locations, including a specific location in another city or country, another location within the team's present city, the Pit Stop of the leg, and the finish line of the race.

In addition, teams may be required to take public transportation, drive a marked car, or walk, according to the clue's instructions. For example, the very first clue of the race specifies which flights teams may take. However, the clue may make specifications about how the teams have to travel. The clue usually only provides the name of the team's next destination; it is up to the teams to figure out how to get there.

Route Info clues instruct the teams where to go next.
. Route Markers are always colored yellow and red, with the following exceptions:. Most Route Markers are attached to the boxes that contain clue envelopes, but some may mark the place where the teams must go in order to complete tasks.

Route Markers are the flags that mark the places where teams must go. One rule that was clarified in Season 7 is that teams may not beg for money at US airports. This includes borrowing money from other teams, begging from locals, or selling their possessions. If a team spends all of their money or has it taken away in a non-elimination round, they may try to get more money in any way that doesn't violate the local laws.

For more on this penalty, see Non-elimination Legs. Teams were forced to surrender all collected money, would not be given any on the subsequent leg, and needed to start the next leg with zero dollars to their name. Starting in Season 5, there was a penalty for teams coming in last on a non-elimination leg. Any money left over after a leg of the race can be used on subsequent legs.

The exception to this is the purchase of airline tickets (and, in Season 8, gasoline), which the teams pay for using a credit card supplied to them by the show. (In Season 1 teams were allocated nothing during one of the legs, and in Season 4, teams were given only one dollar for each of the final two legs.) During the race, all expenses (food, transportation, lodging, attraction admission, supplies) must be purchased from this allowance. The amount varies from leg to leg, ranging from one dollar to hundreds of dollars. Dollars regardless of the current location of the race.

This money is usually given in U.S. At the beginning of each leg of the race, each team receives an allowance of cash with their first clue. The various relationship dynamics between the team members under the stress of competition is one focus of the show. Both teammates must also arrive at each Pit Stop together in order to clock in.

If one teammate becomes injured and is unable to finish the race, the team must forfeit (for example, Marshall and Lance during Season 5). Teammates must race the entire race together; they cannot split up or continue on without each other. (Nicole actually beat Christie for the title of Miss Texas USA in 2003.[1]). Several contestants from Season 5 had previously competed against one another in the beauty pageant circuit.

For example, Kris and Jon from Season 6 were long-distance daters for only a year. However, producers have shown more leniency and changed these rules in recent installments of the race. In addition, racers from different teams could not have previous acquaintances with one another. Originally, the race required team members to have a pre-existing relationship and to have known one another for at least three years.

All contestants are at least 21 years of age, except for Season 8, which featured some children and teenagers. Past team relationships include: long-time married couples, siblings (including twins), parent/child, friends (roommates, fraternity brothers, platonic friends, high school friends, lifelong friends etc), romantic partners (both heterosexual and homosexual), and couples who are separated or formerly dating. The teams represent a wide demographic of different ages, races, sexual orientations, and personal relationships. Season 8 of the race featured teams of four, but Season 9 will return to the two-person team format.

Each of the eleven teams (twelve in Seasons 3 and 4, ten in Season 8) on The Amazing Race is composed of two individuals who have some type of relationship to each other. . The ninth season will begin airing on February 28, 2006. It has defeated competitors including CBS' Survivor (which was the first reality show to win an Emmy), Fox's American Idol, and NBC's The Apprentice.

For three consecutive years, (2003 to 2005), The Amazing Race was awarded the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Reality/Competition Program. Teams must then follow clues and instructions and make their way to checkpoints in places around the world, eventually racing back to the finish line in the US. The race starts in a US city. The race resembles a treasure hunt in amateur rally racing.

The race utilizes progressive elimination similar to Survivor; the last team to arrive at a designated checkpoint leaves the game. It was created by Bertram van Munster. It is produced by Jerry Bruckheimer for CBS and Touchstone Television (technically making it partially a Disney show) and hosted by New Zealander Phil Keoghan. The CBS program has been on-air since 2001 and is currently in between seasons.

The Amazing Race is a reality game show normally broadcast in one-hour episodes in which teams of two or four race around the world in competition with other teams. In an article according to Backstage.com, both "The Amazing Race" and "The Amazing Race: Family Edition", separately, were among the top 10 television shows with the most product placement in 2005. Season 8 had teams driving around in GMC Yukons, visiting a BP gas station that fielded no challenge in particular, receiving clues from AOL inboxes (done in Season 6 also), and completing a challenge with Buick luxury golf carts. Season 7 featured a gnome-hunting challenge, with the gnome featured being a Travelocity Roaming Gnome.

Excessive product placement, particularly in recent seasons. USA Today shared similar opinions, adding that "the idea of being trapped in the back seat for a forced cross-country family drive comes closer to a nightmare relived than a dream come true." [7] Racers were also disappointed that they did not have a chance to travel to more exotic locations; in one episode Marion Paolo commented "Why are we going to Phoenix, Arizona for? I want to go to New Zealand!". Seeing parents yell at their children in exotic New Jersey? Not so fun." [6]. Entertainment Weekly commented that "Half the fun of The Amazing Race has always been watching the inter and intra-couple bickering that goes with being chronologically late and lost in a foreign land.

The expanded cast also made it more difficult to develop individual story lines. The main issues were the lack of international travel and watered down challenges tailored to families. Fans, critics, and racers were lukewarm over the format changes implemented in the family edition. In the two most recent seasons, Season 7 and Season 8, the winners were revealed in online betting scandals well before the airing of the final episode.

Recent betting scandals. In the latter reason however, in the case of a leg being in a poor country, penalized teams usually beg from tourists or from other teams. The second is that it is embarrassing to see Americans beg from people of Third World countries. One, is that the penalty is not sufficiently harsh enough.

The implementation of the non-elimination penalty is generally criticized by fans basically into two camps. The one other reality series that possesses this trait is The Mole. The implementation of the Yield has been criticized as taking away from the virtually unique ability of teams to control their own destiny in a reality series rather than being at the mercy of opponents as shows such as Survivor. Season 7's Fast Forward task in Leg 8 featured the same hair-shaving task as Season 5, although Season 5's was not taken.

Repetition of tasks in different seasons. Recent seasons have emphasized gross-out extreme eating contests reminiscent of Fear Factor, rather than focusing on the cultural aspect of the challenge. Design of challenges, especially food competitions. What had been clues are now more like simple directions in many cases; they remain more challenging in the final legs.

In recent seasons, there have been few actual clues for teams to decipher. For example, in Season 1 the majority of Route Markers contained clues about the next location, not specifically stating the location itself. The watering down of the clues in subsequent seasons. For example, Dennis and Erika (Season 5) had known previous racers John Vito and Jill (Season 3) for many years.[5].

In fact, many teams had connections to the producers or past contestants, trivializing the standard application process. For example, Season 5 featured only one past reality show contestant (Alison was on Big Brother) and Season 7 featured three past reality show contestants (Brian was on Fear Factor; Rob and Amber had been on multiple editions of Survivor). The stunt casting of teams where producers have tended to cast models, actors, and more recently past reality show stars. The confrontational, and sometimes abusive behaviour presented by certain players, most notably Jonathan (Season 6) and Colin (Season 5).

Nevertheless, bunching teams also adds to the unending suspense that many feel some of the earlier seasons lacked. While all versions of the Race have suffered such problems, many fans feel that recent seasons (and Season 6 particularly) had more than usual or, perhaps, necessary. Bunching, where teams are constantly grouped together due to bottlenecks such as chartered flights and pre-planned hours of operation of businesses that the teams must use to complete tasks. (For an exception, see The Amazing Race 6 In-Race Trivia.)The finish line mats are an elevated red carpet with The Amazing Race logo enlarged on it.

In season 8 the mats were yellow with a black and white border. Beginning in Season 4, they would feature an ornately decorated world map. In Season 2 and Season 3, they were black with a yellow border. In Season 1, check-in mats for pit stops were representative of local cultures.

Due to the rather obvious nature of the crossing of the finish line, in later seasons several "decoy runs" have been done where teams from the final four are filmed crossing individual finish lines, to deter people from learning the identity of the winning team. Before the race actually begins, the teams are filmed running from the starting line several times, in order to get different close-ups and angles of all the teams. In doing so, the final destinations still remain a secret. However, to keep things as much of a surprise for the teams as possible, production will obtain visas from more countries than are actually on the race itinerary.

Teams need to receive travel visas ahead of time for the countries that they will be visiting. The opening credits feature scenes and locations from past and current seasons of the race. Even after the race has aired, however, the amount is still required to remain confidential. Teams receive monetary compensation for the time away from their jobs back home.

Eliminated teams are often sent to "sequesterville", a foreign location on the race where they get to relax and do some sightseeing until the race is over. Host Phil Keoghan is known to take the same flight as the teams on various legs of the race. The camera and sound crews rotate teams after each leg. [2] Occasionally, race personnel are shown to viewers, most notably during Season 7 where Brian and Greg's cameraman was shown lying on the ground after suffering minor injuries in an auto accident.

Also, for similar reasons, the show makes the point of not actually showing the crews to the point where crewmen have occasionally been digitally removed from the picture in post-production. On the program, teams are only shown requesting two tickets, so that they don't break the fourth wall. When purchasing tickets, teams must also buy them for their camera crew. Each team is accompanied by a cameraman and soundperson throughout the race.

The exact conditions that determine whether or not a time credit is awarded are unknown. However, in Season 8, two teams were stopped because of drained batteries and did not receive time credits. In early seasons, several teams were awarded time credits because of such difficulties. Sometimes, teams are delayed by production difficulties.

(See The Amazing Race 2 Trivia). However, no time credit is given for their wait in this unlucky situation. If a team's vehicle breaks down through no fault of their own, they may request a replacement vehicle without receiving a time penalty. Through lucky guessing and help from other teams, they were able to reach the Pit Stop, but were assessed a 1-hour penalty.

One exception to this was during Season 1, when Dave & Margaretta missed the cluebox at the base of the Eiffel Tower. A team that skips a Route Marker or performs a task incorrectly usually does not receive a penalty; rather, the racers will not be able to check in at the Pit Stop and will be told by host Phil Keoghan to complete the missed tasks. As no other team has quit a Detour since then, it is unknown whether that larger penalty still exists. In Season 1, Nancy and Emily voluntarily quit a Detour and received an even larger penalty: 24 hours.

In Season 7, Rob and Amber, Ray and Deana and Meredith and Gretchen also quit a Roadblock and received a 4-hour penalty that did not start until the next team arrived at the task. In Season 6, Hayden and Aaron quit a Roadblock and received a 4-hour penalty. There is a larger penalty for quitting a task voluntarily. If a clue specifies a maximum speed, a team that exceeds that speed receives a penalty (Gary and Dave, Chris and Alex, Season 2).

Speeding. Driving away in another team's car (Don and Mary Jean, Season 6). Taking more than one clue from the clue box (Freddy and Kendra, Season 6). Taking a shortcut when the clue specifies that a marked course must be followed (Andre & Damon, Season 3).

For example, a team that takes a taxi when the clue specifies that they must walk would receive a penalty (Frank & Margarita and Joe & Bill, Season 1; Heather & Eve, Season 3; Reichen & Chip, Season 4). Using a prohibited form of transportation. This penalty is known to apply in the following cases:

    . The standard penalty for minor rule infractions is 30 minutes plus the time advantage gained (if any) by disobeying the rule.

    Teams may be forced to submit their backpacks and possessions to searches by production staff at any time. For filming purposes, team members are generally required to stay within 20 feet of each other, unless one person is performing a Roadblock. This results in the sometimes cantankerous attitude of some contestants, such as Ian (Season 3) who quit smoking just prior to the race. Racers are prohibited from smoking during the race.

    (Uchenna said this when he wanted to help Meredith with the boat in Season 7.) Otherwise, teams may assist one another in completing tasks, as seen in Season 8, where many teams had help setting up their tents, and the Linz and Godlewski teams cooperated to complete a Detour. When stated, teams may not help other teams in challenges. Teams could talk on the phone as long as they wanted, but had to end the call before getting in their cars."). As CBS's website explains, "They had the option of making one phone call to their loved ones back home before driving to the chateau.

    Teams were offered a cellular phone after completing a detour. (One exception to this rule occurred in Season 3. However, teams are allowed to stay in contact with and receive help from people they meet during the race, such as travel agents. Teams are not allowed contact with known friends, family, and personal acquaintances during the race.

    Teams are allowed to be upgraded to first or business class by the airline, as long as they only paid an economy fare (Frank and Margarita, Season 1; Reichen and Chip, Season 4; Ray and Deana, Season 7). Teams must purchase economy class tickets for airfare. Season 8's Route Markers were colored yellow, white, and black. During Season 3, the production visited Vietnam; while there, the flags used were a solid yellow, to avoid confusion with the flag of Vietnam (this change was not seen when production visited China in Season 6, though, where the national colors are similar).

    The current colors were adopted in subsequent seasons so that the teams would have an easier time spotting them. The original Route Markers used in Season 1 were colored yellow and white.

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