JonBenét Ramsey

JonBenét Patricia Ramsey (August 6, 1990 – December 25, 1996) was a child beauty pageant queen who was found murdered in the basement of her family's home in Boulder, Colorado at the age of six the day after Christmas. The crime, which still remains unsolved, attracted intense nationwide media interest. The tantalizing clues of the case have inspired numerous books and articles that attempt to solve the mystery.

JonBenét was born at Northside Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. The name is an amalgam of her father's first and middle names, John Bennett. The family moved to Colorado when she was one year old.

JonBenét held a number of titles, including (in no specific order): Little Miss Charlevoix Michigan, Colorado State All-Star Kids Cover Girl, America's Royal Miss, National Tiny Miss Beauty, Little Miss Merry Christmas, and Little Miss Colorado, Little Miss Sunburst.

JonBenét's grave lies in Saint James Episcopal Cemetery in Marietta, Georgia, next to the grave of Elizabeth Ramsey (d. 1992), a child from John's first marriage who died in an automobile accident. Also buried nearby is JonBenét's grandmother. A total of 12 Ramsey headstones lie in the cemetery.^ 

In fictional portrayals of her life, JonBenét has been played by Dyanne Iandoli, Mackenzie Rosman, and Julia Granstrom.

The murder case

At 5:52AM on December 26, 1996, Patsy Ramsey (JonBenét's mother) telephoned 9-1-1. She told the operator, "we have a kidnapping", and explained that "there's a note left and our daughter is gone". She said she had just gotten up and found the ransom note.

An initial police search of the Ramsey home found nothing. JonBenét's body was found later that day by John Ramsey (JonBenét's father) in a basement room of the home. A garrote made from a length of nylon cord and the handle of a paintbrush had been used to strangle her; her skull had suffered severe blunt trauma; and she may have been sexually assaulted. The "official" cause of death was asphyxia by strangulation associated with craniocerebral trauma.

The police did not find any signs of forced entry into the home.

The note

Investigators determined that the lengthy ransom note was written on a pad of paper that belonged to the Ramsey family. The Sharpie felt-tip pen used to write the note was found in a container on the Ramseys' kitchen counter, along with other pens of the same type.

There were no fingerprints found on the note.

The text of the note has many odd features, among them the $118,000 demanded. Perhaps coincidentally, John Ramsey earned a bonus that year of $118,117.50.

Recent developments

In December 2003, forensic investigators extracted enough material from a mixed blood sample found on the deceased's underwear to establish a DNA profile. The DNA belongs to an unknown male. The DNA was submitted to the FBI's Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a database containing over 1.6 million DNA profiles, mainly from convicted felons. The sample has yet to find a match in the database, though it continues to be checked for partial matches on a weekly basis.


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The sample has yet to find a match in the database, though it continues to be checked for partial matches on a weekly basis. Mathematics of gambling. The DNA was submitted to the FBI's Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a database containing over 1.6 million DNA profiles, mainly from convicted felons. Chinese Blackjack is played by many in Asia, having no splitting of cards, but with other card combination regulations. The DNA belongs to an unknown male. This game is dealt from a Spanish shoe, and blackjacks only pay even money. In December 2003, forensic investigators extracted enough material from a mixed blood sample found on the deceased's underwear to establish a DNA profile. Double Attack Blackjack has very liberal blackjack rules and the option of increasing one's wager after seeing the dealer's up card.

Perhaps coincidentally, John Ramsey earned a bonus that year of $118,117.50. This game increases house edge by paying even-money on blackjacks and players losing ties. The text of the note has many odd features, among them the $118,000 demanded. Double Exposure Blackjack is a variant in which the dealer's cards are both face-up. There were no fingerprints found on the note. These changes, while attracting the novice player, actually increase the house edge in these games. The Sharpie felt-tip pen used to write the note was found in a container on the Ramseys' kitchen counter, along with other pens of the same type. Certain rules changes are employed to create new variant games.

Investigators determined that the lengthy ransom note was written on a pad of paper that belonged to the Ramsey family. With correct basic strategy, a Spanish 21 game has a lower house edge than a comparable blackjack game. The police did not find any signs of forced entry into the home. Spanish 21 provides players with many liberal blackjack rules, such as doubling down any number of cards (with the option to 'rescue', or surrender only one wager to the house), payout bonuses for five or more card 21's, 6-7-8 21's, 7-7-7 21's, late surrender, and player blackjacks always winning and player 21's always winning, at the cost of having no 10 cards in the deck (though there are jacks, queens, and kings). The "official" cause of death was asphyxia by strangulation associated with craniocerebral trauma.
. A garrote made from a length of nylon cord and the handle of a paintbrush had been used to strangle her; her skull had suffered severe blunt trauma; and she may have been sexually assaulted. Arnold Snyder's articles in Blackjack Forum magazine were the first to bring Shuffle Tracking to the general public.

JonBenét's body was found later that day by John Ramsey (JonBenét's father) in a basement room of the home. This technique, which is admittedly much more difficult than straight card counting and requires excellent eyesight and powers of visual estimation, has the additional benefit of fooling the casino people who are monitoring the player's actions and the count, since the shuffle tracker could be, at times, betting and/or playing opposite to how a straightforward card counter would. An initial police search of the Ramsey home found nothing. Thorp.) One such technique, mainly applicable in multi-deck games (aka shoes), involves tracking groups of cards (aka slugs, clumps, packs) during the play of the shoe, following them through the shuffle and then playing and betting accordingly when those cards come into play from the new shoe. She said she had just gotten up and found the ransom note. (It must be noted, however, that almost all of these techniques are based on the value of the cards to the player and the casino, as originally conceived by Edward O. She told the operator, "we have a kidnapping", and explained that "there's a note left and our daughter is gone". There are techniques other than card counting that can swing the advantage of casino 21 towards the player, at least in theory.

At 5:52AM on December 26, 1996, Patsy Ramsey (JonBenét's mother) telephoned 9-1-1. Interactive strategy tables for each possible card-distribution in the shoe can be generated using a JavaScript based blackjack calculator. . Basic strategy for other decks. In fictional portrayals of her life, JonBenét has been played by Dyanne Iandoli, Mackenzie Rosman, and Julia Granstrom. This version is much more advantageous to the player, but requires a slightly modified basic strategy table. A total of 12 Ramsey headstones lie in the cemetery.^ . In some LV Strip casinos you may still be able to find the older version of the multi-deck shoe game, where dealer stands on soft 17; those are usually high minimum ($50 or more) tables.

Also buried nearby is JonBenét's grandmother. Key:. 1992), a child from John's first marriage who died in an automobile accident. Specifically: dealer hits on soft 17, double after split allowed, multiple split aces, one card to split aces, blackjack pays 3:2, and (optionally) late surrender. JonBenét's grave lies in Saint James Episcopal Cemetery in Marietta, Georgia, next to the grave of Elizabeth Ramsey (d. The above is a basic strategy table for the most common 6- to 8-deck, Las Vegas Strip rules. JonBenét held a number of titles, including (in no specific order): Little Miss Charlevoix Michigan, Colorado State All-Star Kids Cover Girl, America's Royal Miss, National Tiny Miss Beauty, Little Miss Merry Christmas, and Little Miss Colorado, Little Miss Sunburst. The following rules are detrimental to the player:.

The family moved to Colorado when she was one year old. The following rules are beneficial to the player:. The name is an amalgam of her father's first and middle names, John Bennett. Indeed, casinos offering special rules like surrender and double-after-split may actually be offering a positive expectation to basic strategy players; they are counting on players making mistakes to make money. JonBenét was born at Northside Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. Under the most favorable conditions (single deck, downtown Las Vegas rules), the house advantage over a basic strategy player can be as low as 0.16%. The tantalizing clues of the case have inspired numerous books and articles that attempt to solve the mystery. There are slight variations in basic strategy depending on the exact house rules and the number of decks used.

The crime, which still remains unsolved, attracted intense nationwide media interest. Basic strategy is based on the player's point total and the dealer's visible card. JonBenét Patricia Ramsey (August 6, 1990 – December 25, 1996) was a child beauty pageant queen who was found murdered in the basement of her family's home in Boulder, Colorado at the age of six the day after Christmas. This strategy determines when to hit and when to stand, and also determines when doubling down or splitting is the correct action. But because blackjack, unlike other games, has an element of player choice, players can actually reduce the casino advantage to a small percentage by playing what is known as basic strategy. As in all casino games, the house has a statistical advantage over the players that will play itself out in the long run.

(If the player with the natural refuses "even money", and the dealer turns over a natural, it is a tie.). Thus it is exactly the same thing as buying Insurance, losing the Insurance bet and getting paid 3:2 on the natural. In such a case, the dealer usually asks the player "Even money?" This means that instead of 3:2, the player with the natural accepts to be paid off at 2:2. Even for the player who has been dealt a natural (a two-card 21) it is unwise to take Insurance.

through card counting) of the dealer's 'hole card' because Insurance has a negative expected value for the player. Insurance is statistically a bad bet for the player who has no direct knowledge nor estimation (e.g. Of course, a player may lose both his original bet and his Insurance bet. Note that the player made a net profit on that round.

(All Insurance wagers are settled as soon as the dealer turns over his 'hole card', before all else.) But the player wins his $10 bet. The player instantly loses his $5 Insurance wager. Suppose the 'hole card' is a 7. The dealer turns up his 'hole card' after the Insurance betting period is over -- and it's not a 10-valued card.

Suppose the player's hand is 19. The player takes Insurance by betting an additional amount of $5. Example: The player originally bets $10 and the dealer shows an Ace. Conversely, a player may win his original bet and lose his Insurance bet:.

did not lose any money) on that round. Note that the player came out even (i.e. But the Insurance bet wins, so the player gets 2:1 on his $5 Insurance wager and receives $10 (on top of the $5 which are returned to him). The player loses his $10 bet.

The dealer turns up his 'hole card' after the Insurance betting period is over -- and it's a 10-valued card. Suppose the player's hand is 19. The player takes Insurance by betting an additional amount of $5. Example: The player originally bets $10 and the dealer shows an Ace.

a two-card 21, a blackjack, and this pays off 2:1 if it wins. Because the dealer's upcard is an Ace, this means that the player who takes Insurance is essentially betting that the dealer was dealt a natural, i.e. a 10, a Jack, a Queen or a King. The player who is taking Insurance is betting that the dealer's 'hole card' is a 10-value card, i.e.

The Insurance bet is placed separately on a special portion of the table, which usually carries the words "Insurance Pays 2:1". The player who wishes to take Insurance can bet an amount up to half his original bet. If the dealer's upcard is an Ace, the player is offered the option of taking Insurance before the dealer checks his 'hole card'. It is advised to take a look at the rules of the specific variation before playing.

There are more than a few blackjack variations which can be found in the casinos, each has its own set of rules, strategies and odds. Some common rules variations include:. Bets are normally paid out at the odds of 1:1. If the dealer busts then all remaining players win.

The felt of the table will indicate whether or not the house hits or stands on a soft 17. In most casinos a dealer must also hit a soft 17 (such as an ace and a 6). House rules say that the dealer must hit until he or she has at least 17, regardless of what the players have. After all the players have finished making their decisions, the dealer then reveals his or her hidden hole card and plays the hand.

If the player busts, he or she loses the bet even if the dealer goes on to bust as well. The player's turn is over after deciding to stand, doubling down to take a single card, or busting. The player's options for playing his or her hand are:. When all the players have finished the dealer plays his hand.

If the dealer does not have a natural, then the first player completely plays out his hand, followed by the next player, and so on. This practice minimises the risk of inadvertantly revealing the hole card, which would give the sharp-eyed player a considerable advantage. In casinos where a hole card is dealt, a dealer who is showing a card with a value of 10 may slide the corner of his or her facedown card over a small mirror on the tabletop in order to check whether it is an ace or not. If the player and dealer both have a blackjack, it's a push.

If a player has a blackjack and the dealer doesn't, the player wins automatically. After the cards are dealt, if the dealer has a blackjack, all the players who don't have a blackjack lose immediately. A player with a natural is usually paid 3:2 on his bet, although in 2003 some casinos started paying only 6:5 on blackjacks, a move decried by longtime blackjack players. A two-card hand of 21 (an ace plus a ten-value card) is called a "blackjack" or a "natural", and is an automatic winner.

In European blackjack, the hole card is not actually dealt until the players all play their hands.) The cards are dealt face up from a shoe, or face down if it is a pitch game. (The face-down card is known as the "hole card". One of the dealer's two cards is face-up so all the players can see it, and the other is face down. The dealer gives two cards to each player, including himself.

After initial bets are placed, the dealer deals the cards, either from one or two hand-held decks of cards, known as a "pitch" game, or more commonly from a shoe containing four or more decks. If the player's and the dealer's hands have the same point value, this is known as a "push", and neither player nor dealer wins the hand. Note that if the player busts, he loses, even if the dealer also busts, which is the source of the casino's advantage. The goal of each player is to beat the dealer, by having the higher, unbusted hand.

A hand in which an ace's value is counted as 11 is called a soft hand. An ace's value is 11 unless this would cause the player to bust, in which case it is worth 1. Cards 2 through 10 are worth their face value, and face cards (jack, queen, king) are also worth 10. The hand with the highest total wins as long as it doesn't exceed 21; a hand with a higher total than 21 is said to bust.

Blackjack hands are scored by their point total. . This hand was called a "blackjack" and the name stuck even though the bonus payout was soon abolished. One such bonus was a 10-to-1 payout if the player's hand consisted of the ace of spades and a black Jack (either the Jack of clubs or the Jack of spades).

When blackjack was first introduced in the United States it wasn't very popular, so gambling houses tried offering various bonus payouts to get the players to the tables. Blackjack's precursor was vingt-et-un ("twenty-one"), which originated in French casinos around 1700, and did not offer the 3:2 bonus for a two-card 21. Much of blackjack's popularity is due to the mix of chance with elements of skill and decision making, and the publicity that surrounds the practice of card counting, a skill with which players can turn the odds of the game in their favor by making betting decisions based on the values of the cards known to remain in the deck. Blackjack, also known as twenty-one and pontoon in British English, is one of the most popular casino card games in the world.

Luck, Logic, and White Lies: The Mathematics of Games, Joerg Bewersdorff, 2004, ISBN 1568812108, 121-134. Epstein, 1977, ISBN 012240761X, 215-251. The Theory of Gambling and Statistical Logic, Richard A. Knock-Out Blackjack, Olaf Vancura and Ken Fuchs, 1998, ISBN 0929712315.

Ken Uston on Blackjack, Ken Uston, 1986, ISBN 0818404116. Million Dollar Blackjack, Ken Uston, 1994 (1981), ISBN 0-89746-068-5. Blackbelt in Blackjack, Arnold Snyder, 1998 (1980), ISBN 0910575053. The World's Greatest Blackjack Book, Lance Humble and Carl Cooper, 1980, ISBN 0-285-15382-1.

The Theory of Blackjack, Peter Griffin, 1996 (1979), ISBN 0929712129. Professional Blackjack, Stanford Wong, 1994 (1975), ISBN 0935926216. Playing Blackjack as a Business, Lawrence Revere, 1998 (1971), ISBN 0-8184-0064-1. Thorp, 1966, ISBN 0394703103.

Beat the Dealer : A Winning Strategy for the Game of Twenty-One, Edward O. Player losing ties. No-Peek (European) blackjack—player loses splits and doubles to a dealer blackjack. Aces may not be resplit.

Double down restricted to certain totals, such as 9-11 or 10,11. Splitting a maximum of once (to two hands). Dealer hits on soft seventeen (ace, six). Less than 3:2 payout on blackjacks (as is the case with Las Vegas Strip single-deck blackjack, paying out 6:5).

Five or more cards with the total still no more than 21 as an automatic win (a "Charlie"). Drawing more than one card against a split Ace. Resplitting Aces. Normal (aka "late") surrender.

Early surrender; the ability to forfeit half your wager against a face or ace before the dealer checks for blackjack. Doubles are permitted after splitting. Doubles are permitted on any two-card hand except a blackjack. This means players lose not only their original bet, but also any additional money invested from splitting and doubling down.

European No-Hole-Card Rule: the dealer receives only one card, dealt face-up, and does not a second card (and thus does not check for blackjack) until players have acted. dealer hits a soft seventeen (ace-six, which can play as seven or seventeen). double-down restrictions: double-down allowed only on certain combinations. late surrender: player has the option to surrender after dealer checks for Blackjack.

early surrender: player has the option to surrender before dealer checks for Blackjack. one card split aces: one card is dealt on each ace, player's turn is over. Surrender was common during the early- and mid-20th century, but is no longer offered at most casinos. Surrender: Forfeit half the bet and give up the hand.

This option is available only when both cards have the same value. Split: Double the wager and have each card be the first card in a new hand. Double down: Double the wager, take exactly one more card, and then stand. Stand: Take no more cards.

Hit: Take another card.

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