Joke

A joke is a short story or short series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of being laughed at or found humorous by the listener or reader. A practical joke differs in that the humour is not verbal, but mainly visual (e.g. putting a custard pie in somebody's face).

Most jokes contain two components: joke setup (for example, "A man walks into a bar...") and a punchline, which, when juxtaposed with the setup, provides the necessary irony to elicit laughter from the audience.

Psychology of jokes

Why we laugh has been the subject of serious academic study, examples being:

  • Sigmund Freud's "Jokes and Their Relationship to the Unconscious".
  • Marvin Minsky in Society of Mind.
  • Edward de Bono in "The mechanism of the mind" and "I am right, you are wrong".

Laughter, the intended human reaction to jokes, is healthful in moderation, uses the stomach muscles, and releases endorphins, natural happiness-inducing chemicals, into the bloodstream.

One of the most complete and informative books on different types of jokes and how to tell them is Isaac Asimov's Treasury of Humor, which encompasses several broad categories of humor, and gives useful tips on how to tell them, who to tell them to, and ways to change the joke to fit your audience.

Types of jokes

Jokes often depend for humour on the unexpected, the mildly taboo (which can include the distasteful or socially improper), or the playing on stereotypes and other cultural myths. Many jokes fit into more than one category.

Mathematical jokes

Main article: Mathematical joke

There are numerous jokes related to mathematics. Many of them are in-jokes, but may also be understandable by laymen.

A series of them parodies mathematical/logical chains of reason.

  • Mathematical proof:
  • Logic

Jokes in a certain category superficially look like math, but their essence is more akin to chemical composition.

Yo' mama jokes

Main article: The dozens. Jokes of this kind originate in the dozens, an African-American custom with West African roots in which two competitors -- usually males -- go head to head in a competition of comedic, often ribald, trash-talk. The target of the traded insults is most often the opponents' mothers, but can involve other family members as well.

  • Yo mama's so dumb when your dad said it's chilly outside, she ran out with a spoon.
  • Yo mama so dark that she can leave fingerprints on charcoal.
  • Yo mama so fat when she gets on the scale it says to be continued.
  • Yo mama so fat, when her pager goes off, people think she's backing up.
  • Yo mama's glasses are so thick, she can see the future.

Political jokes

Political jokes tell about politicians and heads of states. There are two large categories of this type of jokes. The first one makes fun of a negative attitude to political opponents or to politicians in general. The second one makes fun of political cliches, mottos, catch phrases or simply blunders of politicians.

Examples

A related subcategory is lawyer jokes plays on the commonly-held stereotypes about lawyers.

The following joke circulates for quite some time, with many different versions for <President> and <Other Country>.


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The following joke circulates for quite some time, with many different versions for <President> and <Other Country>. He is then reborn (albeit in a currently unknown fashion). A related subcategory is lawyer jokes plays on the commonly-held stereotypes about lawyers. In the same vein, Jordan Collier (note his initials JC), whose intentions and methods are also grey, is killed by a sniper, and after his funeral, his body miraculously disappears. The second one makes fun of political cliches, mottos, catch phrases or simply blunders of politicians. While Isabelle might sometimes seem like a Christ-like figure, she is certainly not. The first one makes fun of a negative attitude to political opponents or to politicians in general. The baby Isabelle, believed by some to be the future savior of mankind, has no qualms about violently killing people who get in her way.

There are two large categories of this type of jokes. The show's content has subtle Christian undertones, although not in a way that one would take it to be proselytizing. Political jokes tell about politicians and heads of states. The 4400 people who disappear do so in a rapture like fashion. The target of the traded insults is most often the opponents' mothers, but can involve other family members as well. The name of the show itself might be an allusion to the belief held by Jehovah's Witnesses that only 144,000 people will be allowed into heaven. Main article: The dozens. Jokes of this kind originate in the dozens, an African-American custom with West African roots in which two competitors -- usually males -- go head to head in a competition of comedic, often ribald, trash-talk. One former member of the 4400 Center accused it of making him take endless for-pay classes until he was bankrupted, at which point he was ejected from the program; Scientology has had similar accusations pointed at it.

Jokes in a certain category superficially look like math, but their essence is more akin to chemical composition. The 4400 Center targets celebrities for inclusion and promotes them through the program faster than non-celebrity members; the Church of Scientology definitely intentionally draws celebrities with its "Celebrity Centers". A series of them parodies mathematical/logical chains of reason. The 4400 Center includes technological devices strapped onto its members during courses, similar to Scientology's E-Meters. Many of them are in-jokes, but may also be understandable by laymen. At least one 4400 Center attendee has had his psychological medication confiscated, much as the Church of Scientology is opposed to psychology and its medications. There are numerous jokes related to mathematics. The 4400 Center promises supernatural abilities to those who follow its training through for-pay courses, much as the Church of Scientology promises, though Scientology is not as forthcoming about its promises of supernatural powers.

Main article: Mathematical joke. The 4400 Center run by Jordan Collier seems intended to resemble the real-world Church of Scientology. Many jokes fit into more than one category. Production of a third season is scheduled to begin in Vancouver in early 2006, and will be premiering in the summer. Jokes often depend for humour on the unexpected, the mildly taboo (which can include the distasteful or socially improper), or the playing on stereotypes and other cultural myths. This serum neutralized the charge so the inhibitor isn't able to cross membranes and can be flushed out of the body. One of the most complete and informative books on different types of jokes and how to tell them is Isaac Asimov's Treasury of Humor, which encompasses several broad categories of humor, and gives useful tips on how to tell them, who to tell them to, and ways to change the joke to fit your audience. A serum was created that contained pure promicin.

Laughter, the intended human reaction to jokes, is healthful in moderation, uses the stomach muscles, and releases endorphins, natural happiness-inducing chemicals, into the bloodstream. It's a binding protein. Why we laugh has been the subject of serious academic study, examples being:. It entered the brain through facilitated diffusion. . The promicin-inhibitor would piggyback on glucose. Most jokes contain two components: joke setup (for example, "A man walks into a bar...") and a punchline, which, when juxtaposed with the setup, provides the necessary irony to elicit laughter from the audience. This plot element uses the "Ten Percent Myth", which modern science has disproven..

putting a custard pie in somebody's face). Promicin's behavior and effect are unpredictable, potentially giving any ability. A practical joke differs in that the humour is not verbal, but mainly visual (e.g. Every 4400 produces a fifth neurotransmitter called Promicin that enables him or her to use parts of the cerebellum no human has ever had access to. A joke is a short story or short series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of being laughed at or found humorous by the listener or reader. Apparently the body produces four main neurotransmitters that control and regulate everything. Yo mama's glasses are so thick, she can see the future. The abilities of the 4400 derive from activating dormant neural pathways.

Yo mama so fat, when her pager goes off, people think she's backing up. Several other members of the 4400 feature in specific storylines:. Yo mama so fat when she gets on the scale it says to be continued. The main characters are:. Yo mama so dark that she can leave fingerprints on charcoal. The series follows the lives and stories of a select few of the 4400. Yo mama's so dumb when your dad said it's chilly outside, she ran out with a spoon. (It worked on the majority of the group, but not those who were later seen with powers.) The inhibitor caused a potentially fatal immune system condition in the returnees, forcing the government to inject all surviving returnees with replacement promicin; it is hinted that all of them will now exhibit powers.

Logic

. The government, afraid of what this large group would do with such power, secretly dosed all 4400 with a promicin inhibitor. Mathematical proof:
. At the end of the second season, it was revealed that all 4400 had a new neurotransmitter called "promicin" in their brains; it was this which gave some of them their powers. Edward de Bono in "The mechanism of the mind" and "I am right, you are wrong". At the end of the first season, we learn that the 4400 were abducted, not by aliens, but by someone in Earth's future, and that they were returned in order to prevent some sort of catastrophe. Marvin Minsky in Society of Mind. In addition, one of the 4400 had become pregnant between her disapperance and return.

Sigmund Freud's "Jokes and Their Relationship to the Unconscious". More significantly, a small number of the returnees begin to manifest paranormal abilities, such as telekinesis, telepathy, precognition, and much stranger ones. Most have trouble trying to get their lives back on track after being separated from their world for years. (A real-life NTAC now exists as well; however, it is specifically part of the Secret Service division of the Department of Homeland Security, and the "C" stands for "Center" instead of "Command".). The series mainly follows two of them, as well as their immediate superior:.

There are a multitude of agents assigned to the case. NTAC (National Threat Assessment Command), a division of the Department of Homeland Security, is formed in response to the return of the 4400. . After their return, none have aged, all are disoriented, and they remember nothing between the time of their disappearance and their return.

All of the 4,400 had disappeared at various points starting from 1941 in a beam of white light. In the pilot episode, what is originally thought to be a comet deposits a group of exactly four thousand, four hundred people in the Seattle, Washington region. The series is filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The 4400 is produced by Paramount Network Television in Association with Sky Television for Sky One, Renegade 83 and American Zoetrope for USA Network.

The theme song of the show is "A Place in Time" written by Robert Phillips & Tim Paruskewitz, performed by Amanda Abizaid. It stars Joel Gretsch and Jacqueline McKenzie. It was created and written by Scott Peters and René Echevarria. Production on thirteen new episodes for a third season has begun for a summer 2006 premiere.

It began as a miniseries of five episodes, which aired weekly from July 11 to August 8, 2004; a second season of twelve episodes began airing on June 5, 2005 and concluded on August 28, 2005. The 4400 is a science fiction program on the USA Network, Space: The Imagination Station and Sky One. New Zealand: TV3 (New Zealand). Turkey: CNBC-e.

Brazil: NBC's Universal Channel. Norway: TV3. The Netherlands: Talpa. United States: USA Network.

United Kingdom: Sky One. Germany: ProSieben. France: M6. Australia: Network Ten.

Switzerland: TSR. Canada: Space. [1]. Early marketing for the series included stencilled graffiti in public places across San Francisco, Houston, and Boston raising ire among residents.

The second season was aired weekly but taken off air halfway through the season, but continued to air in New Zealand. In Australia and New Zealand the first series was shown as a miniseries of 3 episodes. Vehicles from DaimlerChrysler's Chrysler Group, such as the Dodge Durango and Chrysler 300, appear frequently in the show being driven by members of NTAC. Nate McCullough, disappeared September 8, 2000.

Werner Loecher, disappeared April 19,1973. Matthew Lombard, disappeared May 30,1977. Rose Woodard, disappeared December 1,1991. Paranormal abilities: Increases the levels of adrenaline or other hormones (causing elevated levels of rage) in males within a certain radius through sonic means.

Kim, disappeared February 2, 1998. T.J. Laurel Bryce, disappeared January 7, 1982. Sara James, disappeared November 5, 1971.

(Deceased). Roger Wolcott, disappeared March 6, 1987. Paranormal abilities: Could heal fetuses in utero (but causes progressive damage to self). Edwin Mayuya, aka Edwin Musinga, doctor, disappeared February 24, 1996.

(Deceased) Paranormal abilities: sores on hands released plague-like disease (airborne, disappears in about half an hour, goes through biohazard gear). Jean DeLynn Baker, disappeared October 27, 1999. Paranormal abilities: Unlocked artistic potential in certain students in her classes. Heather Tobey, school teacher, disappeared March 2, 1974.

Eric Papequash, disappeared August 5, 1955. (Deceased) Paranormal abilities: Could revive dead plants. Mary Deneville, disappeared August 4, 1999. Given to her by the future so she can develop a relationship with Tom Baldwin to sustain him through the "coming troubles.".

Paranormal abilities: Ability to create an alternate reality. Artist (and debatably museum director). Alana Mareva, disappeared September 5, 2001. He was shot during apprehension, but lived.

The ability does cause Orson to suffer nosebleeds, and he has shown an inability to control this power. glass, bones). Paranormal abilities: Telekinesis of a magnitude to cause tremors in immediate vicinity and shatter objects (e.g. Insurance Salesman and partner in Kensington & Bailey.

Orson Bailey, disappeared June 11, 1979, from Tacoma, WA. Paranormal abilities: Saliva contains an agent that rapidly accelerates the metabolism of others. A telemarketer. Trent Appelbaum, disappeared May 18, 1989.

Paranormal abilities: Is able to hear the thoughts of others. A baseball player. Gary Navarro,disappeared January 5, 1973. Paranormal abilities: Ability to compel others to help her build a device, the plans for which have been planted in her head.

A mental patient. Tess Doerner, disappeared April 3, 1955. Paranormal abilities: Mind control/suggestion via speech. Captured and imprisoned in soundproof cell.

Oliver Knox, disappeared August 22, 1983, from Friday Harbor, WA, a suspected serial killer. Paranormal abilities: Enhanced reflexes and strength. A supermarket employee (Deceased). Carl Morrisey, disappeared February 16, 2003, from Seattle, WA.

Note that many of these powers duplicate those from among the 4400. Paranormal abilities: Telepathic communication (with Lily Moore, Richard Tyler, and Jordan Collier), mind control, materialization projection, alteration (Jordan Collier's injury, Lily Moore's first daughter's spleen) and/or acceleration of biological growth (the growth of berries in one episode and herself in the Season 2 finale), precognition (warned Lily of a bomb before it exploded), telekinesis (the bending trees in the final scene of Season 1). At the end of the season finale she ages considerably and shows up in Shawn's office, naked. As the only 4400 not affected by the ability-inhibitor, she provides blood used to heal Shawn Farrell and consequently all 4400s, activating their abilities.

Technically not one of "The 4400" returned (she was still in the womb at the time of the count). Isabelle Tyler-Moore, born post-return, daughter of Richard Tyler and Lily Moore. Also, after being assassinated, he disappears and reappears alive at the very end of the second season finale. Possibly enhanced power of suggestion over other people, but this could just be a personality trait.

Paranormal abilities: unknown. Jordan Collier, disappeared April 10, 2002, from Seattle, WA area, a former real estate mogul. Paranormal abilities: precognition. Maia Rutledge, disappeared March 3, 1946, at age 8, from Crescent City, CA.

Paranormal abilities: Healer and life taker. Shawn Farrell, disappeared April 22, 2001, at age 17, from Highland Beach, WA. Paranormal abilities: None Known. Returned pregnant, but not by Brian, rather by Richard Tyler.

At time of abduction, married to Brian Moore, mother to Heidi Moore. Louis, MO. Lily Moore, disappeared in 1993, at age 26, from St. Paranormal abilities: apparent telekinesis.

Father of Lily Moore's second daughter, Isabelle. At the time, in a relationship with Lily Moore's grandmother, Lily Bonham. Louis, MO. Originally from St.

Richard Tyler, disappeared May 11, 1951, at age 29, while in South Korea during the Korean War. Ryland is succeeded by Nina Jarvis in season two, but he takes his role back as a guest star on the 11th and 12th (season finale) episodes of season two. Dennis Ryland: Baldwin's and Skouris's supervisor and director of the Seattle bureau of NTAC during season one. In the first episode of season 2, Diana adopts Maia Rutledge.

The eight-year old pre-cog Maia asks to move in with her at some point in season 1. Diana Skouris: Tom's partner. Kyle was in a coma for three years, and after being awoken is troubled by blackouts. Tom Baldwin: Baldwin's nephew is Shawn Farrell; Shawn was with Baldwin's son Kyle Baldwin during the abduction.

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