Johann Gutenberg

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Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (circa 1398 – February 3, 1468), a German metal-worker and inventor, achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during the 1440s, including a type metal alloy and oil-based inks, a mould for casting type accurately, and a new kind of printing press based on presses used in wine-making. Tradition credits him with inventing movable type in Europe, an improvement on the block printing already in use there. By combining these elements into a production system, he allowed for the rapid printing of written materials and an information explosion in Renaissance Europe.

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, as the son of a merchant named Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, who adopted the surname "zum Gutenberg" after the name of the neighborhood into which the family had moved.

Printing

Block printing, whereby individual sheets of paper were pressed into wooden blocks with the text and illustrations carved in, was in use in Europe and East Asia long before Gutenberg. The Koreans and Chinese knew about movable metal types at the time, but due to the complex nature of the Chinese writing system, printed material was not as abundant as that of Renaissance Europe.

It is not clear whether Gutenberg knew of these existing techniques or invented them independently. Some also claim Dutchman Laurens Coster as the first European to invent movable type.

Gutenberg certainly introduced efficient methods into book production, leading to a boom in the production of texts in Europe, in large part due to the popularity of the Gutenberg Bibles, the first mass-produced work, starting on February 23, 1455.

Gutenberg was a poor businessman, and made little money from his printing system.

Gutenberg began experimenting with metal typography after he had moved from his native town of Mainz to Strassburg (then in Germany, now Strasbourg, France) around 1430. Knowing that wood-block type involved a great deal of time and expense to reproduce because it had to be hand carved, Gutenberg concluded that metal type could be reproduced much more quickly once a single mould had been fashioned. His first efforts enabled him to mass-produce indulgences, printed slips of paper sold by the Catholic Church to remit the temporal punishments in Purgatory for sins committed in this life.

Johann Fust

Bible

In 1455 Gutenberg demonstrated the power of the printing press by selling copies of a two-volume Bible (Biblia Sacra) for 300 florins each. This was the equivalent of approximately three years' wages for an average clerk, but it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible, which could take a single monk 20 years to transcribe.

The one copy of the Biblia Sacra dated 1455 went to Paris and was dated by the binder.

Debt

The money Gutenberg earned at the fair was not enough to pay Fust back for his investments. Fust sued, and the court's ruling not only effectively bankrupted Gutenberg, it awarded control of the type used in his Bible, plus much of the printing equipment, to Fust. So, while Gutenberg ran a print shop until just before his death in Mainz in 1468, Fust became the first printer to publish a book with his name on it.

Gutenberg was subsidized by the Archbishop of Mainz until his death. Gutenberg was also known to spend what little money he had on alcohol, so the Archbishop arranged for him to be paid in food and lodging, instead of coin.

Gutenberg Bibles

Gutenberg Bible, Library of Congress, Washington D.C.

The Gutenberg Bibles surviving today are sometimes called the oldest surviving books printed with movable type, although the oldest surviving book was published in Korea in 1377. As of 2003, the Gutenberg Bible census includes 11 complete copies on vellum, 1 copy of the New Testament only on vellum, 48 substantially complete integral copies on paper, with another divided copy on paper, and an illiminated page (the Bagford fragment).

Other printed works

The Bible was not Gutenberg's first printed work, for he produced approximately two dozen editions of Ars Minor, a portion of Aelius Donatus's schoolbook on Latin grammar, the first edition of which is believed to have been printed between 1451 and 1452.

Legacy

Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, his invention spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe far faster than before. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, was a major factor in originating the scientific revolution. Literacy also increased as a result. Gutenberg's inventions are sometimes considered the turning point from the Mediaeval Era to the Early Modern Period.

The term incunabulum refers to a western printed book produced between the first work of Gutenberg and the end of the year 1500.

There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany, one of the more famous being a work by Thorvaldsen, in Mainz, which is also home to the Gutenberg Museum.

The Gutenberg Galaxy and Project Gutenberg commemorate Gutenberg's name.

Related articles

  • Printing
  • Typography
  • Incunabulum
  • Francysk Skaryna
  • William Caxton
  • World Almanac's Ten Most Influential People of the Second Millennium

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The Gutenberg Galaxy and Project Gutenberg commemorate Gutenberg's name. Nevertheless, Beltrán has failed to live up to the hype and some regard his signing as a mistake. There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany, one of the more famous being a work by Thorvaldsen, in Mainz, which is also home to the Gutenberg Museum. It should be noted, however, that Beltran spent most of the 2004 season in hitter friendly ballparks, as opposed to the pitcher friendly Shea Stadium. The term incunabulum refers to a western printed book produced between the first work of Gutenberg and the end of the year 1500. Beltran has not even come close to reaching the numbers he posted in 2004 with his new team. Gutenberg's inventions are sometimes considered the turning point from the Mediaeval Era to the Early Modern Period. Those critics may be correct, too.

Literacy also increased as a result. They cite that prior to the 2004 season, he never hit 30 or more home runs and that he is only a career .280 hitter. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, was a major factor in originating the scientific revolution. However, critics have expressed that his skills may be overrated. Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, his invention spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe far faster than before. At 27, he is thought to be entering the prime years of career. The Bible was not Gutenberg's first printed work, for he produced approximately two dozen editions of Ars Minor, a portion of Aelius Donatus's schoolbook on Latin grammar, the first edition of which is believed to have been printed between 1451 and 1452. He bolsters an already potent Mets roster that includes future hall of famer Mike Piazza, young sensations Jose Reyes and David Wright, and recent free agent signing Pedro Martinez.

As of 2003, the Gutenberg Bible census includes 11 complete copies on vellum, 1 copy of the New Testament only on vellum, 48 substantially complete integral copies on paper, with another divided copy on paper, and an illiminated page (the Bagford fragment). Beltrán is what scouts call a "five-tool player," with good fielding skills, a good throwing arm, ability to hit for average, power, and steal bases. The Gutenberg Bibles surviving today are sometimes called the oldest surviving books printed with movable type, although the oldest surviving book was published in Korea in 1377. Reaction to the signing was met with enthusiasm by many, though some felt the Mets may have overpaid. Gutenberg was also known to spend what little money he had on alcohol, so the Archbishop arranged for him to be paid in food and lodging, instead of coin. It was also only the tenth contract in Major League Baseball history to be worth more than $100 million. Gutenberg was subsidized by the Archbishop of Mainz until his death. After the New York Yankees decided against pursuing him, he signed a 7 year - $119 million contract with the New York Mets, the biggest contract in Mets history.

So, while Gutenberg ran a print shop until just before his death in Mainz in 1468, Fust became the first printer to publish a book with his name on it. Beltrán became a free agent for the first time after the 2004 season and was touted as the biggest free agent on the market. Fust sued, and the court's ruling not only effectively bankrupted Gutenberg, it awarded control of the type used in his Bible, plus much of the printing equipment, to Fust. This gave him five straight playoff games with a home run, a new record. The money Gutenberg earned at the fair was not enough to pay Fust back for his investments. Louis Cardinals, including a game-winner in Game 4. The one copy of the Biblia Sacra dated 1455 went to Paris and was dated by the binder. In Game 5 of the NLDS against the Atlanta Braves, he had two home runs, and he had one in each of the first four games of the NLCS against the St.

This was the equivalent of approximately three years' wages for an average clerk, but it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible, which could take a single monk 20 years to transcribe. In the 2004 MLB playoffs, Beltrán tied Barry Bonds's single postseason record with 8 home runs. In 1455 Gutenberg demonstrated the power of the printing press by selling copies of a two-volume Bible (Biblia Sacra) for 300 florins each. went on the disabled list just before the All-Star break, Beltrán was named his substitute. His first efforts enabled him to mass-produce indulgences, printed slips of paper sold by the Catholic Church to remit the temporal punishments in Purgatory for sins committed in this life. After NL starter Ken Griffey, Jr. Knowing that wood-block type involved a great deal of time and expense to reproduce because it had to be hand carved, Gutenberg concluded that metal type could be reproduced much more quickly once a single mould had been fashioned. Beltrán was selected to the American League starting outfield for the 2004 All-Star Game, but he was initially denied a place in the game because of his trade to the National League.

Gutenberg began experimenting with metal typography after he had moved from his native town of Mainz to Strassburg (then in Germany, now Strasbourg, France) around 1430. On June 24, Beltrán was traded to the Houston Astros in a three-team deal, with the Oakland Athletics getting closer Octavio Dotel and the Royals picking up three prospects. Gutenberg was a poor businessman, and made little money from his printing system. While Beltrán's name was not mentioned specifically by Royals management, the high-profile player, who was already eligible for free agency following the season, was considered the most likely to garner interest from other teams. Gutenberg certainly introduced efficient methods into book production, leading to a boom in the production of texts in Europe, in large part due to the popularity of the Gutenberg Bibles, the first mass-produced work, starting on February 23, 1455. During a press conference following an interleague doubleheader loss to the last-place Montreal Expos, Royals general manager Allard Baird told reporters that he was preparing to dismantle the team and rebuild it for the 2005 season. Some also claim Dutchman Laurens Coster as the first European to invent movable type. Because Kansas City is a small-market club, and Beltrán is represented by agent Scott Boras, trade rumors followed Beltrán through the 2003 and 2004 seasons, as the end of his contract neared and the two sides failed to negotiate a long-term deal.

It is not clear whether Gutenberg knew of these existing techniques or invented them independently. After Damon was traded to the Athletics following the season, Beltrán regained his job and recaptured his rookie form, batting .306 with 24 home runs and 101 RBI in 2001, and followed up with .273, 29, 105 in 2002, and .307, 26, 100 in 2003. The Koreans and Chinese knew about movable metal types at the time, but due to the complex nature of the Chinese writing system, printed material was not as abundant as that of Renaissance Europe. Injuries caused Beltrán to miss part of the 2000 season and he slumped to .247, losing his center field job to the popular Johnny Damon. Block printing, whereby individual sheets of paper were pressed into wooden blocks with the text and illustrations carved in, was in use in Europe and East Asia long before Gutenberg. By mid-summer, he was displaying surprising power and moved to the #3 slot in the batting order, and he won the American League Rookie of the Year award. . In 1999, he won a job in spring training as the Royals' starting center fielder and leadoff hitter.

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, as the son of a merchant named Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, who adopted the surname "zum Gutenberg" after the name of the neighborhood into which the family had moved. Beltrán made his major league debut in 1998, playing 14 games with the Kansas City Royals. By combining these elements into a production system, he allowed for the rapid printing of written materials and an information explosion in Renaissance Europe. Carlos Ivan Beltrán (born April 24, 1977 in Manatí, Puerto Rico) is a Major League Baseball player for the New York Mets. Tradition credits him with inventing movable type in Europe, an improvement on the block printing already in use there. Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (circa 1398 – February 3, 1468), a German metal-worker and inventor, achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during the 1440s, including a type metal alloy and oil-based inks, a mould for casting type accurately, and a new kind of printing press based on presses used in wine-making.

World Almanac's Ten Most Influential People of the Second Millennium. William Caxton. Francysk Skaryna. Incunabulum.

Typography. Printing.

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