Johann Gutenberg

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Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (circa 1398 – February 3, 1468), a German metal-worker and inventor, achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during the 1440s, including a type metal alloy and oil-based inks, a mould for casting type accurately, and a new kind of printing press based on presses used in wine-making. Tradition credits him with inventing movable type in Europe, an improvement on the block printing already in use there. By combining these elements into a production system, he allowed for the rapid printing of written materials and an information explosion in Renaissance Europe.

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, as the son of a merchant named Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, who adopted the surname "zum Gutenberg" after the name of the neighborhood into which the family had moved.

Printing

Block printing, whereby individual sheets of paper were pressed into wooden blocks with the text and illustrations carved in, was in use in Europe and East Asia long before Gutenberg. The Koreans and Chinese knew about movable metal types at the time, but due to the complex nature of the Chinese writing system, printed material was not as abundant as that of Renaissance Europe.

It is not clear whether Gutenberg knew of these existing techniques or invented them independently. Some also claim Dutchman Laurens Coster as the first European to invent movable type.

Gutenberg certainly introduced efficient methods into book production, leading to a boom in the production of texts in Europe, in large part due to the popularity of the Gutenberg Bibles, the first mass-produced work, starting on February 23, 1455.

Gutenberg was a poor businessman, and made little money from his printing system.

Gutenberg began experimenting with metal typography after he had moved from his native town of Mainz to Strassburg (then in Germany, now Strasbourg, France) around 1430. Knowing that wood-block type involved a great deal of time and expense to reproduce because it had to be hand carved, Gutenberg concluded that metal type could be reproduced much more quickly once a single mould had been fashioned. His first efforts enabled him to mass-produce indulgences, printed slips of paper sold by the Catholic Church to remit the temporal punishments in Purgatory for sins committed in this life.

Johann Fust

Bible

In 1455 Gutenberg demonstrated the power of the printing press by selling copies of a two-volume Bible (Biblia Sacra) for 300 florins each. This was the equivalent of approximately three years' wages for an average clerk, but it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible, which could take a single monk 20 years to transcribe.

The one copy of the Biblia Sacra dated 1455 went to Paris and was dated by the binder.

Debt

The money Gutenberg earned at the fair was not enough to pay Fust back for his investments. Fust sued, and the court's ruling not only effectively bankrupted Gutenberg, it awarded control of the type used in his Bible, plus much of the printing equipment, to Fust. So, while Gutenberg ran a print shop until just before his death in Mainz in 1468, Fust became the first printer to publish a book with his name on it.

Gutenberg was subsidized by the Archbishop of Mainz until his death. Gutenberg was also known to spend what little money he had on alcohol, so the Archbishop arranged for him to be paid in food and lodging, instead of coin.

Gutenberg Bibles

Gutenberg Bible, Library of Congress, Washington D.C.

The Gutenberg Bibles surviving today are sometimes called the oldest surviving books printed with movable type, although the oldest surviving book was published in Korea in 1377. As of 2003, the Gutenberg Bible census includes 11 complete copies on vellum, 1 copy of the New Testament only on vellum, 48 substantially complete integral copies on paper, with another divided copy on paper, and an illiminated page (the Bagford fragment).

Other printed works

The Bible was not Gutenberg's first printed work, for he produced approximately two dozen editions of Ars Minor, a portion of Aelius Donatus's schoolbook on Latin grammar, the first edition of which is believed to have been printed between 1451 and 1452.

Legacy

Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, his invention spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe far faster than before. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, was a major factor in originating the scientific revolution. Literacy also increased as a result. Gutenberg's inventions are sometimes considered the turning point from the Mediaeval Era to the Early Modern Period.

The term incunabulum refers to a western printed book produced between the first work of Gutenberg and the end of the year 1500.

There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany, one of the more famous being a work by Thorvaldsen, in Mainz, which is also home to the Gutenberg Museum.

The Gutenberg Galaxy and Project Gutenberg commemorate Gutenberg's name.

Related articles

  • Printing
  • Typography
  • Incunabulum
  • Francysk Skaryna
  • William Caxton
  • World Almanac's Ten Most Influential People of the Second Millennium

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The Gutenberg Galaxy and Project Gutenberg commemorate Gutenberg's name.
. There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany, one of the more famous being a work by Thorvaldsen, in Mainz, which is also home to the Gutenberg Museum.
. The term incunabulum refers to a western printed book produced between the first work of Gutenberg and the end of the year 1500. In accepting her 2003 Nobel Peace Prize, Shirin Ebadi said:. Gutenberg's inventions are sometimes considered the turning point from the Mediaeval Era to the Early Modern Period. Cyrus was still being cited in the twenty-first century.

Literacy also increased as a result. Entitled The Garden of Cyrus, it may well be a Royalist criticism upon the autocratic rule of Cromwell. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, was a major factor in originating the scientific revolution. The English philosopher Sir Thomas Browne named his 1658 discourse after the benevolent ruler. Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, his invention spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe far faster than before. The Cyropaedia of Xenophon, based on the latter's knowledge of the great king's upbringing, was an influential political treatise in ancient times, and again during the Renaissance. The Bible was not Gutenberg's first printed work, for he produced approximately two dozen editions of Ars Minor, a portion of Aelius Donatus's schoolbook on Latin grammar, the first edition of which is believed to have been printed between 1451 and 1452. His exploits, real and legendary, were used as moral instruction or a source of inspiration for political philosophies.

As of 2003, the Gutenberg Bible census includes 11 complete copies on vellum, 1 copy of the New Testament only on vellum, 48 substantially complete integral copies on paper, with another divided copy on paper, and an illiminated page (the Bagford fragment). His spectacular conquests triggered the age of empire building, as carried out by his successors as well as the Greeks and Romans in the following centuries. The Gutenberg Bibles surviving today are sometimes called the oldest surviving books printed with movable type, although the oldest surviving book was published in Korea in 1377. The Bible records a remnant of the Jewish population returning to the Promised Land from Babylon, following an edict from Cyrus. Gutenberg was also known to spend what little money he had on alcohol, so the Archbishop arranged for him to be paid in food and lodging, instead of coin. A good example of this policy is found in his treatment of the Jews in Babylon. Gutenberg was subsidized by the Archbishop of Mainz until his death. By pursuing a policy of generosity, instead of repression, and by favoring the local religion, he was able to make his new subjects his enthusiastic supporters.

So, while Gutenberg ran a print shop until just before his death in Mainz in 1468, Fust became the first printer to publish a book with his name on it. His statesmanship came out particularly in his treatments of newly conquered peoples. Fust sued, and the court's ruling not only effectively bankrupted Gutenberg, it awarded control of the type used in his Bible, plus much of the printing equipment, to Fust. Cyrus was distinguished no less as statesman than as a soldier. The money Gutenberg earned at the fair was not enough to pay Fust back for his investments. The tomb northeast of Persepolis (پرسپولیس), which has been claimed as that of Cyrus, is evidently not his, as its location does not fit the reports. The one copy of the Biblia Sacra dated 1455 went to Paris and was dated by the binder. Both Strabo and Arrian give descriptions of his tomb, based upon reports of men who saw it at the time of Alexander the Great's invasion.

This was the equivalent of approximately three years' wages for an average clerk, but it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible, which could take a single monk 20 years to transcribe. He was buried in the town of Pasargadae. In 1455 Gutenberg demonstrated the power of the printing press by selling copies of a two-volume Bible (Biblia Sacra) for 300 florins each. Ctesias reports that Cyrus met his death in the year 529 BC, while warring against tribes northeast of the headwaters of the Tigris. His first efforts enabled him to mass-produce indulgences, printed slips of paper sold by the Catholic Church to remit the temporal punishments in Purgatory for sins committed in this life. The Massagetae were similar to the Scythians in their dress and mode of living; they fought on horseback and on foot. Knowing that wood-block type involved a great deal of time and expense to reproduce because it had to be hand carved, Gutenberg concluded that metal type could be reproduced much more quickly once a single mould had been fashioned. The queen of the Massagetae, Tomyris, prevailed after Cyrus previously defeated Tomyris's son Spargapises.

Gutenberg began experimenting with metal typography after he had moved from his native town of Mainz to Strassburg (then in Germany, now Strasbourg, France) around 1430. According to Herodotus, Cyrus met his death in a battle with the Massagetae, a tribe from the southern deserts of Kharesm, Kizilhoum in the southernmost portion of the steppe region. Gutenberg was a poor businessman, and made little money from his printing system. Cyrus died in battle, but his empire was to reach its zenith long after his death. Gutenberg certainly introduced efficient methods into book production, leading to a boom in the production of texts in Europe, in large part due to the popularity of the Gutenberg Bibles, the first mass-produced work, starting on February 23, 1455. Cyrus is the result of this union. Some also claim Dutchman Laurens Coster as the first European to invent movable type. But they also consider him as being married to Princess Mandane of Media (ماد), a daughter of Astyages, King of the Medes and Princess Aryenis of Lydia.

It is not clear whether Gutenberg knew of these existing techniques or invented them independently. Cambyses is considered by Herodotus and Ctesias to be of humble origin. The Koreans and Chinese knew about movable metal types at the time, but due to the complex nature of the Chinese writing system, printed material was not as abundant as that of Renaissance Europe. They were succeeded by their respective sons Cambyses I of Anshan and Arsames of Persia. Block printing, whereby individual sheets of paper were pressed into wooden blocks with the text and illustrations carved in, was in use in Europe and East Asia long before Gutenberg. Inscriptions indicate that when the latter died, two of his sons shared the throne as Cyrus I of Anshan and Ariaramnes of Persia. . 700 BC) who was succeeded by his son Teispes of Anshan.

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, as the son of a merchant named Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, who adopted the surname "zum Gutenberg" after the name of the neighborhood into which the family had moved. The royal history given on the cylinder is as follows: The founder of the dynasty was King Achaemenes (ca. By combining these elements into a production system, he allowed for the rapid printing of written materials and an information explosion in Renaissance Europe. Many historians consider it to be the first declaration of human rights. Tradition credits him with inventing movable type in Europe, an improvement on the block printing already in use there. It was discovered in 1879 in Babylon and today is kept in the British Museum. Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (circa 1398 – February 3, 1468), a German metal-worker and inventor, achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during the 1440s, including a type metal alloy and oil-based inks, a mould for casting type accurately, and a new kind of printing press based on presses used in wine-making. Upon his taking of Babylon, Cyrus issued a declaration, inscribed on a clay barrel known as the Cyrus Cylinder, which contains an account of his victories and merciful acts as well as a documentation of his royal lineage.

World Almanac's Ten Most Influential People of the Second Millennium. The administrators of these provinces, called satraps, had considerable independence from the emperor, and from many parts of the realm Cyrus demanded no more than tribute and conscripts. William Caxton. Cyrus organized the empire into provincial administrations called satrapies. Francysk Skaryna. From the list of countries subject to Persian rule given on the first tablet of the great Behistun Inscription of Darius, written before any new conquests could have been made except that of Egypt, the dominion of Cyrus must have comprised the largest empire the world had yet seen, stretching from Asia Minor and Judah in the west to the Indus valley in the east. Incunabulum. Cyrus assumed the title of 'king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four sides of the world'.

Typography. According to the Babylonian inscription this was in all probability a bloodless victory. Printing. In 538 BC, Cyrus defeated Nabonidus at Opis and occupied Babylon. According to Herodotus, Cyrus spared the life of Croesus and kept him as an advisor throughout his life. But before the allies could unite, Cyrus had defeated Croesus at Pterium, occupied Sardis, overthrown the Lydian kingdom, and taken Croesus prisoner (546 BC).

They reportedly intended to unite their armies against Cyrus and his Persians. Astyages had been in alliance with his brother-in-law Croesus of Lydia, son of Alyattes, Nabonidus of Babylon, and Amasis II of Egypt. Cyrus' wars had just begun. Thus the Persians gained dominion over the Iranian plateau.

While he seems, at first, to have accepted the crown of Media, by 546 BC he had officially assumed the title of 'king of Persia'. With the help of Harpagus, Cyrus led the Persians and his armies to capture Ecbatana, and effectively conquered Media. 554 BC–553 BC and by 550 BC–549 BC. Harpagus, seeking vengeance, convinced Cyrus to rally the Persian people, then in a state of near-slavery to the Medes, to revolt ca.

Many years later, when Astyages discovered that his grandson was still alive, he ordered that the son of Harpagus be beheaded and served to his father on a dinner platter. Harpagus, morally unable to kill a newborn, switched the baby with a stillborn child and reported Cyrus dead. He then ordered his steward Harpagus to kill the infant Cyrus. After the birth of Cyrus, Astyages had a dream that his Magi interpreted as a sign of an eventual overthrow by his grandson.

According to Herodotus, Cyrus was said to be part-Persian (Parsua) and part Mede and his overlord was his own grandfather Astyages who had conquered all Assyrian kingdoms apart from Babylonia. In his Histories, Herodotus gives a detailed description of the rise to power of Cyrus according to the best sources available to him. Like his predecessors before him, Cyrus had to recognize Median overlordship. However, Cyrus was not yet an independent ruler.

Arsames was father of Hystaspes and would live to see his grandson become King Darius I of Persia. He apparently also soon managed to succeed Arsames to the throne of Persia though the latter was still living. In 559 BC, Cyrus succeeded his father Cambyses the Elder as King of Anshan. Cyrus had two sons: Cambyses and Smerdis, as well as several daughters, of whom Atossa is significant since she married Darius I of Persia and was mother of Xerxes I of Persia.(To see Cyrus's Portrait please visit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Cyrus_portrait.jpg ).

Cyrus, the son of a Persian noble and a Median princess, was from the Achaemenid Dynasty, which ruled the kingdom of Anshan, in what is now southwestern Iran. In modern Persian, Cyrus is referred to as Kouroush Bozorg — his Persian name with the Persian-derived "Great"). The name "Cyrus" (a Latin transliteration of the Greek Κῦρος) is the Greek version of the Old Persian Koroush or Khorvash, [in Persian khour means "sun" and vash is a suffix meaning "like"]. .

He is perhaps best known for having declared the first ever charter of human rights (the Cyrus Cylinder) where he identifies himself as "King of Persia". 576 – July 529 BC) founded the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid Dynasty of Anshan by unifying two Iranian tribes: the Median and the Persian. Cyrus II of Persia, widely known as Cyrus the Great, (ca.

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