Johann Gutenberg

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Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (circa 1398 – February 3, 1468), a German metal-worker and inventor, achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during the 1440s, including a type metal alloy and oil-based inks, a mould for casting type accurately, and a new kind of printing press based on presses used in wine-making. Tradition credits him with inventing movable type in Europe, an improvement on the block printing already in use there. By combining these elements into a production system, he allowed for the rapid printing of written materials and an information explosion in Renaissance Europe.

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, as the son of a merchant named Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, who adopted the surname "zum Gutenberg" after the name of the neighborhood into which the family had moved.

Printing

Block printing, whereby individual sheets of paper were pressed into wooden blocks with the text and illustrations carved in, was in use in Europe and East Asia long before Gutenberg. The Koreans and Chinese knew about movable metal types at the time, but due to the complex nature of the Chinese writing system, printed material was not as abundant as that of Renaissance Europe.

It is not clear whether Gutenberg knew of these existing techniques or invented them independently. Some also claim Dutchman Laurens Coster as the first European to invent movable type.

Gutenberg certainly introduced efficient methods into book production, leading to a boom in the production of texts in Europe, in large part due to the popularity of the Gutenberg Bibles, the first mass-produced work, starting on February 23, 1455.

Gutenberg was a poor businessman, and made little money from his printing system.

Gutenberg began experimenting with metal typography after he had moved from his native town of Mainz to Strassburg (then in Germany, now Strasbourg, France) around 1430. Knowing that wood-block type involved a great deal of time and expense to reproduce because it had to be hand carved, Gutenberg concluded that metal type could be reproduced much more quickly once a single mould had been fashioned. His first efforts enabled him to mass-produce indulgences, printed slips of paper sold by the Catholic Church to remit the temporal punishments in Purgatory for sins committed in this life.

Johann Fust

Bible

In 1455 Gutenberg demonstrated the power of the printing press by selling copies of a two-volume Bible (Biblia Sacra) for 300 florins each. This was the equivalent of approximately three years' wages for an average clerk, but it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible, which could take a single monk 20 years to transcribe.

The one copy of the Biblia Sacra dated 1455 went to Paris and was dated by the binder.

Debt

The money Gutenberg earned at the fair was not enough to pay Fust back for his investments. Fust sued, and the court's ruling not only effectively bankrupted Gutenberg, it awarded control of the type used in his Bible, plus much of the printing equipment, to Fust. So, while Gutenberg ran a print shop until just before his death in Mainz in 1468, Fust became the first printer to publish a book with his name on it.

Gutenberg was subsidized by the Archbishop of Mainz until his death. Gutenberg was also known to spend what little money he had on alcohol, so the Archbishop arranged for him to be paid in food and lodging, instead of coin.

Gutenberg Bibles

Gutenberg Bible, Library of Congress, Washington D.C.

The Gutenberg Bibles surviving today are sometimes called the oldest surviving books printed with movable type, although the oldest surviving book was published in Korea in 1377. As of 2003, the Gutenberg Bible census includes 11 complete copies on vellum, 1 copy of the New Testament only on vellum, 48 substantially complete integral copies on paper, with another divided copy on paper, and an illiminated page (the Bagford fragment).

Other printed works

The Bible was not Gutenberg's first printed work, for he produced approximately two dozen editions of Ars Minor, a portion of Aelius Donatus's schoolbook on Latin grammar, the first edition of which is believed to have been printed between 1451 and 1452.

Legacy

Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, his invention spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe far faster than before. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, was a major factor in originating the scientific revolution. Literacy also increased as a result. Gutenberg's inventions are sometimes considered the turning point from the Mediaeval Era to the Early Modern Period.

The term incunabulum refers to a western printed book produced between the first work of Gutenberg and the end of the year 1500.

There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany, one of the more famous being a work by Thorvaldsen, in Mainz, which is also home to the Gutenberg Museum.

The Gutenberg Galaxy and Project Gutenberg commemorate Gutenberg's name.

Related articles

  • Printing
  • Typography
  • Incunabulum
  • Francysk Skaryna
  • William Caxton
  • World Almanac's Ten Most Influential People of the Second Millennium

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The Gutenberg Galaxy and Project Gutenberg commemorate Gutenberg's name.
. There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany, one of the more famous being a work by Thorvaldsen, in Mainz, which is also home to the Gutenberg Museum.
. The term incunabulum refers to a western printed book produced between the first work of Gutenberg and the end of the year 1500.
. Gutenberg's inventions are sometimes considered the turning point from the Mediaeval Era to the Early Modern Period.

.

Literacy also increased as a result. Some may find him difficult, he speaks the language of the professional scholar, but reading his works is certainly worth the time and effort. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, was a major factor in originating the scientific revolution. The Association of Ancient Historians has honored Ramsay MacMullen as being the finest ancient historian of the Roman Empire in our time. Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, his invention spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe far faster than before. [3]. The Bible was not Gutenberg's first printed work, for he produced approximately two dozen editions of Ars Minor, a portion of Aelius Donatus's schoolbook on Latin grammar, the first edition of which is believed to have been printed between 1451 and 1452. [2].

As of 2003, the Gutenberg Bible census includes 11 complete copies on vellum, 1 copy of the New Testament only on vellum, 48 substantially complete integral copies on paper, with another divided copy on paper, and an illiminated page (the Bagford fragment). After 312, he added maximus ("the greatest"), and after 325 replaced invictus ("unconquerable") with victor, as invictus reminded of Sol Invictus, the Sun God. The Gutenberg Bibles surviving today are sometimes called the oldest surviving books printed with movable type, although the oldest surviving book was published in Korea in 1377. 1- In the English language, Constantine's official Imperial title is Imperator Caesar Flavius Constantine Augustus, the blessed, the lucky, the unconquerable. Gutenberg was also known to spend what little money he had on alcohol, so the Archbishop arranged for him to be paid in food and lodging, instead of coin. Monmouth also said that Constantine was proclaimed "King of the Britons" at York, rather than Roman Emperor. Gutenberg was subsidized by the Archbishop of Mainz until his death. It was indecorous, Geoffrey considered, that a king might have less-than-noble ancestors.

So, while Gutenberg ran a print shop until just before his death in Mainz in 1468, Fust became the first printer to publish a book with his name on it. A daughter for King Cole had not previously figured in the lore, at least not as it has survived in writing, and this pedigree is likely to reflect Geoffrey's desire to create a continuous line of regal descent. Fust sued, and the court's ruling not only effectively bankrupted Gutenberg, it awarded control of the type used in his Bible, plus much of the printing equipment, to Fust. Geoffrey claimed that Helena, Constantine's mother, was actually the daughter of "King Cole", the mythical King of the Britons and eponymous founder of Colchester. The money Gutenberg earned at the fair was not enough to pay Fust back for his investments. 1136 during the reign of Stephen of England) is not considered a reliable source by modern historians. The one copy of the Biblia Sacra dated 1455 went to Paris and was dated by the binder. His Historia Regum Britanniae (written ca.

This was the equivalent of approximately three years' wages for an average clerk, but it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible, which could take a single monk 20 years to transcribe. The English chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth offered a genealogy of British kings that linked them to the Fall of Troy at the end of the Trojan War. In 1455 Gutenberg demonstrated the power of the printing press by selling copies of a two-volume Bible (Biblia Sacra) for 300 florins each. The last member of his dynasty was his nephew and son-in-law, Julian, who attempted to restore paganism. His first efforts enabled him to mass-produce indulgences, printed slips of paper sold by the Catholic Church to remit the temporal punishments in Purgatory for sins committed in this life. He was succeeded by his three sons by Fausta, Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans, who secured their hold on the empire with the murder of a number of relatives and supporters of Constantine. Knowing that wood-block type involved a great deal of time and expense to reproduce because it had to be hand carved, Gutenberg concluded that metal type could be reproduced much more quickly once a single mould had been fashioned. At the time of his death, he was planning a great expedition to put an end to raids on the eastern provinces from the Persian Empire.

Gutenberg began experimenting with metal typography after he had moved from his native town of Mainz to Strassburg (then in Germany, now Strasbourg, France) around 1430. In fact, by 336, Constantine had actually reoccupied most of the long-lost province of Dacia, which Aurelian had been forced to abandon in 271. Gutenberg was a poor businessman, and made little money from his printing system. In addition to reuniting the empire under one emperor, Constantine won major victories over the Franks and Alamanni (306–308), the Franks again (313–314), the Visigoths in 332 and the Sarmatians in 334. Gutenberg certainly introduced efficient methods into book production, leading to a boom in the production of texts in Europe, in large part due to the popularity of the Gutenberg Bibles, the first mass-produced work, starting on February 23, 1455. Although he earned his honorific of "The Great" from Christian historians long after he had died, he could have claimed the title on his military achievements alone. Some also claim Dutchman Laurens Coster as the first European to invent movable type. There was a singing of hymns." (New Catholic Encyclopedia 1908).

It is not clear whether Gutenberg knew of these existing techniques or invented them independently. At the dedication of Constantinople in 330 a ceremony half Pagan and half Christian was performed, in the market place, the Cross of Christ was placed over the head of the Sun-God's chariot. The Koreans and Chinese knew about movable metal types at the time, but due to the complex nature of the Chinese writing system, printed material was not as abundant as that of Renaissance Europe. Offensive forms of worship, either Christian or Pagan, were suppressed. Block printing, whereby individual sheets of paper were pressed into wooden blocks with the text and illustrations carved in, was in use in Europe and East Asia long before Gutenberg. These funds were given to the favored Christian clergy. . The repair of Pagan temples that had decayed was forbidden.

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, as the son of a merchant named Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, who adopted the surname "zum Gutenberg" after the name of the neighborhood into which the family had moved. "From Pagan temples Constantine had his statue removed. By combining these elements into a production system, he allowed for the rapid printing of written materials and an information explosion in Renaissance Europe. (MacMullen 1969,1984, New Catholic Encyclopedia 1908). Tradition credits him with inventing movable type in Europe, an improvement on the block printing already in use there. Leading Roman families that refused Christianity were denied positions of power, yet two-thirds of his top government was non-Christian. Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (circa 1398 – February 3, 1468), a German metal-worker and inventor, achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during the 1440s, including a type metal alloy and oil-based inks, a mould for casting type accurately, and a new kind of printing press based on presses used in wine-making. Constantine respected cultivation and Christianity, and his court was composed of older, respected, and honored men.

World Almanac's Ten Most Influential People of the Second Millennium. (MacMullen 1969, New Catholic Encyclopedia 1908). William Caxton. Some examples:. Francysk Skaryna. Constantine's laws in many ways improved those of his predecessors, though they also reflect his more violent age. Incunabulum. He began a large building program of churches in the Holy Land, which while greatly expanding the faith also allowed considerable increase in the power and wealth (and as such the corruption) of the clergy, as the clergy took over many aspects of government, including the courts and civil cases.

Typography. Exerting his absolute power, the army recited his composed Latin prayer in an attempt to convert them to Christianity, which failed. Printing. However, pagans still received appointments, even up to the end of his life. The reason for this later "change of heart" remains conjectural. His sermons preached harmony at first, but gradually turned more confrontational with the old pagan ways.

In his later life he even turned to preaching, giving his own sermons in the palace before his court and invited crowds. Constantine also passed laws making the occupations of butcher and baker hereditary, and more importantly, supported converting the coloni (tenant farmers) into serfs — laying the foundation for European society during the Middle Ages. (MacMullen 1969). After his death it was renamed Constantinopolis (or Constantinople, "Constantine's City"), and gradually became the capital of the empire.

Generations later there was the story that a Divine vision lead Constantine to this spot, and an angel no one else could see, led him on a circuit of the new walls. On the site of a temple to Aphrodite was built the new Basilica of the Apostles. The figures of old gods were replaced and often assimilated into Christian symbolism. He renamed the city Nova Roma (New Rome), providing it with a Senate and civic offices similar to the older Rome, and the new city was protected by the alleged True Cross, the Rod of Moses and other holy relics.

Constantine rebuilt the city of Byzantium which was said to have been founded by colonists from the Greek city of Megara under Byzas in 667 BC. This battle represented the passing of old Rome, and the beginnings of the Eastern Empire as a center of learning, prosperity, and cultural preservation. (MacMullen 1969). He was the sole emperor of the entire Roman Empire.

Supposedly outnumbered, but fired by their zeal, Constantine's army emerged victorious. Constantine and his Franks marched under the Christian standard of the labarum, and both sides saw the battle in religious terms. Licinius, aided by Goth mercenaries, represented the past and the ancient faith of Paganism. The armies were so large another like these would not be seen again until at least the 14th century.

It became a challenge to Constantine in the west, climaxing in the great civil war of 324. This was a puzzling inconsistency since Constantia, half-sister of Constantine and wife of Licinius, was an influential Christian. In the year 320, Licinius, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, reneged on the religious freedom promised by the Edict of Milan in 313 and began another persecution of the Christians. He gradually consolidated his military superiority over his rivals in the crumbling Tetrarchy.

His victory in 312 over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge resulted in his becoming Western Augustus, or ruler of the entire Western Roman Empire. The large staring eyes will loom larger as the 4th century progresses: compare the early 5th century silver coinage of Theodosius I. The great staring eyes in the iconography of Constantine, though not specifically Christian, show how official images were moving away from early imperial conventions of realistic portrayal towards schematic representations: the Emperor as Emperor, not merely as this particular individual Constantine, with his characteristic broad jaw and cleft chin. Also, Eusebius was a close friend of Constantine's sister; she probably secured his recall from exile.

As the general custom, Constantine was not baptized until close to his death in 337, when his choice fell upon the Arian bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia, who happened, despite his being an overt ally of Arius, to still be the bishop of the region. Helena became known later in life for numerous pilgrimages. Family influence is thought to account for a personal adoption of Christianity: Helena is said to be "probably born a Christian" though virtually nothing is known of her background, save that her mother was the daughter of an innkeeper and her father a successful soldier, a career that excluded overt Christians. Their sources are not stated.

The rumours were reported however by 5th century historian Zosimus and 12th century historian Joannes Zonaras. There are rumours of step-mother and step-son having had an affair which caused Constantine's jealousy. (Crispus was the only known son of Constantine by his first wife Minervina). In 326, Constantine executed first his eldest son Crispus and a few months later his own second wife Fausta.

Constantine was also known for being ruthless with his political enemies, deposing the Eastern Roman Emperor Licinius, his brother-in-law, by strangulation in 325 even though he had publicly promised not to execute him upon Licinius' surrender in 324. There are also coins depicting Apollo driving the chariot of the Sun on a shield Constantine is holding and another (313?) shows the Christian chi-rho on a helmet Constantine is wearing. In the 320s Constantine has a halo of his own. The depiction represents Apollo with a solar halo, Helios-like, and the globe in his hands.

Thereafter the reverses of his coinage were dominated for several years by his "companion, the unconquered Sol" -- the inscriptions read SOLI INVICTO COMITI. In mid-310, two years before the victory at the Milvian Bridge, Constantine reportedly experienced the publicly announced vision in which Apollo-Sol Invictus appeared to him with omens of success. Gothicus had claimed the divine protection of Apollo-Sol Invictus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication to flatter Constantine.

The Augustan History of the 4th century reports Constantine's paternal grandmother Claudia to be a daughter of Crispus, Crispus being a reported brother of both Claudius II and Quintillus. After his breach with his father's old colleague Maximian in 309–310, Constantine began to claim legitimate descent from the 3rd century emperor Marcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus, the hero of the Battle of Naissus (September, 268). Mars had been associated with the Tetrarchy, and Constantine's use of this symbolism served to emphasize the legitimacy of his rule. During the early part of Constantine's rule, representations first of Mars and then (from 310) of Apollo as Sun god consistently appear on the reverse of the coinage.

Coins struck for emperors often reveal details of their personal iconography. For the next eighteen years, he fought a series of battles and wars of consolidation that first obtained him co-rule with the Eastern Roman Emperor, and then finally leadership of a reunified Roman Empire. Constantine managed to be at his deathbed in Eboracum (York) of Roman Britain, where the loyal general Crocus, of Alamannic descent, and the troops loyal to his father's memory proclaimed him an Augustus ("Emperor"). However, Constantius fell sick during an expedition against the Picts and Scots of Caledonia, and died on July 25, 306.

In 305, the Augustus, Maximian, abdicated, and Constantius succeeded to the position. Young Constantine was well educated and served at the court of Diocletian in Nicomedia, after the appointment of his father as one of the two caesares(junior emperors) of the Tetrarchy in 293. Theodora would give birth to six half-siblings of Constantine, including Julius Constantius. His father left his mother around 292 to marry Flavia Maximiana Theodora, daughter or step-daughter of the Western Roman Emperor Maximian.

Constantine was born at Naissus, (today's Niš, Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro) in Upper Moesia, to Constantius I Chlorus, a general of Greek descent, and Flavia Iulia Helena, an innkeeper's daughter who at the time was an adolescent of only sixteen years. . These actions are considered major factors in that religion's spread, and his reputation as the "first Christian Emperor" has been promulgated by historians from Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea to the present day. Constantine is best remembered in modern times for the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Council of Nicaea in 325, which fully legalized and then legitimized Christianity in the Empire for the first time.

Constantine is famed for his refounding of Byzantium (modern Istanbul) as "Nova Roma" (New Rome), which was popularly known in his time as "Constantine's City"— (Constantinopolis, Constantinople). Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (Latin: IMP CAESAR FLAVIVS CONSTANTINVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS ¹) (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I or Constantine the Great, was proclaimed Augustus by his troops on July 25, 306 and ruled an ever-growing portion of the Roman Empire until his death. Rassias,"Es Edafos Ferein", 2nd edition, Athens, 2000, ISBN 960-7748-20-4. Vlassis R.

Marcus Cornelius Fronto, Letters of Marcus Cornelius Fronto. Galen, On the Natural Faculties. Sources on the Antonine Plague

    . The Catholic Encyclopedia (1909).

    "Donatists", by John Chapman. The Catholic Encyclpedia (1908). Herbermann and Georg Grupp. "Constantine the Great", by Charles G.

    Lactantius , (AD 240-320) Of the Manner the in Which the Persecutors Died,. Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911: Constantine. Eusebius of Caesarea, The Life of the blessed Emperor Constantine in 4 books from AD 306 to 337. Wilken, Robert L., 1984 Christians As the Romans Saw Them (Yale).

    Enemies of the Roman Order: Treason, Unrest, and Alienation (Harvard). MacMullen, Ramsay, 1966. Changes in the Roman Empire: Essays in the Ordinary (Princeton). MacMullen, Ramsay, 1990.

    100-400, (Yale). MacMullen, Ramsay, 1984, Christianizing the Roman Empire A.D. Constantine, (Dial Press). MacMullen, Ramsay, 1969.

    Constantine and the Conversion of Europe (Macmillan). Jones, A.H.M., 1949. Pagan and Christian in an Age of Anxiety: Some Aspects of the Religious Experience from Marcus Aurelius to Constantine (Cambridge). R., 1965.

    Dodds, E. R., 1964 The Greeks and the Irrational (University of California). Dodds, E. Archer, translator, A Chronicle of the Last Pagans (Harvard) ISBN 0-674-12970-9.

    A. Chuvin, Pierre, 1990, B. Ancient History. Ammianus Marcellinus on-line project.

    Constantine's open letter Letter to Alexander and Arius. The Edict of Milan AD 313 [4]. Ammianus Marcellinus. Donatist.

    Forvm Ancient Coins: Constantine the Great, early AD 307-22 May 337. Also see Arch of Constantine: Constantinian Art on the Arch. Arch of Constantine Monument to the victory at Milvian Bridge. Diocletian: Edicts against the Christians [1].

    RomanEmperors.org Vita of Constantine; with bibliography. Easter could be publicly celebrated. Criminals were still to be crucified and put on display, to show there was Roman law and justice, until 337. A slave master's rights were limited, but a slave could still be beaten to death.

    Gladiatorial games were ordered to be eliminated in 325, although this had little real effect. Parents caught allowing (or soliciting?) their daughters to be seduced were to have molten lead poured down their throats. A condemned man was allowed to die in the arena, but he could not be branded on his "heavenly beautifed" face, just on the feet. A prisoner was no longer to be kept in total darkness, but must be given the outdoors and daylight.

    A punishment of death was mandated to anyone collecting taxes over the authorized amount.

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