Johann Gutenberg

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Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (circa 1398 – February 3, 1468), a German metal-worker and inventor, achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during the 1440s, including a type metal alloy and oil-based inks, a mould for casting type accurately, and a new kind of printing press based on presses used in wine-making. Tradition credits him with inventing movable type in Europe, an improvement on the block printing already in use there. By combining these elements into a production system, he allowed for the rapid printing of written materials and an information explosion in Renaissance Europe.

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, as the son of a merchant named Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, who adopted the surname "zum Gutenberg" after the name of the neighborhood into which the family had moved.

Printing

Block printing, whereby individual sheets of paper were pressed into wooden blocks with the text and illustrations carved in, was in use in Europe and East Asia long before Gutenberg. The Koreans and Chinese knew about movable metal types at the time, but due to the complex nature of the Chinese writing system, printed material was not as abundant as that of Renaissance Europe.

It is not clear whether Gutenberg knew of these existing techniques or invented them independently. Some also claim Dutchman Laurens Coster as the first European to invent movable type.

Gutenberg certainly introduced efficient methods into book production, leading to a boom in the production of texts in Europe, in large part due to the popularity of the Gutenberg Bibles, the first mass-produced work, starting on February 23, 1455.

Gutenberg was a poor businessman, and made little money from his printing system.

Gutenberg began experimenting with metal typography after he had moved from his native town of Mainz to Strassburg (then in Germany, now Strasbourg, France) around 1430. Knowing that wood-block type involved a great deal of time and expense to reproduce because it had to be hand carved, Gutenberg concluded that metal type could be reproduced much more quickly once a single mould had been fashioned. His first efforts enabled him to mass-produce indulgences, printed slips of paper sold by the Catholic Church to remit the temporal punishments in Purgatory for sins committed in this life.

Johann Fust

Bible

In 1455 Gutenberg demonstrated the power of the printing press by selling copies of a two-volume Bible (Biblia Sacra) for 300 florins each. This was the equivalent of approximately three years' wages for an average clerk, but it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible, which could take a single monk 20 years to transcribe.

The one copy of the Biblia Sacra dated 1455 went to Paris and was dated by the binder.

Debt

The money Gutenberg earned at the fair was not enough to pay Fust back for his investments. Fust sued, and the court's ruling not only effectively bankrupted Gutenberg, it awarded control of the type used in his Bible, plus much of the printing equipment, to Fust. So, while Gutenberg ran a print shop until just before his death in Mainz in 1468, Fust became the first printer to publish a book with his name on it.

Gutenberg was subsidized by the Archbishop of Mainz until his death. Gutenberg was also known to spend what little money he had on alcohol, so the Archbishop arranged for him to be paid in food and lodging, instead of coin.

Gutenberg Bibles

Gutenberg Bible, Library of Congress, Washington D.C.

The Gutenberg Bibles surviving today are sometimes called the oldest surviving books printed with movable type, although the oldest surviving book was published in Korea in 1377. As of 2003, the Gutenberg Bible census includes 11 complete copies on vellum, 1 copy of the New Testament only on vellum, 48 substantially complete integral copies on paper, with another divided copy on paper, and an illiminated page (the Bagford fragment).

Other printed works

The Bible was not Gutenberg's first printed work, for he produced approximately two dozen editions of Ars Minor, a portion of Aelius Donatus's schoolbook on Latin grammar, the first edition of which is believed to have been printed between 1451 and 1452.

Legacy

Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, his invention spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe far faster than before. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, was a major factor in originating the scientific revolution. Literacy also increased as a result. Gutenberg's inventions are sometimes considered the turning point from the Mediaeval Era to the Early Modern Period.

The term incunabulum refers to a western printed book produced between the first work of Gutenberg and the end of the year 1500.

There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany, one of the more famous being a work by Thorvaldsen, in Mainz, which is also home to the Gutenberg Museum.

The Gutenberg Galaxy and Project Gutenberg commemorate Gutenberg's name.

Related articles

  • Printing
  • Typography
  • Incunabulum
  • Francysk Skaryna
  • William Caxton
  • World Almanac's Ten Most Influential People of the Second Millennium

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The Gutenberg Galaxy and Project Gutenberg commemorate Gutenberg's name.
. There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany, one of the more famous being a work by Thorvaldsen, in Mainz, which is also home to the Gutenberg Museum. It is available on their compilation album Monty Python Sings. The term incunabulum refers to a western printed book produced between the first work of Gutenberg and the end of the year 1500. In 1989, Monty Python wrote a song called "Oliver Cromwell", which told the entire career of Cromwell to the tune of Frederic Chopin's Polonaise Op.53 in A flat major. Gutenberg's inventions are sometimes considered the turning point from the Mediaeval Era to the Early Modern Period. Otherwise, I will never pay a farthing for it.".

Literacy also increased as a result. "Mr Lely, I desire you would use all your skill to paint your picture truly like me, and not flatter me at all; but remark all these roughness, pimples, warts, and everything as you see me. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, was a major factor in originating the scientific revolution. His broader popularity today is evidenced by his ranking as 10th in the BBC poll of "Great Britons.". Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, his invention spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe far faster than before. Unusually, in Cambridge, he is commemorated in a painted glass window in Emmanuel United Reformed Church, and St Ives has a statue of him in the town centre. The Bible was not Gutenberg's first printed work, for he produced approximately two dozen editions of Ars Minor, a portion of Aelius Donatus's schoolbook on Latin grammar, the first edition of which is believed to have been printed between 1451 and 1452. He also has a particular following among Protestant groups, and has retained popularity in Cambridgeshire, where he was known as "Lord of The Fens".

As of 2003, the Gutenberg Bible census includes 11 complete copies on vellum, 1 copy of the New Testament only on vellum, 48 substantially complete integral copies on paper, with another divided copy on paper, and an illiminated page (the Bagford fragment). As one of British history's most notable parliamentarians, his statue outside the Palace of Westminster is understandable, despite the fact that many of his actions are officially regarded as treasonous. The Gutenberg Bibles surviving today are sometimes called the oldest surviving books printed with movable type, although the oldest surviving book was published in Korea in 1377. Despite his treatment upon the Restoration, and an awful reputation in Ireland that lingers to this day, in some sections of society he has gained esteem over the years. Gutenberg was also known to spend what little money he had on alcohol, so the Archbishop arranged for him to be paid in food and lodging, instead of coin. Since then it changed hands several times before eventually being buried in the grounds of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, in 1960. Gutenberg was subsidized by the Archbishop of Mainz until his death. His severed head was displayed on a pole outside Westminster Abbey until 1685.

So, while Gutenberg ran a print shop until just before his death in Mainz in 1468, Fust became the first printer to publish a book with his name on it. At the end his body was thrown into a pit. Fust sued, and the court's ruling not only effectively bankrupted Gutenberg, it awarded control of the type used in his Bible, plus much of the printing equipment, to Fust. He was in fact hanged, drawn and quartered. The money Gutenberg earned at the fair was not enough to pay Fust back for his investments. This should have been the end of the story but in 1661 Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey and was subjected to the ritual of a posthumous execution – on January 30, the same date that Charles I had been executed. The one copy of the Biblia Sacra dated 1455 went to Paris and was dated by the binder. Within two years of Cromwell's death from malaria on September 3, 1658 parliament restored Charles II as king, as Cromwell's son Richard Cromwell had proved an unworthy successor.

This was the equivalent of approximately three years' wages for an average clerk, but it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible, which could take a single monk 20 years to transcribe. It was his opinion that The Lord Protector's personal physicians were mismanaging his health, leading to a rapid decline and death. In 1455 Gutenberg demonstrated the power of the printing press by selling copies of a two-volume Bible (Biblia Sacra) for 300 florins each. A Venetian diplomat, also a physician, was visiting at the time and tracked Cromwell's final illness. His first efforts enabled him to mass-produce indulgences, printed slips of paper sold by the Catholic Church to remit the temporal punishments in Purgatory for sins committed in this life. Although weakened, he was optimistic about the future as were his attendants. Knowing that wood-block type involved a great deal of time and expense to reproduce because it had to be hand carved, Gutenberg concluded that metal type could be reproduced much more quickly once a single mould had been fashioned. He was struck by a sudden bout of malaria, followed directly by an attack of urinary/kidney symptoms.

Gutenberg began experimenting with metal typography after he had moved from his native town of Mainz to Strassburg (then in Germany, now Strasbourg, France) around 1430. Yet he was in generally good health. Gutenberg was a poor businessman, and made little money from his printing system. Cromwell suffered from malaria and from "stone", a common term for urinary/kidney infections. Gutenberg certainly introduced efficient methods into book production, leading to a boom in the production of texts in Europe, in large part due to the popularity of the Gutenberg Bibles, the first mass-produced work, starting on February 23, 1455. (A history of the titles is given in Restoration). Some also claim Dutchman Laurens Coster as the first European to invent movable type. The written constitution even gave him the right to issue noble titles, a device which he soon put to use in much the same fashion as former kings.

It is not clear whether Gutenberg knew of these existing techniques or invented them independently. The event was practically a coronation and made him king in all but name. The Koreans and Chinese knew about movable metal types at the time, but due to the complex nature of the Chinese writing system, printed material was not as abundant as that of Renaissance Europe. Instead, he was ceremonially installed as Lord Protector at Westminster Abbey, sitting on the former king's throne. Block printing, whereby individual sheets of paper were pressed into wooden blocks with the text and illustrations carved in, was in use in Europe and East Asia long before Gutenberg. After six weeks of deliberation, he rejected the offer, largely because the senior officers in his army threatened to resign if he accepted, but also because it could have placed existing constitutional constraints on his rule. . In 1657 Cromwell was offered the crown by a reconstituted parliament, presenting him with a dilemma since he had been instrumental in abolishing the monarchy.

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, as the son of a merchant named Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, who adopted the surname "zum Gutenberg" after the name of the neighborhood into which the family had moved. This can now be seen as one of his most important achievements. By combining these elements into a production system, he allowed for the rapid printing of written materials and an information explosion in Renaissance Europe. Cromwell's absolute insistence on religious freedom, for all except Roman Catholics, led to his encouraging Jews to return to England, 350 years after their banishment by Edward I. Tradition credits him with inventing movable type in Europe, an improvement on the block printing already in use there. Cromwell's foreign policy led him into the First Anglo-Dutch War in 1652 against the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, eventually won by Admiral Robert Blake in 1654. Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (circa 1398 – February 3, 1468), a German metal-worker and inventor, achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during the 1440s, including a type metal alloy and oil-based inks, a mould for casting type accurately, and a new kind of printing press based on presses used in wine-making. Cromwell's power was buttressed by his continuing popularity among the army which he had built up during the civil wars.

World Almanac's Ten Most Influential People of the Second Millennium. In a repeat of the actions the former king had taken that had contributed to civil war, Cromwell eventually dismissed the republican Rump Parliament in 1653 and instead took personal control, effectively, as military dictator. William Caxton. With the king gone (and with him their common cause), Cromwell's unanimous backing dissolved, and the various factions in Parliament became engaged in infighting. Francysk Skaryna. Cromwell was not prepared to countenance a radical democracy, but as events were to show, could not engineer a stable oligarchic Parliamentary republic either. Incunabulum. However, many historians, including those on the left, have conceded that the Leveller viewpoint, though attractive to a modern audience, was too far ahead of its time to be a stable basis for government).

Typography. (The Leveller point of view had been strongly represented in the Putney Debates held between the various factions of the Army in 1647, just prior to the King's escape. Printing. He showed little sympathy for the Levellers, an egalitarian movement which had contributed greatly to Parliament's cause. He was often ruthless in putting down the mutinies which occurred within his own army towards the end of the war (which were sometimes prompted by failure to pay the troops). Many of Cromwell's actions upon gaining power were decried by some commentators as harsh, unwise, and tyrannical.

However, from all accounts, Cromwell actually ruled as a military dictator. The republic was known as the Commonwealth of England. In the wake of the Army's 1648 recapture of the King, the monarchy was abolished, and between 1649 and 1653 the country became a republic, a rarity in Europe at that time. However, the reason for the peculiar bitterness that the Irish especially traditionally held for Cromwell's memory has much to do with his mass transfer of Catholic-owned property into the hands of his soldiers as with his wartime actions.

In both Scotland and Ireland, Cromwell is remembered as a remorseless and ruthless enemy. Presbyterianism was allowed to be practiced as before, but its Kirk did not have the backing of the civil courts to impose its rulings, as previously. During the Commonwealth, Scotland was ruled from England and kept under military occupation, with a line of fortifications sealing off the Highlands from the rest of the country. Cromwell's men, under George Monck viciously sacked the town of Dundee, in the manner of Drogheda.

Cromwell treated the thousands of prisoners of war he took in this campaign very badly, allowing thousands of them to die of disease and deporting others to penal colonies in Barbados. Despite being outnumbered, his veteran troops smashed Scottish armies at the battles of Dunbar and Worcester and occupied the country. Nevertheless, he acted with ruthlessness in Scotland. Cromwell much less hostile to Scottish Presbyterians than to Irish Catholics, seeing them as, "His [God's] people, though deceived".

Cromwell had been prepared to tolerate an independent Scotland, but had to react after the Scots invaded England. Cromwell also invaded Scotland in 1650-1651, after the Scots had crowned Charles I's son as Charles II and tried to re-impose the monarchy on England. Scotland. Regardless, Ireland remained a Roman Catholic nation as most Irish Catholics refused to abandon their faith.

In the wake of the Cromwellian conquest, all Catholic-owned land was confiscated in the Act of Settlement 1652, the practice of Roman Catholicism was banned, and bounties were offered for priests. In fact, the worst atrocities committed in that country, such as mass evictions, killings and deportation for slave labour to Barbados, were carried out by Cromwell's subordinates after he had left for England. However, Cromwell himself never accepted that he was responsible for the killing of civilians in Ireland, claiming that he had acted harshly, but only against those "in arms". These two atrocities, while horrifying in their own right, were not exceptional in the war in Ireland since its start in 1641, but are well remembered, even today, because of a concerted propaganda campaign by the Royalists, which portrayed Cromwell as a monster, who indiscriminately slaughtered civilians wherever he went.

Cromwell's men committed another infamous massacre at Wexford, when they broke into the town during surrender negotiations and killed over 2000 Irish soldiers and civilians. This view has been disputed by historians 2. The refusal to do this even after the walls had been breached, meant that Cromwell's orders to show no mercy in the treatment of men of arms was inevitable by the standards of the day. It has been claimed 1 that his actual orders at Drogheda followed military protocol of the day where a town or garrison was first given the option to surrender and receive just treatment and the protection of the invading force.

On the other hand, it is also clear that on entering Ireland he demanded that no supplies were to be seized from the inhabitants and that everything should be fairly purchased. For example, it is clear that Cromwell saw the Irish in general as enemies - he justified his sack of Drogheda as revenge for the massacres of Protestant settlers in Ulster in the Irish Rebellion of 1641 calling the massacre, "The righteous judgement of God on these barbarous wretches, who have imbued their hands with so much innocent blood"- and the records of many churches such as Kilkenny Cathedral accuse Cromwell's army of having defaced and desecrated the churches and having stabled the horses in them. The extent of Cromwell's intentions has been strongly debated. Ireland.

The massacre of nearly 3,500 people in Drogheda after its capture — comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including some civilians, prisoners, and Catholic priests — is one of the historical memories that has fuelled Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife for over three centuries. The most enduring symbol of this brutality is the siege of Drogheda in September 1649. In particular, Cromwell's brutal suppression of the Royalists in Ireland during 1649 still has a strong resonance for many Irish people. Cromwell's actions made him very unpopular in Scotland and Ireland which, as previously independent nations, were effectively conquered by English forces during the civil wars.

See also: Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Irish Confederate Wars, and Scottish Civil War.. Cromwell did not have long to dwell on the future form of government in England however, as he immediately left the country to crush the remaining Royalist strongholds in Ireland and Scotland. However, Cromwell does hold much of the responsibility, as his troops broke into the Parliament's chambers and only permitted the "regicides" - those in favour of Charles' execution - to vote on the matter. Cromwell came under pressure from the radicals among his own officers to execute the King, whom they termed, "Charles Stuart, that man of blood." Many hold Cromwell responsible for the execution of Charles I in January 1649, although there were 59 signatories to the death warrant.

In 1649, after being tried for treason, Charles I was executed by the Rump Parliament at Whitehall. The so-called "second civil war", which broke out in 1648 after Charles I's escape from prison suggested to Cromwell that no compromise with the king would be possible. However, the King would not accept a solution at odds with his own Divine right doctrines. The Parliamentarians, including Cromwell, hoped to reach a compromise settlement with Charles I.

His successful conquests of Ireland and Scotland showed a great mastery of organising supplies and logistics for protracted campaigns in hostile territory. However, in the years to come he would also be recognised as an exceptional commander of whole armies. Cromwell showed in the English Civil Wars that he was a brave and daring cavalry commander. Cromwell, however, commanded the army that had won this victory and as a result was in a position to dictate the future of England.

By the end of the first civil war in 1646, the King was a prisoner of the Parliament. With successive military victories he gained political power, until he became the leading politician of the time. Promoted to General in charge of cavalry for the New Model Army, he trained his men to rapidly regroup after an attack, tactics he first employed with great success at the Battle of Naseby and which showed a very high level of discipline and motivation on the part of his troops. Cromwell's troops came to respect his bravery and his concern for their well-being.

He succeeded on several occasions in outmanouevring Prince Rupert, who was a veteran of European warfare. Cromwell had no formal training in military tactics but had an instinctive gift for command. As a result, the New Model Army under Cromwell's command became a centre for political radicals like the Levellers and a myriad of radical religious sects like the Fifth Monarchists. He famously recruited his officers based on merit rather than on the basis of noble birth, saying: "I would rather have a plain russet-coated captain who knows what he fights for and loves what he knows than that which you call a gentleman and is nothing else".

Having joined the Parliamentary Army with no military experience at the age of 43, he recruited a cavalry unit and gained experience and victories in a succession of battles in East Anglia. Cromwell's influence as a military commander and politician during the English Civil War dramatically altered the military and the political landscape of the British Isles. The Oxford historian Christopher Hill has written a semi-popular account of his influential studies in this area in 'God's Englishman' (Penguin, 1970). Cromwell believed, during the Civil Wars, that he was one of these people and interpreted victories as indications of God's approval of his actions and defeats as signs that God was directing him in another direction.

Finally, Cromwell was also a firm believer in Providentialism - the belief that God was actively directing the affairs of the world through the actions of chosen people. He became associated with the "Independent" faction, which argued for religious freedom for all Protestants in a post-war settlement. Although he co-operated with Quakers and Presbyterians, he was opposed to their authoritarian imposition of their beliefs on other Protestants. Cromwell was also opposed to the more radical religious groups on the Protestant side in the Civil Wars.

This would later be one of the reasons why Cromwell acted so harshly in his military campaign in Ireland. Cromwell's associations of Catholicism and persecution were deepened with the Irish Rebellion of 1641, which were marked by massacres (wildly exaggerated in Puritan circles in Britain) by Irish Catholics of English and Scottish Protestant settlers. For this reason, he was bitterly opposed to Charles I's reforms of the Church of England, which introduced Catholic-style Bishops and Prayer Books in place of Bible study. He was passionately opposed to the Roman Catholic Church, which he saw as denying the primacy of the Bible in favour of Papal and Clerical authority and which he blamed for tyranny and persecution of Protestants in Europe.

He was a committed Puritan Protestant, believing that salvation was open to all who obeyed the teachings of the Bible and acted according to their own conscience. Cromwell's understanding of religion and politics were very closely intertwined. Although he was later involved in the King's overthrow and execution, Cromwell did not start the civil war as a radical republican, but with the intention of forcing Charles to reign with the consent of Parliament and with a more consensual, Protestant, religious policy. However, he did not become a leader of the Parliamentary cause until well into the civil war, when his military ability brought him to prominence.

When spies identified him as an insider to the revolt against King Charles, and soldiers were sent to arrest him, Cromwell was one of several members absent. He was related to a significant number of members of Parliament by blood or marriage, and his views were influential. Although not an accomplished speaker, Cromwell was prominent in the Parliamentary cause from the outset. Cromwell was a passionate supporter of the Parliament, primarily on religious grounds.

The failure to solve this crisis led directly to civil war breaking out between Parliamentarians (supporters of the power of Parliament) and Royalists (supporters of the King). When he was forced by shortage of funds to call a Parliament again in 1640, Oliver Cromwell was one of many MPs who bitterly opposed voting for any new taxes until the King agreed to govern with the consent of Parliament on both civil and religious issues. Charles I ruled without a Parliament for the next eleven years and alienated many people by his policies of raising extra-parliamentary taxes and imposing his Catholicized vision of Protestantism on the Church of England. He was also prominent in defending the people of The Fens from wealthy landowners who wanted to drive them off their land.

His maiden speech was the defence of a radical democrat who had argued in an unauthorised pamphlet in favour of giving the vote to all men. Having decided against following an uncle to Virginia, he instead became the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in the Parliament of 1628–1629. Her mother Isabeau was the daughter of Stephan III, Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Thadea Visconti. Catherine was also widow of Henry V of England.

Both Edmund and Jasper Tudor were sons of Owen Tudor and Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. The outcome of that battle led to the successful conquest of England and Wales by his nephew which established the hegemony of the Tudor dynasty at the close of the Wars of the Roses. Jasper was arguably the architect of the Tudor victory in the Battle of Bosworth Field against Richard III of England on August 22, 1485. His alleged paternal ancestor Jasper Tudor was a younger brother of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond and uncle to his son Henry VII of England.

This heritage goes through the Tudors, de Valois, and Wittelsbach—three royal dynasties of England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire, respectively. Another interesting feature of the Cromwell bloodline is that the mother's maiden name, unlike the argument above, might have been kept as the surname for a different purpose: to disguise the male side of the family's heritage instead of merely accentuating the female's side from Thomas Cromwell. 1560–1617), who married Elizabeth Steward or Stewart (1564–1654) on April 25, 1599, the day she delivered him a son. 1524–January 6, 1603), then to Oliver's father Robert Cromwell, Esquire (c.

1500–1544), Henry Cromwell (c. The family line continued through Richard Cromwell (c. Although Catherine married, her children kept her name, possibly to maintain their connection with their famous uncle. There is speculation that Joan was an illegitimate daughter of Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford.

Catherine was married to Morgan ap Williams, son of William ap Yevan and Joan Tudor. Oliver Cromwell descended from Catherine Cromwell (born circa 1483), an older sister of Tudor statesman Thomas Cromwell. . In 2003, Cromwell was ranked 10th in a popular BBC poll of "Great Britons.".

As a leader of the Parliamentarian cause, and commander of the New Model Army, (informally known as the Roundheads), he defeated King Charles I, thus bringing to an end the monarchy's claims to absolute power. Cromwell's leadership in the Battle of Marston Moor (in 1644) brought him to great prominence. At the outset of the English Civil War, Cromwell began his military career by raising a cavalry troop, known as the Ironsides Cavalry, which became the basis of his New Model Army. He was born in Huntingdon.

After leading the overthrow of the British monarchy, he ruled England, Scotland, and Ireland as Lord Protector from December 16, 1653 until his death, which is believed to have been due either to malaria or poisoning. Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599 – September 3, 1658) was an English military leader and politician. Note 2: History Ireland (journal). Note 1: Tom Reilly - Cromwell: An Honourable Enemy - isnb 0863222501.

The quote is as follows:. Cromwell was surprised to see that his rough and undesireable features were glossed over making him look more attractive than he actually was. Oliver Cromwell was the first to coin the phrase "warts and all." Though he did not actually say "warts and all", the phrase comes from a famous conversation that he made to the artist (Lely) that was painting his portrait after he became Lord Protector. And so let us have peace and liberty.".

Let us restore the old church, with its bishops, since that is what most of the people want; but since the Puritans and Separatists and Baptists have served us well in the war, let us not persecute them anymore but let them worship as they like, outside of the established church. "Let us restore the king to his throne, and let the king in future agree to govern with the consent of Parliament.

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