Johann Gutenberg

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Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (circa 1398 – February 3, 1468), a German metal-worker and inventor, achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during the 1440s, including a type metal alloy and oil-based inks, a mould for casting type accurately, and a new kind of printing press based on presses used in wine-making. Tradition credits him with inventing movable type in Europe, an improvement on the block printing already in use there. By combining these elements into a production system, he allowed for the rapid printing of written materials and an information explosion in Renaissance Europe.

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, as the son of a merchant named Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, who adopted the surname "zum Gutenberg" after the name of the neighborhood into which the family had moved.

Printing

Block printing, whereby individual sheets of paper were pressed into wooden blocks with the text and illustrations carved in, was in use in Europe and East Asia long before Gutenberg. The Koreans and Chinese knew about movable metal types at the time, but due to the complex nature of the Chinese writing system, printed material was not as abundant as that of Renaissance Europe.

It is not clear whether Gutenberg knew of these existing techniques or invented them independently. Some also claim Dutchman Laurens Coster as the first European to invent movable type.

Gutenberg certainly introduced efficient methods into book production, leading to a boom in the production of texts in Europe, in large part due to the popularity of the Gutenberg Bibles, the first mass-produced work, starting on February 23, 1455.

Gutenberg was a poor businessman, and made little money from his printing system.

Gutenberg began experimenting with metal typography after he had moved from his native town of Mainz to Strassburg (then in Germany, now Strasbourg, France) around 1430. Knowing that wood-block type involved a great deal of time and expense to reproduce because it had to be hand carved, Gutenberg concluded that metal type could be reproduced much more quickly once a single mould had been fashioned. His first efforts enabled him to mass-produce indulgences, printed slips of paper sold by the Catholic Church to remit the temporal punishments in Purgatory for sins committed in this life.

Johann Fust

Bible

In 1455 Gutenberg demonstrated the power of the printing press by selling copies of a two-volume Bible (Biblia Sacra) for 300 florins each. This was the equivalent of approximately three years' wages for an average clerk, but it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible, which could take a single monk 20 years to transcribe.

The one copy of the Biblia Sacra dated 1455 went to Paris and was dated by the binder.

Debt

The money Gutenberg earned at the fair was not enough to pay Fust back for his investments. Fust sued, and the court's ruling not only effectively bankrupted Gutenberg, it awarded control of the type used in his Bible, plus much of the printing equipment, to Fust. So, while Gutenberg ran a print shop until just before his death in Mainz in 1468, Fust became the first printer to publish a book with his name on it.

Gutenberg was subsidized by the Archbishop of Mainz until his death. Gutenberg was also known to spend what little money he had on alcohol, so the Archbishop arranged for him to be paid in food and lodging, instead of coin.

Gutenberg Bibles

Gutenberg Bible, Library of Congress, Washington D.C.

The Gutenberg Bibles surviving today are sometimes called the oldest surviving books printed with movable type, although the oldest surviving book was published in Korea in 1377. As of 2003, the Gutenberg Bible census includes 11 complete copies on vellum, 1 copy of the New Testament only on vellum, 48 substantially complete integral copies on paper, with another divided copy on paper, and an illiminated page (the Bagford fragment).

Other printed works

The Bible was not Gutenberg's first printed work, for he produced approximately two dozen editions of Ars Minor, a portion of Aelius Donatus's schoolbook on Latin grammar, the first edition of which is believed to have been printed between 1451 and 1452.

Legacy

Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, his invention spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe far faster than before. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, was a major factor in originating the scientific revolution. Literacy also increased as a result. Gutenberg's inventions are sometimes considered the turning point from the Mediaeval Era to the Early Modern Period.

The term incunabulum refers to a western printed book produced between the first work of Gutenberg and the end of the year 1500.

There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany, one of the more famous being a work by Thorvaldsen, in Mainz, which is also home to the Gutenberg Museum.

The Gutenberg Galaxy and Project Gutenberg commemorate Gutenberg's name.

Related articles

  • Printing
  • Typography
  • Incunabulum
  • Francysk Skaryna
  • William Caxton
  • World Almanac's Ten Most Influential People of the Second Millennium

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The Gutenberg Galaxy and Project Gutenberg commemorate Gutenberg's name. Through 2004, Abreu is a .305 hitter with 166 home runs and 674 RBI in 1167 games. There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany, one of the more famous being a work by Thorvaldsen, in Mainz, which is also home to the Gutenberg Museum. He also posted the league's tenth best OPS (.971) and eight highest in total bases (312). The term incunabulum refers to a western printed book produced between the first work of Gutenberg and the end of the year 1500. Abreu finished the season with a .301 average, 30 home runs and 105 RBI, and ranked among the National League top five in five offensive categories: runs (4th, 118), doubles (4th, 47), stolen bases (3rd, 40), walks (2nd, 127) and on base percentage (5th, .428). Gutenberg's inventions are sometimes considered the turning point from the Mediaeval Era to the Early Modern Period. Finally, in 2004, he got his first All-Star berth, being voted in as the "32nd man" in online voting on MLB.com.

Literacy also increased as a result. In 2001 Abreu reached career highs in home runs (31) and RBI (110), and hit .308 in 2002 and .300 a year later. It fed the growing Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing, was a major factor in originating the scientific revolution. His .335 average that season ranked third in the National League and was the highest posted by a Phillies player since outfielder Tony González hit .339 in 1967. Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, his invention spread quickly, and news and books began to travel across Europe far faster than before. In 1999 he made a brief run at the batting title. The Bible was not Gutenberg's first printed work, for he produced approximately two dozen editions of Ars Minor, a portion of Aelius Donatus's schoolbook on Latin grammar, the first edition of which is believed to have been printed between 1451 and 1452. In his first season with the Phillies, Abreu led his team with a .312 batting average and collected 17 home runs, 74 RBI, and 19 stolen bases in 151 games, with 271 putouts and 17 assists in right field.

As of 2003, the Gutenberg Bible census includes 11 complete copies on vellum, 1 copy of the New Testament only on vellum, 48 substantially complete integral copies on paper, with another divided copy on paper, and an illiminated page (the Bagford fragment). Despite the fact that Astros and Devil Rays both deeming him expendable, Abreu firmly established himself as one of the most promising young hitters and strong-armed rightfielders in the game. The Gutenberg Bibles surviving today are sometimes called the oldest surviving books printed with movable type, although the oldest surviving book was published in Korea in 1377. Left unprotected in the 1997 expansion draft when Houston decided to keep fellow Venezuelan outfielder Richard Hidalgo, Abreu was selected by the Tampa Bay Devil Rays, but minutes later he was traded to the Phillies for shortstop Kevin Stocker. Gutenberg was also known to spend what little money he had on alcohol, so the Archbishop arranged for him to be paid in food and lodging, instead of coin. He played only 74 games over two seasons. Gutenberg was subsidized by the Archbishop of Mainz until his death. Abreu started his major league career with the Houston Astros on September 1, 1996.

So, while Gutenberg ran a print shop until just before his death in Mainz in 1468, Fust became the first printer to publish a book with his name on it. . Fust sued, and the court's ruling not only effectively bankrupted Gutenberg, it awarded control of the type used in his Bible, plus much of the printing equipment, to Fust.
. The money Gutenberg earned at the fair was not enough to pay Fust back for his investments. He bats left-handed and throws right-handed. The one copy of the Biblia Sacra dated 1455 went to Paris and was dated by the binder. Bob Kelly Abreu [ah-BRAY-oo] (born March 11, 1974 in Maracay, Aragua State, Venezuela) is a Major League Baseball right fielder who plays for the Philadelphia Phillies.

This was the equivalent of approximately three years' wages for an average clerk, but it was significantly cheaper than a handwritten Bible, which could take a single monk 20 years to transcribe. Abreu is the first player in Phillies history and the first Venezuelan big leaguer to ever steal 30 bases and hit 30 home runs in one single season. In 1455 Gutenberg demonstrated the power of the printing press by selling copies of a two-volume Bible (Biblia Sacra) for 300 florins each. The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum displays the bat used by Abreu to hit the first home run in the Phillies’ new ballpark, Citizens Bank Park on April 12, 2004. His first efforts enabled him to mass-produce indulgences, printed slips of paper sold by the Catholic Church to remit the temporal punishments in Purgatory for sins committed in this life. Abreu's longest homer was measured at 517'. Knowing that wood-block type involved a great deal of time and expense to reproduce because it had to be hand carved, Gutenberg concluded that metal type could be reproduced much more quickly once a single mould had been fashioned. He set records with 24 home runs in a single round and 41 overall, topping Miguel Tejada's previous marks of 15 and 27, set a year earlier.

Gutenberg began experimenting with metal typography after he had moved from his native town of Mainz to Strassburg (then in Germany, now Strasbourg, France) around 1430. At Comerica Park –a field normally considered a "pitcher's park"–, Abreu won the Home Run Derby. Gutenberg was a poor businessman, and made little money from his printing system. Louis Cardinals Jim Edmonds. Gutenberg certainly introduced efficient methods into book production, leading to a boom in the production of texts in Europe, in large part due to the popularity of the Gutenberg Bibles, the first mass-produced work, starting on February 23, 1455. Abreu was voted a starter of the NL outfield for the All-Star Game, finishing second in fan voting, behind St. Some also claim Dutchman Laurens Coster as the first European to invent movable type. He also became the first player in major league history to hit nine home runs in a 10-game stretch.

It is not clear whether Gutenberg knew of these existing techniques or invented them independently. Abreu also led the NL in slugging average (.792), on-base percentage (.535), walks (30) and was tied for the league lead with 30 RBI. The Koreans and Chinese knew about movable metal types at the time, but due to the complex nature of the Chinese writing system, printed material was not as abundant as that of Renaissance Europe. In May, Abreu was honored as the Player of the Month in the National League, after hit .396 and 11 home runs. Block printing, whereby individual sheets of paper were pressed into wooden blocks with the text and illustrations carved in, was in use in Europe and East Asia long before Gutenberg. Bobby Bonds had seven straight 20/20 seasons (1969-75), while his son Barry had nine in a row (1990-98). . One of three ML players with seven consecutive 20-HR, 20 stolen base seasons.

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, as the son of a merchant named Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, who adopted the surname "zum Gutenberg" after the name of the neighborhood into which the family had moved. .929 career OPS [18th among active players, 39th on the all-time list] (1996-2004). By combining these elements into a production system, he allowed for the rapid printing of written materials and an information explosion in Renaissance Europe. .517 career slugging average [25th between active players, 62nd on the all-time list] (1996-2004). Tradition credits him with inventing movable type in Europe, an improvement on the block printing already in use there. .412 career on base percentage [6th among active players, 30th on all-time list] (1996-2004). Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (circa 1398 – February 3, 1468), a German metal-worker and inventor, achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during the 1440s, including a type metal alloy and oil-based inks, a mould for casting type accurately, and a new kind of printing press based on presses used in wine-making. 210 career stolen bases [ranks him 25th among active players] (1996-2004).

World Almanac's Ten Most Influential People of the Second Millennium. Rested only in 12 games in four consecutive seasons (2001-04). William Caxton. Led league in games played (162, 2001). Francysk Skaryna. 7-time top 10 in walks (1998-2004). Incunabulum. Twice reached the 30-30 club (2001, 2004).

Typography. 6-time hit .300 or more in seven regular seasons (1998-2000, 2002-04). Printing. Led league in power/speed number (34.3, 2004). Led league in triples (11, 1999). Led league in doubles (50, 2002).

Silver Slugger Award (2004). Twice All-Star (2004-05).

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