Jeep CJ

The Jeep CJ (or Civilian Jeep) was a commercial version of the famous Military Jeep from World War II. The first CJ (the CJ-2) was introduced in 1944 by Willys, and the same basic vehicle stayed in production through 7 variants and 3 corporate parents until 1986. In fact, a variant of the CJ is still in production today under license. The last CJs, the CJ-7 and CJ-8, were replaced in 1987 by the reworked Jeep Wrangler. The CJ-7 is very popular in the sport of mud racing, both with the stock body or a fiberglass replica.

CJ-2

Although it bore the CJ name, the CJ-2 was not really available at retail. Willys produced less than three dozen CJ-2 Agrijeeps in 1944 and 1945. It was very closely-related to the Military Willys MB, using the same Willys Go Devil engine, but there were some changes. It had larger headlights, a side-mounted spare tire and opening tailgate, and an external fuel cap.

CJ-2A

Lessons learned with the CJ-2 led to the development of the first full-production CJ, the 1945-1949 CJ-2A. Like the CJ-2 and the Military version, the CJ-2A featured a split windshield. An early column shifter and full floating rear axle gave way to the more familiar floor shift T90 and semi-floating rear axle. In the end, 214,202 CJ-2A's were produced.

CJ-3A

The CJ-3A was introduced in 1949, and replaced the CJ-2A by the next year. It featured a one-piece windshield with a vent in the frame. A bare-bones Farm Jeep version was available starting in 1951 with a power takeoff. 131,843 CJ-3A's were produced before the series ended in 1953.

CJ-4

Only one CJ-4 was produced. It used the new Willys Hurricane engine and had an 81-inch wheelbase. It was a test model, but was sold to a factory employee.

CJ-3B

The CJ-3B replaced the CJ-3A in 1953, the same year Willys was sold to Kaiser. It introduced a higher grille and hood to clear the new Willys Hurricane engine. The CJ-3B was produced until 1968 with a total of 155,494 produced, although the design was licensed to a number of international manufacturers, including Mitsubishi of Japan and Mahindra of India. Mitsubishi ceased production of vehicles derived from the CJ-3B design in 1998, but Mahindra continues to produce Jeeps today.

CJ-5

The CJ-5 was influenced by new corporate owner, Kaiser, and the Korean War M38A1 Jeep. It was intended to replace the CJ-3B, but that model continued in production. The CJ-5 repeated this pattern, continuing in production for 3 decades while three newer models appeared. 603,303 CJ-5's were produced between 1954 and 1983.

In 1965, Kaiser bought the casting rights to the Buick 225CID V6 Dauntless and the CJ-5 and CJ-6 got a new engine with 155 hp supplementing the Willys Hurricane engine.

The company was sold to American Motors in 1970, and the GM engine was retired after the 1971 model year. (GM's Buick division repurchased the engine tooling in the early 1970s which served as the powerplant in several GM vehicles.) AMC began using their inline 6 engines, the 232 and 258 and offering one V8 engine - 304CID.

To accommodate the new I6 the fenders and hood were stretched 3" starting in 1972. Other minor drive train changes took place then as well.

In 1976 the tub and frame were modified slightly from earlier versions. The windshield frame also changed meaning that tops from 1955-1975 will not fit a 1976-1983 CJ-5 and vice-versa.

In the early 1980s, the CJ used a "Hurricane"-branded version of the GM Iron Duke I4.

Several special CJ-5 models were produced:

  • 1961-1963 Tuxedo Park Mark III
  • 1969 Camper
  • 1969 462
  • 1970 Renegade I
  • 1971 Renegade II
  • 1972-1983 Renegade Models - featuring a 304CID V8, alloy wheels and a limited-slip differential
  • 1972 Super Jeep
  • 1977-1983 Golden Eagle

CJ-6

The CJ-6 was simply a 20 inch longer-wheelbase (101 in) CJ-5. Introduced in 1955 as a 1956 model, the CJ-6 was never very popular in the United States. Most CJ6 models were sold to Sweden and South America. The U.S. Forest Service put a number CJ-6 Jeeps in to use. Former President Ronald Reagan owned a CJ-6 and used it on his Califorina Ranch. American sales ended in 1975. Just 50,172 had been made when the series went out of production completely in 1981. Just as in the CJ-5, the V6 and V8 engine choices appeared in 1965 and 1972.

CJ-5A and CJ-6A

From 1964-1968 Kaiser elevated the Tuxedo Park from just a trim package to a separate model for the CJ-5A and CJ-6A. A Tuxedo Park Mark IV is signified by a different prefix from a normal CJ-5 with a VIN prefix of 8322, while a normal CJ-5 VIN prefix is 8305 from 1964-1971.

CJ-7

A 1980 CJ-7 appeared in the TV series The Dukes of Hazzard.

The CJ-7 featured a longer 93.4 in wheelbase than the CJ-5. It was introduced in 1976 and 379,299 were built in 11 years of production. The CJ-7 featured a new automatic all wheel drive system called Quadra-Trac, not necessarily known for its strength, as well as a part-time two speed transfer case; an automatic transmission was also an option. Other comfort features were an optional molded hardtop, and steel doors.

CJ-8

The CJ-8 Scrambler was a pickup truck version of the CJ-7, introduced in 1981. It featured a 103 in wheelbase and a pickup bed. Only 27,792 were built in the 6 years of production.

CJ-10

The CJ-10 was a CJ-based pickup truck. Produced from 1981 through 1985, it was sold mainly as an export vehicle, though some were used by the United States Air Force for use as an aircraft pulling vehicle. They featured square headlights like the Jeep Wrangler and an unusual 9-slot grille.

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Image link. Other highly speculative and somewhat doubtful places for present or past life include the atmosphere of Venus, Titan cryovolcanoes, or even Enceladus. They featured square headlights like the Jeep Wrangler and an unusual 9-slot grille. Jupiter's moons are also considered good candidates for extraterrestrial life, especially Europa, which seems to possess oceans of liquid water. Produced from 1981 through 1985, it was sold mainly as an export vehicle, though some were used by the United States Air Force for use as an aircraft pulling vehicle. See Life on Mars for further discussion. The CJ-10 was a CJ-based pickup truck. Recent evidence from the NASA rovers Spirit and Opportunity supports the theory that Mars once had surface water.

Only 27,792 were built in the 6 years of production. Searches for extraterrestrial life are currently focusing on planets and moons believed to possess liquid water, at present or in the past. It featured a 103 in wheelbase and a pickup bed. Today, the closest that scientists have come to finding extraterrestrial life is fossil evidence of possible bacterial life on Mars (via the ALH84001 meteorite). The CJ-8 Scrambler was a pickup truck version of the CJ-7, introduced in 1981. There have been a number of claims of the discovery of life elsewhere in the universe, but none of these have yet survived scientific scrutiny. Other comfort features were an optional molded hardtop, and steel doors. The question of whether life exists elsewhere in the universe remains open, but analyses such as the Drake equation have been used to estimate the probability of such life existing.

The CJ-7 featured a new automatic all wheel drive system called Quadra-Trac, not necessarily known for its strength, as well as a part-time two speed transfer case; an automatic transmission was also an option. At this time, Earth is the only planet in the universe known by humans to support life. It was introduced in 1976 and 379,299 were built in 11 years of production. Main articles: Extraterrestrial life, Astrobiology. The CJ-7 featured a longer 93.4 in wheelbase than the CJ-5. Many models fall into the "genes-first" category or the "metabolism-first" category, but a recent trend is the emergence of hybrid models that do not fit into either of these categories. A Tuxedo Park Mark IV is signified by a different prefix from a normal CJ-5 with a VIN prefix of 8322, while a normal CJ-5 VIN prefix is 8305 from 1964-1971. There are many different hypotheses regarding the path that might have been taken from simple organic molecules to protocells and metabolism.

From 1964-1968 Kaiser elevated the Tuxedo Park from just a trim package to a separate model for the CJ-5A and CJ-6A. There is no truly "standard" model of the origin of life, but most currently accepted scientific models build in one way or another on the following discoveries, which are listed roughly in order of postulated emergence:. Just as in the CJ-5, the V6 and V8 engine choices appeared in 1965 and 1972. Main article: Origin of life. Just 50,172 had been made when the series went out of production completely in 1981. Another exception might be the software code of certain forms of computer viruses and programs created through genetic programming, but whether computer programs can be alive even by this definition is still a matter of some contention. American sales ended in 1975. This argument would, however, include viruses, which have been observed to evolve.

Former President Ronald Reagan owned a CJ-6 and used it on his Califorina Ranch. In all known life forms (assuming prions are not counted as such), the genetic material is primarily DNA or the related molecule, RNA. Forest Service put a number CJ-6 Jeeps in to use. The study of this form of heritability is called genetics. The U.S. Descent with modification is sufficient by itself to allow evolution, assuming that the variations in the offspring allow for differential survival. Most CJ6 models were sold to Sweden and South America. A useful characteristic upon which to base a definition of life is that of descent with modification: the ability of a life form to produce offspring that are like its parent or parents, but with the possibility of some variation due to chance.

Introduced in 1955 as a 1956 model, the CJ-6 was never very popular in the United States. Variations of this definition include:. The CJ-6 was simply a 20 inch longer-wheelbase (101 in) CJ-5. fire). Several special CJ-5 models were produced:. These objects are not to be confused with dissipative structures (e.g. In the early 1980s, the CJ used a "Hurricane"-branded version of the GM Iron Duke I4. The systemic definition is that living things are self-organizing and autopoietic (self-producing).

The windshield frame also changed meaning that tops from 1955-1975 will not fit a 1976-1983 CJ-5 and vice-versa. Generally, all six characteristics are required for a population to be considered a lifeform. In 1976 the tub and frame were modified slightly from earlier versions. Still, some would not call these entities alive. Other minor drive train changes took place then as well. Viruses reproduce, flames grow, some software programs mutate and evolve, future software programs will probably evince (even high-order) behavior, machines move, and some form of proto-life consisting of metabolizing cells without the ability to reproduce presumably existed. To accommodate the new I6 the fenders and hood were stretched 3" starting in 1972. However, most forms of life rely on foods produced by other species, or at least the specific chemistry of the Earth.

(GM's Buick division repurchased the engine tooling in the early 1970s which served as the powerplant in several GM vehicles.) AMC began using their inline 6 engines, the 232 and 258 and offering one V8 engine - 304CID. For similar reasons, viruses and aberrant prion proteins are often considered replicators rather than forms of life: they cannot reproduce without very specialised substrates such as host cells or proteins, respectively. The company was sold to American Motors in 1970, and the GM engine was retired after the 1971 model year. It is also worth noting that non-reproducing individuals may still help the spread of their genes through such mechanisms as kin selection. In 1965, Kaiser bought the casting rights to the Buick 225CID V6 Dauntless and the CJ-5 and CJ-6 got a new engine with 155 hp supplementing the Willys Hurricane engine. One could say that the property of life is inherited; hence, sterile hybrid species such as the mule are considered life although not themselves capable of reproduction. 603,303 CJ-5's were produced between 1954 and 1983. It is important to note that life is a definition that applies at the level of species, so even though many individuals of any given species do not reproduce, possibly because they belong to specialised sterile castes (such as ant workers), these are still considered forms of life.

The CJ-5 repeated this pattern, continuing in production for 3 decades while three newer models appeared. Some assert that this must be the case for all possible forms of life throughout the universe; others describe this position as 'carbon chauvinism'. It was intended to replace the CJ-3B, but that model continued in production. All life on Earth is based on the chemistry of carbon compounds. The CJ-5 was influenced by new corporate owner, Kaiser, and the Korean War M38A1 Jeep. Although there is no universal agreement on the definition of life, the generally accepted biological manifestations are that life exhibits the following phenomena:. Mitsubishi ceased production of vehicles derived from the CJ-3B design in 1998, but Mahindra continues to produce Jeeps today. How can one tell when an entity is alive? It would be relatively straightforward to offer a practical set of guidelines if one's only concern were life on Earth as we know it (see biosphere), but as soon as one considers questions about life's origins on Earth, or the possibility of extraterrestrial life, or the concept of artificial life, it becomes clear that the question is fundamentally difficult and comparable in many respects to the problem of defining intelligence.

The CJ-3B was produced until 1968 with a total of 155,494 produced, although the design was licensed to a number of international manufacturers, including Mitsubishi of Japan and Mahindra of India. . It introduced a higher grille and hood to clear the new Willys Hurricane engine. Life is a multi-faceted concept that may refer to the ongoing process of which living things are a part; the period between fertilisation (in sexual reproduction) or mitosis and splitting from the parent (in asexual organisms), and death. The CJ-3B replaced the CJ-3A in 1953, the same year Willys was sold to Kaiser. Procedures for producing random RNA molecules can produce ribozymes, which are able to produce more of themselves under very specific conditions. It was a test model, but was sold to a factory employee. Phospholipids spontaneously form lipid bilayers, the basic structure of a cell membrane.

It used the new Willys Hurricane engine and had an 81-inch wheelbase. This was demonstrated in the Urey-Miller experiment. Only one CJ-4 was produced. Plausible pre-biotic conditions result in the creation of the basic small molecules of life. 131,843 CJ-3A's were produced before the series ended in 1953. Stuart Kauffman's definition of life as an autonomous agent or a multi-agent system capable of reproducing itself or themselves, and of completing at least one thermodynamic work cycle. A bare-bones Farm Jeep version was available starting in 1951 with a power takeoff. This is, however, a description rather than a definition of life, meaning it excludes other possible forms of life.

It featured a one-piece windshield with a vent in the frame. Francisco Varela and Humberto Maturana's definition of life as an autopoietic (self-producing), water based, lipid-protein bound, carbon metabolic, nucleic acid replicated, protein readout system. The CJ-3A was introduced in 1949, and replaced the CJ-2A by the next year. Usually the term is applied to the production of a new individual (either asexually, from a single parent organism, or sexually, from two differing parent organisms), although strictly speaking it also describes the production of new cells in the process of growth. In the end, 214,202 CJ-2A's were produced. Reproduction - The division of one cell to form two new cells is reproduction. An early column shifter and full floating rear axle gave way to the more familiar floor shift T90 and semi-floating rear axle. A response is often expressed by motion: the leaves of a plant turning toward the sun or an animal chasing its prey.

Like the CJ-2 and the Military version, the CJ-2A featured a split windshield. Plants also respond to stimuli, but usually in ways very different from animals. Lessons learned with the CJ-2 led to the development of the first full-production CJ, the 1945-1949 CJ-2A. Response to stimuli - A response can take many forms, from the contraction of a unicellular organism when touched to complex reactions involving all the senses of higher animals. It had larger headlights, a side-mounted spare tire and opening tailgate, and an external fuel cap. It is fundamental to the process of evolution and is determined by the individual's heredity. It was very closely-related to the Military Willys MB, using the same Willys Go Devil engine, but there were some changes. Adaptation - Adaptation is the accommodation of a living organism to its environment.

Willys produced less than three dozen CJ-2 Agrijeeps in 1944 and 1945. A growing organism increases in size in all of its parts, rather than simply accumulating matter. Although it bore the CJ name, the CJ-2 was not really available at retail. Growth - Growth results from a higher rate of synthesis than catalysis. . Living things require energy to maintain internal organization (homeostasis) and to produce the other phenomena associated with life. The CJ-7 is very popular in the sport of mud racing, both with the stock body or a fiberglass replica. Metabolism - Metabolism produces energy by converting nonliving material into cellular components (synthesis) and decomposing organic matter (catalysis).

The last CJs, the CJ-7 and CJ-8, were replaced in 1987 by the reworked Jeep Wrangler. Organization - Living things are comprised of one or more cells, which are the basic units of life. In fact, a variant of the CJ is still in production today under license. The first CJ (the CJ-2) was introduced in 1944 by Willys, and the same basic vehicle stayed in production through 7 variants and 3 corporate parents until 1986. The Jeep CJ (or Civilian Jeep) was a commercial version of the famous Military Jeep from World War II.

1977-1983 Golden Eagle. 1972 Super Jeep. 1972-1983 Renegade Models - featuring a 304CID V8, alloy wheels and a limited-slip differential. 1971 Renegade II.

1970 Renegade I. 1969 462. 1969 Camper. 1961-1963 Tuxedo Park Mark III.

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