Indiana Jones

Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones

Indiana Jones is a fictional bullwhip-toting, fedora-wearing archaeologist with an overdeveloped ophidiophobia (fear of snakes). He first appeared in a series of films produced by George Lucas and directed by Steven Spielberg in the 1980s.

Jones was originally portrayed by Harrison Ford in Raiders of the Lost Ark. Younger versions of the character were also played by River Phoenix (in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade), and by Corey Carrier and Sean Patrick Flanery (in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles). An older version (93) of Jones, played by George Hall, also appeared in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles.

Indiana Jones is also the general name given to the series as a whole, which is comprised of three films, a TV series, various novels, comics, video games, and other media. A fourth film has also been announced for a likely 2007 release.

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

Biography

When not adventuring, Jones is a respectable professor

Indiana Jones was born Henry Jones Jr. to Scottish-born Professor of Medieval literature, Dr. Henry Jones Sr. (played by Lloyd Owen in the TV series and by Sean Connery in the films), and his wife Anna on July 1, 1899, in Princeton, New Jersey. "Junior" accompanied his father on his travels throughout Europe, where he learned to speak, read, and write 27 languages, including French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Swedish, Greek, Arabic, Turkish, Vietnamese, Swahili, Latin and Chinese, as well as some Hindi, apart from English. Although his father called him "Junior," Henry Jr. adopted the name of his beloved dog Indiana for himself, insisting he be referred to as Indiana Jones. It is not known for sure when he first did this, except that he was referred to as Indiana during childhood by his peers.

In 1912, Indy was living in Utah and was a member of the Boy Scouts with the rank of Life Scout. It was here, while attempting to secure the Cross of Coronado from thieves, Indy first learned to use the bullwhip and received his trademark fedora, as well as the scar on his chin. This was also the time when he first developed his aversion to snakes.

His father wanted Indiana to go to Princeton University. To escape this, he ran away from home by train. He ended up in Mexico and was kidnapped by Mexican revolutionaries. He joined this army of revolutionaries, playing a part in the Mexican Revolution in 1916, under Pancho Villa. It is here that he also met his friend Remy, a Belgian. With Remy, he left Mexico and traveled to Ireland just in time for the Easter Rising. He then traveled to England, getting involved with the suffrage movement, and then him and Remy joined the Belgian Army. He participated in the Western Front. He was taken prisoner by the Germans, escaped, encountered (and lost his virginity to) Mata Hari eventually making his way to Africa at the beginning of World War I.

When they arrived in Africa, Jones and Remy were commissioned as lieutenants. Jones' inability to read maps properly caused him to lose his intended unit, and he instead fought along side a team of old men under the British Army. Among missions (depicted in the television series), the team destroyed a giant cannon mounted on a train, and they kidnapped the (real-life) German military genius Paul Erich von Lettow-Vorbeck in a balloon, but they were forced to release him. Also while in Africa, Jones took ill, and was treated by Albert Schweitzer.

Jones and Remy then tranfered to the French Army, and Jones worked as an intelligence officer, vied with Ernest Hemingway for the affections of a young nurse, and worked as a translator for the Treaty of Versailles, seeing the war come to its conclusion but laying down the groundwork for a second conflict.

Sometime after the war, Jones returned to the United States, where he studied archaeology at the University of Chicago under Professor Abner Ravenwood. At the same time, he became romantically involved with the Professor's daughter Marion.

Dr. Jones abruptly left the Ravenwoods in 1926 and did not contact them for 10 years. He divided his time between teaching and archaeological expeditions, including a journey to China and India in 1935 where he raced Nazis to a mystical gem called "The Heart of the Dragon" from the ancient tomb of a Chinese emperor. Immediately afterword, he faced the gangster Lao Che and the followers of the cult of Kali (Temple of Doom). In 1936, he was contacted by the United States government to retrieve the Ark of the Covenant before the Nazis (Raiders of the Lost Ark). He continued to take on infrequent missions for the government over the ensuing years. In 1938, Indy rescued his father from the Nazis and became embroiled in the search for the Holy Grail (Last Crusade). His life during World War II is unknown, but in 1947 he was deceived by the recently born CIA to search the mechanism of the Babylonian Infernal Machine, in confrontation with a Soviet expedition.

When last seen in 1993, Jones was living in New York City with his daughter and her family. Sporting an eyepatch and cane, he was stopping anyone within earshot to regale them with tales of his exploits. He seems remarkably spry for a man in his 90s—whether that is because of his drinking from the Grail is unknown. It is yet to be chronicled as to what adventure led Indy to wear an eyepatch.

Appearances

Since his introduction in 1981's Raiders of the Lost Ark, the character of Indiana Jones has become a cultural icon for adventure. His popularity has allowed him to make appearances in three more feature films, a three-season TV series, dozens of novels, comic books, and video games, and even had his own amusement park ride.

The television series, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, aired from 1992 to 1996, with the 17-year-old Indy played by Sean Patrick Flanery, 93-year-old Indy by George Hall, and 10-year-old Indy by Corey Carrier. This inspired a number of made-for-TV and made-for-video movies featuring Flanery as young Indy. One of the last Young Indiana Jones TV movies featured a cameo appearance by Harrison Ford, reprising the role of Indy as a man in his 50s. The show ran for 44 episodes, with each pairing of episodes forming a feature-length TV film. The stories spanned from Indy’s childhood travels with his father (who was on, what seemed, one continuous Medieval studies lecture tour) to the solo journeys of his youth and even into World War I. Every episode began with a 93-year-old Indy, a grey-haired professor, talking about one of his old childhood adventures.

The popular trilogy of theatrical films: Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, were made from 1981–1989, created by George Lucas and directed by Steven Spielberg. The series starred Harrison Ford as Jones. The upcoming fourth Indiana Jones movie, once again to star Harrison Ford, has been in the planning stages for several years; it is in pre-production and is not expected to be released until February 2007 at the earliest. Jim Ward, Vice President of Lucasfilm, has said in a recent press conference that a new Indiana Jones video game is expected that same year, around the time of the movie.

TV films

Harrison Ford makes a cameo appearance as 50 year old Indy in Chapter 20: Mystery of the Blues.
  • Chapter 1: My First Adventure
  • Chapter 2: Passion for Life
  • Chapter 3: The Perils of Cupid
  • Chapter 4: Travels with Father
  • Chapter 5: Journey of Radiance
  • Chapter 6: Spring Break Adventure
  • Chapter 7: Love's Sweet Song
  • Chapter 8: Trenches of Hell
  • Chapter 9: Demons of Deception
  • Chapter 10: Phantom Train of Doom
  • Chapter 11: Oganga, the Giver and Taker of Life
  • Chapter 12: Attack of the Hawkmen
  • Chapter 13: Adventures in the Secret Service
  • Chapter 14: Espionage Escapades
  • Chapter 15: Daredevils of the Desert
  • Chapter 16: Tales of Innocence
  • Chapter 17: Masks of Evil
  • Chapter 18: Treasure of the Peacock's Eye
  • Chapter 19: Winds of Change
  • Chapter 20: Mystery of the Blues
  • Chapter 21: Scandal of 1920
  • Chapter 22: Hollywood Follies

Theatrical films

  • Chapter 23: The Temple of Doom (1984)
  • Chapter 24: Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)
  • Chapter 25: The Last Crusade (1989)
  • Chapter 26: Indiana Jones 4 (2007) (categorized as "in production")
  • Chapter 27: (unproduced) Originally, George Lucas had signed a deal with Paramount Pictures for four theatrical sequels to Raiders of the Lost Ark. After the first three, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Lucas announced he was finished with the theatrical films, leaving two of his promised sequels unmade. He now has announced his work on the third sequel, Indiana Jones IV. He now denies plans for a fourth sequel, claiming he never intended to do beyond three, but that the fourth film was "a brilliant idea he had." In saying he had a deal for four sequels, one could also speculate that he might not have counted The Temple of Doom as a sequel, and instead a prequel, which it was. This would leave room open for yet another sequel that is yet to be produced.
  • Chapter 28: (unproduced) Based on the fact that The Temple of Doom could be counted as a prequel, rather than a sequel.

Novels

Apart from novel adaptations of the movies, and several Young Indiana Jones episodes, there is also a series of original paperback novels about the adventures of Indiana Jones, and another series of novels about Young Indiana Jones for younger readers. In Germany, there was a series of adult novels by author Wolfgang Hohlbein, and in France a Young Indiana Jones series by Joseph Jacobs and Richard Beugne. These are only available in German and French respectively.

Young Indiana Jones Novels by Random House

  • Young Indiana Jones' Titanic Adventure - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Pirates Loot - by J. N. Fox
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Lost Gold of Durango - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Plantation Treasure - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Tomb of Terror - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Princess of Peril - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Ghostly Riders - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Circle of Death - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Journey to the Underworld - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Curse of the Ruby Cross - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Gypsy Revenge - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Secret City - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Mountain of Fire - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Face of the Dragon - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Tiger - by William McCay

Young Indiana Jones Novels by Ballantine Books

  • The Mata Hari Affair - by James Luceno

Indiana Jones Adult Novels by Bantam Books

  • Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Interior World - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates - by Martin Caidin
  • Indiana Jones and the White Witch - by Martin Caidin
  • Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone - by Max McCoy
  • Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs - by Max McCoy
  • Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth - by Max McCoy
  • Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx - by Max McCoy

German novels by Goldmann Verlag

  • Indiana Jones und das Schiff der Götter (Indiana Jones And The Ship Of The Gods) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und die Gefiederte Schlange (Indiana Jones And The Feathered Snake) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Gold von El Dorado (Indiana Jones And The Gold Of El Dorado) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das verschwundene Volk (Indiana Jones And The Vanished People) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Schwert des Dschingis Khan (Indiana Jones And The Sword of Genghis Khan) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Geheimnis der Osterinseln (Indiana Jones And The Secret Of Easter Island) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Labyrinth des Horus (Indiana Jones And The Labyrinth Of Horus) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Erbe von Avalon (Indiana Jones And The Legacy Of Avalon) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein

Find Your Fate Adventure Books by Ballantine Books

  • Indiana Jones and the Curse of Horror Island - by R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Giants of the Silver Tower - by R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Cult of the Mummy's Crypt - by R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Cup of the Vampire - by Andrew Helfer
  • Indiana Jones and the Legion of Death - by Richard Wenk
  • Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Fates - by Richard Wenk
  • Indiana Jones and the Dragon of Vengeance - by Megan Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Lost Treasure of Sheba - by Rose Estes
  • Indiana Jones and the Gold of Genghis Khan - by Ellen Weiss
  • Indiana Jones and the Ape Slaves of Howling Island - by R. L. Stine

Comics

There was a comic book published by Marvel Comics in the early 1980s featuring the talents of John Byrne among others. Later Dark Horse Comics produced a number of Indiana Jones Comics. Indy also had a cameo in a Star Wars story in an issue of the Star Wars Tales comic books.

Dark Horse Comics Stories

  • Indiana Jones and the Shrine of the Sea Devil
  • Indiana Jones and the Arms of Gold
  • Indiana Jones: Thunder in the Orient
  • Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis
  • Indiana Jones and the Sargasso Pirates
  • Indiana Jones and the Dance of Death
  • Indiana Jones and the Golden Fleece
  • Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny
  • Indiana Jones and the Iron Phoenix

Marvel Comics The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones Stories

  • Ikons of Ikammanen
  • The Devil's Cradle
  • Gateway to Infinity
  • Club Nightmare
  • Africa Screams
  • The Gold Goddess
  • The Fourth Nail
  • Deadly Rock
  • Demons
  • The Sea Butchers
  • The Search for Abner Ravenwood
  • The Cuban Connection
  • Beyond the Lucifer Chamber
  • End Run
  • Dragon by the Tail
  • The Secret of the Deep
  • Revenge of the Ancients
  • Good as Gold
  • Trail of the Golden Guns
  • Tower of Tears
  • Shot by Both Sides
  • Fireworks
  • Big Game
  • Double Play
  • Magic, Murder & The Weather
  • Something’s Gone Wrong Again

Star Wars Tales

  • Star Wars Tales #19: Into the Great Unknown

Video games

Various video and computer games have also been produced. The games include:

  • Raiders of the Lost Ark (Atari 2600)
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (arcade)
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (Nintendo Entertainment System)
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (C64)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Action Game (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Taito)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Ubi Soft)
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (Nintendo Entertainment System)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Game Boy)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Master System - European release)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Genesis)
  • Instruments of Chaos starring Young Indiana Jones (Sega Genesis)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Game Gear)
  • Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures (Super Nintendo Entertainment System)
  • Indiana Jones in Revenge of The Ancients (PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis (PC, Amiga, Macintosh, C64) (also a comic book of the same name)
  • Indiana Jones and the Lost Kingdom (C64)
  • Indy's Desktop Adventures (PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine (PC, Nintendo 64, Nintendo Game Boy Color)
  • Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb (PC, PlayStation 2, Microsoft Xbox)
  • Untitled 2007 game, likely of same title as title of 2007 movie

Attractions

Action on the set of the Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular

George Lucas has collaborated with Walt Disney Imagineering on four occasions to create attractions for Disney theme parks worldwide:

  • The "Indiana Jones et le Temple du Péril" rollercoaster opened at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallee, France, in 1993.
  • The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Forbidden Eye" opened in Disneyland in Anaheim, California, in 1995.
  • The "Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular" show opened at the Disney-MGM Studios in Lake Buena Vista, Florida in 1998.
  • The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Crystal Skull" opened at Tokyo DisneySea in Chiba, Japan, with the park in 2001.

Pinball

Indiana Jones: The Pinball Adventure (1993, Williams), designed by Mark Ritchie, is a widebody pinball game that features sound clips from all three theatrical films, and features 12 different stages (four stages each based on different scenes from the movies, including three video modes). If you complete all 12 stages, you will enter the game's "Wizard Mode", called Eternal Life.

This was the first game to use Williams/Midway's DCS Sound System, with the music composed by Chris Granner.

Origins

Indiana Jones with his famous bull-whip.

Indiana Jones, "Obtainer of Rare Antiquities", is modeled after the strong-jawed heroes of the matinee serials and pulp magazines that Lucas and Spielberg enjoyed in their childhoods, such as the Republic Pictures serials, and Doc Savage. The two friends first discussed the project while in Hawaii during the time of release of the first Star Wars film. Spielberg told Lucas how he wanted to direct a James Bond film. Lucas responded that he had something better than that.

Spielberg wanted Indiana to be a James Bond-like figure that got into difficult situations and worked his way out. Upon requests by Spielberg and Lucas the costume designer was given the task to make the character have a distinctive recognizable silhouette through the style of the hat (much like Dick Tracy). After examining many hats, the designers chose an urban version of the classic Australian fedora, the Akubra. The original Fedora for the movie trilogy was constructed by Mr. Swales of Herbert Johnson Hatters in London, England. Although multiple hats were used throughout the movies, the distinctive profile of the Fedoras remained the same. Today, the collection of props and clothing from the films, especially the Fedora, has become a subculture/hobby for aficianados of the Indiana Jones franchise. Other elements of the outfit include the jacket, the bag, which was a modified World War II gas mask bag; and the whip.

Indy's revolver is a .38/200 calibre Webley Mk IV, but he is also seen with the .45ACP Colt M1911A1, the 9mm Browning Hi-Power, the Webley Mk VI, and the Smith & Wesson New Century (both in .455 Webley calibre) in the movies, as well as a .45 ACP Smith & Wesson Hand Ejector 2nd model. [1]

Tom Selleck was the first choice for the role, but couldn't get out of a television series commitment (Magnum, P.I.), so Lucas went with Harrison Ford, who he had worked with previously on American Graffiti and his Star Wars films.

Many people have been called the real-life inspiration of the Indiana Jones character. Probably the most cited person is famous paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews. Another person cited as a possible inspiration is the Italian archaeologist and circus strongman Giovanni Battista Belzoni (1778–1823). Religious archaeologist Vendyl "Texas" Jones claims that he was the inspiration, citing his names (he notes that his first name trimmed becomes Endy — very similar to Indy), but this claim has reportedly been denied by Spielberg. Other candidates include explorer Gene Savoy [2], Yale University historian and explorer Hiram Bingham III and University of Chicago archeologist Robert Braidwood [3]. Another very strong candidate is the famed adventurer and anthropologist Schuyler Jones. [4] However, the most likely inspiration was the fictional character Allan Quatermain.

The character was originally named Indiana Smith, but Spielberg disliked the name and Lucas casually suggested "Indiana Jones". The name was thus changed early in the production of Raiders of the Lost Ark. The origin of the name "Indiana" is the same in the real world as in the fiction: It was the name of an Alaskan malamute Lucas had in the 1970s (the same dog was also the inspiration for Chewbacca). His name is also said to be derived from the character "Nevada Smith," played by Steve McQueen in the 1966 film of the same name.

Spielberg also admitted that an important inspiration for the style and atmosphere of the adventures of Indiana Jones were the adventures of the Belgian comic character Tintin by Hergé.

Portrayers

  • Corey Carrier (Chapters 1-5) (ages 9-11)
  • River Phoenix (Chapter 25) (age 13)
  • Sean Patrick Flanery (Chapters 6-22) (ages 17-21)
  • Harrison Ford (Chapter 20, Chapters 23-26) (ages 36-39, 50)
  • George Hall (Chapters 1-22) (age 93)

DVD release

TV films

The DVDs for Chapters 1-22 are expected to be released sometime in 2007, according to a statement by series producer, Rick McCallum of Lucasfilm. The company has already put in two years of work on creating these DVDs, so as to have bonus features for each movie.

McCallum expects there to be 22 Young Indiana Jones Chronicles DVDs in all, 3 of which have been completed. The discs will include some 66 historical featurettes, now in production. Work has been ongoing for about 18 months on the Young Indy DVDs, with about another 18 months worth of work yet to be done. If all goes well, the plan is to tie the DVD release to the theatrical debut of Indy IV.

Theatrical films

The 2003 DVD release of Chapters 23-25.

Chapters 23-25 of the Indiana Jones series (The Temple of Doom, Raiders of the Lost Ark, and The Last Crusade, respectively) were released on DVD as a boxed set of all three films plus a fourth disc of bonus materials in 2003.

Features

  • Available Subtitles: English, Spanish, French
  • Available Audio Tracks: English (Dolby Digital 5.1), Spanish (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround), French (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround)
  • Contains all three films in their original format (2.35:1 anamorphic widescreen aspect ratio or in Pan and Scan format), restored and digitally remastered

Bonus disc features

  • A new, feature-length documentary of the making of the trilogy
  • From the Lucasfilm Archives:
    • The Stunts of Indiana Jones
    • The Sound of Indiana Jones
    • The Music of Indiana Jones
    • The Light and Magic of Indiana Jones
  • Original trailers
  • Weblink to exclusive content including dozens of behind-the-scenes photos, an animatic sequence from Raiders and a PC game preview

References

  • "Making Raiders of the Lost Ark." September 23, 2003. IndianaJones.com.

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Bonus disc features. Another first is an available navigation system. Features. Although the doors can still be removed in traditional Wrangler fashion, power windows and remote power door locks will be offered for the first time. Chapters 23-25 of the Indiana Jones series (The Temple of Doom, Raiders of the Lost Ark, and The Last Crusade, respectively) were released on DVD as a boxed set of all three films plus a fourth disc of bonus materials in 2003. The new hardtop allows the sides to be removed for an open-air feeling. If all goes well, the plan is to tie the DVD release to the theatrical debut of Indy IV. A 3-piece hardtop or traditional soft top will be offered.

Work has been ongoing for about 18 months on the Young Indy DVDs, with about another 18 months worth of work yet to be done. Stability control will be a new safety feature for the Wrangler line. The discs will include some 66 historical featurettes, now in production. A 6-speed manual transmission will be standard, with a 4-speed automatic transmission offered as an option. McCallum expects there to be 22 Young Indiana Jones Chronicles DVDs in all, 3 of which have been completed. The 4.7 L PowerTech V8 and 2.8 L VM Motori turbo-Diesel straight-4 used in the Liberty are likely to also be offered as options in some markets. The company has already put in two years of work on creating these DVDs, so as to have bonus features for each movie. A 3.8 L OHV V6 producing 205 hp (153 kW) and 240 ft·lbf (325 N·m) will be the base engine, replacing the venerable AMC Straight-6 engine.

The DVDs for Chapters 1-22 are expected to be released sometime in 2007, according to a statement by series producer, Rick McCallum of Lucasfilm. The JK Wrangler is expected to be offered in three versions eventually:. Spielberg also admitted that an important inspiration for the style and atmosphere of the adventures of Indiana Jones were the adventures of the Belgian comic character Tintin by Hergé. Jeep reportedly intends to cement the Wrangler's position as the marque's most-rugged vehicle as new car-based crossover SUVs take some of its on-road market share. His name is also said to be derived from the character "Nevada Smith," played by Steve McQueen in the 1966 film of the same name. However, it should be noted that similar complaints were heard during previous redesigns. The origin of the name "Indiana" is the same in the real world as in the fiction: It was the name of an Alaskan malamute Lucas had in the 1970s (the same dog was also the inspiration for Chewbacca). Many Wrangler enthusiasts have decried this new vehicle's larger size, claiming that it runs counter to the character of the Wrangler, and is too big to be an effective off-road vehicle.

The name was thus changed early in the production of Raiders of the Lost Ark. This next-generation Wrangler is significantly larger than the existing model, with a 2 in (50.8 mm) longer wheelbase and 4 in (101.6 mm) wider track. The character was originally named Indiana Smith, but Spielberg disliked the name and Lucas casually suggested "Indiana Jones". The TJ platform will be replaced by a new JK platform. [4] However, the most likely inspiration was the fictional character Allan Quatermain. 2007 will see the complete redesign of the Jeep Wrangler, in both two and four-door models. Another very strong candidate is the famed adventurer and anthropologist Schuyler Jones. [citation needed].

Other candidates include explorer Gene Savoy [2], Yale University historian and explorer Hiram Bingham III and University of Chicago archeologist Robert Braidwood [3]. The Wrangler Unlimited is in its final year of production to be replaced by the 2007 4-door Wrangler. Religious archaeologist Vendyl "Texas" Jones claims that he was the inspiration, citing his names (he notes that his first name trimmed becomes Endy — very similar to Indy), but this claim has reportedly been denied by Spielberg. In 2005, Jeep released the Rubicon Unlimited, which has the wheelbase of the Unlimited and the off-road features of the Rubicon as well as many other comfort and convenience options not offered on other Wranglers. Another person cited as a possible inspiration is the Italian archaeologist and circus strongman Giovanni Battista Belzoni (1778–1823). In 2004, Jeep introduced the Wrangler Unlimited with a 10 inch (~25.4 cm) longer wheelbase; it is also known by its unofficial designation of LJ. Probably the most cited person is famous paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews. To match the vehicle in the film, it was offered in Bright Silver but looked nothing like the one in the film.

Many people have been called the real-life inspiration of the Indiana Jones character. Interior features included Dark Slate fabric seats with red accent stitching down the center, silver surround instrument panel bezel, red seatbelts and a Tomb Raider badge with serial number. Tom Selleck was the first choice for the role, but couldn't get out of a television series commitment (Magnum, P.I.), so Lucas went with Harrison Ford, who he had worked with previously on American Graffiti and his Star Wars films. Along with the standard Rubicon fare, it also included exterior features such as 16-inch Alcoa forged aluminum wheels, Tomb Raider badging, and Mopar accessories including a light bar, riveted fender flares, tubular grille guard, diamond-plated bumper guard, etc. [1]. A limited run of 1,000 Wrangler Rubicon "Tomb Raider" models were produced in 2003 to promote the Tomb Raider sequel, Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life. Indy's revolver is a .38/200 calibre Webley Mk IV, but he is also seen with the .45ACP Colt M1911A1, the 9mm Browning Hi-Power, the Webley Mk VI, and the Smith & Wesson New Century (both in .455 Webley calibre) in the movies, as well as a .45 ACP Smith & Wesson Hand Ejector 2nd model. The 42RLE four-speed automatic transmission was available from 2003 to 2005.

Other elements of the outfit include the jacket, the bag, which was a modified World War II gas mask bag; and the whip. 2003 and 2004 featured the NV3550 manual transmission in the Rubicon while 2005 changed to a six speed. Today, the collection of props and clothing from the films, especially the Fedora, has become a subculture/hobby for aficianados of the Indiana Jones franchise. It features front and rear Dana 44 axles with built-in air-actuated locking differentials, rear helical gear-driven limited slip differential, 4:1 low-range NV241 transfer case, 4.10:1 differential gears, 16-inch alloy wheels, and Goodyear MTR P245×75×R16 tires. Although multiple hats were used throughout the movies, the distinctive profile of the Fedoras remained the same. The Wrangler Rubicon (named for the famed Rubicon Trail off-road test circuit) was introduced in 2003. Swales of Herbert Johnson Hatters in London, England. Other changes included the 1999 additions of a larger standard fuel tank, child seat tethers and sound system improvements in 2000, and intermittent wipers, a new console, and an optional locking compartment for 2001.

The original Fedora for the movie trilogy was constructed by Mr. A 2.5 L AMC Inline-4 motor was available on entry-level models until 2003 when the 2.4 L DOHC Neon 4-cylinder engine replaced it. After examining many hats, the designers chose an urban version of the classic Australian fedora, the Akubra. The engine is the same 4.0 L AMC Straight-6 used in the Cherokee and Grand Cherokee. Upon requests by Spielberg and Lucas the costume designer was given the task to make the character have a distinctive recognizable silhouette through the style of the hat (much like Dick Tracy). This updated Wrangler featured a coil-spring suspension (based on that of the Jeep Grand Cherokee) for better ride and handling, and a return to the CJ's iconic round headlamps. Spielberg wanted Indiana to be a James Bond-like figure that got into difficult situations and worked his way out. The YJ gave way to the Jeep TJ for the 1997 model year.

Lucas responded that he had something better than that. On August 5, 1987, American Motors was bought by Chrysler, and the Jeep marque became a part of Chrysler's Jeep/Eagle division. Spielberg told Lucas how he wanted to direct a James Bond film. An automatic transmission option for 4-cylinder Wranglers came in 1994 along with a center high-mounted stop light. The two friends first discussed the project while in Hawaii during the time of release of the first Star Wars film. The roll cage was extended in 1992 to allow for rear shoulder belts, and anti-lock brakes were added as an option the next year. Indiana Jones, "Obtainer of Rare Antiquities", is modeled after the strong-jawed heroes of the matinee serials and pulp magazines that Lucas and Spielberg enjoyed in their childhoods, such as the Republic Pictures serials, and Doc Savage. That year, a fuel injected 180 hp (134 kW) 4.0 L variant replaced the 112 hp (84 kW) 4.2 L straight-6.

This was the first game to use Williams/Midway's DCS Sound System, with the music composed by Chris Granner. The YJ used a 2.5 L AMC I4 or optional 4.2 L AMC I6 until 1991. If you complete all 12 stages, you will enter the game's "Wizard Mode", called Eternal Life. YJs are easily identifiable by their rectangular headlights. Indiana Jones: The Pinball Adventure (1993, Williams), designed by Mark Ritchie, is a widebody pinball game that features sound clips from all three theatrical films, and features 12 different stages (four stages each based on different scenes from the movies, including three video modes). The YJ was replaced in 1996 by 1997's TJ. George Lucas has collaborated with Walt Disney Imagineering on four occasions to create attractions for Disney theme parks worldwide:. (This prompted some Jeep purists to interpret the YJ as a "yuppie Jeep" upon the model's introduction.) 632,231 YJs were built through model year 1995.

The games include:. It was a new design with a longer wheelbase, less ground clearance, and more comfort, and some of its inspiration came from its stable mate, the Jeep Cherokee, rather than from its CJ predecessor alone. Various video and computer games have also been produced. The Jeep YJ, sold as the Wrangler, replaced the much-loved but slower-selling Jeep CJ in 1987. Star Wars Tales. . Marvel Comics The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones Stories. The Wrangler is produced at the Toledo South Assembly plant in Toledo, Ohio.

Dark Horse Comics Stories. The Wrangler debuted in 1987, was updated in 1997, and is still popular today. Indy also had a cameo in a Star Wars story in an issue of the Star Wars Tales comic books. It is a successor to the famous World War II GP vehicle by way of the 'Willy's' Jeep in the 1950s and later by the Jeep CJ series. Later Dark Horse Comics produced a number of Indiana Jones Comics. The Wrangler (also known as the YJ and TJ, as explained below) is a small ORV from Jeep. There was a comic book published by Marvel Comics in the early 1980s featuring the talents of John Byrne among others. URL accessed on January 12, 2006..

Find Your Fate Adventure Books by Ballantine Books. Jeep.com. German novels by Goldmann Verlag. 2007 Jeep Wrangler Specifications. Indiana Jones Adult Novels by Bantam Books. URL accessed on January 9, 2006.. Young Indiana Jones Novels by Ballantine Books. Automobile Magazine.

Young Indiana Jones Novels by Random House. 2007 Jeep Wrangler. These are only available in German and French respectively. URL accessed on January 9, 2006.. In Germany, there was a series of adult novels by author Wolfgang Hohlbein, and in France a Young Indiana Jones series by Joseph Jacobs and Richard Beugne. Detroit News. Apart from novel adaptations of the movies, and several Young Indiana Jones episodes, there is also a series of original paperback novels about the adventures of Indiana Jones, and another series of novels about Young Indiana Jones for younger readers. Jeep's target: Everybody.

Jim Ward, Vice President of Lucasfilm, has said in a recent press conference that a new Indiana Jones video game is expected that same year, around the time of the movie. URL accessed on January 9, 2006.. The upcoming fourth Indiana Jones movie, once again to star Harrison Ford, has been in the planning stages for several years; it is in pre-production and is not expected to be released until February 2007 at the earliest. AutoWeek. The series starred Harrison Ford as Jones. Jeep touting ruggedness of redesigned Wrangler. The popular trilogy of theatrical films: Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, were made from 1981–1989, created by George Lucas and directed by Steven Spielberg. A long wheelbase pickup truck.

Every episode began with a 93-year-old Indy, a grey-haired professor, talking about one of his old childhood adventures. A long wheelbase 4-door. The stories spanned from Indy’s childhood travels with his father (who was on, what seemed, one continuous Medieval studies lecture tour) to the solo journeys of his youth and even into World War I. A short wheelbase 2-door. The show ran for 44 episodes, with each pairing of episodes forming a feature-length TV film. One of the last Young Indiana Jones TV movies featured a cameo appearance by Harrison Ford, reprising the role of Indy as a man in his 50s.

This inspired a number of made-for-TV and made-for-video movies featuring Flanery as young Indy. The television series, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, aired from 1992 to 1996, with the 17-year-old Indy played by Sean Patrick Flanery, 93-year-old Indy by George Hall, and 10-year-old Indy by Corey Carrier. His popularity has allowed him to make appearances in three more feature films, a three-season TV series, dozens of novels, comic books, and video games, and even had his own amusement park ride. Since his introduction in 1981's Raiders of the Lost Ark, the character of Indiana Jones has become a cultural icon for adventure.

It is yet to be chronicled as to what adventure led Indy to wear an eyepatch. He seems remarkably spry for a man in his 90s—whether that is because of his drinking from the Grail is unknown. Sporting an eyepatch and cane, he was stopping anyone within earshot to regale them with tales of his exploits. When last seen in 1993, Jones was living in New York City with his daughter and her family.

His life during World War II is unknown, but in 1947 he was deceived by the recently born CIA to search the mechanism of the Babylonian Infernal Machine, in confrontation with a Soviet expedition. In 1938, Indy rescued his father from the Nazis and became embroiled in the search for the Holy Grail (Last Crusade). He continued to take on infrequent missions for the government over the ensuing years. In 1936, he was contacted by the United States government to retrieve the Ark of the Covenant before the Nazis (Raiders of the Lost Ark).

Immediately afterword, he faced the gangster Lao Che and the followers of the cult of Kali (Temple of Doom). He divided his time between teaching and archaeological expeditions, including a journey to China and India in 1935 where he raced Nazis to a mystical gem called "The Heart of the Dragon" from the ancient tomb of a Chinese emperor. Jones abruptly left the Ravenwoods in 1926 and did not contact them for 10 years. Dr.

At the same time, he became romantically involved with the Professor's daughter Marion. Sometime after the war, Jones returned to the United States, where he studied archaeology at the University of Chicago under Professor Abner Ravenwood. Jones and Remy then tranfered to the French Army, and Jones worked as an intelligence officer, vied with Ernest Hemingway for the affections of a young nurse, and worked as a translator for the Treaty of Versailles, seeing the war come to its conclusion but laying down the groundwork for a second conflict. Also while in Africa, Jones took ill, and was treated by Albert Schweitzer.

Among missions (depicted in the television series), the team destroyed a giant cannon mounted on a train, and they kidnapped the (real-life) German military genius Paul Erich von Lettow-Vorbeck in a balloon, but they were forced to release him. Jones' inability to read maps properly caused him to lose his intended unit, and he instead fought along side a team of old men under the British Army. When they arrived in Africa, Jones and Remy were commissioned as lieutenants. He was taken prisoner by the Germans, escaped, encountered (and lost his virginity to) Mata Hari eventually making his way to Africa at the beginning of World War I.

He participated in the Western Front. He then traveled to England, getting involved with the suffrage movement, and then him and Remy joined the Belgian Army. With Remy, he left Mexico and traveled to Ireland just in time for the Easter Rising. It is here that he also met his friend Remy, a Belgian.

He joined this army of revolutionaries, playing a part in the Mexican Revolution in 1916, under Pancho Villa. He ended up in Mexico and was kidnapped by Mexican revolutionaries. To escape this, he ran away from home by train. His father wanted Indiana to go to Princeton University.

This was also the time when he first developed his aversion to snakes. It was here, while attempting to secure the Cross of Coronado from thieves, Indy first learned to use the bullwhip and received his trademark fedora, as well as the scar on his chin. In 1912, Indy was living in Utah and was a member of the Boy Scouts with the rank of Life Scout. It is not known for sure when he first did this, except that he was referred to as Indiana during childhood by his peers.

adopted the name of his beloved dog Indiana for himself, insisting he be referred to as Indiana Jones. Although his father called him "Junior," Henry Jr. "Junior" accompanied his father on his travels throughout Europe, where he learned to speak, read, and write 27 languages, including French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Swedish, Greek, Arabic, Turkish, Vietnamese, Swahili, Latin and Chinese, as well as some Hindi, apart from English. (played by Lloyd Owen in the TV series and by Sean Connery in the films), and his wife Anna on July 1, 1899, in Princeton, New Jersey.

Henry Jones Sr. Indiana Jones was born Henry Jones Jr. to Scottish-born Professor of Medieval literature, Dr. . A fourth film has also been announced for a likely 2007 release.

Indiana Jones is also the general name given to the series as a whole, which is comprised of three films, a TV series, various novels, comics, video games, and other media. An older version (93) of Jones, played by George Hall, also appeared in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles. Younger versions of the character were also played by River Phoenix (in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade), and by Corey Carrier and Sean Patrick Flanery (in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles). Jones was originally portrayed by Harrison Ford in Raiders of the Lost Ark.

He first appeared in a series of films produced by George Lucas and directed by Steven Spielberg in the 1980s. Indiana Jones is a fictional bullwhip-toting, fedora-wearing archaeologist with an overdeveloped ophidiophobia (fear of snakes). IndianaJones.com. "Making Raiders of the Lost Ark." September 23, 2003.

Weblink to exclusive content including dozens of behind-the-scenes photos, an animatic sequence from Raiders and a PC game preview. Original trailers. The Light and Magic of Indiana Jones. The Music of Indiana Jones.

The Sound of Indiana Jones. The Stunts of Indiana Jones. From the Lucasfilm Archives:

    . A new, feature-length documentary of the making of the trilogy.

    Contains all three films in their original format (2.35:1 anamorphic widescreen aspect ratio or in Pan and Scan format), restored and digitally remastered. Available Audio Tracks: English (Dolby Digital 5.1), Spanish (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround), French (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround). Available Subtitles: English, Spanish, French. George Hall (Chapters 1-22) (age 93).

    Harrison Ford (Chapter 20, Chapters 23-26) (ages 36-39, 50). Sean Patrick Flanery (Chapters 6-22) (ages 17-21). River Phoenix (Chapter 25) (age 13). Corey Carrier (Chapters 1-5) (ages 9-11).

    The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Crystal Skull" opened at Tokyo DisneySea in Chiba, Japan, with the park in 2001. The "Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular" show opened at the Disney-MGM Studios in Lake Buena Vista, Florida in 1998. The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Forbidden Eye" opened in Disneyland in Anaheim, California, in 1995. The "Indiana Jones et le Temple du Péril" rollercoaster opened at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallee, France, in 1993.

    Untitled 2007 game, likely of same title as title of 2007 movie. Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb (PC, PlayStation 2, Microsoft Xbox). Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine (PC, Nintendo 64, Nintendo Game Boy Color). Indy's Desktop Adventures (PC).

    Indiana Jones and the Lost Kingdom (C64). Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis (PC, Amiga, Macintosh, C64) (also a comic book of the same name). Indiana Jones in Revenge of The Ancients (PC). Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures (Super Nintendo Entertainment System).

    Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Game Gear). Instruments of Chaos starring Young Indiana Jones (Sega Genesis). Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Genesis). Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Master System - European release).

    Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Game Boy). The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (Nintendo Entertainment System). Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Ubi Soft). Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Taito).

    Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC). Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Action Game (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC). Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (C64). Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (Nintendo Entertainment System).

    Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (arcade). Raiders of the Lost Ark (Atari 2600). Star Wars Tales #19: Into the Great Unknown. Something’s Gone Wrong Again.

    Magic, Murder & The Weather. Double Play. Big Game. Fireworks.

    Shot by Both Sides. Tower of Tears. Trail of the Golden Guns. Good as Gold.

    Revenge of the Ancients. The Secret of the Deep. Dragon by the Tail. End Run.

    Beyond the Lucifer Chamber. The Cuban Connection. The Search for Abner Ravenwood. The Sea Butchers.

    Demons. Deadly Rock. The Fourth Nail. The Gold Goddess.

    Africa Screams. Club Nightmare. Gateway to Infinity. The Devil's Cradle.

    Ikons of Ikammanen. Indiana Jones and the Iron Phoenix. Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny. Indiana Jones and the Golden Fleece.

    Indiana Jones and the Dance of Death. Indiana Jones and the Sargasso Pirates. Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. Indiana Jones: Thunder in the Orient.

    Indiana Jones and the Arms of Gold. Indiana Jones and the Shrine of the Sea Devil. Stine. L.

    Indiana Jones and the Ape Slaves of Howling Island - by R. Indiana Jones and the Gold of Genghis Khan - by Ellen Weiss. Indiana Jones and the Lost Treasure of Sheba - by Rose Estes. Indiana Jones and the Dragon of Vengeance - by Megan Stine.

    Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Fates - by Richard Wenk. Indiana Jones and the Legion of Death - by Richard Wenk. Indiana Jones and the Cup of the Vampire - by Andrew Helfer. Stine.

    L. Indiana Jones and the Cult of the Mummy's Crypt - by R. Stine. L.

    Indiana Jones and the Giants of the Silver Tower - by R. Stine. L. Indiana Jones and the Curse of Horror Island - by R.

    Indiana Jones und das Erbe von Avalon (Indiana Jones And The Legacy Of Avalon) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. Indiana Jones und das Labyrinth des Horus (Indiana Jones And The Labyrinth Of Horus) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. Indiana Jones und das Geheimnis der Osterinseln (Indiana Jones And The Secret Of Easter Island) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. Indiana Jones und das Schwert des Dschingis Khan (Indiana Jones And The Sword of Genghis Khan) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein.

    Indiana Jones und das verschwundene Volk (Indiana Jones And The Vanished People) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. Indiana Jones und das Gold von El Dorado (Indiana Jones And The Gold Of El Dorado) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. Indiana Jones und die Gefiederte Schlange (Indiana Jones And The Feathered Snake) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. Indiana Jones und das Schiff der Götter (Indiana Jones And The Ship Of The Gods) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein.

    Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx - by Max McCoy. Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth - by Max McCoy. Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs - by Max McCoy. Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone - by Max McCoy.

    Indiana Jones and the White Witch - by Martin Caidin. Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates - by Martin Caidin. Indiana Jones and the Interior World - by Rob MacGregor. Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge - by Rob MacGregor.

    Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils - by Rob MacGregor. Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants - by Rob MacGregor. Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy - by Rob MacGregor. Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi - by Rob MacGregor.

    The Mata Hari Affair - by James Luceno. Young Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Tiger - by William McCay. Young Indiana Jones and the Face of the Dragon - by William McCay. Young Indiana Jones and the Mountain of Fire - by William McCay.

    Young Indiana Jones and the Secret City - by Les Martin. Young Indiana Jones and the Gypsy Revenge - by Les Martin. Young Indiana Jones and the Curse of the Ruby Cross - by William McCay. William Stine.

    Young Indiana Jones and the Journey to the Underworld - by Megan Stine and H. Young Indiana Jones and the Circle of Death - by William McCay. Young Indiana Jones and the Ghostly Riders - by William McCay. Young Indiana Jones and the Princess of Peril - by Les Martin.

    Young Indiana Jones and the Tomb of Terror - by Les Martin. Young Indiana Jones and the Plantation Treasure - by William McCay. William Stine. Young Indiana Jones and the Lost Gold of Durango - by Megan Stine and H.

    Fox. N. Young Indiana Jones and the Pirates Loot - by J. Young Indiana Jones' Titanic Adventure - by Les Martin.

    Chapter 28: (unproduced) Based on the fact that The Temple of Doom could be counted as a prequel, rather than a sequel. This would leave room open for yet another sequel that is yet to be produced. He now denies plans for a fourth sequel, claiming he never intended to do beyond three, but that the fourth film was "a brilliant idea he had." In saying he had a deal for four sequels, one could also speculate that he might not have counted The Temple of Doom as a sequel, and instead a prequel, which it was. He now has announced his work on the third sequel, Indiana Jones IV.

    After the first three, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Lucas announced he was finished with the theatrical films, leaving two of his promised sequels unmade. Chapter 27: (unproduced) Originally, George Lucas had signed a deal with Paramount Pictures for four theatrical sequels to Raiders of the Lost Ark. Chapter 26: Indiana Jones 4 (2007) (categorized as "in production"). Chapter 25: The Last Crusade (1989).

    Chapter 24: Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981). Chapter 23: The Temple of Doom (1984). Chapter 22: Hollywood Follies. Chapter 21: Scandal of 1920.

    Chapter 20: Mystery of the Blues. Chapter 19: Winds of Change. Chapter 18: Treasure of the Peacock's Eye. Chapter 17: Masks of Evil.

    Chapter 16: Tales of Innocence. Chapter 15: Daredevils of the Desert. Chapter 14: Espionage Escapades. Chapter 13: Adventures in the Secret Service.

    Chapter 12: Attack of the Hawkmen. Chapter 11: Oganga, the Giver and Taker of Life. Chapter 10: Phantom Train of Doom. Chapter 9: Demons of Deception.

    Chapter 8: Trenches of Hell. Chapter 7: Love's Sweet Song. Chapter 6: Spring Break Adventure. Chapter 5: Journey of Radiance.

    Chapter 4: Travels with Father. Chapter 3: The Perils of Cupid. Chapter 2: Passion for Life. Chapter 1: My First Adventure.

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