Indiana Jones

Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones

Indiana Jones is a fictional bullwhip-toting, fedora-wearing archaeologist with an overdeveloped ophidiophobia (fear of snakes). He first appeared in a series of films produced by George Lucas and directed by Steven Spielberg in the 1980s.

Jones was originally portrayed by Harrison Ford in Raiders of the Lost Ark. Younger versions of the character were also played by River Phoenix (in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade), and by Corey Carrier and Sean Patrick Flanery (in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles). An older version (93) of Jones, played by George Hall, also appeared in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles.

Indiana Jones is also the general name given to the series as a whole, which is comprised of three films, a TV series, various novels, comics, video games, and other media. A fourth film has also been announced for a likely 2007 release.

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

Biography

When not adventuring, Jones is a respectable professor

Indiana Jones was born Henry Jones Jr. to Scottish-born Professor of Medieval literature, Dr. Henry Jones Sr. (played by Lloyd Owen in the TV series and by Sean Connery in the films), and his wife Anna on July 1, 1899, in Princeton, New Jersey. "Junior" accompanied his father on his travels throughout Europe, where he learned to speak, read, and write 27 languages, including French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Swedish, Greek, Arabic, Turkish, Vietnamese, Swahili, Latin and Chinese, as well as some Hindi, apart from English. Although his father called him "Junior," Henry Jr. adopted the name of his beloved dog Indiana for himself, insisting he be referred to as Indiana Jones. It is not known for sure when he first did this, except that he was referred to as Indiana during childhood by his peers.

In 1912, Indy was living in Utah and was a member of the Boy Scouts with the rank of Life Scout. It was here, while attempting to secure the Cross of Coronado from thieves, Indy first learned to use the bullwhip and received his trademark fedora, as well as the scar on his chin. This was also the time when he first developed his aversion to snakes.

His father wanted Indiana to go to Princeton University. To escape this, he ran away from home by train. He ended up in Mexico and was kidnapped by Mexican revolutionaries. He joined this army of revolutionaries, playing a part in the Mexican Revolution in 1916, under Pancho Villa. It is here that he also met his friend Remy, a Belgian. With Remy, he left Mexico and traveled to Ireland just in time for the Easter Rising. He then traveled to England, getting involved with the suffrage movement, and then him and Remy joined the Belgian Army. He participated in the Western Front. He was taken prisoner by the Germans, escaped, encountered (and lost his virginity to) Mata Hari eventually making his way to Africa at the beginning of World War I.

When they arrived in Africa, Jones and Remy were commissioned as lieutenants. Jones' inability to read maps properly caused him to lose his intended unit, and he instead fought along side a team of old men under the British Army. Among missions (depicted in the television series), the team destroyed a giant cannon mounted on a train, and they kidnapped the (real-life) German military genius Paul Erich von Lettow-Vorbeck in a balloon, but they were forced to release him. Also while in Africa, Jones took ill, and was treated by Albert Schweitzer.

Jones and Remy then tranfered to the French Army, and Jones worked as an intelligence officer, vied with Ernest Hemingway for the affections of a young nurse, and worked as a translator for the Treaty of Versailles, seeing the war come to its conclusion but laying down the groundwork for a second conflict.

Sometime after the war, Jones returned to the United States, where he studied archaeology at the University of Chicago under Professor Abner Ravenwood. At the same time, he became romantically involved with the Professor's daughter Marion.

Dr. Jones abruptly left the Ravenwoods in 1926 and did not contact them for 10 years. He divided his time between teaching and archaeological expeditions, including a journey to China and India in 1935 where he raced Nazis to a mystical gem called "The Heart of the Dragon" from the ancient tomb of a Chinese emperor. Immediately afterword, he faced the gangster Lao Che and the followers of the cult of Kali (Temple of Doom). In 1936, he was contacted by the United States government to retrieve the Ark of the Covenant before the Nazis (Raiders of the Lost Ark). He continued to take on infrequent missions for the government over the ensuing years. In 1938, Indy rescued his father from the Nazis and became embroiled in the search for the Holy Grail (Last Crusade). His life during World War II is unknown, but in 1947 he was deceived by the recently born CIA to search the mechanism of the Babylonian Infernal Machine, in confrontation with a Soviet expedition.

When last seen in 1993, Jones was living in New York City with his daughter and her family. Sporting an eyepatch and cane, he was stopping anyone within earshot to regale them with tales of his exploits. He seems remarkably spry for a man in his 90s—whether that is because of his drinking from the Grail is unknown. It is yet to be chronicled as to what adventure led Indy to wear an eyepatch.

Appearances

Since his introduction in 1981's Raiders of the Lost Ark, the character of Indiana Jones has become a cultural icon for adventure. His popularity has allowed him to make appearances in three more feature films, a three-season TV series, dozens of novels, comic books, and video games, and even had his own amusement park ride.

The television series, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, aired from 1992 to 1996, with the 17-year-old Indy played by Sean Patrick Flanery, 93-year-old Indy by George Hall, and 10-year-old Indy by Corey Carrier. This inspired a number of made-for-TV and made-for-video movies featuring Flanery as young Indy. One of the last Young Indiana Jones TV movies featured a cameo appearance by Harrison Ford, reprising the role of Indy as a man in his 50s. The show ran for 44 episodes, with each pairing of episodes forming a feature-length TV film. The stories spanned from Indy’s childhood travels with his father (who was on, what seemed, one continuous Medieval studies lecture tour) to the solo journeys of his youth and even into World War I. Every episode began with a 93-year-old Indy, a grey-haired professor, talking about one of his old childhood adventures.

The popular trilogy of theatrical films: Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, were made from 1981–1989, created by George Lucas and directed by Steven Spielberg. The series starred Harrison Ford as Jones. The upcoming fourth Indiana Jones movie, once again to star Harrison Ford, has been in the planning stages for several years; it is in pre-production and is not expected to be released until February 2007 at the earliest. Jim Ward, Vice President of Lucasfilm, has said in a recent press conference that a new Indiana Jones video game is expected that same year, around the time of the movie.

TV films

Harrison Ford makes a cameo appearance as 50 year old Indy in Chapter 20: Mystery of the Blues.
  • Chapter 1: My First Adventure
  • Chapter 2: Passion for Life
  • Chapter 3: The Perils of Cupid
  • Chapter 4: Travels with Father
  • Chapter 5: Journey of Radiance
  • Chapter 6: Spring Break Adventure
  • Chapter 7: Love's Sweet Song
  • Chapter 8: Trenches of Hell
  • Chapter 9: Demons of Deception
  • Chapter 10: Phantom Train of Doom
  • Chapter 11: Oganga, the Giver and Taker of Life
  • Chapter 12: Attack of the Hawkmen
  • Chapter 13: Adventures in the Secret Service
  • Chapter 14: Espionage Escapades
  • Chapter 15: Daredevils of the Desert
  • Chapter 16: Tales of Innocence
  • Chapter 17: Masks of Evil
  • Chapter 18: Treasure of the Peacock's Eye
  • Chapter 19: Winds of Change
  • Chapter 20: Mystery of the Blues
  • Chapter 21: Scandal of 1920
  • Chapter 22: Hollywood Follies

Theatrical films

  • Chapter 23: The Temple of Doom (1984)
  • Chapter 24: Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)
  • Chapter 25: The Last Crusade (1989)
  • Chapter 26: Indiana Jones 4 (2007) (categorized as "in production")
  • Chapter 27: (unproduced) Originally, George Lucas had signed a deal with Paramount Pictures for four theatrical sequels to Raiders of the Lost Ark. After the first three, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Lucas announced he was finished with the theatrical films, leaving two of his promised sequels unmade. He now has announced his work on the third sequel, Indiana Jones IV. He now denies plans for a fourth sequel, claiming he never intended to do beyond three, but that the fourth film was "a brilliant idea he had." In saying he had a deal for four sequels, one could also speculate that he might not have counted The Temple of Doom as a sequel, and instead a prequel, which it was. This would leave room open for yet another sequel that is yet to be produced.
  • Chapter 28: (unproduced) Based on the fact that The Temple of Doom could be counted as a prequel, rather than a sequel.

Novels

Apart from novel adaptations of the movies, and several Young Indiana Jones episodes, there is also a series of original paperback novels about the adventures of Indiana Jones, and another series of novels about Young Indiana Jones for younger readers. In Germany, there was a series of adult novels by author Wolfgang Hohlbein, and in France a Young Indiana Jones series by Joseph Jacobs and Richard Beugne. These are only available in German and French respectively.

Young Indiana Jones Novels by Random House

  • Young Indiana Jones' Titanic Adventure - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Pirates Loot - by J. N. Fox
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Lost Gold of Durango - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Plantation Treasure - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Tomb of Terror - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Princess of Peril - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Ghostly Riders - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Circle of Death - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Journey to the Underworld - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Curse of the Ruby Cross - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Gypsy Revenge - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Secret City - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Mountain of Fire - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Face of the Dragon - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Tiger - by William McCay

Young Indiana Jones Novels by Ballantine Books

  • The Mata Hari Affair - by James Luceno

Indiana Jones Adult Novels by Bantam Books

  • Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Interior World - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates - by Martin Caidin
  • Indiana Jones and the White Witch - by Martin Caidin
  • Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone - by Max McCoy
  • Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs - by Max McCoy
  • Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth - by Max McCoy
  • Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx - by Max McCoy

German novels by Goldmann Verlag

  • Indiana Jones und das Schiff der Götter (Indiana Jones And The Ship Of The Gods) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und die Gefiederte Schlange (Indiana Jones And The Feathered Snake) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Gold von El Dorado (Indiana Jones And The Gold Of El Dorado) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das verschwundene Volk (Indiana Jones And The Vanished People) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Schwert des Dschingis Khan (Indiana Jones And The Sword of Genghis Khan) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Geheimnis der Osterinseln (Indiana Jones And The Secret Of Easter Island) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Labyrinth des Horus (Indiana Jones And The Labyrinth Of Horus) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Erbe von Avalon (Indiana Jones And The Legacy Of Avalon) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein

Find Your Fate Adventure Books by Ballantine Books

  • Indiana Jones and the Curse of Horror Island - by R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Giants of the Silver Tower - by R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Cult of the Mummy's Crypt - by R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Cup of the Vampire - by Andrew Helfer
  • Indiana Jones and the Legion of Death - by Richard Wenk
  • Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Fates - by Richard Wenk
  • Indiana Jones and the Dragon of Vengeance - by Megan Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Lost Treasure of Sheba - by Rose Estes
  • Indiana Jones and the Gold of Genghis Khan - by Ellen Weiss
  • Indiana Jones and the Ape Slaves of Howling Island - by R. L. Stine

Comics

There was a comic book published by Marvel Comics in the early 1980s featuring the talents of John Byrne among others. Later Dark Horse Comics produced a number of Indiana Jones Comics. Indy also had a cameo in a Star Wars story in an issue of the Star Wars Tales comic books.

Dark Horse Comics Stories

  • Indiana Jones and the Shrine of the Sea Devil
  • Indiana Jones and the Arms of Gold
  • Indiana Jones: Thunder in the Orient
  • Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis
  • Indiana Jones and the Sargasso Pirates
  • Indiana Jones and the Dance of Death
  • Indiana Jones and the Golden Fleece
  • Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny
  • Indiana Jones and the Iron Phoenix

Marvel Comics The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones Stories

  • Ikons of Ikammanen
  • The Devil's Cradle
  • Gateway to Infinity
  • Club Nightmare
  • Africa Screams
  • The Gold Goddess
  • The Fourth Nail
  • Deadly Rock
  • Demons
  • The Sea Butchers
  • The Search for Abner Ravenwood
  • The Cuban Connection
  • Beyond the Lucifer Chamber
  • End Run
  • Dragon by the Tail
  • The Secret of the Deep
  • Revenge of the Ancients
  • Good as Gold
  • Trail of the Golden Guns
  • Tower of Tears
  • Shot by Both Sides
  • Fireworks
  • Big Game
  • Double Play
  • Magic, Murder & The Weather
  • Something’s Gone Wrong Again

Star Wars Tales

  • Star Wars Tales #19: Into the Great Unknown

Video games

Various video and computer games have also been produced. The games include:

  • Raiders of the Lost Ark (Atari 2600)
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (arcade)
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (Nintendo Entertainment System)
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (C64)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Action Game (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Taito)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Ubi Soft)
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (Nintendo Entertainment System)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Game Boy)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Master System - European release)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Genesis)
  • Instruments of Chaos starring Young Indiana Jones (Sega Genesis)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Game Gear)
  • Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures (Super Nintendo Entertainment System)
  • Indiana Jones in Revenge of The Ancients (PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis (PC, Amiga, Macintosh, C64) (also a comic book of the same name)
  • Indiana Jones and the Lost Kingdom (C64)
  • Indy's Desktop Adventures (PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine (PC, Nintendo 64, Nintendo Game Boy Color)
  • Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb (PC, PlayStation 2, Microsoft Xbox)
  • Untitled 2007 game, likely of same title as title of 2007 movie

Attractions

Action on the set of the Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular

George Lucas has collaborated with Walt Disney Imagineering on four occasions to create attractions for Disney theme parks worldwide:

  • The "Indiana Jones et le Temple du Péril" rollercoaster opened at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallee, France, in 1993.
  • The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Forbidden Eye" opened in Disneyland in Anaheim, California, in 1995.
  • The "Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular" show opened at the Disney-MGM Studios in Lake Buena Vista, Florida in 1998.
  • The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Crystal Skull" opened at Tokyo DisneySea in Chiba, Japan, with the park in 2001.

Pinball

Indiana Jones: The Pinball Adventure (1993, Williams), designed by Mark Ritchie, is a widebody pinball game that features sound clips from all three theatrical films, and features 12 different stages (four stages each based on different scenes from the movies, including three video modes). If you complete all 12 stages, you will enter the game's "Wizard Mode", called Eternal Life.

This was the first game to use Williams/Midway's DCS Sound System, with the music composed by Chris Granner.

Origins

Indiana Jones with his famous bull-whip.

Indiana Jones, "Obtainer of Rare Antiquities", is modeled after the strong-jawed heroes of the matinee serials and pulp magazines that Lucas and Spielberg enjoyed in their childhoods, such as the Republic Pictures serials, and Doc Savage. The two friends first discussed the project while in Hawaii during the time of release of the first Star Wars film. Spielberg told Lucas how he wanted to direct a James Bond film. Lucas responded that he had something better than that.

Spielberg wanted Indiana to be a James Bond-like figure that got into difficult situations and worked his way out. Upon requests by Spielberg and Lucas the costume designer was given the task to make the character have a distinctive recognizable silhouette through the style of the hat (much like Dick Tracy). After examining many hats, the designers chose an urban version of the classic Australian fedora, the Akubra. The original Fedora for the movie trilogy was constructed by Mr. Swales of Herbert Johnson Hatters in London, England. Although multiple hats were used throughout the movies, the distinctive profile of the Fedoras remained the same. Today, the collection of props and clothing from the films, especially the Fedora, has become a subculture/hobby for aficianados of the Indiana Jones franchise. Other elements of the outfit include the jacket, the bag, which was a modified World War II gas mask bag; and the whip.

Indy's revolver is a .38/200 calibre Webley Mk IV, but he is also seen with the .45ACP Colt M1911A1, the 9mm Browning Hi-Power, the Webley Mk VI, and the Smith & Wesson New Century (both in .455 Webley calibre) in the movies, as well as a .45 ACP Smith & Wesson Hand Ejector 2nd model. [1]

Tom Selleck was the first choice for the role, but couldn't get out of a television series commitment (Magnum, P.I.), so Lucas went with Harrison Ford, who he had worked with previously on American Graffiti and his Star Wars films.

Many people have been called the real-life inspiration of the Indiana Jones character. Probably the most cited person is famous paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews. Another person cited as a possible inspiration is the Italian archaeologist and circus strongman Giovanni Battista Belzoni (1778–1823). Religious archaeologist Vendyl "Texas" Jones claims that he was the inspiration, citing his names (he notes that his first name trimmed becomes Endy — very similar to Indy), but this claim has reportedly been denied by Spielberg. Other candidates include explorer Gene Savoy [2], Yale University historian and explorer Hiram Bingham III and University of Chicago archeologist Robert Braidwood [3]. Another very strong candidate is the famed adventurer and anthropologist Schuyler Jones. [4] However, the most likely inspiration was the fictional character Allan Quatermain.

The character was originally named Indiana Smith, but Spielberg disliked the name and Lucas casually suggested "Indiana Jones". The name was thus changed early in the production of Raiders of the Lost Ark. The origin of the name "Indiana" is the same in the real world as in the fiction: It was the name of an Alaskan malamute Lucas had in the 1970s (the same dog was also the inspiration for Chewbacca). His name is also said to be derived from the character "Nevada Smith," played by Steve McQueen in the 1966 film of the same name.

Spielberg also admitted that an important inspiration for the style and atmosphere of the adventures of Indiana Jones were the adventures of the Belgian comic character Tintin by Hergé.

Portrayers

  • Corey Carrier (Chapters 1-5) (ages 9-11)
  • River Phoenix (Chapter 25) (age 13)
  • Sean Patrick Flanery (Chapters 6-22) (ages 17-21)
  • Harrison Ford (Chapter 20, Chapters 23-26) (ages 36-39, 50)
  • George Hall (Chapters 1-22) (age 93)

DVD release

TV films

The DVDs for Chapters 1-22 are expected to be released sometime in 2007, according to a statement by series producer, Rick McCallum of Lucasfilm. The company has already put in two years of work on creating these DVDs, so as to have bonus features for each movie.

McCallum expects there to be 22 Young Indiana Jones Chronicles DVDs in all, 3 of which have been completed. The discs will include some 66 historical featurettes, now in production. Work has been ongoing for about 18 months on the Young Indy DVDs, with about another 18 months worth of work yet to be done. If all goes well, the plan is to tie the DVD release to the theatrical debut of Indy IV.

Theatrical films

The 2003 DVD release of Chapters 23-25.

Chapters 23-25 of the Indiana Jones series (The Temple of Doom, Raiders of the Lost Ark, and The Last Crusade, respectively) were released on DVD as a boxed set of all three films plus a fourth disc of bonus materials in 2003.

Features

  • Available Subtitles: English, Spanish, French
  • Available Audio Tracks: English (Dolby Digital 5.1), Spanish (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround), French (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround)
  • Contains all three films in their original format (2.35:1 anamorphic widescreen aspect ratio or in Pan and Scan format), restored and digitally remastered

Bonus disc features

  • A new, feature-length documentary of the making of the trilogy
  • From the Lucasfilm Archives:
    • The Stunts of Indiana Jones
    • The Sound of Indiana Jones
    • The Music of Indiana Jones
    • The Light and Magic of Indiana Jones
  • Original trailers
  • Weblink to exclusive content including dozens of behind-the-scenes photos, an animatic sequence from Raiders and a PC game preview

References

  • "Making Raiders of the Lost Ark." September 23, 2003. IndianaJones.com.

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Bonus disc features. These will consist of between 6 and 12 workstations, each with their own oven, sink and kitchen utensils. Features. In Schools where Home Economics (HE) or Food technology (previously known as Domestic science) is taught, there will be a series of kitchens with multiple equipment (similar in some respects to laboratories) solely for the purpose of teaching. Chapters 23-25 of the Indiana Jones series (The Temple of Doom, Raiders of the Lost Ark, and The Last Crusade, respectively) were released on DVD as a boxed set of all three films plus a fourth disc of bonus materials in 2003. Military camps and similar temporary settlements of nomads may have dedicated kitchen tents. If all goes well, the plan is to tie the DVD release to the theatrical debut of Indy IV. Outdoor areas in which food is prepared are generally not considered to be kitchens, although an outdoor area set up for regular food preparation, for instance when camping, might be called an "outdoor kitchen".

Work has been ongoing for about 18 months on the Young Indy DVDs, with about another 18 months worth of work yet to be done. The astronauts' food is generally completely prepared, dehydrated, and sealed in plastic pouches, and the kitchen is reduced to a rehydration and heating module. The discs will include some 66 historical featurettes, now in production. aboard a Space Shuttle (where it is also called the "galley") or the International Space Station. McCallum expects there to be 22 Young Indiana Jones Chronicles DVDs in all, 3 of which have been completed. An extreme form of the kitchen occurs in space, e.g. The company has already put in two years of work on creating these DVDs, so as to have bonus features for each movie. On passenger airplanes, the kitchen is reduced to a mere pantry, the only function reminiscent of a kitchen is the heating of in-flight meals (where they haven't been "optimized" away altogether) delivered by a catering company.

The DVDs for Chapters 1-22 are expected to be released sometime in 2007, according to a statement by series producer, Rick McCallum of Lucasfilm. On yachts, galleys are often cramped, with one or two gas burners fuelled by a gas bottle, but kitchens on cruise ships or large warships are comparable in every respect with restaurants or canteen kitchens. Spielberg also admitted that an important inspiration for the style and atmosphere of the adventures of Indiana Jones were the adventures of the Belgian comic character Tintin by Hergé. Galleys are kitchens aboard ships (although the term galley is also often used to refer to a railroad dining car's kitchen). His name is also said to be derived from the character "Nevada Smith," played by Steve McQueen in the 1966 film of the same name. Especially in the early history of the railway this required flawless organization of processes; in modern times, the microwave oven and prepared meals have made this task a lot easier. The origin of the name "Indiana" is the same in the real world as in the fiction: It was the name of an Alaskan malamute Lucas had in the 1970s (the same dog was also the inspiration for Chewbacca). The kitchens in railway dining cars present special challenges: space is constrained, and nevertheless the personnel must be able to serve a great number of meals quickly.

The name was thus changed early in the production of Raiders of the Lost Ark. There is a trend for restaurants to only "finish" delivered convenience food or even just re-heat completely prepared meals, maybe at the utmost grilling a hamburger or a steak. The character was originally named Indiana Smith, but Spielberg disliked the name and Lucas casually suggested "Indiana Jones". The fast food and convenience food trends have also changed the way restaurant kitchens operate. [4] However, the most likely inspiration was the fictional character Allan Quatermain. (As of 2004, steamers—not to be confused with a pressure cooker—are beginning to find their way into domestic households, sometimes as a combined appliance of oven and steamer.). Another very strong candidate is the famed adventurer and anthropologist Schuyler Jones. Some special appliances are typical for professional kitchens, such as large installed deep fryers, steamers, or a Bain Marie.

Other candidates include explorer Gene Savoy [2], Yale University historian and explorer Hiram Bingham III and University of Chicago archeologist Robert Braidwood [3]. Professional kitchens are often equipped with gas stoves, as these allow cooks to regulate the heat quicker and more finely than electrical stoves. Religious archaeologist Vendyl "Texas" Jones claims that he was the inspiration, citing his names (he notes that his first name trimmed becomes Endy — very similar to Indy), but this claim has reportedly been denied by Spielberg. Today's western restaurant kitchens typically have tiled walls and floors and use stainless steel for other surfaces (workbench, but also door and drawer fronts) because these materials are durable and easy to clean. Another person cited as a possible inspiration is the Italian archaeologist and circus strongman Giovanni Battista Belzoni (1778–1823). For instance, Benjamin Thompson's "energy saving stove", an early 19th century fully-closed iron stove using one fire to heat several pots, was designed for large kitchens; another thirty years passed before they were adapted for domestic use. Probably the most cited person is famous paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews. Canteen kitchens (and castle kitchens) were often the places where new technology was used first.

Many people have been called the real-life inspiration of the Indiana Jones character. They are inspected periodically by public-health officials, and forced to close if they don't meet hygienic requirements mandated by law. Tom Selleck was the first choice for the role, but couldn't get out of a television series commitment (Magnum, P.I.), so Lucas went with Harrison Ford, who he had worked with previously on American Graffiti and his Star Wars films. Restaurant and canteen kitchens found in hotels, hospitals, army barracks and similar establishments are generally (in developed countries) subject to public health laws. [1]. Kitchens with enough space to eat in are sometimes called "eat-in kitchens". Indy's revolver is a .38/200 calibre Webley Mk IV, but he is also seen with the .45ACP Colt M1911A1, the 9mm Browning Hi-Power, the Webley Mk VI, and the Smith & Wesson New Century (both in .455 Webley calibre) in the movies, as well as a .45 ACP Smith & Wesson Hand Ejector 2nd model. Such areas are called "breakfast areas", "breakfast nooks" or "breakfast bars" if the space is integrated into a kitchen counter.

Other elements of the outfit include the jacket, the bag, which was a modified World War II gas mask bag; and the whip. Modern kitchens often have enough informal space to allow for people to eat in it without having to use the formal dining room. Today, the collection of props and clothing from the films, especially the Fedora, has become a subculture/hobby for aficianados of the Indiana Jones franchise. This observation led to a few common kitchen forms, commonly characterized by the arrangement of the kitchen cabinets and sink, stove, and refrigerator:. Although multiple hats were used throughout the movies, the distinctive profile of the Fedoras remained the same. A natural arrangement is a triangle, with the refrigerator, the sink, and the stove at a vertex each. Swales of Herbert Johnson Hatters in London, England. It was there that the notion of the "kitchen work triangle" was formalized: the three main functions in a kitchen are storage, preparation, and cooking (which Catherine Beecher had already recognized), and the places for these functions should be arranged in the kitchen in such a way that work at one place does not interfere with work at another place, the distance between these places is not unnecessarily large, and no obstacles are in the way.

The original Fedora for the movie trilogy was constructed by Mr. In the U.S., the "Small Homes Council", since 1993 the "Building Research Council", of the School of Architecture of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign was founded in 1944 with the goal to improve the state of the art in home building, originally with an emphasis on standardization for cost reduction. After examining many hats, the designers chose an urban version of the classic Australian fedora, the Akubra. Nevertheless, kitchen design was mostly ad-hoc following the whims of the architect. Upon requests by Spielberg and Lucas the costume designer was given the task to make the character have a distinctive recognizable silhouette through the style of the hat (much like Dick Tracy). While this "work kitchen" and variants derived from it were a great success for tenement buildings, home owners had different demands and didn't want to be constrained by a 6.4 m² kitchen. Spielberg wanted Indiana to be a James Bond-like figure that got into difficult situations and worked his way out. A social housing project in Frankfurt (the Römerstadt of architect Ernst May) realized in 1927/28 was the breakthrough for her Frankfurt kitchen, which embodied this new notion of efficiency in the kitchen.

Lucas responded that he had something better than that. Her ideas were taken up in the 1920s by architects in Germany and Austria, most notably Bruno Taut, Erna Meyer, and Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky. Spielberg told Lucas how he wanted to direct a James Bond film. Christine Frederick published from 1913 a series of articles on "New Household Management" in which she analyzed the kitchen following Taylorist priciples, presented detailed time-motion studies, and derived a kitchen design from them. The two friends first discussed the project while in Hawaii during the time of release of the first Star Wars film. Beecher even separated the functions of preparing food and cooking it altogether by moving the stove into a compartment adjacent to the kitchen. Indiana Jones, "Obtainer of Rare Antiquities", is modeled after the strong-jawed heroes of the matinee serials and pulp magazines that Lucas and Spielberg enjoyed in their childhoods, such as the Republic Pictures serials, and Doc Savage. The design included regular shelves on the walls, ample work space, and dedicated storage areas for various food items.

This was the first game to use Williams/Midway's DCS Sound System, with the music composed by Chris Granner. Beecher's "model kitchen" propagated for the first time a systematic design based on early ergonomics. If you complete all 12 stages, you will enter the game's "Wizard Mode", called Eternal Life. The first ideas to optimize the work in the kitchen go back to Catherine Beecher's A Treatise on Domestic Economy (1843, revised and republished together with her sister Harriet Beecher Stowe as The American Woman's Home in 1869). Indiana Jones: The Pinball Adventure (1993, Williams), designed by Mark Ritchie, is a widebody pinball game that features sound clips from all three theatrical films, and features 12 different stages (four stages each based on different scenes from the movies, including three video modes). Domestic kitchen design per se is a relatively recent discipline. George Lucas has collaborated with Walt Disney Imagineering on four occasions to create attractions for Disney theme parks worldwide:. For others, who followed the "cooking as a social act" trend, the open kitchen had the advantage that they could be with their guests while cooking, and for the "creative cooks" it might even become a stage for their cooking performance.

The games include:. Whereas in the 1950s most cooking started out with raw ingredients and a meal had to be prepared for real, the advent of frozen meals and pre-prepared convenience food changed the cooking habits of many people, who consequently used the kitchen less and less. Various video and computer games have also been produced. Another reason for the trend back to open kitchens (and a foundation of the "kitchen object" philosophy) is changes in how food is prepared. Star Wars Tales. However, like their precursor, Colani's "kitchen satellite", such futuristic designs are exceptions. Marvel Comics The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones Stories. Some architects have capitalized on this "object" aspect of the kitchen by designing freestanding "kitchen objects".

Dark Horse Comics Stories. The enhanced status of cooking also made the kitchen a prestige object for showing off one's wealth or cooking professionalism. Indy also had a cameo in a Star Wars story in an issue of the Star Wars Tales comic books. Besides, many families also appreciated the trend towards open kitchens, as it made it easier for the parents to supervise the kids while cooking. Later Dark Horse Comics produced a number of Indiana Jones Comics. The re-integration of the kitchen and the living area went hand in hand with a change in the perception of cooking: increasingly, cooking was seen as a creative and sometimes social act instead of work, especially in upper social classes. There was a comic book published by Marvel Comics in the early 1980s featuring the talents of John Byrne among others. The extractor hood made it possible to build open kitchens in apartments, too, where both high ceilings and skylights were not possible.

Find Your Fate Adventure Books by Ballantine Books. Both had open kitchens, with high ceilings (up to the roof) and were aired by skylights. German novels by Goldmann Verlag. Examples are Frank Lloyd Wright's House Willey (1934) and House Jacobs (1936). Indiana Jones Adult Novels by Bantam Books. Before that, only a few earlier experiments, typically in newly built upper middle class family homes, had open kitchens. Young Indiana Jones Novels by Ballantine Books. Starting in the 1980s, the perfection of the extractor hood allowed an open kitchen again, integrated more or less with the living room without causing the whole apartment or house to smell.

Young Indiana Jones Novels by Random House. The kitchen was reduced to the max and the "work kitchen" paradigm taken to its extremes: in East Germany for instance, the standard tenement block of the model "P2" had tiny 4 m² kitchens in the inside of the building (no windows), connected to the dining and living room of the 55 m² apartment and separated from the latter by a pass-through or a window. These are only available in German and French respectively. Also, housing had to be built at low costs and quickly, which led directly to the standardized apartment block using prefabricated slabs. In Germany, there was a series of adult novels by author Wolfgang Hohlbein, and in France a Young Indiana Jones series by Joseph Jacobs and Richard Beugne. In the former Eastern bloc countries, the official doctrine viewed cooking as a mere necessity, and women should work "for the society" in factories, not at home. Apart from novel adaptations of the movies, and several Young Indiana Jones episodes, there is also a series of original paperback novels about the adventures of Indiana Jones, and another series of novels about Young Indiana Jones for younger readers. Such extravaganzas remained outside the norm, though.

Jim Ward, Vice President of Lucasfilm, has said in a recent press conference that a new Indiana Jones video game is expected that same year, around the time of the movie. General technocentric enthusiasm even led some designers to take the "work kitchen" approach even further, culminating in futuristic designs like Luigi Colani's "kitchen satellite" (1969, commissioned by the German high-end kitchen manufacturer Poggenpohl for an exhibit), in which the room was reduced to a ball with a chair in the middle and all appliances at arm's length, an optimal arrangement maybe for "applying heat to food", but not necessarily for actual cooking. The upcoming fourth Indiana Jones movie, once again to star Harrison Ford, has been in the planning stages for several years; it is in pre-production and is not expected to be released until February 2007 at the earliest. There, the kitchens usually were somewhat larger, suitable for everyday use as a dining room, but otherwise the ongoing technicalization was the same, and the use of unit furniture became a standard also in this market sector. The series starred Harrison Ford as Jones. Parallel to this development in tenement buildings went the evolution of the kitchen in homeowner's houses. The popular trilogy of theatrical films: Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, were made from 1981–1989, created by George Lucas and directed by Steven Spielberg. Following the end of World War II, massive demand in Europe for low-price, high-tech consumer goods led to Western European kitchens being designed to accommodate new appliances such as refrigerators and electric/gas cookers.

Every episode began with a 93-year-old Indy, a grey-haired professor, talking about one of his old childhood adventures. A trend began in the 1940s in the United States to equip the kitchen with electrified small and large kitchen appliances such as blenders, toasters, and later also microwave ovens. The stories spanned from Indy’s childhood travels with his father (who was on, what seemed, one continuous Medieval studies lecture tour) to the solo journeys of his youth and even into World War I. Soon the concept was amended by the use of smooth synthetic door and drawer fronts, first in white, recalling a sense of cleanliness and alluding to sterile lab or hospital settings, but soon after in lively, friendly colors, too. The show ran for 44 episodes, with each pairing of episodes forming a feature-length TV film. The concept was refined in the "Swedish kitchen" using unit furniture with wooden fronts for the kitchen cabinets. One of the last Young Indiana Jones TV movies featured a cameo appearance by Harrison Ford, reprising the role of Indy as a man in his 50s. Not much later, the refrigerator was added as a standard item.

This inspired a number of made-for-TV and made-for-video movies featuring Flanery as young Indy. The equipment used remained a standard for years to come: hot and cold water on tap and a kitchen sink and an electrical or gas stove and oven. The television series, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, aired from 1992 to 1996, with the 17-year-old Indy played by Sean Patrick Flanery, 93-year-old Indy by George Hall, and 10-year-old Indy by Corey Carrier. The idea of standardized dimensions and layout developed for the Frankfurt kitchen took hold. His popularity has allowed him to make appearances in three more feature films, a three-season TV series, dozens of novels, comic books, and video games, and even had his own amusement park ride. Practical reasons also played a role in this development: just as in the bourgeois homes of the past, one reason for separating the kitchen was to keep the steam and smells of cooking out of the living room. Since his introduction in 1981's Raiders of the Lost Ark, the character of Indiana Jones has become a cultural icon for adventure. The kitchen once more was seen as a work place that needed to be separated from the living areas.

It is yet to be chronicled as to what adventure led Indy to wear an eyepatch. Too small to live or dine in, it was soon criticized as "exiling the women in the kitchen", but the post-World War II conservatism coupled with economic reasons prevailed. He seems remarkably spry for a man in his 90s—whether that is because of his drinking from the Grail is unknown. But the Frankfurt kitchen embodied a standard for the rest of the 20th century in rental apartments: the "work kitchen". Sporting an eyepatch and cane, he was stopping anyone within earshot to regale them with tales of his exploits. The initial reception was heavily critical: people were not accustomed to the changed processes also designed by Schütte-Lihotzky; it was so small that only one person could work in it; some storage spaces intended for raw loose food ingredients such as flour were reachable by children. When last seen in 1993, Jones was living in New York City with his daughter and her family. It was built in some 10,000 apartments in a social housing project of architect Ernst May in Frankfurt.

His life during World War II is unknown, but in 1947 he was deceived by the recently born CIA to search the mechanism of the Babylonian Infernal Machine, in confrontation with a Soviet expedition. The design, created by Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, was the result of detailed time-motion studies and heavily influenced by the railway dining car kitchens of the period. In 1938, Indy rescued his father from the Nazis and became embroiled in the search for the Holy Grail (Last Crusade). It was built for two purposes: to optimize kitchen work to reduce cooking time (so that women would have more time for the factory) and to lower the cost of building decently-equipped kitchens. He continued to take on infrequent missions for the government over the ensuing years. Developed in 1926, this kitchen measured 1.9m by 3.4m (approximately 6'2" by 11'2"), with a standard layout. In 1936, he was contacted by the United States government to retrieve the Ark of the Covenant before the Nazis (Raiders of the Lost Ark). Social housing projects led to the next milestone: the "Frankfurt kitchen".

Immediately afterword, he faced the gangster Lao Che and the followers of the cult of Kali (Temple of Doom). Working class women frequently worked in factories to ensure the family's survival, as the men's wages often did not suffice. He divided his time between teaching and archaeological expeditions, including a journey to China and India in 1935 where he raced Nazis to a mystical gem called "The Heart of the Dragon" from the ancient tomb of a Chinese emperor. These ideas also spilled over into domestic kitchen architecture due to a growing trend that called for a professionalization of household work, started in the mid-19th century by Catharine Beecher and amplified by Christine Frederick's publications in the 1910s. Jones abruptly left the Ravenwoods in 1926 and did not contact them for 10 years. Taylorism was born, and time-motion studies were used to optimize processes. Dr. In industry, it was the phase of rationalisation, where work processes were attempted to be streamlined.

At the same time, he became romantically involved with the Professor's daughter Marion. The trend to increasing gasification and electrification continued at the turn of the 20th century. Sometime after the war, Jones returned to the United States, where he studied archaeology at the University of Chicago under Professor Abner Ravenwood. Gas and water pipes were first installed in the big cities; small villages were connected only much later. Jones and Remy then tranfered to the French Army, and Jones worked as an intelligence officer, vied with Ernest Hemingway for the affections of a young nurse, and worked as a translator for the Treaty of Versailles, seeing the war come to its conclusion but laying down the groundwork for a second conflict. In rural areas, the older technology using coal or wood stoves or even brick-and-mortar open fireplaces remained common throughout. Also while in Africa, Jones took ill, and was treated by Albert Schweitzer. Where workers' apartments were equipped with a gas stove, gas distribution would go through a coin meter.

Among missions (depicted in the television series), the team destroyed a giant cannon mounted on a train, and they kidnapped the (real-life) German military genius Paul Erich von Lettow-Vorbeck in a balloon, but they were forced to release him. Gas was more expensive than coal, though, and thus the new technology first was installed in the wealthier homes. Jones' inability to read maps properly caused him to lose his intended unit, and he instead fought along side a team of old men under the British Army. Gas pipes were laid only in the late 19th century, and gas stoves started to replace the older coal-fired stoves. When they arrived in Africa, Jones and Remy were commissioned as lieutenants. Besides a cupboard to store the kitchenware, there were a table and chairs, where the family would dine, and sometimes—if space allowed—even a fauteuil or a couch. He was taken prisoner by the Germans, escaped, encountered (and lost his virginity to) Mata Hari eventually making his way to Africa at the beginning of World War I. Because of this, these middle-class kitchens often were more homely than those of the upper class, where the kitchen was a work-only room occupied only by the servants.

He participated in the Western Front. The study or living room was saved for special occasions such as an occasional dinner invitation. He then traveled to England, getting involved with the suffrage movement, and then him and Remy joined the Belgian Army. Living in smaller apartments, the kitchen was the main room—here, the family lived. With Remy, he left Mexico and traveled to Ireland just in time for the Easter Rising. The middle class tried to imitate the luxurious dining styles of the upper class as best as it could. It is here that he also met his friend Remy, a Belgian. A large table served as a workbench; there were at least as many chairs as there were servants, for the table in the kitchen also doubled as the eating place for the servants.

He joined this army of revolutionaries, playing a part in the Mexican Revolution in 1916, under Pancho Villa. The kitchen floors were tiled; kitchenware was neatly stored in cupboards to protect them from dust and steam. He ended up in Mexico and was kidnapped by Mexican revolutionaries. For the servants the kitchen continued to serve also as a sleeping room; they slept either on the floor, or later in narrow spaces above a lowered ceiling, for the new stoves with their smoke outlet no longer required a high ceiling in the kitchen. To escape this, he ran away from home by train. The kitchen became a much cleaner space with the advent of "cooking machines", closed stoves made of iron plates and fired by wood and increasingly charcoal or coal, and that had flue pipes connected to the chimney. His father wanted Indiana to go to Princeton University. In some houses, water pumps were installed, and some even had kitchen sinks and drains (but no water on tap yet, except for some feudal kitchens in castles).

This was also the time when he first developed his aversion to snakes. The kitchen, located in the basement or the ground floor, continued to be operated by servants. It was here, while attempting to secure the Cross of Coronado from thieves, Indy first learned to use the bullwhip and received his trademark fedora, as well as the scar on his chin. In contrast, there were no dramatic changes for the upper classes. In 1912, Indy was living in Utah and was a member of the Boy Scouts with the rank of Life Scout. Pots and kitchenware typically were stored on open shelves, and parts of the room could be separated from the rest using simple curtains. It is not known for sure when he first did this, except that he was referred to as Indiana during childhood by his peers. Brick-and-mortar stoves fired with coal remained the norm until well into the second half of the century.

adopted the name of his beloved dog Indiana for himself, insisting he be referred to as Indiana Jones. Water pipes were laid only towards the end of the 19th century, and then often only with one tap per building or per story. Although his father called him "Junior," Henry Jr. Water had to be fetched from wells and heated on the stove. "Junior" accompanied his father on his travels throughout Europe, where he learned to speak, read, and write 27 languages, including French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Swedish, Greek, Arabic, Turkish, Vietnamese, Swahili, Latin and Chinese, as well as some Hindi, apart from English. The kitchen in such an apartment was often used as a living and sleeping room, and even as a bathroom. (played by Lloyd Owen in the TV series and by Sean Connery in the films), and his wife Anna on July 1, 1899, in Princeton, New Jersey. Sometimes, they shared apartments with "night sleepers", unmarried men that paid for a bed at night.

Henry Jones Sr. Whole families lived in small one or two-room apartments in tenement buildings up to six stories high, badly aired and with insufficient lighting. Indiana Jones was born Henry Jones Jr. to Scottish-born Professor of Medieval literature, Dr. The new factory working class in the cities was housed under generally poor conditions. . Industrialization also caused social changes. A fourth film has also been announced for a likely 2007 release. The first electrical stove had been presented in 1893 at the Chicago world fair, but it wasn't until the 1930s that the technology was stable enough and began to take off.

Indiana Jones is also the general name given to the series as a whole, which is comprised of three films, a TV series, various novels, comics, video games, and other media. But like the gas stove, the electrical stove had a slow start. An older version (93) of Jones, played by George Hall, also appeared in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles. At the turn of the 20th century, electricity had been mastered well enough to become a commercially viable alternative to gas and slowly started replacing the latter. Younger versions of the character were also played by River Phoenix (in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade), and by Corey Carrier and Sean Patrick Flanery (in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles). Gas pipes were laid; gas was used first for lighting purposes, but once the network had grown sufficiently, it became available also for heating and cooking on gas stoves. Jones was originally portrayed by Harrison Ford in Raiders of the Lost Ark. Out of sheer necessity, cities began planning and building water distribution pipes into homes, and built canalisations to deal with the waste water.

He first appeared in a series of films produced by George Lucas and directed by Steven Spielberg in the 1980s. The urbanization in the second half of the 19th century induced other significant changes that ultimately would also change the kitchen. Indiana Jones is a fictional bullwhip-toting, fedora-wearing archaeologist with an overdeveloped ophidiophobia (fear of snakes). patent on a gas stove was granted in 1825, it wasn't until the late 19th century that using gas for lighting and cooking became commonplace in urban areas. IndianaJones.com. Although the first gas street lamps were installed in Paris, London, and Berlin at the beginning of the 1820s and the first U.S. "Making Raiders of the Lost Ark." September 23, 2003. These stoves were still fired with wood or coal.

Weblink to exclusive content including dozens of behind-the-scenes photos, an animatic sequence from Raiders and a PC game preview. in 1834 and became a commercial success with some 90,000 units sold over the next 30 years. Original trailers. The "Oberlin stove" was a refinement of the technique that resulted in a size reduction; it was patented in the U.S. The Light and Magic of Indiana Jones. However, his stove was designed for large kitchens; it was too big for domestic use. The Music of Indiana Jones. This stove was much more energy efficient than earlier stoves; it used one fire to heat several pots, which were hung into holes on top of the stove and were thus heated from all sides instead of just from the bottom.

The Sound of Indiana Jones. Benjamin Thompson in England designed his "Rumford stove" around 1800. The Stunts of Indiana Jones. Early models included the Franklin stove around 1740, which was a furnace stove intended for heating, not for cooking. From the Lucasfilm Archives:

    . Iron stoves, which enclosed the fire completely and were more efficient, appeared. A new, feature-length documentary of the making of the trilogy. Technological advances during industrialization brought major changes to the kitchen.

    Contains all three films in their original format (2.35:1 anamorphic widescreen aspect ratio or in Pan and Scan format), restored and digitally remastered. Completely separated "summer kitchens" also developed on larger farms further north to avoid that the main house was heated by the preparation of the meals for the harvest workers or tasks like canning. Available Audio Tracks: English (Dolby Digital 5.1), Spanish (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround), French (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround). In addition, the area's warm climate made operating a kitchen quite unpleasant, especially in the summer. Available Subtitles: English, Spanish, French. In southern estates, the kitchen was often relegated to an outhouse, separated from the mansion, for much of the same reasons as in the feudal kitchen in medieval Europe: the kitchen was operated by slaves, and their working place had to be separated from the living area of the masters by the social standards of the time. George Hall (Chapters 1-22) (age 93). The development in the southern states was quite different, but then, so were the climate and sociological conditions.

    Harrison Ford (Chapter 20, Chapters 23-26) (ages 36-39, 50). Later, the kitchen did become a separate room, but remained within the building. Sean Patrick Flanery (Chapters 6-22) (ages 17-21). The early settlers in the north often had no separate kitchen; a fireplace in a corner of the cabin served as the kitchen space. River Phoenix (Chapter 25) (age 13). In the Colonial American kitchen, the same distinction as for the medieval European kitchen is visible. Corey Carrier (Chapters 1-5) (ages 9-11). The smoke then rose more or less freely, warming the upstairs rooms and protecting the woodwork from vermin.

    The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Crystal Skull" opened at Tokyo DisneySea in Chiba, Japan, with the park in 2001. These houses often had no chimney, but only a smoke hood above the fireplace, made of wood and covered with clay, and used to smoke meat. The "Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular" show opened at the Disney-MGM Studios in Lake Buena Vista, Florida in 1998. In a few European farmhouses, the smoke kitchen was in regular use until the middle of the 20th century. The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Forbidden Eye" opened in Disneyland in Anaheim, California, in 1995. The medieval smoke kitchen remained common, especially in rural farmhouses and generally in poorer homes, until much later. The "Indiana Jones et le Temple du Péril" rollercoaster opened at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallee, France, in 1993. Poorer homes often did not have a separate kitchen yet; they kept the one-room arrangement where all activities took place, or at the most had the kitchen in the entrance hall.

    Untitled 2007 game, likely of same title as title of 2007 movie. In the upper classes, cooking and the kitchen were the domain of the servants, and the kitchen was set apart from the living rooms, sometimes even far from the dining room. Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb (PC, PlayStation 2, Microsoft Xbox). Freed from smoke and dirt, the living room thus began to serve as an area for social functions and increasingly became a showcase for the owner's wealth and was sometimes prestigiously furnished. Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine (PC, Nintendo 64, Nintendo Game Boy Color). The living room was now heated by tiled stoves, operated from the kitchen, which offered the huge advantage of not filling the room with smoke. Indy's Desktop Adventures (PC). Beginning in the late middle ages, kitchens in Europe lost their home-heating function even more and were increasingly moved from the living area into a separate room.

    Indiana Jones and the Lost Kingdom (C64). Using open fire for cooking (and heating) was risky; fires devastating whole cities occurred frequently. Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis (PC, Amiga, Macintosh, C64) (also a comic book of the same name). This kind of system was widely used in wealthier homes. Indiana Jones in Revenge of The Ancients (PC). Leonardo da Vinci invented an automated system for a rotating spit for spit-roasting: a propeller in the chimney made the spit turn all by itself. Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures (Super Nintendo Entertainment System). The temperature was controlled by hanging the pot higher or lower over the fire, or placing it on a trivet or directly on the hot ashes.

    Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Game Gear). Pots made of iron, bronze, or copper started to replace the pottery used earlier. Instruments of Chaos starring Young Indiana Jones (Sega Genesis). The fire was lit on top of the construction; a vault underneath served to store wood. Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Genesis). With the advent of the chimney, the hearth moved from the center of the room to one wall, and the first brick-and-mortar hearths were built. Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Master System - European release). In Japanese homes, the kitchen started to become a separate room within the main building at that time.

    Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Game Boy). In castles and monasteries, the living and working areas were separated; the kitchen was moved to a separate building, and thus couldn't serve anymore to heat the living rooms. The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (Nintendo Entertainment System). In wealthy homes, the ground floor was often used as a stable while the kitchen was located on the floor above, like the bedroom and the hall. Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Ubi Soft). In European medieval cities around the 10th to 12th centuries, the kitchen still used an open fire hearth in the middle of the room. Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Taito). European medieval kitchens were dark, smokey, and sooty places, whence their name "smoke kitchen".

    Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC). The kitchen remained largely unaffected by architectural advances throughout the middle ages; open fire remained the only method of heating food. Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Action Game (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC). A kamado was used to cook the staple food, for instance rice, while irori served both to cook side dishes and as a heat source. Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (C64). A kind of open fire pit fired with charcoal, called irori, remained in use as the secondary stove in most homes until the Edo period (17th to 19th century). Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (Nintendo Entertainment System). Like in Europe, the wealthier homes had a separate building which served for cooking.

    Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (arcade). This type of stove remained in use for centuries to come, with only minor modifications. Raiders of the Lost Ark (Atari 2600). These stoves, called kamado, were typically made of clay and mortar; they were fired with wood or charcoal through a hole in the front and had a hole in the top, into which a pot could be hanged by its rim. Star Wars Tales #19: Into the Great Unknown. The earliest findings are from the Kofun period (3rd to 6th century). Something’s Gone Wrong Again. The first known stoves in Japan date from about the same time.

    Magic, Murder & The Weather. In the larger homesteads of European nobles, the kitchen was sometimes in a separate sunken floor building to keep the main building, which served social and official purposes, free from smoke. Double Play. A similar design can be found in the Iroquois longhouses of North America. Big Game. Besides cooking, the fire also served as a source of heat and light to the single-room building. Fireworks. In place of a chimney, these early buildings had a hole in the roof through which some of the smoke could escape.

    Shot by Both Sides. The "kitchen area" was between the entrance and the fireplace. Tower of Tears. Early medieval European longhouses had an open fire under the highest point of the building. Trail of the Golden Guns. There were no chimneys. Good as Gold. The fireplace was typically on the floor, placed at a wall--sometimes raised a little bit--such that one had to kneel to cook.

    Revenge of the Ancients. In a Roman villa, the kitchen was typically integrated into the main building as a separate room, set apart for practical reasons of smoke and sociological reasons of the kitchen being operated by slaves. The Secret of the Deep. Wealthy Romans had relatively well-equipped kitchens. Dragon by the Tail. Some had small mobile bronze stoves, on which a fire could be lit for cooking. End Run. In the Roman Empire, common folk in cities often had no kitchen of their own; they did their cooking in large public kitchens.

    Beyond the Lucifer Chamber. In such houses, there was often a separate small storage room in the back of the kitchen used for storing food and kitchen utensils. The Cuban Connection. Homes of the wealthy had the kitchen as a separate room, usually next to a bathroom (so that both rooms could be heated by the kitchen fire), both rooms being accessible from the court. The Search for Abner Ravenwood. In many such homes, a covered but otherwise open patio served as the kitchen. The Sea Butchers. The houses in Ancient Greece were commonly of the atrium-type: the rooms were arranged around a central courtyard.

    Demons. Water on tap only became gradually available during industrialization; before, water had to be collected from the nearest well and heated in the kitchen. Deadly Rock. When technical advances brought new ways to heat food in the 18th and 19th centuries, architects took advantage of newly-gained flexibility to bring fundamental changes to the kitchen. The Fourth Nail. Until the 18th century, open fire was the sole means of heating food, and the architecture of the kitchen reflected this. The Gold Goddess. The development of the kitchen has been intricately and intrinsically linked with the development of the cooking range or stove.

    Africa Screams. . Club Nightmare. Sometimes, it is the most comforting room in a house, where family and visitors tend to congregate. Gateway to Infinity. The kitchen may also be the place where the family eats, provided it is large enough. The Devil's Cradle. If a washing machine is present, washing and drying laundry is also done in the kitchen.

    Ikons of Ikammanen. Although the main function of a kitchen is cooking, it can be the center of other activities as well, especially within homes, depending on its size, furnishing, and equipment. Indiana Jones and the Iron Phoenix. Some installations to store food usually also are present, either in the form of an adjacent pantry or more commonly cabinets and a refrigerator. Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny. Modern kitchens often also feature a dishwasher. Indiana Jones and the Golden Fleece. A modern kitchen is typically equipped with a stove or microwave oven and has a sink with water on tap for cleaning food and dishwashing.

    Indiana Jones and the Dance of Death. A kitchen is a room used for food preparation. Indiana Jones and the Sargasso Pirates. Daidokoro - the kitchen in Japan. Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. Online edition of Nicolas Cahill's Household and City Organization at Olynthus (ISBN 0-300-08495-1), which has some information about the kitchens in ancient Greek times. Indiana Jones: Thunder in the Orient. E.: Encyclopedia of Kitchen History; Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers; (November 2004); ISBN 1-579-58380-6.

    Indiana Jones and the Arms of Gold. Snodgrass, M. Indiana Jones and the Shrine of the Sea Devil. In English. Stine. The introduction is available online. L. A.: The Bathroom, the Kitchen, and the Aesthetics of Waste, Princeton Architectural Press; 1996; ISBN 1-568-98096-5.

    Indiana Jones and the Ape Slaves of Howling Island - by R. and Miller, J. Indiana Jones and the Gold of Genghis Khan - by Ellen Weiss. Lupton, E. Indiana Jones and the Lost Treasure of Sheba - by Rose Estes. Harrison, M.: The Kitchen in History, Osprey; 1972; ISBN 0-850-45068-3; out of print. Indiana Jones and the Dragon of Vengeance - by Megan Stine. The text is vailable at Project Gutenberg at [1].

    Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Fates - by Richard Wenk. and Beecher Stowe, H.: The American Woman's Home, 1869. Indiana Jones and the Legion of Death - by Richard Wenk. E. Indiana Jones and the Cup of the Vampire - by Andrew Helfer. Beecher, C. Stine. In German; out of print.

    L. (Ed.): Oikos: Von der Feuerstelle zur Mikrowelle, Anabes, Giessen 1992; ISBN 3-870-38669-X. Indiana Jones and the Cult of the Mummy's Crypt - by R. Andritzky, M. Stine. Both in German. L. Gang" (PDF file, 5 Mb).

    Indiana Jones and the Giants of the Silver Tower - by R. Two collections of architecture students' works on the kitchen: "Küchen" (PDF file, 3 Mb) and "Küchen, 2. Stine. In German. L. (Ed.): Die Küche — Zur Geschichte eines architektonischen, sozialen und imaginativen Raums, Verlag Böhlau, Vienna 1999; ISBN 3-205-99076-5. Indiana Jones and the Curse of Horror Island - by R. et al.

    Indiana Jones und das Erbe von Avalon (Indiana Jones And The Legacy Of Avalon) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. Miklautz, E. Indiana Jones und das Labyrinth des Horus (Indiana Jones And The Labyrinth Of Horus) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. Japanese kitchens. Indiana Jones und das Geheimnis der Osterinseln (Indiana Jones And The Secret Of Easter Island) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. In a closed room, this doesn't make much sense, but in an open kitchen, it makes the stove accessible from all sides such that two persons can cook together, and allows for contact with guests or the rest of the family, for the cook doesn't face the wall anymore. Indiana Jones und das Schwert des Dschingis Khan (Indiana Jones And The Sword of Genghis Khan) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. Here, the stove or both the stove and the sink are placed where an L or U kitchen would have a table, in a freestanding "island", separated from the other cabinets.

    Indiana Jones und das verschwundene Volk (Indiana Jones And The Vanished People) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. The block kitchen is a more recent development, typically found in open kitchens. Indiana Jones und das Gold von El Dorado (Indiana Jones And The Gold Of El Dorado) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. This is a typical work kitchen, too, unless the two other cabinet rows are short enough to place a table at the fourth wall. Indiana Jones und die Gefiederte Schlange (Indiana Jones And The Feathered Snake) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. A U-kitchen has cabinets along three walls, typically with the sink at the base of the "U". Indiana Jones und das Schiff der Götter (Indiana Jones And The Ship Of The Gods) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. Again, the work triangle is preserved, and there may even be space for an additional table at a third wall, provided it doesn't intersect the triangle.

    Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx - by Max McCoy. In the L-kitchen, the cabinets occupy two adjacent walls. Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth - by Max McCoy. This is the classical work kitchen. Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs - by Max McCoy. The double file kitchen (also known as galley or corridor) has two rows of cabinets at opposite walls, one containing the stove and the sink, the other the refrigerator. Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone - by Max McCoy. This is not optimal, but often the only solution if space is restricted.

    Indiana Jones and the White Witch - by Martin Caidin. A single file kitchen has all of these along one wall; the work triangle degenerates to a line. Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates - by Martin Caidin. Indiana Jones and the Interior World - by Rob MacGregor. Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge - by Rob MacGregor.

    Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils - by Rob MacGregor. Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants - by Rob MacGregor. Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy - by Rob MacGregor. Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi - by Rob MacGregor.

    The Mata Hari Affair - by James Luceno. Young Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Tiger - by William McCay. Young Indiana Jones and the Face of the Dragon - by William McCay. Young Indiana Jones and the Mountain of Fire - by William McCay.

    Young Indiana Jones and the Secret City - by Les Martin. Young Indiana Jones and the Gypsy Revenge - by Les Martin. Young Indiana Jones and the Curse of the Ruby Cross - by William McCay. William Stine.

    Young Indiana Jones and the Journey to the Underworld - by Megan Stine and H. Young Indiana Jones and the Circle of Death - by William McCay. Young Indiana Jones and the Ghostly Riders - by William McCay. Young Indiana Jones and the Princess of Peril - by Les Martin.

    Young Indiana Jones and the Tomb of Terror - by Les Martin. Young Indiana Jones and the Plantation Treasure - by William McCay. William Stine. Young Indiana Jones and the Lost Gold of Durango - by Megan Stine and H.

    Fox. N. Young Indiana Jones and the Pirates Loot - by J. Young Indiana Jones' Titanic Adventure - by Les Martin.

    Chapter 28: (unproduced) Based on the fact that The Temple of Doom could be counted as a prequel, rather than a sequel. This would leave room open for yet another sequel that is yet to be produced. He now denies plans for a fourth sequel, claiming he never intended to do beyond three, but that the fourth film was "a brilliant idea he had." In saying he had a deal for four sequels, one could also speculate that he might not have counted The Temple of Doom as a sequel, and instead a prequel, which it was. He now has announced his work on the third sequel, Indiana Jones IV.

    After the first three, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Lucas announced he was finished with the theatrical films, leaving two of his promised sequels unmade. Chapter 27: (unproduced) Originally, George Lucas had signed a deal with Paramount Pictures for four theatrical sequels to Raiders of the Lost Ark. Chapter 26: Indiana Jones 4 (2007) (categorized as "in production"). Chapter 25: The Last Crusade (1989).

    Chapter 24: Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981). Chapter 23: The Temple of Doom (1984). Chapter 22: Hollywood Follies. Chapter 21: Scandal of 1920.

    Chapter 20: Mystery of the Blues. Chapter 19: Winds of Change. Chapter 18: Treasure of the Peacock's Eye. Chapter 17: Masks of Evil.

    Chapter 16: Tales of Innocence. Chapter 15: Daredevils of the Desert. Chapter 14: Espionage Escapades. Chapter 13: Adventures in the Secret Service.

    Chapter 12: Attack of the Hawkmen. Chapter 11: Oganga, the Giver and Taker of Life. Chapter 10: Phantom Train of Doom. Chapter 9: Demons of Deception.

    Chapter 8: Trenches of Hell. Chapter 7: Love's Sweet Song. Chapter 6: Spring Break Adventure. Chapter 5: Journey of Radiance.

    Chapter 4: Travels with Father. Chapter 3: The Perils of Cupid. Chapter 2: Passion for Life. Chapter 1: My First Adventure.

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