Indiana Jones

Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones

Indiana Jones is a fictional bullwhip-toting, fedora-wearing archaeologist with an overdeveloped ophidiophobia (fear of snakes). He first appeared in a series of films produced by George Lucas and directed by Steven Spielberg in the 1980s.

Jones was originally portrayed by Harrison Ford in Raiders of the Lost Ark. Younger versions of the character were also played by River Phoenix (in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade), and by Corey Carrier and Sean Patrick Flanery (in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles). An older version (93) of Jones, played by George Hall, also appeared in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles.

Indiana Jones is also the general name given to the series as a whole, which is comprised of three films, a TV series, various novels, comics, video games, and other media. A fourth film has also been announced for a likely 2007 release.

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

Biography

When not adventuring, Jones is a respectable professor

Indiana Jones was born Henry Jones Jr. to Scottish-born Professor of Medieval literature, Dr. Henry Jones Sr. (played by Lloyd Owen in the TV series and by Sean Connery in the films), and his wife Anna on July 1, 1899, in Princeton, New Jersey. "Junior" accompanied his father on his travels throughout Europe, where he learned to speak, read, and write 27 languages, including French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Swedish, Greek, Arabic, Turkish, Vietnamese, Swahili, Latin and Chinese, as well as some Hindi, apart from English. Although his father called him "Junior," Henry Jr. adopted the name of his beloved dog Indiana for himself, insisting he be referred to as Indiana Jones. It is not known for sure when he first did this, except that he was referred to as Indiana during childhood by his peers.

In 1912, Indy was living in Utah and was a member of the Boy Scouts with the rank of Life Scout. It was here, while attempting to secure the Cross of Coronado from thieves, Indy first learned to use the bullwhip and received his trademark fedora, as well as the scar on his chin. This was also the time when he first developed his aversion to snakes.

His father wanted Indiana to go to Princeton University. To escape this, he ran away from home by train. He ended up in Mexico and was kidnapped by Mexican revolutionaries. He joined this army of revolutionaries, playing a part in the Mexican Revolution in 1916, under Pancho Villa. It is here that he also met his friend Remy, a Belgian. With Remy, he left Mexico and traveled to Ireland just in time for the Easter Rising. He then traveled to England, getting involved with the suffrage movement, and then him and Remy joined the Belgian Army. He participated in the Western Front. He was taken prisoner by the Germans, escaped, encountered (and lost his virginity to) Mata Hari eventually making his way to Africa at the beginning of World War I.

When they arrived in Africa, Jones and Remy were commissioned as lieutenants. Jones' inability to read maps properly caused him to lose his intended unit, and he instead fought along side a team of old men under the British Army. Among missions (depicted in the television series), the team destroyed a giant cannon mounted on a train, and they kidnapped the (real-life) German military genius Paul Erich von Lettow-Vorbeck in a balloon, but they were forced to release him. Also while in Africa, Jones took ill, and was treated by Albert Schweitzer.

Jones and Remy then tranfered to the French Army, and Jones worked as an intelligence officer, vied with Ernest Hemingway for the affections of a young nurse, and worked as a translator for the Treaty of Versailles, seeing the war come to its conclusion but laying down the groundwork for a second conflict.

Sometime after the war, Jones returned to the United States, where he studied archaeology at the University of Chicago under Professor Abner Ravenwood. At the same time, he became romantically involved with the Professor's daughter Marion.

Dr. Jones abruptly left the Ravenwoods in 1926 and did not contact them for 10 years. He divided his time between teaching and archaeological expeditions, including a journey to China and India in 1935 where he raced Nazis to a mystical gem called "The Heart of the Dragon" from the ancient tomb of a Chinese emperor. Immediately afterword, he faced the gangster Lao Che and the followers of the cult of Kali (Temple of Doom). In 1936, he was contacted by the United States government to retrieve the Ark of the Covenant before the Nazis (Raiders of the Lost Ark). He continued to take on infrequent missions for the government over the ensuing years. In 1938, Indy rescued his father from the Nazis and became embroiled in the search for the Holy Grail (Last Crusade). His life during World War II is unknown, but in 1947 he was deceived by the recently born CIA to search the mechanism of the Babylonian Infernal Machine, in confrontation with a Soviet expedition.

When last seen in 1993, Jones was living in New York City with his daughter and her family. Sporting an eyepatch and cane, he was stopping anyone within earshot to regale them with tales of his exploits. He seems remarkably spry for a man in his 90s—whether that is because of his drinking from the Grail is unknown. It is yet to be chronicled as to what adventure led Indy to wear an eyepatch.

Appearances

Since his introduction in 1981's Raiders of the Lost Ark, the character of Indiana Jones has become a cultural icon for adventure. His popularity has allowed him to make appearances in three more feature films, a three-season TV series, dozens of novels, comic books, and video games, and even had his own amusement park ride.

The television series, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, aired from 1992 to 1996, with the 17-year-old Indy played by Sean Patrick Flanery, 93-year-old Indy by George Hall, and 10-year-old Indy by Corey Carrier. This inspired a number of made-for-TV and made-for-video movies featuring Flanery as young Indy. One of the last Young Indiana Jones TV movies featured a cameo appearance by Harrison Ford, reprising the role of Indy as a man in his 50s. The show ran for 44 episodes, with each pairing of episodes forming a feature-length TV film. The stories spanned from Indy’s childhood travels with his father (who was on, what seemed, one continuous Medieval studies lecture tour) to the solo journeys of his youth and even into World War I. Every episode began with a 93-year-old Indy, a grey-haired professor, talking about one of his old childhood adventures.

The popular trilogy of theatrical films: Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, were made from 1981–1989, created by George Lucas and directed by Steven Spielberg. The series starred Harrison Ford as Jones. The upcoming fourth Indiana Jones movie, once again to star Harrison Ford, has been in the planning stages for several years; it is in pre-production and is not expected to be released until February 2007 at the earliest. Jim Ward, Vice President of Lucasfilm, has said in a recent press conference that a new Indiana Jones video game is expected that same year, around the time of the movie.

TV films

Harrison Ford makes a cameo appearance as 50 year old Indy in Chapter 20: Mystery of the Blues.
  • Chapter 1: My First Adventure
  • Chapter 2: Passion for Life
  • Chapter 3: The Perils of Cupid
  • Chapter 4: Travels with Father
  • Chapter 5: Journey of Radiance
  • Chapter 6: Spring Break Adventure
  • Chapter 7: Love's Sweet Song
  • Chapter 8: Trenches of Hell
  • Chapter 9: Demons of Deception
  • Chapter 10: Phantom Train of Doom
  • Chapter 11: Oganga, the Giver and Taker of Life
  • Chapter 12: Attack of the Hawkmen
  • Chapter 13: Adventures in the Secret Service
  • Chapter 14: Espionage Escapades
  • Chapter 15: Daredevils of the Desert
  • Chapter 16: Tales of Innocence
  • Chapter 17: Masks of Evil
  • Chapter 18: Treasure of the Peacock's Eye
  • Chapter 19: Winds of Change
  • Chapter 20: Mystery of the Blues
  • Chapter 21: Scandal of 1920
  • Chapter 22: Hollywood Follies

Theatrical films

  • Chapter 23: The Temple of Doom (1984)
  • Chapter 24: Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)
  • Chapter 25: The Last Crusade (1989)
  • Chapter 26: Indiana Jones 4 (2007) (categorized as "in production")
  • Chapter 27: (unproduced) Originally, George Lucas had signed a deal with Paramount Pictures for four theatrical sequels to Raiders of the Lost Ark. After the first three, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Lucas announced he was finished with the theatrical films, leaving two of his promised sequels unmade. He now has announced his work on the third sequel, Indiana Jones IV. He now denies plans for a fourth sequel, claiming he never intended to do beyond three, but that the fourth film was "a brilliant idea he had." In saying he had a deal for four sequels, one could also speculate that he might not have counted The Temple of Doom as a sequel, and instead a prequel, which it was. This would leave room open for yet another sequel that is yet to be produced.
  • Chapter 28: (unproduced) Based on the fact that The Temple of Doom could be counted as a prequel, rather than a sequel.

Novels

Apart from novel adaptations of the movies, and several Young Indiana Jones episodes, there is also a series of original paperback novels about the adventures of Indiana Jones, and another series of novels about Young Indiana Jones for younger readers. In Germany, there was a series of adult novels by author Wolfgang Hohlbein, and in France a Young Indiana Jones series by Joseph Jacobs and Richard Beugne. These are only available in German and French respectively.

Young Indiana Jones Novels by Random House

  • Young Indiana Jones' Titanic Adventure - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Pirates Loot - by J. N. Fox
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Lost Gold of Durango - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Plantation Treasure - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Tomb of Terror - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Princess of Peril - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Ghostly Riders - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Circle of Death - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Journey to the Underworld - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Curse of the Ruby Cross - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Gypsy Revenge - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Secret City - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Mountain of Fire - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Face of the Dragon - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Tiger - by William McCay

Young Indiana Jones Novels by Ballantine Books

  • The Mata Hari Affair - by James Luceno

Indiana Jones Adult Novels by Bantam Books

  • Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Interior World - by Rob MacGregor
  • Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates - by Martin Caidin
  • Indiana Jones and the White Witch - by Martin Caidin
  • Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone - by Max McCoy
  • Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs - by Max McCoy
  • Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth - by Max McCoy
  • Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx - by Max McCoy

German novels by Goldmann Verlag

  • Indiana Jones und das Schiff der Götter (Indiana Jones And The Ship Of The Gods) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und die Gefiederte Schlange (Indiana Jones And The Feathered Snake) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Gold von El Dorado (Indiana Jones And The Gold Of El Dorado) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das verschwundene Volk (Indiana Jones And The Vanished People) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Schwert des Dschingis Khan (Indiana Jones And The Sword of Genghis Khan) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Geheimnis der Osterinseln (Indiana Jones And The Secret Of Easter Island) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Labyrinth des Horus (Indiana Jones And The Labyrinth Of Horus) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein
  • Indiana Jones und das Erbe von Avalon (Indiana Jones And The Legacy Of Avalon) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein

Find Your Fate Adventure Books by Ballantine Books

  • Indiana Jones and the Curse of Horror Island - by R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Giants of the Silver Tower - by R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Cult of the Mummy's Crypt - by R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Cup of the Vampire - by Andrew Helfer
  • Indiana Jones and the Legion of Death - by Richard Wenk
  • Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Fates - by Richard Wenk
  • Indiana Jones and the Dragon of Vengeance - by Megan Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Lost Treasure of Sheba - by Rose Estes
  • Indiana Jones and the Gold of Genghis Khan - by Ellen Weiss
  • Indiana Jones and the Ape Slaves of Howling Island - by R. L. Stine

Comics

There was a comic book published by Marvel Comics in the early 1980s featuring the talents of John Byrne among others. Later Dark Horse Comics produced a number of Indiana Jones Comics. Indy also had a cameo in a Star Wars story in an issue of the Star Wars Tales comic books.

Dark Horse Comics Stories

  • Indiana Jones and the Shrine of the Sea Devil
  • Indiana Jones and the Arms of Gold
  • Indiana Jones: Thunder in the Orient
  • Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis
  • Indiana Jones and the Sargasso Pirates
  • Indiana Jones and the Dance of Death
  • Indiana Jones and the Golden Fleece
  • Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny
  • Indiana Jones and the Iron Phoenix

Marvel Comics The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones Stories

  • Ikons of Ikammanen
  • The Devil's Cradle
  • Gateway to Infinity
  • Club Nightmare
  • Africa Screams
  • The Gold Goddess
  • The Fourth Nail
  • Deadly Rock
  • Demons
  • The Sea Butchers
  • The Search for Abner Ravenwood
  • The Cuban Connection
  • Beyond the Lucifer Chamber
  • End Run
  • Dragon by the Tail
  • The Secret of the Deep
  • Revenge of the Ancients
  • Good as Gold
  • Trail of the Golden Guns
  • Tower of Tears
  • Shot by Both Sides
  • Fireworks
  • Big Game
  • Double Play
  • Magic, Murder & The Weather
  • Something’s Gone Wrong Again

Star Wars Tales

  • Star Wars Tales #19: Into the Great Unknown

Video games

Various video and computer games have also been produced. The games include:

  • Raiders of the Lost Ark (Atari 2600)
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (arcade)
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (Nintendo Entertainment System)
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (C64)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Action Game (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Taito)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Ubi Soft)
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (Nintendo Entertainment System)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Game Boy)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Master System - European release)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Genesis)
  • Instruments of Chaos starring Young Indiana Jones (Sega Genesis)
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Game Gear)
  • Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures (Super Nintendo Entertainment System)
  • Indiana Jones in Revenge of The Ancients (PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis (PC, Amiga, Macintosh, C64) (also a comic book of the same name)
  • Indiana Jones and the Lost Kingdom (C64)
  • Indy's Desktop Adventures (PC)
  • Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine (PC, Nintendo 64, Nintendo Game Boy Color)
  • Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb (PC, PlayStation 2, Microsoft Xbox)
  • Untitled 2007 game, likely of same title as title of 2007 movie

Attractions

Action on the set of the Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular

George Lucas has collaborated with Walt Disney Imagineering on four occasions to create attractions for Disney theme parks worldwide:

  • The "Indiana Jones et le Temple du Péril" rollercoaster opened at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallee, France, in 1993.
  • The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Forbidden Eye" opened in Disneyland in Anaheim, California, in 1995.
  • The "Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular" show opened at the Disney-MGM Studios in Lake Buena Vista, Florida in 1998.
  • The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Crystal Skull" opened at Tokyo DisneySea in Chiba, Japan, with the park in 2001.

Pinball

Indiana Jones: The Pinball Adventure (1993, Williams), designed by Mark Ritchie, is a widebody pinball game that features sound clips from all three theatrical films, and features 12 different stages (four stages each based on different scenes from the movies, including three video modes). If you complete all 12 stages, you will enter the game's "Wizard Mode", called Eternal Life.

This was the first game to use Williams/Midway's DCS Sound System, with the music composed by Chris Granner.

Origins

Indiana Jones with his famous bull-whip.

Indiana Jones, "Obtainer of Rare Antiquities", is modeled after the strong-jawed heroes of the matinee serials and pulp magazines that Lucas and Spielberg enjoyed in their childhoods, such as the Republic Pictures serials, and Doc Savage. The two friends first discussed the project while in Hawaii during the time of release of the first Star Wars film. Spielberg told Lucas how he wanted to direct a James Bond film. Lucas responded that he had something better than that.

Spielberg wanted Indiana to be a James Bond-like figure that got into difficult situations and worked his way out. Upon requests by Spielberg and Lucas the costume designer was given the task to make the character have a distinctive recognizable silhouette through the style of the hat (much like Dick Tracy). After examining many hats, the designers chose an urban version of the classic Australian fedora, the Akubra. The original Fedora for the movie trilogy was constructed by Mr. Swales of Herbert Johnson Hatters in London, England. Although multiple hats were used throughout the movies, the distinctive profile of the Fedoras remained the same. Today, the collection of props and clothing from the films, especially the Fedora, has become a subculture/hobby for aficianados of the Indiana Jones franchise. Other elements of the outfit include the jacket, the bag, which was a modified World War II gas mask bag; and the whip.

Indy's revolver is a .38/200 calibre Webley Mk IV, but he is also seen with the .45ACP Colt M1911A1, the 9mm Browning Hi-Power, the Webley Mk VI, and the Smith & Wesson New Century (both in .455 Webley calibre) in the movies, as well as a .45 ACP Smith & Wesson Hand Ejector 2nd model. [1]

Tom Selleck was the first choice for the role, but couldn't get out of a television series commitment (Magnum, P.I.), so Lucas went with Harrison Ford, who he had worked with previously on American Graffiti and his Star Wars films.

Many people have been called the real-life inspiration of the Indiana Jones character. Probably the most cited person is famous paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews. Another person cited as a possible inspiration is the Italian archaeologist and circus strongman Giovanni Battista Belzoni (1778–1823). Religious archaeologist Vendyl "Texas" Jones claims that he was the inspiration, citing his names (he notes that his first name trimmed becomes Endy — very similar to Indy), but this claim has reportedly been denied by Spielberg. Other candidates include explorer Gene Savoy [2], Yale University historian and explorer Hiram Bingham III and University of Chicago archeologist Robert Braidwood [3]. Another very strong candidate is the famed adventurer and anthropologist Schuyler Jones. [4] However, the most likely inspiration was the fictional character Allan Quatermain.

The character was originally named Indiana Smith, but Spielberg disliked the name and Lucas casually suggested "Indiana Jones". The name was thus changed early in the production of Raiders of the Lost Ark. The origin of the name "Indiana" is the same in the real world as in the fiction: It was the name of an Alaskan malamute Lucas had in the 1970s (the same dog was also the inspiration for Chewbacca). His name is also said to be derived from the character "Nevada Smith," played by Steve McQueen in the 1966 film of the same name.

Spielberg also admitted that an important inspiration for the style and atmosphere of the adventures of Indiana Jones were the adventures of the Belgian comic character Tintin by Hergé.

Portrayers

  • Corey Carrier (Chapters 1-5) (ages 9-11)
  • River Phoenix (Chapter 25) (age 13)
  • Sean Patrick Flanery (Chapters 6-22) (ages 17-21)
  • Harrison Ford (Chapter 20, Chapters 23-26) (ages 36-39, 50)
  • George Hall (Chapters 1-22) (age 93)

DVD release

TV films

The DVDs for Chapters 1-22 are expected to be released sometime in 2007, according to a statement by series producer, Rick McCallum of Lucasfilm. The company has already put in two years of work on creating these DVDs, so as to have bonus features for each movie.

McCallum expects there to be 22 Young Indiana Jones Chronicles DVDs in all, 3 of which have been completed. The discs will include some 66 historical featurettes, now in production. Work has been ongoing for about 18 months on the Young Indy DVDs, with about another 18 months worth of work yet to be done. If all goes well, the plan is to tie the DVD release to the theatrical debut of Indy IV.

Theatrical films

The 2003 DVD release of Chapters 23-25.

Chapters 23-25 of the Indiana Jones series (The Temple of Doom, Raiders of the Lost Ark, and The Last Crusade, respectively) were released on DVD as a boxed set of all three films plus a fourth disc of bonus materials in 2003.

Features

  • Available Subtitles: English, Spanish, French
  • Available Audio Tracks: English (Dolby Digital 5.1), Spanish (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround), French (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround)
  • Contains all three films in their original format (2.35:1 anamorphic widescreen aspect ratio or in Pan and Scan format), restored and digitally remastered

Bonus disc features

  • A new, feature-length documentary of the making of the trilogy
  • From the Lucasfilm Archives:
    • The Stunts of Indiana Jones
    • The Sound of Indiana Jones
    • The Music of Indiana Jones
    • The Light and Magic of Indiana Jones
  • Original trailers
  • Weblink to exclusive content including dozens of behind-the-scenes photos, an animatic sequence from Raiders and a PC game preview

References

  • "Making Raiders of the Lost Ark." September 23, 2003. IndianaJones.com.

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Bonus disc features. Joachim Meyer's fechtbuch[2] - and disparities in weight have been greatly exaggerated; both longswords and katanas typically weighed between 1.0 and 1.5 kilograms (2-3 pounds). Features. Styles that relied on a single longsword for both offense and defense were well known - see e.g. Chapters 23-25 of the Indiana Jones series (The Temple of Doom, Raiders of the Lost Ark, and The Last Crusade, respectively) were released on DVD as a boxed set of all three films plus a fourth disc of bonus materials in 2003. At the same time, many European sword types from the very beginning of the history of the sword, through the medieval period and the renaissance to the 20th century were designed for the same combat modes as Japanese ones, fighting against lightly-armored or unarmored infantry. If all goes well, the plan is to tie the DVD release to the theatrical debut of Indy IV. Attempting to establish the superiority of the one weapon over the other is ultimately meaningless without first defining the circumstances in which they are to be compared.

Work has been ongoing for about 18 months on the Young Indy DVDs, with about another 18 months worth of work yet to be done. In this light, the different characteristics of certain European swords are due less to the limitations of their makers than to the requirements of their use. The discs will include some 66 historical featurettes, now in production. Katana are capable of damaging armor to a degree and even today Shinkendo masters perform the ancient helmet cutting ceremony. McCallum expects there to be 22 Young Indiana Jones Chronicles DVDs in all, 3 of which have been completed. The katana's sharpness makes it an excellent cutting weapon. The company has already put in two years of work on creating these DVDs, so as to have bonus features for each movie. Some European swords were also designed for different modes of combat.

The DVDs for Chapters 1-22 are expected to be released sometime in 2007, according to a statement by series producer, Rick McCallum of Lucasfilm. Where Europeans had the choice between expensive good swords and cheap bad swords, Japanese had the choice between expensive swords, somewhat less expensive swords, or none at all. Spielberg also admitted that an important inspiration for the style and atmosphere of the adventures of Indiana Jones were the adventures of the Belgian comic character Tintin by Hergé. However, the greater availability of iron made it practical to produce cheap, low-quality weapons in large quantities. His name is also said to be derived from the character "Nevada Smith," played by Steve McQueen in the 1966 film of the same name. Europe also had superlative swordsmiths; Toledo steel swords from Spain are one example of legendary quality swords from outside Japan. The origin of the name "Indiana" is the same in the real world as in the fiction: It was the name of an Alaskan malamute Lucas had in the 1970s (the same dog was also the inspiration for Chewbacca). Because Japan was an iron-poor society, making a sword was an inherently expensive undertaking; the supply of swords was limited, and so it was in the smiths' interest to make the most of the materials they could afford.

The name was thus changed early in the production of Raiders of the Lost Ark. However, these claims are largely based on misunderstandings about the manufacture and role of European swords, and comparing the schools on their worst examples instead of their best. The character was originally named Indiana Smith, but Spielberg disliked the name and Lucas casually suggested "Indiana Jones". This belief is frequently bolstered by roleplaying games that assign superior statistics to katanas, and also by many movies. [4] However, the most likely inspiration was the fictional character Allan Quatermain. It is a commonly-encountered article of faith that katanas are intrinsically superior to European swords. Another very strong candidate is the famed adventurer and anthropologist Schuyler Jones. In Robert Jordan's fantasy series, The Wheel of Time, the lead character, Rand al'Thor, weilds a sword called "Callandor" which fits the description of a katana, albeit a magical one.

Other candidates include explorer Gene Savoy [2], Yale University historian and explorer Hiram Bingham III and University of Chicago archeologist Robert Braidwood [3]. Leonardo of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles is also referred to as the Master of the Twin Katanas, though his swords are straight-edged and not true katana. Religious archaeologist Vendyl "Texas" Jones claims that he was the inspiration, citing his names (he notes that his first name trimmed becomes Endy — very similar to Indy), but this claim has reportedly been denied by Spielberg. The lightsaber is an example of such a weapon. Another person cited as a possible inspiration is the Italian archaeologist and circus strongman Giovanni Battista Belzoni (1778–1823). In some cases, writers make a new weapon based on ideas from katana, as a signature weapon of heroes and villains. Probably the most cited person is famous paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews. In many works, especially when magical or supernatural powers are significant story elements, katana are more than a match for any other weapons.

Many people have been called the real-life inspiration of the Indiana Jones character. With this law in mind, katana are sometimes used for comic relief in anime and manga set in the present, although this is sometimes replaced by the use of a bokken having surprisingly comparable capabilities. Tom Selleck was the first choice for the role, but couldn't get out of a television series commitment (Magnum, P.I.), so Lucas went with Harrison Ford, who he had worked with previously on American Graffiti and his Star Wars films. For instance, some stories state that carrying weapons has been permitted due to a serious increase in crimes or an invasion of monsters from other dimensions. [1]. Carrying a non-sealed katana is illegal in present-day Japan, but in fiction this law is often ignored or circumvented to allow characters to carry katana as a matter of artistic licence. Indy's revolver is a .38/200 calibre Webley Mk IV, but he is also seen with the .45ACP Colt M1911A1, the 9mm Browning Hi-Power, the Webley Mk VI, and the Smith & Wesson New Century (both in .455 Webley calibre) in the movies, as well as a .45 ACP Smith & Wesson Hand Ejector 2nd model. It is the prime weapon of choice for Japanese heroes in historical fiction set before the Meiji period.

Other elements of the outfit include the jacket, the bag, which was a modified World War II gas mask bag; and the whip. Three well-known appearances in Western culture are the Bride's signature weapon in Kill Bill (which was strongly influenced by Japanese samurai movies) and the katana used by the main character Connor MacLeod in The Highlander and the 1975 Tom Laughlin action/cult Western film Master Gunfighter. Today, the collection of props and clothing from the films, especially the Fedora, has become a subculture/hobby for aficianados of the Indiana Jones franchise. It is frequently used not only in Japanese settings, but also in other settings, often by non-Japanese creators; this popularity can be attributed partly to its status as an easily recognisable icon of Japan and partly to its high reputation as a formidable weapon in skilled hands. Although multiple hats were used throughout the movies, the distinctive profile of the Fedoras remained the same. The katana appears in various works of fiction, including film, anime, manga, other forms of literature, and computer games. Swales of Herbert Johnson Hatters in London, England. The technique of folding steel came from China, and contact with the mainland would affect how the katana evolved through the centuries.

The original Fedora for the movie trilogy was constructed by Mr. A common misconception is that Katanas magically sprung into existence in Japan, utterly isolated from the mainland. After examining many hats, the designers chose an urban version of the classic Australian fedora, the Akubra. Along with the Jewel and the Mirror, it was one of the three godly treasures of Japan. Upon requests by Spielberg and Lucas the costume designer was given the task to make the character have a distinctive recognizable silhouette through the style of the hat (much like Dick Tracy). Kusanagi (probably a tsurugi, a type of bronze Age sword which precedes the katana by centuries) is the most famous legendary sword in Japanese mythology, involved in several folk stories. Spielberg wanted Indiana to be a James Bond-like figure that got into difficult situations and worked his way out. A popular legend tells of what happens when two swords made by Muramasa and Masamune were held in a stream carrying fallen leaves: while those leaves touching the Muramasa blade were cut in two, those coming towards the Masamune suddenly changed course and went around the blade without touching it.

Lucas responded that he had something better than that. Those made by Muramasa had a reputation for violence and bloodshed, while those made by Masamune were considered weapons of peace. Spielberg told Lucas how he wanted to direct a James Bond film. Some swords were reputed to reflect their creators' personalities. The two friends first discussed the project while in Hawaii during the time of release of the first Star Wars film. Furthermore, while heating and folding serves to even out the distribution of carbon throughout the blade, a small amount of carbon is also 'burnt out' of the steel in this process; repeated folding will eventually remove most of the carbon, turning the material into softer iron and reducing its ability to hold a sharp edge. Indiana Jones, "Obtainer of Rare Antiquities", is modeled after the strong-jawed heroes of the matinee serials and pulp magazines that Lucas and Spielberg enjoyed in their childhoods, such as the Republic Pictures serials, and Doc Savage. With each fold made by the maker, every internal layer is also folded, and so the total number of layers in a sword blade is doubled at each fold; since the thickness of a katana blade is less than 230 iron atoms, going beyond 20 folds no longer adds meaningfully to the number of layers in the blade.

This was the first game to use Williams/Midway's DCS Sound System, with the music composed by Chris Granner. While blades folded hundreds, thousands, or even millions of times are encountered in fiction, there is no record of real blades being folded more than around 20 times. If you complete all 12 stages, you will enter the game's "Wizard Mode", called Eternal Life. Many myths surround Japanese swords, the most frequent being that the blades are folded an immense number of times, gaining magical properties in the meantime. Indiana Jones: The Pinball Adventure (1993, Williams), designed by Mark Ritchie, is a widebody pinball game that features sound clips from all three theatrical films, and features 12 different stages (four stages each based on different scenes from the movies, including three video modes). However, during the Edo period Samurai went about unarmored and armed with daisho, in which case it would be the first weapon to be used. George Lucas has collaborated with Walt Disney Imagineering on four occasions to create attractions for Disney theme parks worldwide:. The sword was mostly considered as the weapon of last resort on the battlefield though, being used only after the bow, or spear was no longer feasible.

The games include:. As armor and enemies changed over time, the shapes of blades changed from heavier profiles to lighter profiles, with different intentions for use in fighting. Various video and computer games have also been produced. This is a katana with a shortened length and handle, intended for one-handed fighting only. Star Wars Tales. At the same time, footmen may accompany a horseman and be armed with shorter katate-uchi at their side. Marvel Comics The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones Stories. In certain eras, the sword becomes longer and is intended for use from horseback.

Dark Horse Comics Stories. Considering the broader case of Japanese swords, rather than the specific case of the shinto katana, technique varies over time depending on the style of fighting prevalent in military operations of the time. Indy also had a cameo in a Star Wars story in an issue of the Star Wars Tales comic books. Testing of swords, called tameshigiri, was practiced on a variety of materials (including people) to test the sword's sharpness and also practice cutting technique. Later Dark Horse Comics produced a number of Indiana Jones Comics. However, it is often used single-handed as well. There was a comic book published by Marvel Comics in the early 1980s featuring the talents of John Byrne among others. The hilt of the katana is held two-handed with a small gap between the hands, generally as large as the grip permits, allowing for more leverage to be applied when cutting and more maneuverability when parrying another weapon.

Find Your Fate Adventure Books by Ballantine Books. The katana is primarily a cutting weapon, rather than a stabbing one. German novels by Goldmann Verlag. Other types of mounting include the kyu-gunto, shin-gunto, and kai-gunto types for the twentieth-century military, but these swords were generally mass-produced and highly inferior, and few true Japanese swords are mounted in these styles. Indiana Jones Adult Novels by Bantam Books. The other sheath is the more decorative or battle-worthy sheath which is usually called either a jindachi-zukuri or a buke-zukuri, depending on whether it was supposed to be suspended from the obi(belt) by straps when the sword is mounted in Tachi-Koshirae or thrust through the obi if mounted as katana-koshirae, respectively. Young Indiana Jones Novels by Ballantine Books. One is the shira-saya, which is generally made of wood and considered the 'resting' sheath, used as a storage sheath.

Young Indiana Jones Novels by Random House. There are two types of sheaths, both of which require the same exacting work. These are only available in German and French respectively. The sheaths themselves are not an easy task. In Germany, there was a series of adult novels by author Wolfgang Hohlbein, and in France a Young Indiana Jones series by Joseph Jacobs and Richard Beugne. To anchor the blade securely into the sheath it will soon have, the blade acquires a collar, or habaki, which extends an inch or so past the cross guard and keeps the blade from rattling. Apart from novel adaptations of the movies, and several Young Indiana Jones episodes, there is also a series of original paperback novels about the adventures of Indiana Jones, and another series of novels about Young Indiana Jones for younger readers. This anchors the blade securely into the hilt.

Jim Ward, Vice President of Lucasfilm, has said in a recent press conference that a new Indiana Jones video game is expected that same year, around the time of the movie. A bamboo peg called a mekugi is slipped through the tsuka and through the tang of the blade, using the hole called a mekugiana drilled in it. The upcoming fourth Indiana Jones movie, once again to star Harrison Ford, has been in the planning stages for several years; it is in pre-production and is not expected to be released until February 2007 at the earliest. There is a pommel at the base known as a kashira, and there is often a decoration under the criss-crossed wrappings called a menuki. The series starred Harrison Ford as Jones. (see related article on Koshirae). The popular trilogy of theatrical films: Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, were made from 1981–1989, created by George Lucas and directed by Steven Spielberg. The cross guard, or tsuba, on Japanese swords (except for certain twentieth century sabers which emulate Western navies') is small and round, made of metal, and often very ornate.

Every episode began with a 93-year-old Indy, a grey-haired professor, talking about one of his old childhood adventures. The obvious part of the hilt consists of a metal or wooden grip called a tsuka, which can also be used to refer to the entire hilt. The stories spanned from Indy’s childhood travels with his father (who was on, what seemed, one continuous Medieval studies lecture tour) to the solo journeys of his youth and even into World War I. Hilts vary in their exact nature depending on the era, but generally consist of the same general idea, with the variation being in the components used and in the wrapping style. The show ran for 44 episodes, with each pairing of episodes forming a feature-length TV film. From here, the blade is passed on to a hilt-maker. One of the last Young Indiana Jones TV movies featured a cameo appearance by Harrison Ford, reprising the role of Indy as a man in his 50s. This is because it displays either nioi, which is a mix of extremely fine martensite with troostite (another type of tempered steel), or the more crystalline and obvious nie, which contains a lot of less fine martensite.

This inspired a number of made-for-TV and made-for-video movies featuring Flanery as young Indy. A good polishing reveals what speed the edge was cooled at, from what temperature, and what the carbon content of the steel is. The television series, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, aired from 1992 to 1996, with the 17-year-old Indy played by Sean Patrick Flanery, 93-year-old Indy by George Hall, and 10-year-old Indy by Corey Carrier. Hamon vary from straight to wavy to shaped like crabs or zigzags, and in their wandering they reveal important facts about the blade itself. His popularity has allowed him to make appearances in three more feature films, a three-season TV series, dozens of novels, comic books, and video games, and even had his own amusement park ride. The hamon, which is determined primarily by how the clay is applied, is often used as a kind of signature of the smith, above and beyond his own signature, and each tradition of swordsmiths often has a particular style of hamon it prefers over all others. Since his introduction in 1981's Raiders of the Lost Ark, the character of Indiana Jones has become a cultural icon for adventure. Each blade is distinct in its hamon and the grain (hada) of its steel.

It is yet to be chronicled as to what adventure led Indy to wear an eyepatch. One of the ways which blades can be judged is by what this polishing reveals: the crystal-like qualities of the blade become quite visible, and the hamon (incorrectly known in English as the temper line, where the sharp edge fades into the normal steel of the blade) shows the unique nature of the sword. He seems remarkably spry for a man in his 90s—whether that is because of his drinking from the Grail is unknown. More importantly, an unschooled polish can permanently ruin the blade geometry or wear the steel down to its core steel, both of which effectively destroy the sword's monetary, historic, artistic, and functional value. Sporting an eyepatch and cane, he was stopping anyone within earshot to regale them with tales of his exploits. It almost always takes longer than actually crafting the blade does, and a good polishing makes a blade look better, while a bad polishing makes the best of blades look like gunto. When last seen in 1993, Jones was living in New York City with his daughter and her family. Early polishers used three types of stone, whereas a modern polisher generally uses seven.

His life during World War II is unknown, but in 1947 he was deceived by the recently born CIA to search the mechanism of the Babylonian Infernal Machine, in confrontation with a Soviet expedition. This takes hours for every inch of blade, and is painstaking work with different kinds of very fine stone. In 1938, Indy rescued his father from the Nazis and became embroiled in the search for the Holy Grail (Last Crusade). When the rough blade was completed, the swordsmith would turn the blade over to a polisher called a togishi, whose job it was to polish the steel of the blade to a glittering shine and sharpen the edge for battle. He continued to take on infrequent missions for the government over the ensuing years. Contrary to popular belief, these grooves have nothing to do with improving the flow of enemy blood. In 1936, he was contacted by the United States government to retrieve the Ark of the Covenant before the Nazis (Raiders of the Lost Ark). Grooves come in wide (bo-hi), twin narrow (futasuji-hi), twin wide and narrow (bo-hi ni tsure-hi), short (koshi-hi), twin short (gomabushi), twin long with joined tips (shobu-hi), twin long with irregular breaks (kuichigai-hi), and halberd-style (naginata-hi).

Immediately afterword, he faced the gangster Lao Che and the followers of the cult of Kali (Temple of Doom). Some are more practical, grooves for lightening and extra flex (as well as an intimidating sound, called tachikaze, when swung with force). He divided his time between teaching and archaeological expeditions, including a journey to China and India in 1935 where he raced Nazis to a mystical gem called "The Heart of the Dragon" from the ancient tomb of a Chinese emperor. Some other marks on the blade are aesthetic: signatures and dedications written in kanji and engravings depicting gods, dragons, or other 'acceptable' beings, called horimono. Jones abruptly left the Ravenwoods in 1926 and did not contact them for 10 years. It is this pressure fit for the most part that holds the tsuka in place during the strike, while the mekugi pin serves as a secondary method and a safety. Dr. While ornamental, these file marks also serve the purpose of providing an uneven surface which bites well into the 'tsuka', or the hilt which fits over it and is made from wood.

At the same time, he became romantically involved with the Professor's daughter Marion. This is called sensuki. Sometime after the war, Jones returned to the United States, where he studied archaeology at the University of Chicago under Professor Abner Ravenwood. Lastly, if the blade is very old, it may have been shaved instead of filed. Jones and Remy then tranfered to the French Army, and Jones worked as an intelligence officer, vied with Ernest Hemingway for the affections of a young nurse, and worked as a translator for the Treaty of Versailles, seeing the war come to its conclusion but laying down the groundwork for a second conflict. A grid of marks, from raking the file diagonally both ways across the tang, is called higaki, whereas specialized 'full dress' file marks are called kesho-yasuri. Also while in Africa, Jones took ill, and was treated by Albert Schweitzer. A number of different types of file markings are used, including horizontal, slanted, and checked, known as ichi-monji, kosuji-chigai, suji-chigai, o-suji-chigai, katte-agari, shinogi-kiri-suji-chigai, taka-no-ha, and gyaku-taka-no-ha.

Among missions (depicted in the television series), the team destroyed a giant cannon mounted on a train, and they kidnapped the (real-life) German military genius Paul Erich von Lettow-Vorbeck in a balloon, but they were forced to release him. The purpose is to show how well the blade steel ages. Jones' inability to read maps properly caused him to lose his intended unit, and he instead fought along side a team of old men under the British Army. The tang is never supposed to be cleaned: doing this can cut the value of the sword in half or more. When they arrived in Africa, Jones and Remy were commissioned as lieutenants. These are cut into the tang, or the hilt-section of the blade, where they will be covered by a hilt later. He was taken prisoner by the Germans, escaped, encountered (and lost his virginity to) Mata Hari eventually making his way to Africa at the beginning of World War I. One of the most important markings on the sword is performed here: the file markings.

He participated in the Western Front. Once the blade is cool, and the mud is scraped off, the blade has designs and grooves cut into it. He then traveled to England, getting involved with the suffrage movement, and then him and Remy joined the Belgian Army. Almost all blades are decorated, although not all blades are decorated on the visible part of the blade. With Remy, he left Mexico and traveled to Ireland just in time for the Easter Rising. Also, The swordsmith signature (mei) is placed on the nagako. It is here that he also met his friend Remy, a Belgian. To remove the Tsuka you must remove the mekugi.

He joined this army of revolutionaries, playing a part in the Mexican Revolution in 1916, under Pancho Villa. Thus restricting the blade from slipping out. He ended up in Mexico and was kidnapped by Mexican revolutionaries. It is used to anchor the blade using a mekugi, a small bamboo pin that is inserted into another cavity in the Tsuka and through the mekugi-ana. To escape this, he ran away from home by train. A hole is drilled into the tang (nagako), called a mekugi-ana. His father wanted Indiana to go to Princeton University. Kissaki are have a curved profile, and smooth three-dimensional curvature across their surface towards the edge - though they are bounded by a straight line called the yokote and have crisp definition at all their edges.

This was also the time when he first developed his aversion to snakes. Such western knife blades feature a straight, linearly-sloped point whose sole advantage is being easy to grind and which only bears a superficial similarity to traditional Japanese kissaki. It was here, while attempting to secure the Cross of Coronado from thieves, Indy first learned to use the bullwhip and received his trademark fedora, as well as the scar on his chin. It is important to point out that the kissaki (point) is not a "chisel-like" point, nor is the Western knife interpretation of a "tanto point" at all correct or Japanese. In 1912, Indy was living in Utah and was a member of the Boy Scouts with the rank of Life Scout. In addition, whether the front edge of the tip is more curved (fukura-tsuku) or (relatively) straight (fukura-kareru) is also important. It is not known for sure when he first did this, except that he was referred to as Indiana during childhood by his peers. The sword also has an exact tip shape, which is considered an extremely important characteristic: the tip can be long (ô-kissaki), medium (chû-kissaki), short (ko-kissaki), or even hooked backwards (ikuri-ô-kissaki).

adopted the name of his beloved dog Indiana for himself, insisting he be referred to as Indiana Jones. The shinogi can be placed near the back of the blade for a longer, sharper, more fragile tip or a more moderate shinogi near the center of the blade. Although his father called him "Junior," Henry Jr. A flat or narrowing shinogi is called 'shinogi-hikushi', whereas a 'fat' blade is called a 'shinogi-takushi'. "Junior" accompanied his father on his travels throughout Europe, where he learned to speak, read, and write 27 languages, including French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Swedish, Greek, Arabic, Turkish, Vietnamese, Swahili, Latin and Chinese, as well as some Hindi, apart from English. However, swords could narrow down to the shinogi, then narrow further to the blade, or even expand outward towards the shinogi then shrink to the blade (producing a trapezoidal shape). (played by Lloyd Owen in the TV series and by Sean Connery in the films), and his wife Anna on July 1, 1899, in Princeton, New Jersey. In the earlier picture, the examples were flat to the shinogi, then tapering to the blade.

Henry Jones Sr. The most prominent is the middle ridge, or 'shinogi'. Indiana Jones was born Henry Jones Jr. to Scottish-born Professor of Medieval literature, Dr. Each blade has a unique profile, depending on the smith, the construction method, and a bit of luck. . To make han-sanmai-awase-gitae or shiho-zume-gitae, pieces of hard steel are then added to the outside of the blade in a similar fashion. A fourth film has also been announced for a likely 2007 release. By the end of the process, the two pieces of steel are fused together, but retain their differences in hardness.

Indiana Jones is also the general name given to the series as a whole, which is comprised of three films, a TV series, various novels, comics, video games, and other media. When both sections have been folded adequately, they are bent into a 'U' shape and the softer piece is inserted into the harder piece, at which point they are hammered out into a long blade shape. An older version (93) of Jones, played by George Hall, also appeared in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles. The 'makuri-gitae' is made using two steels, one folded more times than the other, or of a lesser carbon content. Younger versions of the character were also played by River Phoenix (in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade), and by Corey Carrier and Sean Patrick Flanery (in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles). The last generally accepted model, the 'shiho-zume-gitae', is quite rare, but added a rear support. Jones was originally portrayed by Harrison Ford in Raiders of the Lost Ark. The vast majority of 'good' katana and wakazashi are of 'wariba-gitae' type, but the more complex models allow for parrying without fear of damaging the side of the blade.

He first appeared in a series of films produced by George Lucas and directed by Steven Spielberg in the 1980s. Examples are shown below:. Indiana Jones is a fictional bullwhip-toting, fedora-wearing archaeologist with an overdeveloped ophidiophobia (fear of snakes). Eventually the Japanese began to experiment with using different types of steel in different parts of the sword. IndianaJones.com. When the application is finished, the sword is quenched and hardens correctly. "Making Raiders of the Lost Ark." September 23, 2003. A thicker layer of mud on the rest of the blade causes slower cooling, and softer steel, giving the blade the flex it needs (this makes the rear and inside of the sword into pearlite).

Weblink to exclusive content including dozens of behind-the-scenes photos, an animatic sequence from Raiders and a PC game preview. A thin layer on the edge of the sword ensures quick cooling, but not so fast as to crack the sword steel (this makes the actual edge of the sword extremely hard martensite). Original trailers. To control the cooling, the sword is heated and painted with layers of sticky clay. The Light and Magic of Indiana Jones. Slower, from a lower temperature, and it becomes pearlite, which has significantly more flex but doesn’t hold an edge. The Music of Indiana Jones. If steel cools quickly, from a hot temperature, it becomes martensite, which is very hard but brittle.

The Sound of Indiana Jones. Steel’s exact flex and strength vary dramatically with heat variation, and depending on how hot it gets and how fast it cools, the steel has vastly different properties. The Stunts of Indiana Jones. When finished, the steel is not quenched or tempered in the conventional European fashion. From the Lucasfilm Archives:

    . This means that the rear of the sword can be used to reinforce the edge, and the Japanese took full advantage of this fact. A new, feature-length documentary of the making of the trilogy. One of the core philosophies of the Japanese sword is that it has a single edge.

    Contains all three films in their original format (2.35:1 anamorphic widescreen aspect ratio or in Pan and Scan format), restored and digitally remastered. Bizen tradition, which specialized in mokume, and some schools of Yamato tradition were also considered strong warrior's weapons. Available Audio Tracks: English (Dolby Digital 5.1), Spanish (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround), French (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround). The blades that were considered the most robust, reliable, and of highest quality were those made in the Mino tradition, esepically those of Magoroku Kanemoto. Available Subtitles: English, Spanish, French. The difference between the three normal grain types (masame-, itame-, and mokume-hada) is one of cutting a tree perpendicular to its direction of growth (mokume) at an angle (itame) or along the grain (masame), the angle causing the "stretched" pattern. George Hall (Chapters 1-22) (age 93). Straight grains were called 'masame-hada', wood-like grain "itame," wood-burl grain "mokume," and concentric wavy grain (an uncommon feature seen almost esclusively in the Gassan school) 'ayasugi-hada'.

    Harrison Ford (Chapter 20, Chapters 23-26) (ages 36-39, 50). Generally, swords were created with the grain of the blade (called 'hada') running down the blade like the grain on a plank of wood. Sean Patrick Flanery (Chapters 6-22) (ages 17-21). Thus, the best results were usually obtained at 8-10 folds. River Phoenix (Chapter 25) (age 13). Even before this point, more layers does not equal a better sword; though folding does burn off impurities and homogenize the blade, a very even and clean composition is obtained early in the process, and control of carbon content has a much greater effect on the blade's functionality. Corey Carrier (Chapters 1-5) (ages 9-11). Beyond this number, the molecular structure of the blade is such that further folding would most likely serve no further purpose.

    The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Crystal Skull" opened at Tokyo DisneySea in Chiba, Japan, with the park in 2001. It should be noted that a blade folded 12 times will have more than 4,000 'layers' underneath the initial blade to begin with, and that 20 folds would produce a blade with over a million layers. The "Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular" show opened at the Disney-MGM Studios in Lake Buena Vista, Florida in 1998. The number of folds varied from sword to sword, but those with more than about a dozen folds are uncommon, and authentic swords with more than two dozen folds are completely unknown. The "Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Forbidden Eye" opened in Disneyland in Anaheim, California, in 1995. Contrary to popular belief, continued folding will not create a "super-strong" blade; once impurities are burnt off and the carbon content homogenized, further folding offers little benefit and will gradually burn out the carbon, leading eventually to a softer steel less able to hold an edge. The "Indiana Jones et le Temple du Péril" rollercoaster opened at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallee, France, in 1993. This did several things:.

    Untitled 2007 game, likely of same title as title of 2007 movie. Steel was repeatedly 'folded', bent over itself and hammered flat. Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb (PC, PlayStation 2, Microsoft Xbox). The most famous part of the manufacturing process was the folding of the steel. Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine (PC, Nintendo 64, Nintendo Game Boy Color). Often, there were sheath, hilt, and tsuba (handguard) specialists as well. Indy's Desktop Adventures (PC). There was a smith to forge the rough shape, often a second smith (apprentice) to fold the metal, a specialist polisher, and even a specialist for the edge itself.

    Indiana Jones and the Lost Kingdom (C64). As with many complex endeavors, rather than a single craftsman, several artists were involved. Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis (PC, Amiga, Macintosh, C64) (also a comic book of the same name).
    The forging of a Japanese blade typically took hours or days, and was considered a sacred art. Indiana Jones in Revenge of The Ancients (PC). The high percentage of carbon gave the blade strength while the silicon increased the flexibility of the blade as well as its ability to withstand stress. Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures (Super Nintendo Entertainment System). One more modern formula (from World War II):.

    Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Game Gear). The total composition varied from smith to smith and lode to lode of ore. Instruments of Chaos starring Young Indiana Jones (Sega Genesis). Traditional Japanese steel is popularly considered to be one of the best for creating swords, but the true reasons for this are artistic and not functional - contemporary western steels were and most modern steels are actually superior in strength and purity. Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Genesis). Manufacturing processes are described in greater detail in following subsections. Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Sega Master System - European release). Most of the "type 98 katana's" from World War II do not exist today, as well as the older versions.

    Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Game Boy). Modern katana and wakizashi are only made by the few licenced practitioners that still practice making these crafted weapons today. The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (Nintendo Entertainment System). Japanese swords are fairly uncommon today, but not so rare that genuine antiques cannot be acquired - from reliable sources at significant expense, of course. Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Ubi Soft). "True" daisho, containing a pair of blades that were made as a pair, mounted as a pair, and owned/worn as a pair, are therefore uncommon and considered highly valuable - especially if they still retain their original mountings (as opposed to later mountings, even if the later mounts are made as a pair). Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Nintendo Entertainment System - Taito). Even when a daisho contained a pair of blades by the same smith, they were not always forged as a pair or mounted as one.

    Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC). If a samurai was able to afford a daisho, it was often composed of whichever two swords could be conveniently acquired, sometimes by different smiths and in different styles. Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Action Game (C64, Amiga, Macintosh, PC). On a related note, the daisho (pair of swords) was not always forged together. Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (C64). Wakizashi were also not simply a 'scaled down' katana, they were often forged in hira-zukuri or other such forms, which were very rare on katana. Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (Nintendo Entertainment System). They were often forged with different profiles, different blade thicknesses, and varying amounts of niku.

    Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (arcade). While some people believe that katana and wakizashi were constructed alike, this was not always the case. Raiders of the Lost Ark (Atari 2600). This process also makes the edge of the blade contract less than the back when cooling down, something that aids the smith in establishing the curvature of the blade. Star Wars Tales #19: Into the Great Unknown. This produces a blade with a hard edge and soft back, allowing it to be resilient and yet retain a good cutting edge. Something’s Gone Wrong Again. The back of the sword is coated with clay, insulating it and so causing it to cool slower than the edge when the blade is quenched.

    Magic, Murder & The Weather. The distinctive curvature of the katana is partly due to a process of differential quenching. Double Play. In order to counter this, and to homogenize the carbon content of the blades (giving some blades characteristic folding patterns), the folding was developed (for comparison see pattern welding), and found to be quite effective, though labour intensive. Big Game. This practice became popular from use of highly impure metals, stemming from the low temperature yielded in the smelting at that time and place. Fireworks. Japanese swords and other edged weapons are manufactured by the Chinese method of repeatedly heating, folding and hammering the metal.

    Shot by Both Sides. 217.) These traditions and provinces are as follows:. Tower of Tears. (Source: The connoisseur's guide to Japanese swords, by Kokan Nagayama, p. Trail of the Golden Guns. Japanese swords can be traced back to one of several provinces, each of which had its own school, traditions and 'trademarks' - e.g., the swords from Mino province were "from the start famous for their sharpness". Good as Gold. They were most commonly made in the Buke-Zukuri mounting.

    Revenge of the Ancients. The most common reference to a chisakatana is a shorter katana that does not have a companion blade. The Secret of the Deep. Chisa-katana were not common weapons since usually a katana was made for a shorter person or a wakizashi for a larger person. Dragon by the Tail. However, a chisa-katana is longer than the wakizashi, which was between one and two shaku in length. End Run. A katana was longer than two shaku in length (one shaku= about 11.93 inches).

    Beyond the Lucifer Chamber. A chisa-katana is simply a shorter katana. The Cuban Connection. For more precise measurement, "sun", "bu", and "rin" (one-tenth, one-hundredth, and one-thousandth of a shaku respectively) may be used. The Search for Abner Ravenwood. Japanese swords are measured in units of shaku (1 shaku = approximately 30.3 centimeters or 11.93 inches; from 1891 the shaku has been defined as exactly 10/33 metres, but older data may vary slightly from this value). The Sea Butchers. What generally differentiates the different swords is their length.

    Demons. All Japanese swords are manufactured according to this method and are somewhat similar in appearance. Deadly Rock. [1] However it is likely that most of these katana are sword like objects, as a basic, properly constructed katana is comparative in price to an inexpensive handgun. The Fourth Nail. Some katana have been used in modern-day armed robberies. The Gold Goddess. With the efforts of other like minded individuals, the katana has arisen from its darkest day and many swordsmiths have continued the work begun by Munetsugu, re-discovering the old techniques and making the art swords produced by today's best smiths as good as many of the blades of old.

    Africa Screams. Homma went on to be a founding figure of the Nihon Bijitsu Hozon Token Kai, the 'Society for the Preservation of Art Swords', who made it their mission to preserve the old techniques and blades. Club Nightmare. A few smiths did continue their trade, and Dr. Gateway to Infinity. Swordsmiths had been increasingly turning to producing civilian goods after the Edo period but this disarmament and subsequent regulations almost put an end to the production of katana. The Devil's Cradle. The vast majority of these 1,000,000 or more swords were gunto, but there were still a sizable number of koto, shinto and shin-shinto.

    Ikons of Ikammanen. Due to this disarmament, as of 1958 there were more Japanese swords in America than in Japan: American soldiers would return from the Orient with piles of swords, often as many as they could carry. Indiana Jones and the Iron Phoenix. Others remained stashed away. Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny. Some were simply stolen. Indiana Jones and the Golden Fleece. Even so, many katana were sold to American soldiers who had money to spend at a bargain price.

    Indiana Jones and the Dance of Death. As a result of this meeting, the general ban was amended so that the weapon grade gunto would be destroyed and swords of artistic merit could be owned and preserved. Indiana Jones and the Sargasso Pirates. Homma produced blades from the various periods of Japanese history and General MacArthur was a quick student, being able to identify very quickly what blades held artistic merit and which could be considered purely weapons. Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. During their meeting, Dr. Indiana Jones: Thunder in the Orient. Homma Junji to General Douglas MacArthur.

    Indiana Jones and the Arms of Gold. This ban would be later overturned through the personal appeal of Dr. Indiana Jones and the Shrine of the Sea Devil. Under the United States occupation at the end of World War II all armed forces were disbanded and, except under several permits issued by police and municipal government, production of katana with edges was banned. Stine. In 1934 the Japanese government issued a military specification for the shin gunto "new army sword" the first version of which was referred to as a "Type 94 katana", and many machine- and handcrafted swords used in World War II conformed to this and later shin gunto specifications. L. The students of Gassan Sadakatsu went on to be designated Intangible Cultural Assets, or more commonly known as Living National Treasures, as they embodied knowledge that was considered to be fundamentally important to the Japanese identity.

    Indiana Jones and the Ape Slaves of Howling Island - by R. These smiths, Gassan Sadakazu and Gassan Sadakatsu were kept busy producing fine works that stand with the best of the older blades for the Emperor and other high ranking officials. Indiana Jones and the Gold of Genghis Khan - by Ellen Weiss. Though this was a dark time for the katana, the craft was kept alive through the efforts of a few individuals, and notably the Gassan line of smiths who were employed as Imperial Artisans. Indiana Jones and the Lost Treasure of Sheba - by Rose Estes. At the same time, Kendo was incorporated into police training so that police officers would have at least the minimal training necessary to properly use one. Indiana Jones and the Dragon of Vengeance - by Megan Stine. Katana remained in use in some occupations, police sometimes using katana not only to catch criminals but to defend themselves from criminals who could be armed with katana as well.

    Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Fates - by Richard Wenk. These swords, known as 'gunto', are often very low in quality with many being oil tempered or simply stamped out of steel and given a serial number rather than a chiselled signature. Indiana Jones and the Legion of Death - by Richard Wenk. In time, the need to arm soldiers with swords was perceived again and over the decades at the beginning of the 20th century swordsmiths again found work. Indiana Jones and the Cup of the Vampire - by Andrew Helfer. Overnight, the market for swords died, and many swordsmiths were left without a trade to pursue, and valuable skills were lost. Stine. Possession itself was not prohibited, so many katana were simply stashed away.

    L. The Haitorei edict in 1876 all but banned carrying swords and guns on streets, making samurai less distinguishable from commoners. Indiana Jones and the Cult of the Mummy's Crypt - by R. Japan remained in stasis until Matthew Perry's arrival in 1853 and the subsequent Convention of Kanagawa forcibly reintroduced Japan to the outside world; the rapid modernization of the Meiji Restoration soon followed. Stine. With the discarding of the Shinto style, and the re-introduction of old and rediscovered techniques, the swords of this time were now called 'shinshinto' meaning 'new-new swords.'. L. Munetsugu travelled the land teaching what he knew to all who would listen, and swordsmiths rallied to his cause and ushered in a second renaissance in Japanese sword smithing.

    Indiana Jones and the Giants of the Silver Tower - by R. Munetsugu published opinions that the arts and techniques of the shinto swords were inferior to the koto blades, and that research should be made by all swordsmiths in the land to rediscover the lost techniques. Stine. Towards the end of this period, swordmaking had fallen to another low, and due to the efforts of the master swordsmith Munetsugu at the turn of the 19th century, artistic merit once again returned to the craft. L. By the middle of the eighteenth century, most young Japanese had never seen a gun, let alone actually seen one fired. Indiana Jones and the Curse of Horror Island - by R. Under the isolationist Tokugawa Shogunate, guns and gunpowder were increasingly restricted and removed from circulation.

    Indiana Jones und das Erbe von Avalon (Indiana Jones And The Legacy Of Avalon) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. It is often considered that the more complex work found on many shinto swords then is a corruption, where form no longer strictly follows function and thereby no longer achieves a pure form of beauty. Indiana Jones und das Labyrinth des Horus (Indiana Jones And The Labyrinth Of Horus) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. The addition of these engravings known as 'horimono' were originally for religious reasons, and were simple and tasteful. Indiana Jones und das Geheimnis der Osterinseln (Indiana Jones And The Secret Of Easter Island) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. As the Edo period progressed, there came a decline in quality once again, for a variety of reasons, including the evolution of the samurai class into bureaucrats and policemen; other related arts did move forward from time to time, leading to beautiful engravings and decorations for weapons. Indiana Jones und das Schwert des Dschingis Khan (Indiana Jones And The Sword of Genghis Khan) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. As the techniques of the ancient smiths had been lost during the previous period of war, these swords were called shinto, literally 'new swords.' This gave the obvious name to the older blades as koto, 'old swords.' The blades that predated the curved blades introduced around 987AD were referred to as 'jokoto' or ancient swords.

    Indiana Jones und das verschwundene Volk (Indiana Jones And The Vanished People) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. In times of peace, swordsmiths had time and the inclination to return to the making of refined and artistic blades, and the beginning of the Momoyama period saw the return of high quality creations. Indiana Jones und das Gold von El Dorado (Indiana Jones And The Gold Of El Dorado) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. Other Japanese scholars had also highlighted that certain Japanese swordsmiths of this period, began to make blades with thicker backs and bigger points, as a counter-response to the Mongol threat. Indiana Jones und die Gefiederte Schlange (Indiana Jones And The Feathered Snake) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. Kokan Nagayama, in the book "The Connoiseur's Book of Japanese Swords", Kodansha International 1997, states on page 21 that the "Japanese warriors had never before encountered such an enemy (the Mongols), who was protected by leather armor and wielded a very stout sword -- clearly superior to theirs -- in a unique style of fighting." He added that certain Japanese swordsmiths started to adopt thinner and simpler temper lines due to their belief that " blades with wide temper lines reaching near to the ridge line look gorgeous, but tend to break." Unfortunately, Mr Nagayama did not quote the Japanese historical references that he derived his comments on the superiority of the Mongol (ie continental Chinese, Korean and other makes) sword over the Japanese sword. Indiana Jones und das Schiff der Götter (Indiana Jones And The Ship Of The Gods) - by Wolfgang Hohlbein. The famous failed invasion of Japan by the Mongols marked another point of evolution for the Japanese sword.

    Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx - by Max McCoy. As time progressed, the craft decayed under the needs listed above, and the introduction of guns, as a decisive force on the battlefield. Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth - by Max McCoy. The (ultimately failed) rationale behind this was to attempt to soak up the production of Japanese weapons and make it harder for pirates in the area to arm. Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs - by Max McCoy. The export of katana reached its height during Muromachi period with the total of at least 200,000 katana being shipped to the Ming dynasty in official trades. Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone - by Max McCoy. Furthermore, the ferocity of the fighting caused the highly artistic techniques of the Kamakura period (known as the Golden Age of Swordmaking) to be abandoned in favor of more utilitarian and disposable weapons.

    Indiana Jones and the White Witch - by Martin Caidin. While many good swords were made during this period, the vast need for swords caused smiths to switch to production line methods. Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates - by Martin Caidin. During the Muromachi period, bloody wars were the norm, but the indolent shogunates also put a high value on art and culture, so the islands did not descend into barbarism. Indiana Jones and the Interior World - by Rob MacGregor. The War of Onin (1467-1477) revolutionized Japanese armour. Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge - by Rob MacGregor. For five centuries, Japan had its own dark ages, marked by continuous, brutal wars.

    Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils - by Rob MacGregor. By the twelfth century, civil war erupted after a long period of decadence. Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants - by Rob MacGregor. In the same period, the Kyō-hachiryū (京八流) was created in the Kurama mountain (in Kyoto). Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy - by Rob MacGregor. From the Kashima shrine's Kashima no Tachi sprang the Kantō-nanaryū (関東七流 - also known as the Kashima-nanaryū 鹿島七流). Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi - by Rob MacGregor. This is also reflected in the styles of kenjutsu created during this period.

    The Mata Hari Affair - by James Luceno. Among other modifications, the katana becomes single-edged, and better suited for slashing. Young Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Tiger - by William McCay. According to legend, the Japanese sword was invented by a smith named 'Amakuni' in AD 700, along with the folded steel process. Young Indiana Jones and the Face of the Dragon - by William McCay. The Ainu people used Warabite-tou(蕨手刀) Warabite sword and this sword influenced the Katana. Young Indiana Jones and the Mountain of Fire - by William McCay. In the Heian Period (8th to 11th centuries) we see the development of sword-making, through techniques brought from the Russia and North part of Japan Hokkaido in those days Ainu's territory.

    Young Indiana Jones and the Secret City - by Les Martin. The style, called Kashima no Tachi (鹿島の太刀), was created at the Kashima Shrine (in Ibaraki Prefecture). Young Indiana Jones and the Gypsy Revenge - by Les Martin. One of the oldest known forms of kenjutsu dates the Kofun era (3rd and 4th centuries). Young Indiana Jones and the Curse of the Ruby Cross - by William McCay. Early swords were in the style of Chinese swords, straight and single or double-edged. William Stine. At the same time, the Japanese learned the art of swordmaking from Chinese smiths.

    Young Indiana Jones and the Journey to the Underworld - by Megan Stine and H. In the 6th century BCE the legendary Emperor Jimmu conquered much of Japan. Young Indiana Jones and the Circle of Death - by William McCay. Swords are critical in most feudal societies, and Japan was no exception. Young Indiana Jones and the Ghostly Riders - by William McCay. The back end is soft, and so the sword is not brittle but flexible, while the front end is sharp and hard. Young Indiana Jones and the Princess of Peril - by Les Martin. This gives the sword its cutting edge and the strength.

    Young Indiana Jones and the Tomb of Terror - by Les Martin. The front end is made up of almost 3000 layers of metal forged precisely to give shape to blade. Young Indiana Jones and the Plantation Treasure - by William McCay. The back is thick and front end is razor sharp. William Stine.
    There is also another interesting fact about the Japanese sword. Young Indiana Jones and the Lost Gold of Durango - by Megan Stine and H. "with swords broken and without an arrow") used as a proverb.

    Fox. To have fought till nothing but a surrender is possible, is defined as Ken ore, ya mo tsuki, (lit. N. Drawing the sword was like letting one's soul blaze free and usually meant that the samurai was down to the last straw. Young Indiana Jones and the Pirates Loot - by J. However, most samurai did not use their sword as a primary weapon; bow first, a spear next, and only then the sword. Young Indiana Jones' Titanic Adventure - by Les Martin. The Tachi on the other hand, had a stand, the tsuka was set in a groove at the base and the saya pointed upwards set in a notch at the top with the cutting edge down, again in the manner it was worn.

    Chapter 28: (unproduced) Based on the fact that The Temple of Doom could be counted as a prequel, rather than a sequel. As for the host, his long-sword was generally stored above the wakizashi on a rack called a katana-kake, curving upwards; in the manner it was worn, with the omote side showing (tsuka or handle ponting left). This would leave room open for yet another sequel that is yet to be produced. Positioning his sword for an easy draw implied suspicion or aggression; thus, whether he placed it on his right or left side, and whether the blade was placed curving away or towards him, was an important point of etiquette. He now denies plans for a fourth sequel, claiming he never intended to do beyond three, but that the fourth film was "a brilliant idea he had." In saying he had a deal for four sequels, one could also speculate that he might not have counted The Temple of Doom as a sequel, and instead a prequel, which it was. For example, a samurai entering someone's house might consider how to place his sheathed sword as he knelt. He now has announced his work on the third sequel, Indiana Jones IV. Elaborate methods for carrying, cleaning, storing, sharpening (or not sharpening), and wielding the sword evolved from era to era.

    After the first three, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Lucas announced he was finished with the theatrical films, leaving two of his promised sequels unmade. Much of early Japanese culture revolved around swords. Chapter 27: (unproduced) Originally, George Lucas had signed a deal with Paramount Pictures for four theatrical sequels to Raiders of the Lost Ark. They would be "soulless" in the eyes of a samurai. Chapter 26: Indiana Jones 4 (2007) (categorized as "in production"). Ronin, needing money, would sometimes be forced to sell their swords, further adding to their highly dishonorable, sometimes vagabond status in Japanese society. Chapter 25: The Last Crusade (1989). For much of Japan's history, only samurai were even allowed to carry swords, and a peasant carrying a sword was enough reason to kill the peasant and take the sword after a prohibition was issued in early Edo period.

    Chapter 24: Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981). The Japanese pinned an extraordinary amount of value on the sword. Chapter 23: The Temple of Doom (1984). Although spears have survived since as far back as the 8th century AD, it was not until the large scale wars of the Onin period towards the end of the fifteenth century that the straight bladed spear, the yari, vied with the sword for the most popular weapon. Chapter 22: Hollywood Follies. Although other weapons waxed and waned in popularity throughout history, the sword remained a constant. Chapter 21: Scandal of 1920. The sword was considered the soul of the samurai.

    Chapter 20: Mystery of the Blues. . Chapter 19: Winds of Change. Perhaps one of the more famous types of Japanese fencing was "Nitto Ryu" or the use of both the katana and wakizashi in tandem; a technique most famously used by Miyamoto Musashi, though the extensive popularization of this technique in anime, literature, and pop culture has strongly skewed modern perspective on its importance and prevalence. Chapter 18: Treasure of the Peacock's Eye. Old koryu sword schools do still exist (for example, Kashima Shinto-ryu, Kashima Shin-ryu, and Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu, among others). Chapter 17: Masks of Evil. The art of drawing the katana and attacking one's enemies is iaido (also known as battōjutsu/battodo), and kendo is an art of fencing with a shinai (bamboo sword) protected by helmet and armour.

    Chapter 16: Tales of Innocence. While the practical arts for using the sword for its original purpose are now somewhat obsolete, kenjutsu and iaijutsu have turned into gendai budo — modern martial arts for a modern time. Chapter 15: Daredevils of the Desert. It is traditionally worn edge up. Chapter 14: Espionage Escapades. Though it is intended for and was predominantly used with a two-handed grip, many extant historical Japanese sword arts include at least one or two single-handed techniques. Chapter 13: Adventures in the Secret Service. It is primarily used for cutting, although its curvature is generally gentle enough to allow for effective thrusting as well.

    Chapter 12: Attack of the Hawkmen. Other aspects of the koshirae (mountings), such as the menuki (decorative grip swells), habaki (blade collar and scabbard wedge), fuchi and kashira (handle collar and cap), kozuka (small utility knife handle), kogai (decorative skewer-like implement), saya lacquer, and tsukamaki (professional handle wrap), received similar levels of artistry. Chapter 11: Oganga, the Giver and Taker of Life. (In fact, seppuku was a right reserved for samurai in order to preserve their honor by taking their own life should the need arise.) The scabbard for a katana is referred to as a saya, and the handguard piece, often intricately designed as individual works of art especially in later years of the Edo period, was called the tsuba. Chapter 10: Phantom Train of Doom. The long blade was used for open combat, while the shorter blade was considered a side arm, and also more suited for stabbing, close combat (such as indoors), and seppuku, a form of ritual suicide. Chapter 9: Demons of Deception. The two weapons together were called the daisho, and represented the social power and personal honor of the samurai (buke retainers to the daimyo).

    Chapter 8: Trenches of Hell. The weapon was typically paired with the wakizashi, a similarly made but shorter sword both worn by the members of the buke (bushi) warrior class, it could also be worn with the tanto, an even smaller similarly shaped blade. Chapter 7: Love's Sweet Song. It refers to a specific type of curved, single-edged sword traditionally used by the Japanese samurai. Chapter 6: Spring Break Adventure. While the word has no separate plural form in Japanese, it has been adopted as a loan word by the English language, where it is commonly pluralised as katanas. Chapter 5: Journey of Radiance. It is literally translated as 'knife,' and pronounced 'dao').

    Chapter 4: Travels with Father. In Mandarin, it is pronounced dāo (this does not specifically refer to the katana. Chapter 3: The Perils of Cupid. Katana (pronounced [ka-ta-na]) is the kun'yomi (Japanese reading) of the kanji 刀 ; the on'yomi (Chinese reading) is tō. Chapter 2: Passion for Life. The katana (刀) is the Japanese backsword or longsword (大刀 daitō) of the type specifically in use after the 1400s (following the use of the tachi), although many Japanese use this word generically as a catch-all word for sword. Chapter 1: My First Adventure. Ran "Aya" Fujimiya from Weiß Kreuz.

    Leonardo from the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Ulrich Stern. Saigo Takamori. Saito Hajime.

    Okita Soji. Sasaki Kojiro. Miyamoto Musashi. Iizasa Ienao.

    Tsukahara Bokuden. Ashikaga Yoshiteru. Magoroku Kanemoto. Go Yoshihiro.

    Etchu Norishige. Bizen Saburo Kunimune. Yamato Kaneuji. Yosozaemon Sukesada.

    Gassan Sadakazu. Nagasone Kotetsu. Inoue Shinkai. Sengo Muramasa.

    Soshu Sadamune. Soshu Masamune. Rai Kunimitsu. Rai Kunitoshi.

    Munechika. Amakuni. It burned off many impurities, again helping to overcome the Japanese steel's poor quality and purify/strengthen the sword. (Bulat steel layering is an entirely different chemical effect, and does not apply to blades made in the Japanese fashion.).

    Layers act as weld points which can only serve to weaken the integrity of the blade. Despite widespread popular belief that the layered structure provides enhanced mechanical properties of the steel, this is completely false. It created layers, by continuously decarburizing the surface and bringing the surface into the blade's interior, which gives the swords their unique and beautiful grain. It homogenized the metal, spreading the elements (such as carbon) evenly throughout - increasing the effective strength by decreasing the number of potential weak points.

    It eliminated any bubbles in the metal. Older swords by honored makers would then be reserved for very special gifts, in particular to the Shogun and his family or from the Shogun to show very special merit. As such, the art of 'kantei' (the ability to judge a sword for period, maker, and quality) became important, as this allowed specialists to appraise a blade and so place its value. It became traditional that Daimyo and the Shogun, and the members of their families, would exchange gifts of swords when meeting together or for special occasions such as weddings and births.

    It is considered that this angle of the sword was played up by those in power in order to replace land in the role of a gift of great honor. In older days, these gifts would be of land, but at the time of the Shogunate land was a scarce commodity. While there has always been reverence for the sword, the official line of it being the 'soul' comes from a need of the Shogunate to provide high value gifts to retainers and noblemen. The 'soul of the samurai' concept has its roots in the early Tokugawa Shogunate.

    However, despite this, the sword was still considered the soul of the samurai, not the spear. Although largely overlooked in Western literature, spears were the first resort of any samurai and most peasants, and the blades on the samurai spears were often of extremely high quality. The two main types are 'naginata', similar to a halberd in use, and a 'yari' which is more traditionally spear like. Most of the various kinds of spears could come with blades made in the same style as the Japanese sword.

    There are many varieties of wooden practice blades, including those made out of wood (bokken) and those made out of bamboo (often used for kendo practice, usually referred to as shinai). The signature almost always appears on the side facing away from the body when the blade is worn, so it is possible to discern the smith's intention for the blade in this manner. However, these are still katana if worn in modern 'buke-zukuri' style. Swords designed specifically to be tachi are generally koto rather than shinto, so they are generally better manufactured and more elaborately decorated.

    'ōdachi' is also sometimes used as a synonym for katana. Abnormally long blades (longer than 3 shaku or 90cm), usually carried across the back, are called ōdachi or nodachi. If it is suspended by cords from a belt, it is called 'tachi' (average blade length of 75 cm) the tachi is worn cutting edge down. However, the term 'katana' is often misapplied: a sword is only a katana if it is worn blade-up through a belt-sash called an obi (these 'katana' averaged 65 cm in blade length).

    This is the category 'katana' fall into. A blade longer than 2 shaku (61 cm) is considered a daito, or long sword. A blade longer than 1 shaku but less than 2 (30–61 cm) is considered a shoto (short sword) and included the wakizashi and kodachi. A blade shorter than 1 shaku (30 cm) is considered a tanto (knife).

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