Igor Stravinsky

Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian-American composer of modern classical music. He composed in the neo-classical and serialist styles, but he is best known for two works from his earlier, Russian period: Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) and L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). For some, these ballets practically reinvented the genre. Stravinsky also wrote in a broad spectrum of ensemble combinations and classical forms. His oeuvre included everything from symphonies to piano miniatures.

Stravinsky is shown here conducting the Columbia Symphony Orchestra in Petrushka.

Stravinsky also achieved fame as a pianist and conductor, often at the premieres of his own works. He was also a writer. With the help of Alexis Roland-Manuel, Stravinsky composed a theoretical work entitled Poetics of Music. In it, he famously claimed that music was incapable of "expressing anything but itself". Robert Craft transcribed several interviews with the composer, which were published as Conversations with Stravinsky.

A quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian, Stravinsky was one of the most authoritative composers in 20th century music, both in the West and in his native land. He was named by Time magazine as one of the most influential people of the century.

Biography

Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov), near St. Petersburg, Russia. Brought up in an apartment in St. Petersburg and dominated by his father and elder brother, Stravinsky's early childhood was a mix of experience that hinted little at the cosmopolitan artist he was to become. Though his father was a bass singer at the Mariinsky Theater in St. Petersburg, Stravinsky originally studied to be a lawyer. Composition came later. In 1902, at the age of 20, Stravinsky became the pupil of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, probably the leading Russian composer of the time.

Stravinsky left Russia for the first time in 1910, going to Paris to attend the premiere of his ballet L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). During his stay in the city, he composed three major works for the Ballets Russes—L'oiseau de feu, Petrushka (1911), and Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) (1913). The ballets trace his stylistic development: from the L'oiseau de feu, whose style draws largely on Rimsky-Korsakov, to Petrushka's emphasis on bitonality, and finally to the savage polyphonic dissonance of Le sacre du printemps. As he himself said, with these premieres his intention was "[to send] them all to hell". (He succeeded: the 1913 première of Le sacre du printemps turned into a riot.)

Stravinsky displayed an inexhaustible desire to learn and explore art, literature, and life. This desire manifested itself in several of his Paris collaborations. Not only was he the principal composer for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballet Russes, but Stravinsky also collaborated with Pablo Picasso (Pulcinella, 1920), Jean Cocteau (Oedipus Rex, 1927) and George Balanchine (Apollon Musagete, 1928).

Stravinsky and Pablo Picasso collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several sketches of the composer.

Relatively short of stature and not conventionally handsome, Stravinsky was nevertheless photogenic, as many pictures show. Although a notorious philanderer (even rumoured to have affairs with high-class partners such as Coco Chanel) Stravinsky was also a family man who devoted considerable amounts of his time and expenditure to his sons and daughters. He was still young when he married his cousin Katerina Nossenko, who he had known since early childhood, on 23 January 1906. Their marriage endured for 33 years, but the true love of his life, and partner until his death, was his second wife Vera de Bosset (1888-1982).

When Stravinsky met Vera in the early 1920s she was married to the painter and stage designer Serge Sudeikin, but they soon began an affair which led to her leaving her husband. From then until the death of Katerina in 1939 Stravinsky led a deft double-life, spending some of his time with his first family and the rest with Vera. Katerina soon learned of the relationship and accepted it as inevitable and permanent. After her death Stravinsky and Vera were married in New York where they had gone from France to escape the war in 1940.

Patronage too was never far away. In the early 1920s Leopold Stokowski was able to give Stravinsky regular support through a pseudonymous "benefactor". The composer was also able to attract commissions: most of his work from The Firebird onwards was written for specific occasions and paid for generously.

Stravinsky proved adept at playing the part of "man of the world", acquiring a keen instinct for business matters and appearing relaxed and comfortable in many of the world's major cities. Paris, Venice, Berlin, London and New York all hosted successful appearances as pianist and conductor. Most people who knew him through dealings connected with performances spoke of him as polite, courteous and helpful. For example, Otto Klemperer, who knew Schoenberg well, said that he always found Stravinsky much more co-operative and easy to deal with. At the same time he had a disregard of his social inferiors: Robert Craft was embarrassed by his habit of tapping a glass with a fork and loudly demanding attention in restaurants.

Eventually Stravinsky's music was noticed by Serge Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris. He commissioned Stravinsky to write a ballet for his theater; so in 1911, Stravinsky traveled to Paris. That ballet ended up being the famous L'Oiseau de Feu. However, because of World War I and the October Revolution in Russia he moved to Switzerland in 1914. He returned to Paris in 1920 to write more ballets as well as many other works. He moved to the United States in 1939 and became a naturalized citizen in 1945. He continued to live in the United States until his death in 1971, unsuccessfully writing music for films. Stravinsky had adapted to life in France, but moving to America aged 58 was a very different prospect. For a time he preserved a ring of emigré Russian friends and contacts, but eventually realised that this would not sustain his intellectual and professional life in the USA. When he planned to write an opera with W. H. Auden, the need to acquire more familiarity with the English-speaking world coincided with his meeting the conductor and musicologist Robert Craft. Craft lived with Stravinsky until his death, acting as interpreter, chronicler, assistant conductor and factotum for countless musical and social tasks.

The graves of Igor and Vera Stravinsky on San Michele

Stravinsky's taste in literature was wide and reflected his constant desire for new discoveries. The texts and literary sources for his work began with a period of interest in Russian folklore, progressed to classical authors and the Latin liturgy, and moved on to contemporary France (André Gide, in Persephone) and eventually English literature: Auden, Eliot, and medieval English verse. At the end of his life he was even setting Hebrew scripture in Abraham and Isaac.

In 1962 he accepted an invitation to return to Russia for a series of concerts, but remained an émigré firmly based in the West.

He died in New York City on April 6, 1971 at the age of 88 and was buried in Venice on the cemetery island of San Michele. His grave is close to the tomb of his long-time collaborator Diaghilev. Stravinsky's life had encompassed most of the 20th Century, including many of its modern classical music styles, and he influenced composers both during and after his lifetime. He has a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6340 Hollywood Boulevard.

Stylistic periods

Stravinsky's career largely falls into three distinct stylistic periods. Most of his compositions can be placed in one of the three.

The Primitive, or Russian, Period

The first of Stravinsky's major stylistic periods (excluding some early minor works) was inaugurated by the three ballets he composed for Diaghilev. The ballets have several shared characteristics: they are scored for extremely large orchestras; they use Russian folk themes and motifs; and they bear the mark of Rimsky-Korsakov's imaginative scoring and instrumentation.

The first of the ballets, L'oiseau de feu, is notable for its unusual introduction (triplets in the low basses) and sweeping orchestration. Petrushka, too, is distinctively scored and the first of Stravinsky's ballets to draw on folk mythology. But it is the third ballet, The Rite of Spring, that is generally considered the apotheosis of Stravinsky's "Russian Period". Here, the composer draws on the brutalism of pagan Russia, reflecting these sentiments in roughly-drawn, stinging motifs that appear throughout the work. There are several famous passages in the work, but two are of particular note: the opening theme played on a bassoon with notes at the very top of its register, almost out of range; and the thumping, off kilter eighth-note motif played by strings and accented by French horns on off-rhythms (See Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for a more detailed account of this work).

Other pieces from this period include: Renard (1916), Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918), and Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923).

The Neo-Classical Period

The next phase of Stravinsky's compositional style, slightly overlapping the first, is marked by two works: Pulcinella 1920 and the Octet (1923) for wind instruments. Both of these works feature what was to become a hallmark of this period; that is, Stravinsky's return, or "looking back", to the classical music of Mozart and Bach and their contemporaries. This "neo-classical" style involved the abandonment of the large orchestras demanded by the ballets. In these new works, written roughly between 1920 and 1950, Stravinsky turns largely to wind instruments, the piano, and choral and chamber works.

Other works such as Oedipus Rex (1927), Apollon Musagete (1928) and the Dumbarton Oaks concerto continue this trend.

Some larger works from this period are the three symphonies: the Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) (1930), Symphony in C (1940) and Symphony in Three Movements (1945). Apollon, Persephone (1933) and Orpheus (1947) also mark Stravinsky's concern, during this period, of not only returning to "Classic" music but also returning to "Classic" themes: in these instances, the mythology of the ancient Greeks.

The pinnacle of this period is the opera The Rake's Progress completed in 1951. This opera, written to a libretto by Auden and based on the etchings of Hogarth, encapsulates everything that Stravinsky had perfected in the previous 20 years of his neo-classic period. The music is direct but quirky; it borrows from classic tonal harmony but also interjects surprising dissonances; it features Stravinsky's trademark off-rhythms; and it harkens back to the operas and themes of Monteverdi, Gluck and Mozart.

After the opera's completion Stravinsky never wrote another "neo-classic" work and instead began writing the music that came to define his final stylistic change.

The Serialist, or Twelve Tone Period

Only after the death of Arnold Schoenberg, the inventor of the twelve tone system, in 1951 did Stravinsky begin making use of the technique in his own works. No doubt, Stravinsky was aided in his understanding of, or even conversion to, the twelve tone method by his confidant and helper Robert Craft, who had long been advocating the change. Regardless, the next fifteen years were spent writing the works in this style.

Stravinsky first began to dabble in the twelve tone technique in smaller vocal works such as the Cantata (1952), Three Songs from Shakespeare (1953) and In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954), as if he were testing the system. He later began expanding his use of the technique in works often based on biblical texts, such as Threni (1958), A Sermon, a Narrative, and a Prayer (1961), and The Flood (1962).

An important transitional work of this period in Stravinsky's work, was a return to the ballet: Agon, a work for twelve dancers written from 1954 to 1957. Some numbers of Agon recollect the "white-note" tonality of the neo-classic period, while others (the Bransle Gay, e.g.) display his unique re-interpretation of serial method. The ballet is thus a sort of miniature encyclopedia of Stravinsky, containing many of the signatures to be found throughout his compositions, whether primitivist, neo-classic, or serial: rhythmic quirkiness and experimentation, harmonic ingenuity, and a deft ear for masterful orchestration. Indeed, these characteristics are what make Stravinsky's output so unique when compared with the work of contemporaneous serial composers.

Influence and innovation

Stravinsky's work embraced multiple compositional styles, revolutionised orchestration, spanned several genres, practically reinvented ballet form and incorporated multiple cultures, languages and literatures. As a consequence, his influence on composers both during his lifetime and after his death was, and remains, considerable.

Compositional innovations

Stravinsky began re-thinking his use of the motif and ostinato as early as The Firebird ballet, but his use of these elements reached its full flowering in The Rite of Spring.

Motivic development, that is using a distinct musical phrase that is subsequently altered and developed throughout a piece of music, has its roots in the sonata form of Mozart's age. The first great innovator in this method was Beethoven; the famous "fate motif" which opens Fifth Symphony and reappears throughout the work in surprising and refreshing permutations is a classic example. However, Stravinsky's use of motivic development was unique in the way he permutated his motifs. In the "Rite of Spring" he introduces additive permutations, that is, subtracting or adding a note to a motif without regard to changes in meter.

The same ballet is also notable for its relentless use of ostinati. The most famous passage, as noted above, is the eighth note ostinato of the strings accented by eight french horns that occurs in the section Auguries of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls). This is perhaps the first instance in music of extended ostinato which is neither used for variation nor for accompaniment of melody. At various other times in the work Stravinsky also pits several ostinati against one another without regard to harmony or tempo, creating a pastiche, a sort of musical equivalent of a Cubist painting. These passages are notable not only for this pastiche-quality but also for their length: Stravinsky treats them as whole and complete musical sections.

Such techniques foreshadowed by several decades the minimalist works of composers such as Terry Riley and Steve Reich.

Neoclassicism

Stravinsky was the greatest, if not the first, practitioner of the "neoclassic" style, a style that would be later adopted by composers as diverse as Darius Milhaud and Aaron Copland. Sergei Prokofiev once chided Stravinsky for his neo-classical mannerisms, though sympathetically, as Prokofiev had broken similar musical ground in his Symphony No. 1, "Classical" of 1916-17.

Stravinsky announced his new style in 1923 with the stripped-down and delicately scored Octet for winds. The clear harmonies, looking back to the Classical music era of Mozart and Bach, and the simpler combinations of rhythm and melody were a direct response to the complexities of the Second Viennese School. Stravinsky may have been preceded in these devices by earlier composers such as Erik Satie, but no doubt when Copland was composing his Appalachian Spring ballet he was taking Stravinsky as his model.

Certainly by the late 1920s and 1930s, Neoclassicism as an accepted modern genre was prevalent throughout art music circles around the world. Ironically, it was Stravinsky himself who announced the death of Neoclassicism, at least in his own work if not for the world, with the completion of his opera The Rake's Progress in 1951. A sort of final statement for the style, the opera was largely ridiculed as too "backward looking" even by those who had lauded the new style only three decades earlier.

Quotation and pastiche

Stravinsky used the now very postmodern technique of direct musical quotation and pastiche as early as 1920 in his work Pulcinella. Here he uses the music of Pergolesi as source material, sometimes directly quoting it and other times simply reinventing it, to create a new and refreshing work. He used the same technique in the ballet The Fairy's Kiss of 1928. Here it is the music of Tchaikovsky, specifically Swan Lake, that Stravinsky uses as his source. Such compositional "borrowing" would come into vogue in the 1960s, as in the work Sinfonia by Luciano Berio.

Use of folk material

There were other composers in the early 20th century who collected and augmented their native folk music and used these themes in their work. Two notable examples are Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály. Yet in Le Sacre du Printemps we see Stravinsky again innovating in his use of folk themes. He strips these themes to their most basic outline, melody alone, and often contorts them beyond recognition with additive notes, inversions, diminutions, and other techniques. He did this so well, in fact, that only in recent scholarship, such as in Richard Taruskin's Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra [1], have analysts uncovered the original source material for some of the music in The Rite.

Orchestral innovations

The late 19th century and early 20th century was a time ripe with orchestral innovation. Composers such as Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler were well regarded for their skill at writing for the medium. They, in turn, were influenced by the expansion of the traditional classical orchestra by Richard Wagner through his use of large forces and unusual instruments.

Stravinsky continued this Romantic trend of writing for huge orchestral forces, especially in the early ballets. But it is when he started to turn away from this tendency that he began to innovate by introducing unique combinations of instruments. For example, in L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) the forces used are clarinet, bassoon, tenor and bass trombone, double bass, cornet, violin and percussion, a very striking combination for its time (1918). This combining of distinct timbres would become almost a cliche in post-World War II classical music.

Another notable innovation of orchestral technique that can be partially attributed to Stravinsky is the exploitation of the extreme ranges of instruments. The most famous passage is the opening of the Rite of Spring where Stravsinky uses the extreme reaches of the bassoon to simulate the symbolic "awakening" of a spring morning.

It must also be noted that composers such as Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Arnold Schoenberg were also exploring some of these orchestral and instrumental techniques in the early 20th century. Yet their influence on succeeding generations of composers was equalled if not exceeded by that of Stravinsky.

Criticism

"The music of Le Sacre du Printemps baffles verbal description. To say that much of it is hideous as sound is a mild description. There is certainly an impelling rhythm traceable. Practically it has no relation to music at all as most of us understand the word." Musical Times, London, August 1, 1913 (Slonimsky, 1953)

"All the signs indicate a strong reaction against the nightmare of noise and eccentricity that was one of the legacies of the war.... What has become of the works that made up the program of the Stravinsky concert which created such a stir a few years ago? Practically the whole lot are already on the shelf, and they will remain there until a few jaded neurotics once more feel a desire to eat ashes and fill their belly with the east wind." Musical Times, London, October 1923 (ibid.)

Composer Constant Lambert (1936) described pieces such as L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) as containing, "essentially cold-blooded abstraction". Further, the "melodic fragments in L'Histoire du Soldat are completely meaningless themselves. They are merely successions of notes that can conveniently be divided into groups of three, five, and seven and set against other mathematical groups", and the cadenza for solo drums is, "musical purity...achieved by a species of musical castration". He compares Stravinsky's choice of, "the drabbest and least significant phrases", to Gertrude Stein's: "Everday they were gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday" ("Helen Furr and Georgine Skeene", 1922), "whose effect would be equally appreciated by someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever".

In his book Philosophy of Modern Music (1948) Theodor Adorno calls Stravinsky an acrobat, a civil servant, a tailor's dummy, hebephrenic, psychotic, infantile, fascist, and devoted to making money. Part of the composer's error, in Adorno's view, was his neo-classicism, but more important was his music's "pseudomorphism of painting", playing off of le temps éspace (space) rather than le temps durée (duration) of Henri Bergson. "One trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's formal endeavors: the effort of his music to portray time as in a circus tableau and to present time complexes as though they were spatial. This trick, however, soon exhausts itself." (1948)

List of works

Ballets

  • L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird) for orchestra (1910)
  • Petrushka for orchestra (1911)
  • Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for orchestra (1913)
  • Renard (1916)
  • Pulcinella for chamber orchestra and soloists (1920)
  • Apollon Musagète for string orchestra (1928)
  • Le baiser de la fée (The Fairy's Kiss) for orchestra (1928)
  • Perséphone for speaker, soloists, chorus and orchestra (1933)
  • Jeu de cartes for orchestra (1936)
  • Orpheus for chamber orchestra (1947)
  • Agon for chamber orchestra (1957)

Orchestral works

  • Symphony in E-Flat Major (1907)
  • Scherzo fantastique (1908)
  • Feu d'artifice (Fireworks) (1908)
  • Le chant du rossignol (Song of the Nightingale) (1917)
  • Quatre études for orchestra (1918)
  • Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920)
  • Suite from Pulcinella for orchestra (1920)
  • Suite No.2 for chamber orchestra (1921)
  • Suite No.1 for chamber orchestra (1925)
  • Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments (1925)
  • Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra (1929)
  • Concerto in D for violin and orchestra (1931)
  • Divertimento for orchestra (Suite from Le Baiser du Fee, 1934)
  • Preludium for jazz band (1937)
  • Concerto in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks) for Chamber Orchestra (1938)
  • Symphony in C (1940)
  • Circus Polka for orchestra (1942)
  • Danses Concertantes for chamber orchestra (1942)
  • Four Norwegian Moods for orchestra (1942)
  • Ode for orchestra (1943)
  • Scherzo a la Russe for orchestra (1944)
  • Symphony in Three Movements (1945)
  • Ebony Concerto for clarinet and jazz band (1945)
  • Concerto in D for string orchestra (1946)
  • Tango for chamber orchestra (1940/1953)
  • Greeting Prelude for orchestra (1955)
  • Movements for Piano and Orchestra (1958–[[1959])
  • 8 Instrumental miniatures for 15 Players (1963, orchestration of Les Cinq Doigts)
  • Variations (Aldous Huxley in Memoriam) for orchestra (1963–1964)

Piano works

  • Tarantella for piano (1898)
  • Scherzo for piano (1902)
  • Sonata in F-Sharp Minor for piano (1904)
  • Quatre Etudes for piano Op.7 (1908)
  • Le Sacre du Printemps for two pianos (1913)
  • Valse des fleurs for two pianos (1914)
  • Trois piéces faciles for two pianos (1915)
  • Souvenir d'une Marche Boche for piano (1915)
  • Cinq piéces faciles for two pianos (1917)
  • Valse pour les Enfants for piano (1917)
  • Piano Rag Music for piano (1919)
  • Chorale for piano (1920)
  • Les Cinq Doigts for piano (1921)
  • Sonata for piano (1924)
  • Serenade for piano (1925)
  • Concerto for Two Pianos (1935)
  • Tango for piano (1940)
  • Sonata for Two Pianos (1943)
  • Two Sketches for a Sonata for piano (1967)

Chamber works

  • Three Pieces for string quartet (1914)
  • Pour Pablo Picasso, Piece for clarinet (1917)
  • Canon for two horns (1917)
  • Duet for two bassoons (1918)
  • Suite from Histoire du Soldat for violin, clarinet and piano (1919)
  • Three Pieces for Clarinet (1919)
  • Concertino for string quartet (1920)
  • Octet for wind instruments (1923)
  • Duo Concertant for violin and piano (1932)
  • Pastorale for violin and piano (1933)
  • Suite Italienne (from Pulcinella) for violin or cello and piano (1933/34)
  • Elegy for solo viola (1944)
  • Septet (1953)
  • Epitaphium for flute, clarinet and harp (1959)
  • Double Canon for string quartet 'Raoul Dufy in Memoriam' (1959)
  • Monumentum Pro Gesualdo Di Venosa (arrangement) for chamber ensemble (1960)
  • Fanfare for a New Theatre for two trumpets (1964)

Choral works

  • Le roi des étoiles (The King of the Stars) for Men's Choir and Orchestra (1912)
  • Pater Noster (1926)
  • Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) for chorus and orchestra (1930)
  • Mass (1948)
  • Cantata for soprano, tenor, female voices, 2 flutes, oboe, English horn, cello (1953-1954)
  • Canticum Sacrum (1955)
  • Threni (1958)
  • A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer (1961)
  • Abraham and Isaac (1963)
  • Introitus (1965)
  • Requiem Canticles (1966)

Opera/Theater

  • Le rossignol (The Nightingale) (1914)
  • Burleske for 4 Pantomimes and Chamber Orchestra (1916)
  • Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918)
  • Mavra (1922)
  • Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923)
  • Oedipus Rex (1927)
  • Babel (1944)
  • The Rake's Progress (1951)
  • The Flood (1962)

Vocal works

  • Romance for Voice and Piano (1902)
  • Faun and Shepherdess for mezzo-soprano and orchestra Op. 2 (1907)
  • Pastorale wordless soprano and piano (1907)
  • Two Melodies for mezzo-soprano and piano Op.6 (1908)
  • Deux poèmes de Paul Verlaine for bariton and piano or orchestra Op.9 (1910/1951)
  • Two Poems of K. Balmont for voice and piano or small orchestra (1911/1954)
  • Trois poésies de la lyrique japonaise for voice and piano or chamber orchestra (1913)
  • Trois petites chansons voice and piano (or small orchestra) (1913/1930)
  • Pribaoutki for voice, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, vln, vla, vc, double bass (1914)
  • Berceuses du Chat for contralto and three clarinets (1916)
  • Three Tales for Children for voice and piano (1917)
  • Four Russian Peasant Songs for female voice unaccompanied (1917)
  • Berceuse for voice and piano (1918)
  • Quatre chants russes Quatre chants russes for voice and piano (1918/1919)
  • Petit ramusianum harmonique single voice or voices (1938)
  • Three Songs from William Shakespeare for mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet, and viola (1953)
  • Four Russian Songs for mezzo-soprano, flute, harp and guitar (1954, versions from Quatre chants russes and Three Tales for Children)
  • In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (Dirge Canons and Song) (1954)
  • Elegy for J.F.K. for baritone and three clarinets (1964)
  • The Owl and the Pussy Cat for soprano and piano (1966)

See Also

  • Category:Compositions by Igor Stravinsky

References

  • Lambert, Constant (1936). Music Ho! A Study of Music in Decline, p.94–94 and 101–105. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Robert Craft. Stravinsky: Glimpses of a Life, St Martins Press, 1993
  • Robert Craft. Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship, Vanderbilt University Press, 1997
  • Slonimsky, Nicolas (1953). Lexicon of Musical Invective: Critical Assaults on Composers Since Beethoven's Time. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0295785799.

Further reading

  • Igor Stravinsky, Poetics of Music, ISBN 674678559. Ghostwritten by Alexis Roland-Manuel.
  • Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Conversations with Stravinsky, ISBN 0520040406 .
  • Igor Stravinsky, An Autobiography, ISBN 0393318567. Ghostwritten by Walter Nouvel.
  • Eric Walter White, Stravinsky. The composer and his works, ISBN 0571049230
  • Milan Kundera, Testaments Betrayed: An Essay in Nine Parts, ISBN 0060927518

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This trick, however, soon exhausts itself." (1948).
. "One trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's formal endeavors: the effort of his music to portray time as in a circus tableau and to present time complexes as though they were spatial.

. Part of the composer's error, in Adorno's view, was his neo-classicism, but more important was his music's "pseudomorphism of painting", playing off of le temps éspace (space) rather than le temps durée (duration) of Henri Bergson. James Burke Roche, later 3rd Baron Fermoy. In his book Philosophy of Modern Music (1948) Theodor Adorno calls Stravinsky an acrobat, a civil servant, a tailor's dummy, hebephrenic, psychotic, infantile, fascist, and devoted to making money. Actor Oliver Platt is more closely related; both he and Diana, Princess of Wales are descendants of Frances Work, a late 19th-century American heiress who was briefly the wife of the Hon.

He compares Stravinsky's choice of, "the drabbest and least significant phrases", to Gertrude Stein's: "Everday they were gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday" ("Helen Furr and Georgine Skeene", 1922), "whose effect would be equally appreciated by someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever". It was much publicized that her ancestry included links to individuals such as Hollywood screen legend Humphrey Bogart (who was her 7th cousin), and poet Edmund Spenser, the author of The Faerie Queen [11]. They are merely successions of notes that can conveniently be divided into groups of three, five, and seven and set against other mathematical groups", and the cadenza for solo drums is, "musical purity...achieved by a species of musical castration". Prior to her marriage, much research was done into Diana's lineage by genealogists. Further, the "melodic fragments in L'Histoire du Soldat are completely meaningless themselves. These appointments ceased to be valid when Diana divorced the Prince of Wales in 1996. Composer Constant Lambert (1936) described pieces such as L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) as containing, "essentially cold-blooded abstraction". The style "Princess Diana" was incorrect at all times of her life, though often used by the public and the media.

What has become of the works that made up the program of the Stravinsky concert which created such a stir a few years ago? Practically the whole lot are already on the shelf, and they will remain there until a few jaded neurotics once more feel a desire to eat ashes and fill their belly with the east wind." Musical Times, London, October 1923 (ibid.). Buckingham Palace dismissed Costner's claims as unfounded. "All the signs indicate a strong reaction against the nightmare of noise and eccentricity that was one of the legacies of the war... After her death, the actor Kevin Costner, who had been introduced to the Princess by her former sister-in-law, Sarah, Duchess of York claimed he had been in negotiations with the divorced Princess to co-star in a sequel to the thriller film The Bodyguard, which starred Costner and Whitney Houston. Practically it has no relation to music at all as most of us understand the word." Musical Times, London, August 1, 1913 (Slonimsky, 1953). Rowland about a fictionalised version of the twentieth century as it might be seen a thousand years from now. There is certainly an impelling rhythm traceable. Heliograph Incorporated produced a roleplaying game, Diana: Warrior Princess by Marcus L.

To say that much of it is hideous as sound is a mild description. Amidst considerable (and predictable) outcry, the idea was quickly dropped. "The music of Le Sacre du Printemps baffles verbal description. In 2003, Marvel Comics announced it was to publish a five-part series entitled Di Another Day (a reference to the James Bond film Die Another Day) featuring a resurrected Diana, Princess of Wales as a mutant with superpowers, as part of Peter Milligan's X-Statix title. Yet their influence on succeeding generations of composers was equalled if not exceeded by that of Stravinsky. Diana was ranked third in the (2002) Great Britons poll sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the British public. It must also be noted that composers such as Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Arnold Schoenberg were also exploring some of these orchestral and instrumental techniques in the early 20th century. He stated that Diana "has in common with a minefield the following: relatively easy to lay but extremely difficult, expensive, and dangerous to get rid of." When there was a backlash concerning his quip he said he thought, "it was funny.".

The most famous passage is the opening of the Rite of Spring where Stravsinky uses the extreme reaches of the bassoon to simulate the symbolic "awakening" of a spring morning. In 1999, a little more than a year after her death, the journalist Christopher Hitchens made a vulgar, derogatory and controversial comment about her while on a cruise ship. Another notable innovation of orchestral technique that can be partially attributed to Stravinsky is the exploitation of the extreme ranges of instruments. A permanent memorial, the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain was opened in Hyde Park in London on 6 July 2004, but it has been plagued with problems and has been declared off-limits to the public at least twice for repairs. This combining of distinct timbres would become almost a cliche in post-World War II classical music. The concrete wall at the edge of the tunnel is still used as an impromptu memorial for people to write their thoughts and feelings about Diana. For example, in L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) the forces used are clarinet, bassoon, tenor and bass trombone, double bass, cornet, violin and percussion, a very striking combination for its time (1918). The messages of condolence have since been removed, and its use as a Diana memorial has discontinued, though visitors visit and still leave messages at the site in her memory.

But it is when he started to turn away from this tendency that he began to innovate by introducing unique combinations of instruments. As a temporary memorial, the public co-opted the Flamme de Liberté (Flame of Liberty), a monument near the Alma Tunnel, and related to the French donation of the Statue of Liberty to the United States. Stravinsky continued this Romantic trend of writing for huge orchestral forces, especially in the early ballets. Some even suggested making Diana a saint, stirring much controversy. They, in turn, were influenced by the expansion of the traditional classical orchestra by Richard Wagner through his use of large forces and unusual instruments. Numerous manufacturers of collectibles continue to produce Diana merchandise. Composers such as Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler were well regarded for their skill at writing for the medium. In the years after her death, interest in the life of Diana has remained high, especially in the United States of America.

The late 19th century and early 20th century was a time ripe with orchestral innovation. Researchers suggest that this was caused by the "identification" effect, as the greatest increase in suicides was by people most similar to Diana: women aged 25 to 44, whose suicide rate increased by over 45% [10]. He did this so well, in fact, that only in recent scholarship, such as in Richard Taruskin's Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra [1], have analysts uncovered the original source material for some of the music in The Rite. During the four weeks following her funeral, the overall suicide rate in England and Wales rose by 17%, compared with the average reported for that period in the four previous years. He strips these themes to their most basic outline, melody alone, and often contorts them beyond recognition with additive notes, inversions, diminutions, and other techniques. A visitors' centre allows visitors to see an exhibition about her and walk around the lake [9]. Yet in Le Sacre du Printemps we see Stravinsky again innovating in his use of folk themes. Diana, Princess of Wales is buried at Althorp in Northamptonshire on an island in the middle of a lake called the Round Oval.

Two notable examples are Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály. Tradition was defied when the guests applauded the speech by Diana's brother, Lord Spencer, who bitterly attacked the press and indirectly criticised the Royal Family for their treatment of her, although Lord Spencer himself had years earlier refused Diana permission to use a cottage at Althorp as a sanctuary due to his fears about press intrusion into his family home. There were other composers in the early 20th century who collected and augmented their native folk music and used these themes in their work. The service was televised live throughout the world, and loudspeakers were placed outside so the crowds could hear the proceedings. Such compositional "borrowing" would come into vogue in the 1960s, as in the work Sinfonia by Luciano Berio. Outside Westminster Abbey crowds cheered the dozens of celebrities who filed inside, including singer Sir Elton John (who performed a re-written version of his song Candle in the Wind). Here it is the music of Tchaikovsky, specifically Swan Lake, that Stravinsky uses as his source. Mourners cast flowers at the funeral procession for almost the entire length of its journey.

He used the same technique in the ballet The Fairy's Kiss of 1928. At the urging of Downing Street, what was to be a recorded piece became a live broadcast, and the script was revised by Alastair Campbell to be more "human". Here he uses the music of Pergolesi as source material, sometimes directly quoting it and other times simply reinventing it, to create a new and refreshing work. The Queen, who returned to London from Balmoral, agreed to a television broadcast to the nation. Stravinsky used the now very postmodern technique of direct musical quotation and pastiche as early as 1920 in his work Pulcinella. "Where is our Queen? Where is our Flag?" asked The Sun. A sort of final statement for the style, the opera was largely ridiculed as too "backward looking" even by those who had lauded the new style only three decades earlier. The Royal Family's rigid adherence to protocol was intepreted by the public as a lack of compassion: the refusal of Buckingham Palace to fly the Union Flag at half mast provoked angry headlines in newspapers.

Ironically, it was Stravinsky himself who announced the death of Neoclassicism, at least in his own work if not for the world, with the completion of his opera The Rake's Progress in 1951. The reaction of the Royal Family to the death of Diana caused unprecedented resentment and outcry. Certainly by the late 1920s and 1930s, Neoclassicism as an accepted modern genre was prevalent throughout art music circles around the world. More than one million bouquets were left at her London home, Kensington Palace, while at her family's estate of Althorp the public was asked to stop bringing flowers, as the volume of people and flowers in the surrounding roads was causing a threat to public safety. Stravinsky may have been preceded in these devices by earlier composers such as Erik Satie, but no doubt when Copland was composing his Appalachian Spring ballet he was taking Stravinsky as his model. People in India watched the funeral, even as mourning started to sweep over their country following the passing of Mother Teresa the day before. The clear harmonies, looking back to the Classical music era of Mozart and Bach, and the simpler combinations of rhythm and melody were a direct response to the complexities of the Second Viennese School. Diana's death was greeted with extraordinary public grief, and her funeral at Westminster Abbey on 6 September drew an estimated 3 million [8] mourners in London, as well as worldwide television coverage.

Stravinsky announced his new style in 1923 with the stripped-down and delicately scored Octet for winds. Also, the underpass at the Place de l'Alma is known as an accident black spot; it is on a stretch of high-speed road but only has limited visibility ahead in places; and there are square-shaped pillars in the central reservation which could lead to collisions. 1, "Classical" of 1916-17. Rees-Jones, the only survivor, had his seat belt on. Sergei Prokofiev once chided Stravinsky for his neo-classical mannerisms, though sympathetically, as Prokofiev had broken similar musical ground in his Symphony No. Rumours and conspiracies theories aside, it is clear that Diana, Dodi and Paul were not wearing seat belts when the car crashed. Stravinsky was the greatest, if not the first, practitioner of the "neoclassic" style, a style that would be later adopted by composers as diverse as Darius Milhaud and Aaron Copland. The release of these pictures caused uproar in the UK, where it was widely felt that the privacy of the Princess was being infringed, and spurred another lawsuit by Mohammed Al-Fayed.

Such techniques foreshadowed by several decades the minimalist works of composers such as Terry Riley and Steve Reich. Later in 2004, US TV network CBS showed pictures of the crash scene showing an intact rear side and an intact centre section of the Mercedes, including one of a unbloodied Diana with no outward injuries, crouched on the rear floor of the vehicle with her back to the right passenger seat — the right rear car door is completely opened. These passages are notable not only for this pastiche-quality but also for their length: Stravinsky treats them as whole and complete musical sections. John Burton, said (in an interview with The Times) that he attended a post-mortem examination of the Princess's body at Fulham mortuary, where he personally examined her womb and found her not to be pregnant. At various other times in the work Stravinsky also pits several ostinati against one another without regard to harmony or tempo, creating a pastiche, a sort of musical equivalent of a Cubist painting. In January 2004, the former coroner of The Queen's Household, Dr. This is perhaps the first instance in music of extended ostinato which is neither used for variation nor for accompaniment of melody. Other motivations which have been advanced for murder include suggestions Diana intended to convert to Islam, and that she was pregnant with Dodi's child.

The most famous passage, as noted above, is the eighth note ostinato of the strings accented by eight french horns that occurs in the section Auguries of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls). This was apparently based on the grounds that the Duke abhorred the idea of his grandsons potentially having Muslim or half-Arab siblings. The same ballet is also notable for its relentless use of ostinati. Fayed, for his part, stands by his belief that the Princess and his son were killed in an elaborate conspiracy launched by the SIS (MI6) on the orders of the "racist" Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. In the "Rite of Spring" he introduces additive permutations, that is, subtracting or adding a note to a motif without regard to changes in meter. In the Scottish courts, Mohamed Al-Fayed applied for an order directing there be a public inquiry and is to appeal against the denial of his application. However, Stravinsky's use of motivic development was unique in the way he permutated his motifs. The families of Dodi Fayed and Henri Paul have not accepted the French investigators' findings.

The first great innovator in this method was Beethoven; the famous "fate motif" which opens Fifth Symphony and reappears throughout the work in surprising and refreshing permutations is a classic example. No official DNA test has been carried out on the samples, and Henri Paul's family has not been allowed to commission independent tests on them. Motivic development, that is using a distinct musical phrase that is subsequently altered and developed throughout a piece of music, has its roots in the sonata form of Mozart's age. Some maintain this strongly indicates the samples were tampered with. Stravinsky began re-thinking his use of the motif and ostinato as early as The Firebird ballet, but his use of these elements reached its full flowering in The Rite of Spring. The samples were also said to contain a level of carbon monoxide sufficiently high as to have prevented him from driving a car (or even from standing). As a consequence, his influence on composers both during his lifetime and after his death was, and remains, considerable. [7].

Stravinsky's work embraced multiple compositional styles, revolutionised orchestration, spanned several genres, practically reinvented ballet form and incorporated multiple cultures, languages and literatures. This initial analysis was challenged by a British pathologist hired by the Fayeds; in response, French authorities carried out a third test, this time using the medically more conclusive fluid from the sclera (white of the eye), which confirmed the level of alcohol measured by blood and also showed Paul had been taking antidepressants. Indeed, these characteristics are what make Stravinsky's output so unique when compared with the work of contemporaneous serial composers. The French investigators' conclusion that Henri Paul was drunk was made largely on the basis of an analysis of blood samples, which were stated to contain an alcohol level that (according to Jay's September 1997 report) was three times the legal limit. The ballet is thus a sort of miniature encyclopedia of Stravinsky, containing many of the signatures to be found throughout his compositions, whether primitivist, neo-classic, or serial: rhythmic quirkiness and experimentation, harmonic ingenuity, and a deft ear for masterful orchestration. Although the official investigation found Diana had died as a result of an accident, there are a significant number of conspiracy theories that she was assassinated. Some numbers of Agon recollect the "white-note" tonality of the neo-classic period, while others (the Bransle Gay, e.g.) display his unique re-interpretation of serial method. On 6 January 2004, an inquest into the death of Diana opened in London held by Michael Burgess, the coroner of The Queen's Household.

An important transitional work of this period in Stravinsky's work, was a return to the ballet: Agon, a work for twelve dancers written from 1954 to 1957. In November 2003, Christian Martinez and Fabrice Chassery, the photographers who took photos of the casualties after the crash, and Jacques Langevin, who took photos as the couple left the Ritz Hotel, were cleared of breaching French privacy laws [6]. He later began expanding his use of the technique in works often based on biblical texts, such as Threni (1958), A Sermon, a Narrative, and a Prayer (1961), and The Flood (1962). The investigators concluded that the crash was an accident brought on by an intoxicated driver attempting to elude pursuing paparazzi at high speed. Stravinsky first began to dabble in the twelve tone technique in smaller vocal works such as the Cantata (1952), Three Songs from Shakespeare (1953) and In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954), as if he were testing the system. The driver of that vehicle has never come forward, and the vehicle itself has not been found. Regardless, the next fifteen years were spent writing the works in this style. In 1999 a French investigation concluded the Mercedes had come into contact with another vehicle (a white Fiat Uno) in the tunnel.

No doubt, Stravinsky was aided in his understanding of, or even conversion to, the twelve tone method by his confidant and helper Robert Craft, who had long been advocating the change. The car was certainly travelling much faster than the legal speed limit of 50 km/h (30 mph), and faster than was prudent for the Alma underpass. Only after the death of Arnold Schoenberg, the inventor of the twelve tone system, in 1951 did Stravinsky begin making use of the technique in his own works. It was later announced the car's actual speed on collision was about 95-110 km/h (60-70 mph), and that the speedometer had no needle as it was digital. After the opera's completion Stravinsky never wrote another "neo-classic" work and instead began writing the music that came to define his final stylistic change. Initial media reports stated Diana's car had collided with the pillar at over 190 km/h (120 mph), and that the speedometer's needle had jammed at that position. The music is direct but quirky; it borrows from classic tonal harmony but also interjects surprising dissonances; it features Stravinsky's trademark off-rhythms; and it harkens back to the operas and themes of Monteverdi, Gluck and Mozart. .....

This opera, written to a libretto by Auden and based on the etchings of Hogarth, encapsulates everything that Stravinsky had perfected in the previous 20 years of his neo-classic period. They left with her body 90 minutes later. The pinnacle of this period is the opera The Rake's Progress completed in 1951. the Prince of Wales and Diana's two sisters, Lady Sarah McCorquodale and Lady Jane Fellowes, arrived in Paris to collect Diana's body. Apollon, Persephone (1933) and Orpheus (1947) also mark Stravinsky's concern, during this period, of not only returning to "Classic" music but also returning to "Classic" themes: in these instances, the mythology of the ancient Greeks. At around 2.00 p.m. Some larger works from this period are the three symphonies: the Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) (1930), Symphony in C (1940) and Symphony in Three Movements (1945). After their visits, the Anglican Archdeacon of France, Father Martin Draper, said commendatory prayers from the Book of Common Prayer.

Other works such as Oedipus Rex (1927), Apollon Musagete (1928) and the Dumbarton Oaks concerto continue this trend. Later that morning, Chevenement, the French Prime Minister, Lionel Jospin, the wife of the French President, Jacques Chirac, and the French Health Minister, Bernard Kouchner, visited the hospital room where Diana's body lay and paid their last respects. In these new works, written roughly between 1920 and 1950, Stravinsky turns largely to wind instruments, the piano, and choral and chamber works. At 5.30, her death was announced at a press conference held by a hospital doctor, Jean-Pierre Chevènement (France's Interior Minister) and Sir Michael Jay (Britain's ambassador to France). This "neo-classical" style involved the abandonment of the large orchestras demanded by the ballets. Two hours later, at 4.00 that morning, the doctors pronounced her dead. Both of these works feature what was to become a hallmark of this period; that is, Stravinsky's return, or "looking back", to the classical music of Mozart and Bach and their contemporaries. Despite attempts to save her, her internal injuries were too extensive.

The next phase of Stravinsky's compositional style, slightly overlapping the first, is marked by two works: Pulcinella 1920 and the Octet (1923) for wind instruments. [5]. Other pieces from this period include: Renard (1916), Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918), and Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923). Diana was freed, alive, from the wreckage, and after some delay due to attempts to stabilize her at the scene, she was taken by ambulance to Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, arriving there shortly after 2.00 a.m. There are several famous passages in the work, but two are of particular note: the opening theme played on a bassoon with notes at the very top of its register, almost out of range; and the thumping, off kilter eighth-note motif played by strings and accented by French horns on off-rhythms (See Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for a more detailed account of this work). Trevor Rees-Jones was severely injured, but later recovered. Here, the composer draws on the brutalism of pagan Russia, reflecting these sentiments in roughly-drawn, stinging motifs that appear throughout the work. Dodi Fayed and Henri Paul were both declared dead at the scene of the crash.

But it is the third ballet, The Rite of Spring, that is generally considered the apotheosis of Stravinsky's "Russian Period". As the casualties lay seriously injured in their wrecked car, the photographers continued to take pictures. Petrushka, too, is distinctively scored and the first of Stravinsky's ballets to draw on folk mythology. It swerved to the left of the two-lane carriageway and collided head-on with the thirteenth pillar supporting the roof, then spun to a stop. The first of the ballets, L'oiseau de feu, is notable for its unusual introduction (triplets in the low basses) and sweeping orchestration. At the entrance to the tunnel, their car struck a glancing blow to the right-hand wall. The ballets have several shared characteristics: they are scored for extremely large orchestras; they use Russian folk themes and motifs; and they bear the mark of Rimsky-Korsakov's imaginative scoring and instrumentation. Shortly after midnight on 31 August, their Mercedes-Benz S 280 entered the underpass below the Place de l'Alma, pursued in various vehicles by nine French photographers and a motorcycle courier.

The first of Stravinsky's major stylistic periods (excluding some early minor works) was inaugurated by the three ballets he composed for Diaghilev. Late in the evening of Saturday 30 August, Diana and Fayed departed the Hôtel Ritz in Place Vendome, Paris, and drove along the north bank of the Seine. Most of his compositions can be placed in one of the three. On 31 August 1997 Diana was involved in a car accident in the Pont de l'Alma road tunnel in Paris, along with her romantic companion Dodi Fayed, their driver Henri Paul, and Fayed's bodyguard Trevor Rees-Jones. Stravinsky's career largely falls into three distinct stylistic periods. [4]. He has a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6340 Hollywood Boulevard. Carol Bellamy, Executive Director of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), said that landmines remained "a deadly attraction for children, whose innate curiosity and need for play often lure them directly into harm's way".

Stravinsky's life had encompassed most of the 20th Century, including many of its modern classical music styles, and he influenced composers both during and after his lifetime. The United Nations appealed to the nations which produced and stockpiled the largest numbers of landmines (China, India, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia and the United States) to sign the Ottawa Treaty forbidding their production and use, for which Diana had campaigned. His grave is close to the tomb of his long-time collaborator Diaghilev. As of January 2005, Diana's legacy on landmines remained unfulfilled. He died in New York City on April 6, 1971 at the age of 88 and was buried in Venice on the cemetery island of San Michele. Introducing the Second Reading of the Landmines Bill 1998 to the British House of Commons, the Foreign Secretary, Robin Cook, paid tribute to Diana's work on landmines:. In 1962 he accepted an invitation to return to Russia for a series of concerts, but remained an émigré firmly based in the West. She is widely acclaimed[2] for her influence on the signing by the governments of the UK and other nations of the Ottawa Treaty in December 1997, after her death, which created an international ban on the use of anti-personnel landmines.

At the end of his life he was even setting Hebrew scripture in Abraham and Isaac. Her interest in landmines was focused on the injuries they create, often to children, long after the conflict has finished. The texts and literary sources for his work began with a period of interest in Russian folklore, progressed to classical authors and the Latin liturgy, and moved on to contemporary France (André Gide, in Persephone) and eventually English literature: Auden, Eliot, and medieval English verse. (Mine-clearance experts had already cleared the pre-planned walk that Diana took wearing the protective equipment.) In August that year, she visited Bosnia with the Landmine Survivors Network. Stravinsky's taste in literature was wide and reflected his constant desire for new discoveries. The pictures of Diana touring a minefield, in a ballistic helmet and flak jacket, were seen worldwide. Craft lived with Stravinsky until his death, acting as interpreter, chronicler, assistant conductor and factotum for countless musical and social tasks. Perhaps her most widely publicised charity appearance was her visit to Angola in January 1997, when, serving as an International Red Cross VIP volunteer [1], she visited landmine survivors in hospitals, toured de-mining projects run by the HALO Trust, and attended mine awareness education classes about the dangers of mines immediately surrounding homes and villages.

Auden, the need to acquire more familiarity with the English-speaking world coincided with his meeting the conductor and musicologist Robert Craft. Her contribution to changing the public opinion of AIDS sufferers was summarised in December 2001 by Bill Clinton at the 'Diana, Princess of Wales Lecture on AIDS', when he said:. H. In April 1987, the Princess of Wales was the first high-profile celebrity to be photographed touching a person infected with the HIV virus. When he planned to write an opera with W. Starting in the mid-to-late 1980s, the Princess of Wales became well known for her support of charity projects, and is credited with considerable influence for her campaigns against the use of landmines and helping the victims of AIDS. For a time he preserved a ring of emigré Russian friends and contacts, but eventually realised that this would not sustain his intellectual and professional life in the USA. These tapes have not been broadcast in the United Kingdom.

Stravinsky had adapted to life in France, but moving to America aged 58 was a very different prospect. The tapes were in the possession of the Princess during her lifetime; however, after her death, her butler took possession, and after numerous legal wranglings, they were given to the Princess's voice coach, who had originally filmed them. He continued to live in the United States until his death in 1971, unsuccessfully writing music for films. In 2004, the American TV network NBC broadcast tapes of Diana discussing her marriage to the Prince of Wales, including her description of her suicide attempts. He moved to the United States in 1939 and became a naturalized citizen in 1945. However, at that time, and to this day, Buckingham Palace maintains, since the Princess was the mother of the second and third in line to The Throne, she remained a member of the Royal Family. He returned to Paris in 1920 to write more ballets as well as many other works. The Princess lost the style Her Royal Highness, and became Diana, Princess of Wales, a titular distinction befitting a divorced peeress.

However, because of World War I and the October Revolution in Russia he moved to Switzerland in 1914. The Prince and Princess of Wales were separated on 9 December 1992; their divorce was finalised on 28 August 1996. That ballet ended up being the famous L'Oiseau de Feu. After her separation from Prince Charles, Diana was involved with married art dealer Oliver Hoare and, lastly, heart surgeon Hasnat Khan. He commissioned Stravinsky to write a ballet for his theater; so in 1911, Stravinsky traveled to Paris. (Theoretically, such an affair constituted high treason by both parties.) Another alleged lover was a bodyguard assigned to the Princess's security detail, although the Princess adamantly denied a sexual relationship with him. Eventually Stravinsky's music was noticed by Serge Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris. She later confirmed (in a television interview with Martin Bashir) the affair with her riding instructor, James Hewitt.

At the same time he had a disregard of his social inferiors: Robert Craft was embarrassed by his habit of tapping a glass with a fork and loudly demanding attention in restaurants. Charles resumed his relationship with Camilla Parker Bowles, whilst Diana became involved with James Hewitt and possibly later with James Gilbey, with whom she was involved in the so-called Squidgygate affair. For example, Otto Klemperer, who knew Schoenberg well, said that he always found Stravinsky much more co-operative and easy to deal with. Both the Prince and Princess of Wales spoke to the press through friends, accusing each other of blame for the marriage's demise. Most people who knew him through dealings connected with performances spoke of him as polite, courteous and helpful. In the mid 1980s her marriage fell apart, an event at first suppressed, but then sensationalised, by the world media. Paris, Venice, Berlin, London and New York all hosted successful appearances as pianist and conductor. It has also been suggested that she suffered from borderline personality disorder.

Stravinsky proved adept at playing the part of "man of the world", acquiring a keen instinct for business matters and appearing relaxed and comfortable in many of the world's major cities. In the same interview in which she told of the suicide attempt while pregnant with Prince William, she said her husband had accused her of crying wolf when she threatened to kill herself. The composer was also able to attract commissions: most of his work from The Firebird onwards was written for specific occasions and paid for generously. It has been suggested she did not, in fact, intend to end her life (or that the suicide attempts never even took place) and that she was merely making a 'cry for help'. In the early 1920s Leopold Stokowski was able to give Stravinsky regular support through a pseudonymous "benefactor". In one interview, released after her death, she claimed that, while pregnant with Prince William, she threw herself down a set of stairs and was discovered by her mother-in-law. Patronage too was never far away. She had previously suffered from bulimia nervosa, which recurred, and she made a number of suicide attempts.

After her death Stravinsky and Vera were married in New York where they had gone from France to escape the war in 1940. After the birth of Prince William, the Princess of Wales suffered from post-natal depression. Katerina soon learned of the relationship and accepted it as inevitable and permanent. The Prince and Princess of Wales had two children, Prince William of Wales on 21 June 1982 and Prince Henry of Wales (commonly called Prince Harry) on 15 September 1984. From then until the death of Katerina in 1939 Stravinsky led a deft double-life, spending some of his time with his first family and the rest with Vera. Upon her marriage, Diana became Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales and was ranked as the most senior royal woman in the United Kingdom after the Queen and the Queen Mother. When Stravinsky met Vera in the early 1920s she was married to the painter and stage designer Serge Sudeikin, but they soon began an affair which led to her leaving her husband. Diana was the first Englishwoman to marry an heir-apparent to the throne since 1659, when Lady Anne Hyde married the Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II.

Their marriage endured for 33 years, but the true love of his life, and partner until his death, was his second wife Vera de Bosset (1888-1982). Parker Bowles and her husband, a godson of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother) and an estimated 1 billion television viewers around the world. He was still young when he married his cousin Katerina Nossenko, who he had known since early childhood, on 23 January 1906. The wedding took place at St Paul's Cathedral in London on Wednesday 29 July 1981 before 3,500 invited guests (including Mrs. Although a notorious philanderer (even rumoured to have affairs with high-class partners such as Coco Chanel) Stravinsky was also a family man who devoted considerable amounts of his time and expenditure to his sons and daughters. Parker Bowles had been dismissed by Lord Mountbatten of Burma as a potential spouse for the heir to throne some years before, reportedly due to her age (16 months the Prince's senior), her sexual experience, and her lack of suitably aristocratic lineage. Relatively short of stature and not conventionally handsome, Stravinsky was nevertheless photogenic, as many pictures show. Mrs.

Not only was he the principal composer for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballet Russes, but Stravinsky also collaborated with Pablo Picasso (Pulcinella, 1920), Jean Cocteau (Oedipus Rex, 1927) and George Balanchine (Apollon Musagete, 1928). Buckingham Palace announced the engagement on 24 February 1981. This desire manifested itself in several of his Paris collaborations. Reportedly, the Prince's former girlfriend (and, eventually, his second wife) Camilla Parker Bowles helped him select the 19-year-old Lady Diana Spencer as a potential bride, who was working as an assistant at the Young England kindergarten in Pimlico. Stravinsky displayed an inexhaustible desire to learn and explore art, literature, and life. Diana fulfilled all of these qualifications. (He succeeded: the 1913 première of Le sacre du printemps turned into a riot.). In order to gain the approval of his family and their advisors, including his great-uncle Lord Mountbatten of Burma, any potential bride had to have an aristocratic background, could not have been previously married, should be Protestant and, preferably, a virgin.

As he himself said, with these premieres his intention was "[to send] them all to hell". Nearing his mid-thirties, he was under increasing pressure to marry. The ballets trace his stylistic development: from the L'oiseau de feu, whose style draws largely on Rimsky-Korsakov, to Petrushka's emphasis on bitonality, and finally to the savage polyphonic dissonance of Le sacre du printemps. The Prince's love life had always been the subject of press speculation, and he was linked to numerous women. During his stay in the city, he composed three major works for the Ballets Russes—L'oiseau de feu, Petrushka (1911), and Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) (1913). The Prince of Wales briefly dated Lady Sarah Spencer, Diana's older sister, in the 1970s. Stravinsky left Russia for the first time in 1910, going to Paris to attend the premiere of his ballet L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). Her maternal grandmother, the Dowager Lady Fermoy, was a longtime friend of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother.

In 1902, at the age of 20, Stravinsky became the pupil of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, probably the leading Russian composer of the time. Diana's family, the Spencers, had been close to the British Royal Family for decades. Composition came later. Diana was a talented amateur pianist, excelled in sports and reportedly longed to be a ballerina. Petersburg, Stravinsky originally studied to be a lawyer. At age 16 she briefly attended Institut Alpin Videmanette, a finishing school in Rougemont, Switzerland. Though his father was a bass singer at the Mariinsky Theater in St. Diana was educated at Riddlesworth Hall in Norfolk and at West Heath School (later reorganized as the New School at West Heath) in Kent, where she was regarded as an academically below-average student, having failed all of her O-level examinations.

Petersburg and dominated by his father and elder brother, Stravinsky's early childhood was a mix of experience that hinted little at the cosmopolitan artist he was to become. A year later, Lord Spencer married Raine, Countess of Dartmouth, the only daughter of the romance novelist Barbara Cartland, after being named as the "other party" in the Earl and Countess of Dartmouth's divorce. Brought up in an apartment in St. On the death of her paternal grandfather, Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer, in 1975, Diana's father became the 8th Earl Spencer, and she acquired the courtesy title of The Lady Diana Spencer. Petersburg, Russia. During her parents' acrimonious divorce over Lady Althorp's adultery with wallpaper heir Peter Shand Kydd, Diana's mother sued for custody of her children, but Lord Althorp's rank, aided by Lady Althorp's mother's testimony against her daughter during the trial, meant custody of Diana and her brother was awarded to their father. Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov), near St. Partially American in ancestry — a great-grandmother was the American heiress Frances Work — she was also a descendant of King Charles I.

. The Honourable Diana Frances Spencer was born as the youngest daughter of Edward Spencer, Viscount Althorp, and his first wife, Frances Spencer, Viscountess Althorp (formerly the Honourable Frances Burke Roche). He was named by Time magazine as one of the most influential people of the century.
. A quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian, Stravinsky was one of the most authoritative composers in 20th century music, both in the West and in his native land. . Robert Craft transcribed several interviews with the composer, which were published as Conversations with Stravinsky. To her admirers, Diana, Princess of Wales was a role model — after her death, there were even calls for her to be nominated for sainthood — while her detractors saw her life as a cautionary tale of how an obsession with publicity can ultimately destroy an individual.

In it, he famously claimed that music was incapable of "expressing anything but itself". During her lifetime, she was often referred to as the most photographed person in the world. With the help of Alexis Roland-Manuel, Stravinsky composed a theoretical work entitled Poetics of Music. From the time of her engagement to the Prince of Wales in 1981 until her death in a car accident in 1997, Diana was arguably the most famous woman in the world, the pre-eminent female celebrity of her generation: a fashion icon, an ideal of feminine beauty, admired and emulated for her high-profile involvement in AIDS issues and the international campaign against landmines. He was also a writer. Her bitter accusations of adultery, mental cruelty and emotional distress visited upon her by her husband riveted the world for much of the 1990s, spawning biographies, magazine articles and television movies. Stravinsky also achieved fame as a pianist and conductor, often at the premieres of his own works. Though she was noted for her pioneering charity work, the Princess's philanthropic endeavours were overshadowed by a scandal-plagued marriage.

His oeuvre included everything from symphonies to piano miniatures. She was generally called Princess Diana by the media despite having no right to that particular honorific, as it is reserved for a princess by birthright rather than marriage. Stravinsky also wrote in a broad spectrum of ensemble combinations and classical forms. From her marriage in 1981 to her divorce in 1996 she was styled Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales. For some, these ballets practically reinvented the genre. Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances Mountbatten-Windsor, née Spencer) (1 July 1961–31 August 1997) was the first wife of HRH The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. He composed in the neo-classical and serialist styles, but he is best known for two works from his earlier, Russian period: Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) and L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). The Light Dragoons, Colonel-in-chief.

Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian-American composer of modern classical music. The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment (Queen's and Royal Hampshires), Allied Colonel-in-chief with Margrethe II of Denmark. Milan Kundera, Testaments Betrayed: An Essay in Nine Parts, ISBN 0060927518. The 13/18th Royal Hussars, Colonel-in-chief (until 1992). The composer and his works, ISBN 0571049230. Royal Australian Survey Corps, Colonel-in-chief. Eric Walter White, Stravinsky. The Princess of Wales's Own Regiment, Colonel-in-chief.

Ghostwritten by Walter Nouvel. The Royal Hampshire Regiment, Colonel-in-chief (until 1992). Igor Stravinsky, An Autobiography, ISBN 0393318567. Diana, Princess of Wales (28 August 1996–death). Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Conversations with Stravinsky, ISBN 0520040406 . Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales (29 July 1981–28 August 1996). Ghostwritten by Alexis Roland-Manuel. The Lady Diana Spencer (9 June 1975–29 July 1981).

Igor Stravinsky, Poetics of Music, ISBN 674678559. The Honourable Diana Spencer (birth–9 June 1975). ISBN 0295785799. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Lexicon of Musical Invective: Critical Assaults on Composers Since Beethoven's Time.

Slonimsky, Nicolas (1953). Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship, Vanderbilt University Press, 1997. Robert Craft. Stravinsky: Glimpses of a Life, St Martins Press, 1993.

Robert Craft. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Music Ho! A Study of Music in Decline, p.94–94 and 101–105. Lambert, Constant (1936).

Category:Compositions by Igor Stravinsky. The Owl and the Pussy Cat for soprano and piano (1966). Elegy for J.F.K. for baritone and three clarinets (1964). In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (Dirge Canons and Song) (1954).

Four Russian Songs for mezzo-soprano, flute, harp and guitar (1954, versions from Quatre chants russes and Three Tales for Children). Three Songs from William Shakespeare for mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet, and viola (1953). Petit ramusianum harmonique single voice or voices (1938). Quatre chants russes Quatre chants russes for voice and piano (1918/1919).

Berceuse for voice and piano (1918). Four Russian Peasant Songs for female voice unaccompanied (1917). Three Tales for Children for voice and piano (1917). Berceuses du Chat for contralto and three clarinets (1916).

Pribaoutki for voice, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, vln, vla, vc, double bass (1914). Trois petites chansons voice and piano (or small orchestra) (1913/1930). Trois poésies de la lyrique japonaise for voice and piano or chamber orchestra (1913). Balmont for voice and piano or small orchestra (1911/1954).

Two Poems of K. Deux poèmes de Paul Verlaine for bariton and piano or orchestra Op.9 (1910/1951). Two Melodies for mezzo-soprano and piano Op.6 (1908). Pastorale wordless soprano and piano (1907).

2 (1907). Faun and Shepherdess for mezzo-soprano and orchestra Op. Romance for Voice and Piano (1902). The Flood (1962).

The Rake's Progress (1951). Babel (1944). Oedipus Rex (1927). Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923).

Mavra (1922). Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918). Burleske for 4 Pantomimes and Chamber Orchestra (1916). Le rossignol (The Nightingale) (1914).

Requiem Canticles (1966). Introitus (1965). Abraham and Isaac (1963). A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer (1961).

Threni (1958). Canticum Sacrum (1955). Cantata for soprano, tenor, female voices, 2 flutes, oboe, English horn, cello (1953-1954). Mass (1948).

Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) for chorus and orchestra (1930). Pater Noster (1926). Le roi des étoiles (The King of the Stars) for Men's Choir and Orchestra (1912). Fanfare for a New Theatre for two trumpets (1964).

Monumentum Pro Gesualdo Di Venosa (arrangement) for chamber ensemble (1960). Double Canon for string quartet 'Raoul Dufy in Memoriam' (1959). Epitaphium for flute, clarinet and harp (1959). Septet (1953).

Elegy for solo viola (1944). Suite Italienne (from Pulcinella) for violin or cello and piano (1933/34). Pastorale for violin and piano (1933). Duo Concertant for violin and piano (1932).

Octet for wind instruments (1923). Concertino for string quartet (1920). Three Pieces for Clarinet (1919). Suite from Histoire du Soldat for violin, clarinet and piano (1919).

Duet for two bassoons (1918). Canon for two horns (1917). Pour Pablo Picasso, Piece for clarinet (1917). Three Pieces for string quartet (1914).

Two Sketches for a Sonata for piano (1967). Sonata for Two Pianos (1943). Tango for piano (1940). Concerto for Two Pianos (1935).

Serenade for piano (1925). Sonata for piano (1924). Les Cinq Doigts for piano (1921). Chorale for piano (1920).

Piano Rag Music for piano (1919). Valse pour les Enfants for piano (1917). Cinq piéces faciles for two pianos (1917). Souvenir d'une Marche Boche for piano (1915).

Trois piéces faciles for two pianos (1915). Valse des fleurs for two pianos (1914). Le Sacre du Printemps for two pianos (1913). Quatre Etudes for piano Op.7 (1908).

Sonata in F-Sharp Minor for piano (1904). Scherzo for piano (1902). Tarantella for piano (1898). Variations (Aldous Huxley in Memoriam) for orchestra (1963–1964).

8 Instrumental miniatures for 15 Players (1963, orchestration of Les Cinq Doigts). Movements for Piano and Orchestra (1958–[[1959]). Greeting Prelude for orchestra (1955). Tango for chamber orchestra (1940/1953).

Concerto in D for string orchestra (1946). Ebony Concerto for clarinet and jazz band (1945). Symphony in Three Movements (1945). Scherzo a la Russe for orchestra (1944).

Ode for orchestra (1943). Four Norwegian Moods for orchestra (1942). Danses Concertantes for chamber orchestra (1942). Circus Polka for orchestra (1942).

Symphony in C (1940). Concerto in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks) for Chamber Orchestra (1938). Preludium for jazz band (1937). Divertimento for orchestra (Suite from Le Baiser du Fee, 1934).

Concerto in D for violin and orchestra (1931). Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra (1929). Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments (1925). Suite No.1 for chamber orchestra (1925).

Suite No.2 for chamber orchestra (1921). Suite from Pulcinella for orchestra (1920). Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920). Quatre études for orchestra (1918).

Le chant du rossignol (Song of the Nightingale) (1917). Feu d'artifice (Fireworks) (1908). Scherzo fantastique (1908). Symphony in E-Flat Major (1907).

Agon for chamber orchestra (1957). Orpheus for chamber orchestra (1947). Jeu de cartes for orchestra (1936). Perséphone for speaker, soloists, chorus and orchestra (1933).

Le baiser de la fée (The Fairy's Kiss) for orchestra (1928). Apollon Musagète for string orchestra (1928). Pulcinella for chamber orchestra and soloists (1920). Renard (1916).

Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for orchestra (1913). Petrushka for orchestra (1911). L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird) for orchestra (1910).

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