Igor Stravinsky

Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian-American composer of modern classical music. He composed in the neo-classical and serialist styles, but he is best known for two works from his earlier, Russian period: Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) and L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). For some, these ballets practically reinvented the genre. Stravinsky also wrote in a broad spectrum of ensemble combinations and classical forms. His oeuvre included everything from symphonies to piano miniatures.

Stravinsky is shown here conducting the Columbia Symphony Orchestra in Petrushka.

Stravinsky also achieved fame as a pianist and conductor, often at the premieres of his own works. He was also a writer. With the help of Alexis Roland-Manuel, Stravinsky composed a theoretical work entitled Poetics of Music. In it, he famously claimed that music was incapable of "expressing anything but itself". Robert Craft transcribed several interviews with the composer, which were published as Conversations with Stravinsky.

A quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian, Stravinsky was one of the most authoritative composers in 20th century music, both in the West and in his native land. He was named by Time magazine as one of the most influential people of the century.

Biography

Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov), near St. Petersburg, Russia. Brought up in an apartment in St. Petersburg and dominated by his father and elder brother, Stravinsky's early childhood was a mix of experience that hinted little at the cosmopolitan artist he was to become. Though his father was a bass singer at the Mariinsky Theater in St. Petersburg, Stravinsky originally studied to be a lawyer. Composition came later. In 1902, at the age of 20, Stravinsky became the pupil of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, probably the leading Russian composer of the time.

Stravinsky left Russia for the first time in 1910, going to Paris to attend the premiere of his ballet L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). During his stay in the city, he composed three major works for the Ballets Russes—L'oiseau de feu, Petrushka (1911), and Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) (1913). The ballets trace his stylistic development: from the L'oiseau de feu, whose style draws largely on Rimsky-Korsakov, to Petrushka's emphasis on bitonality, and finally to the savage polyphonic dissonance of Le sacre du printemps. As he himself said, with these premieres his intention was "[to send] them all to hell". (He succeeded: the 1913 première of Le sacre du printemps turned into a riot.)

Stravinsky displayed an inexhaustible desire to learn and explore art, literature, and life. This desire manifested itself in several of his Paris collaborations. Not only was he the principal composer for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballet Russes, but Stravinsky also collaborated with Pablo Picasso (Pulcinella, 1920), Jean Cocteau (Oedipus Rex, 1927) and George Balanchine (Apollon Musagete, 1928).

Stravinsky and Pablo Picasso collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several sketches of the composer.

Relatively short of stature and not conventionally handsome, Stravinsky was nevertheless photogenic, as many pictures show. Although a notorious philanderer (even rumoured to have affairs with high-class partners such as Coco Chanel) Stravinsky was also a family man who devoted considerable amounts of his time and expenditure to his sons and daughters. He was still young when he married his cousin Katerina Nossenko, who he had known since early childhood, on 23 January 1906. Their marriage endured for 33 years, but the true love of his life, and partner until his death, was his second wife Vera de Bosset (1888-1982).

When Stravinsky met Vera in the early 1920s she was married to the painter and stage designer Serge Sudeikin, but they soon began an affair which led to her leaving her husband. From then until the death of Katerina in 1939 Stravinsky led a deft double-life, spending some of his time with his first family and the rest with Vera. Katerina soon learned of the relationship and accepted it as inevitable and permanent. After her death Stravinsky and Vera were married in New York where they had gone from France to escape the war in 1940.

Patronage too was never far away. In the early 1920s Leopold Stokowski was able to give Stravinsky regular support through a pseudonymous "benefactor". The composer was also able to attract commissions: most of his work from The Firebird onwards was written for specific occasions and paid for generously.

Stravinsky proved adept at playing the part of "man of the world", acquiring a keen instinct for business matters and appearing relaxed and comfortable in many of the world's major cities. Paris, Venice, Berlin, London and New York all hosted successful appearances as pianist and conductor. Most people who knew him through dealings connected with performances spoke of him as polite, courteous and helpful. For example, Otto Klemperer, who knew Schoenberg well, said that he always found Stravinsky much more co-operative and easy to deal with. At the same time he had a disregard of his social inferiors: Robert Craft was embarrassed by his habit of tapping a glass with a fork and loudly demanding attention in restaurants.

Eventually Stravinsky's music was noticed by Serge Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris. He commissioned Stravinsky to write a ballet for his theater; so in 1911, Stravinsky traveled to Paris. That ballet ended up being the famous L'Oiseau de Feu. However, because of World War I and the October Revolution in Russia he moved to Switzerland in 1914. He returned to Paris in 1920 to write more ballets as well as many other works. He moved to the United States in 1939 and became a naturalized citizen in 1945. He continued to live in the United States until his death in 1971, unsuccessfully writing music for films. Stravinsky had adapted to life in France, but moving to America aged 58 was a very different prospect. For a time he preserved a ring of emigré Russian friends and contacts, but eventually realised that this would not sustain his intellectual and professional life in the USA. When he planned to write an opera with W. H. Auden, the need to acquire more familiarity with the English-speaking world coincided with his meeting the conductor and musicologist Robert Craft. Craft lived with Stravinsky until his death, acting as interpreter, chronicler, assistant conductor and factotum for countless musical and social tasks.

The graves of Igor and Vera Stravinsky on San Michele

Stravinsky's taste in literature was wide and reflected his constant desire for new discoveries. The texts and literary sources for his work began with a period of interest in Russian folklore, progressed to classical authors and the Latin liturgy, and moved on to contemporary France (André Gide, in Persephone) and eventually English literature: Auden, Eliot, and medieval English verse. At the end of his life he was even setting Hebrew scripture in Abraham and Isaac.

In 1962 he accepted an invitation to return to Russia for a series of concerts, but remained an émigré firmly based in the West.

He died in New York City on April 6, 1971 at the age of 88 and was buried in Venice on the cemetery island of San Michele. His grave is close to the tomb of his long-time collaborator Diaghilev. Stravinsky's life had encompassed most of the 20th Century, including many of its modern classical music styles, and he influenced composers both during and after his lifetime. He has a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6340 Hollywood Boulevard.

Stylistic periods

Stravinsky's career largely falls into three distinct stylistic periods. Most of his compositions can be placed in one of the three.

The Primitive, or Russian, Period

The first of Stravinsky's major stylistic periods (excluding some early minor works) was inaugurated by the three ballets he composed for Diaghilev. The ballets have several shared characteristics: they are scored for extremely large orchestras; they use Russian folk themes and motifs; and they bear the mark of Rimsky-Korsakov's imaginative scoring and instrumentation.

The first of the ballets, L'oiseau de feu, is notable for its unusual introduction (triplets in the low basses) and sweeping orchestration. Petrushka, too, is distinctively scored and the first of Stravinsky's ballets to draw on folk mythology. But it is the third ballet, The Rite of Spring, that is generally considered the apotheosis of Stravinsky's "Russian Period". Here, the composer draws on the brutalism of pagan Russia, reflecting these sentiments in roughly-drawn, stinging motifs that appear throughout the work. There are several famous passages in the work, but two are of particular note: the opening theme played on a bassoon with notes at the very top of its register, almost out of range; and the thumping, off kilter eighth-note motif played by strings and accented by French horns on off-rhythms (See Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for a more detailed account of this work).

Other pieces from this period include: Renard (1916), Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918), and Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923).

The Neo-Classical Period

The next phase of Stravinsky's compositional style, slightly overlapping the first, is marked by two works: Pulcinella 1920 and the Octet (1923) for wind instruments. Both of these works feature what was to become a hallmark of this period; that is, Stravinsky's return, or "looking back", to the classical music of Mozart and Bach and their contemporaries. This "neo-classical" style involved the abandonment of the large orchestras demanded by the ballets. In these new works, written roughly between 1920 and 1950, Stravinsky turns largely to wind instruments, the piano, and choral and chamber works.

Other works such as Oedipus Rex (1927), Apollon Musagete (1928) and the Dumbarton Oaks concerto continue this trend.

Some larger works from this period are the three symphonies: the Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) (1930), Symphony in C (1940) and Symphony in Three Movements (1945). Apollon, Persephone (1933) and Orpheus (1947) also mark Stravinsky's concern, during this period, of not only returning to "Classic" music but also returning to "Classic" themes: in these instances, the mythology of the ancient Greeks.

The pinnacle of this period is the opera The Rake's Progress completed in 1951. This opera, written to a libretto by Auden and based on the etchings of Hogarth, encapsulates everything that Stravinsky had perfected in the previous 20 years of his neo-classic period. The music is direct but quirky; it borrows from classic tonal harmony but also interjects surprising dissonances; it features Stravinsky's trademark off-rhythms; and it harkens back to the operas and themes of Monteverdi, Gluck and Mozart.

After the opera's completion Stravinsky never wrote another "neo-classic" work and instead began writing the music that came to define his final stylistic change.

The Serialist, or Twelve Tone Period

Only after the death of Arnold Schoenberg, the inventor of the twelve tone system, in 1951 did Stravinsky begin making use of the technique in his own works. No doubt, Stravinsky was aided in his understanding of, or even conversion to, the twelve tone method by his confidant and helper Robert Craft, who had long been advocating the change. Regardless, the next fifteen years were spent writing the works in this style.

Stravinsky first began to dabble in the twelve tone technique in smaller vocal works such as the Cantata (1952), Three Songs from Shakespeare (1953) and In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954), as if he were testing the system. He later began expanding his use of the technique in works often based on biblical texts, such as Threni (1958), A Sermon, a Narrative, and a Prayer (1961), and The Flood (1962).

An important transitional work of this period in Stravinsky's work, was a return to the ballet: Agon, a work for twelve dancers written from 1954 to 1957. Some numbers of Agon recollect the "white-note" tonality of the neo-classic period, while others (the Bransle Gay, e.g.) display his unique re-interpretation of serial method. The ballet is thus a sort of miniature encyclopedia of Stravinsky, containing many of the signatures to be found throughout his compositions, whether primitivist, neo-classic, or serial: rhythmic quirkiness and experimentation, harmonic ingenuity, and a deft ear for masterful orchestration. Indeed, these characteristics are what make Stravinsky's output so unique when compared with the work of contemporaneous serial composers.

Influence and innovation

Stravinsky's work embraced multiple compositional styles, revolutionised orchestration, spanned several genres, practically reinvented ballet form and incorporated multiple cultures, languages and literatures. As a consequence, his influence on composers both during his lifetime and after his death was, and remains, considerable.

Compositional innovations

Stravinsky began re-thinking his use of the motif and ostinato as early as The Firebird ballet, but his use of these elements reached its full flowering in The Rite of Spring.

Motivic development, that is using a distinct musical phrase that is subsequently altered and developed throughout a piece of music, has its roots in the sonata form of Mozart's age. The first great innovator in this method was Beethoven; the famous "fate motif" which opens Fifth Symphony and reappears throughout the work in surprising and refreshing permutations is a classic example. However, Stravinsky's use of motivic development was unique in the way he permutated his motifs. In the "Rite of Spring" he introduces additive permutations, that is, subtracting or adding a note to a motif without regard to changes in meter.

The same ballet is also notable for its relentless use of ostinati. The most famous passage, as noted above, is the eighth note ostinato of the strings accented by eight french horns that occurs in the section Auguries of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls). This is perhaps the first instance in music of extended ostinato which is neither used for variation nor for accompaniment of melody. At various other times in the work Stravinsky also pits several ostinati against one another without regard to harmony or tempo, creating a pastiche, a sort of musical equivalent of a Cubist painting. These passages are notable not only for this pastiche-quality but also for their length: Stravinsky treats them as whole and complete musical sections.

Such techniques foreshadowed by several decades the minimalist works of composers such as Terry Riley and Steve Reich.

Neoclassicism

Stravinsky was the greatest, if not the first, practitioner of the "neoclassic" style, a style that would be later adopted by composers as diverse as Darius Milhaud and Aaron Copland. Sergei Prokofiev once chided Stravinsky for his neo-classical mannerisms, though sympathetically, as Prokofiev had broken similar musical ground in his Symphony No. 1, "Classical" of 1916-17.

Stravinsky announced his new style in 1923 with the stripped-down and delicately scored Octet for winds. The clear harmonies, looking back to the Classical music era of Mozart and Bach, and the simpler combinations of rhythm and melody were a direct response to the complexities of the Second Viennese School. Stravinsky may have been preceded in these devices by earlier composers such as Erik Satie, but no doubt when Copland was composing his Appalachian Spring ballet he was taking Stravinsky as his model.

Certainly by the late 1920s and 1930s, Neoclassicism as an accepted modern genre was prevalent throughout art music circles around the world. Ironically, it was Stravinsky himself who announced the death of Neoclassicism, at least in his own work if not for the world, with the completion of his opera The Rake's Progress in 1951. A sort of final statement for the style, the opera was largely ridiculed as too "backward looking" even by those who had lauded the new style only three decades earlier.

Quotation and pastiche

Stravinsky used the now very postmodern technique of direct musical quotation and pastiche as early as 1920 in his work Pulcinella. Here he uses the music of Pergolesi as source material, sometimes directly quoting it and other times simply reinventing it, to create a new and refreshing work. He used the same technique in the ballet The Fairy's Kiss of 1928. Here it is the music of Tchaikovsky, specifically Swan Lake, that Stravinsky uses as his source. Such compositional "borrowing" would come into vogue in the 1960s, as in the work Sinfonia by Luciano Berio.

Use of folk material

There were other composers in the early 20th century who collected and augmented their native folk music and used these themes in their work. Two notable examples are Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály. Yet in Le Sacre du Printemps we see Stravinsky again innovating in his use of folk themes. He strips these themes to their most basic outline, melody alone, and often contorts them beyond recognition with additive notes, inversions, diminutions, and other techniques. He did this so well, in fact, that only in recent scholarship, such as in Richard Taruskin's Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra [1], have analysts uncovered the original source material for some of the music in The Rite.

Orchestral innovations

The late 19th century and early 20th century was a time ripe with orchestral innovation. Composers such as Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler were well regarded for their skill at writing for the medium. They, in turn, were influenced by the expansion of the traditional classical orchestra by Richard Wagner through his use of large forces and unusual instruments.

Stravinsky continued this Romantic trend of writing for huge orchestral forces, especially in the early ballets. But it is when he started to turn away from this tendency that he began to innovate by introducing unique combinations of instruments. For example, in L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) the forces used are clarinet, bassoon, tenor and bass trombone, double bass, cornet, violin and percussion, a very striking combination for its time (1918). This combining of distinct timbres would become almost a cliche in post-World War II classical music.

Another notable innovation of orchestral technique that can be partially attributed to Stravinsky is the exploitation of the extreme ranges of instruments. The most famous passage is the opening of the Rite of Spring where Stravsinky uses the extreme reaches of the bassoon to simulate the symbolic "awakening" of a spring morning.

It must also be noted that composers such as Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Arnold Schoenberg were also exploring some of these orchestral and instrumental techniques in the early 20th century. Yet their influence on succeeding generations of composers was equalled if not exceeded by that of Stravinsky.

Criticism

"The music of Le Sacre du Printemps baffles verbal description. To say that much of it is hideous as sound is a mild description. There is certainly an impelling rhythm traceable. Practically it has no relation to music at all as most of us understand the word." Musical Times, London, August 1, 1913 (Slonimsky, 1953)

"All the signs indicate a strong reaction against the nightmare of noise and eccentricity that was one of the legacies of the war.... What has become of the works that made up the program of the Stravinsky concert which created such a stir a few years ago? Practically the whole lot are already on the shelf, and they will remain there until a few jaded neurotics once more feel a desire to eat ashes and fill their belly with the east wind." Musical Times, London, October 1923 (ibid.)

Composer Constant Lambert (1936) described pieces such as L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) as containing, "essentially cold-blooded abstraction". Further, the "melodic fragments in L'Histoire du Soldat are completely meaningless themselves. They are merely successions of notes that can conveniently be divided into groups of three, five, and seven and set against other mathematical groups", and the cadenza for solo drums is, "musical purity...achieved by a species of musical castration". He compares Stravinsky's choice of, "the drabbest and least significant phrases", to Gertrude Stein's: "Everday they were gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday" ("Helen Furr and Georgine Skeene", 1922), "whose effect would be equally appreciated by someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever".

In his book Philosophy of Modern Music (1948) Theodor Adorno calls Stravinsky an acrobat, a civil servant, a tailor's dummy, hebephrenic, psychotic, infantile, fascist, and devoted to making money. Part of the composer's error, in Adorno's view, was his neo-classicism, but more important was his music's "pseudomorphism of painting", playing off of le temps éspace (space) rather than le temps durée (duration) of Henri Bergson. "One trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's formal endeavors: the effort of his music to portray time as in a circus tableau and to present time complexes as though they were spatial. This trick, however, soon exhausts itself." (1948)

List of works

Ballets

  • L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird) for orchestra (1910)
  • Petrushka for orchestra (1911)
  • Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for orchestra (1913)
  • Renard (1916)
  • Pulcinella for chamber orchestra and soloists (1920)
  • Apollon Musagète for string orchestra (1928)
  • Le baiser de la fée (The Fairy's Kiss) for orchestra (1928)
  • Perséphone for speaker, soloists, chorus and orchestra (1933)
  • Jeu de cartes for orchestra (1936)
  • Orpheus for chamber orchestra (1947)
  • Agon for chamber orchestra (1957)

Orchestral works

  • Symphony in E-Flat Major (1907)
  • Scherzo fantastique (1908)
  • Feu d'artifice (Fireworks) (1908)
  • Le chant du rossignol (Song of the Nightingale) (1917)
  • Quatre études for orchestra (1918)
  • Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920)
  • Suite from Pulcinella for orchestra (1920)
  • Suite No.2 for chamber orchestra (1921)
  • Suite No.1 for chamber orchestra (1925)
  • Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments (1925)
  • Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra (1929)
  • Concerto in D for violin and orchestra (1931)
  • Divertimento for orchestra (Suite from Le Baiser du Fee, 1934)
  • Preludium for jazz band (1937)
  • Concerto in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks) for Chamber Orchestra (1938)
  • Symphony in C (1940)
  • Circus Polka for orchestra (1942)
  • Danses Concertantes for chamber orchestra (1942)
  • Four Norwegian Moods for orchestra (1942)
  • Ode for orchestra (1943)
  • Scherzo a la Russe for orchestra (1944)
  • Symphony in Three Movements (1945)
  • Ebony Concerto for clarinet and jazz band (1945)
  • Concerto in D for string orchestra (1946)
  • Tango for chamber orchestra (1940/1953)
  • Greeting Prelude for orchestra (1955)
  • Movements for Piano and Orchestra (1958–[[1959])
  • 8 Instrumental miniatures for 15 Players (1963, orchestration of Les Cinq Doigts)
  • Variations (Aldous Huxley in Memoriam) for orchestra (1963–1964)

Piano works

  • Tarantella for piano (1898)
  • Scherzo for piano (1902)
  • Sonata in F-Sharp Minor for piano (1904)
  • Quatre Etudes for piano Op.7 (1908)
  • Le Sacre du Printemps for two pianos (1913)
  • Valse des fleurs for two pianos (1914)
  • Trois piéces faciles for two pianos (1915)
  • Souvenir d'une Marche Boche for piano (1915)
  • Cinq piéces faciles for two pianos (1917)
  • Valse pour les Enfants for piano (1917)
  • Piano Rag Music for piano (1919)
  • Chorale for piano (1920)
  • Les Cinq Doigts for piano (1921)
  • Sonata for piano (1924)
  • Serenade for piano (1925)
  • Concerto for Two Pianos (1935)
  • Tango for piano (1940)
  • Sonata for Two Pianos (1943)
  • Two Sketches for a Sonata for piano (1967)

Chamber works

  • Three Pieces for string quartet (1914)
  • Pour Pablo Picasso, Piece for clarinet (1917)
  • Canon for two horns (1917)
  • Duet for two bassoons (1918)
  • Suite from Histoire du Soldat for violin, clarinet and piano (1919)
  • Three Pieces for Clarinet (1919)
  • Concertino for string quartet (1920)
  • Octet for wind instruments (1923)
  • Duo Concertant for violin and piano (1932)
  • Pastorale for violin and piano (1933)
  • Suite Italienne (from Pulcinella) for violin or cello and piano (1933/34)
  • Elegy for solo viola (1944)
  • Septet (1953)
  • Epitaphium for flute, clarinet and harp (1959)
  • Double Canon for string quartet 'Raoul Dufy in Memoriam' (1959)
  • Monumentum Pro Gesualdo Di Venosa (arrangement) for chamber ensemble (1960)
  • Fanfare for a New Theatre for two trumpets (1964)

Choral works

  • Le roi des étoiles (The King of the Stars) for Men's Choir and Orchestra (1912)
  • Pater Noster (1926)
  • Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) for chorus and orchestra (1930)
  • Mass (1948)
  • Cantata for soprano, tenor, female voices, 2 flutes, oboe, English horn, cello (1953-1954)
  • Canticum Sacrum (1955)
  • Threni (1958)
  • A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer (1961)
  • Abraham and Isaac (1963)
  • Introitus (1965)
  • Requiem Canticles (1966)

Opera/Theater

  • Le rossignol (The Nightingale) (1914)
  • Burleske for 4 Pantomimes and Chamber Orchestra (1916)
  • Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918)
  • Mavra (1922)
  • Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923)
  • Oedipus Rex (1927)
  • Babel (1944)
  • The Rake's Progress (1951)
  • The Flood (1962)

Vocal works

  • Romance for Voice and Piano (1902)
  • Faun and Shepherdess for mezzo-soprano and orchestra Op. 2 (1907)
  • Pastorale wordless soprano and piano (1907)
  • Two Melodies for mezzo-soprano and piano Op.6 (1908)
  • Deux poèmes de Paul Verlaine for bariton and piano or orchestra Op.9 (1910/1951)
  • Two Poems of K. Balmont for voice and piano or small orchestra (1911/1954)
  • Trois poésies de la lyrique japonaise for voice and piano or chamber orchestra (1913)
  • Trois petites chansons voice and piano (or small orchestra) (1913/1930)
  • Pribaoutki for voice, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, vln, vla, vc, double bass (1914)
  • Berceuses du Chat for contralto and three clarinets (1916)
  • Three Tales for Children for voice and piano (1917)
  • Four Russian Peasant Songs for female voice unaccompanied (1917)
  • Berceuse for voice and piano (1918)
  • Quatre chants russes Quatre chants russes for voice and piano (1918/1919)
  • Petit ramusianum harmonique single voice or voices (1938)
  • Three Songs from William Shakespeare for mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet, and viola (1953)
  • Four Russian Songs for mezzo-soprano, flute, harp and guitar (1954, versions from Quatre chants russes and Three Tales for Children)
  • In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (Dirge Canons and Song) (1954)
  • Elegy for J.F.K. for baritone and three clarinets (1964)
  • The Owl and the Pussy Cat for soprano and piano (1966)

See Also

  • Category:Compositions by Igor Stravinsky

References

  • Lambert, Constant (1936). Music Ho! A Study of Music in Decline, p.94–94 and 101–105. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Robert Craft. Stravinsky: Glimpses of a Life, St Martins Press, 1993
  • Robert Craft. Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship, Vanderbilt University Press, 1997
  • Slonimsky, Nicolas (1953). Lexicon of Musical Invective: Critical Assaults on Composers Since Beethoven's Time. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0295785799.

Further reading

  • Igor Stravinsky, Poetics of Music, ISBN 674678559. Ghostwritten by Alexis Roland-Manuel.
  • Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Conversations with Stravinsky, ISBN 0520040406 .
  • Igor Stravinsky, An Autobiography, ISBN 0393318567. Ghostwritten by Walter Nouvel.
  • Eric Walter White, Stravinsky. The composer and his works, ISBN 0571049230
  • Milan Kundera, Testaments Betrayed: An Essay in Nine Parts, ISBN 0060927518

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This trick, however, soon exhausts itself." (1948). Dixon wherein the hero was closely modeled after Lindbergh. "One trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's formal endeavors: the effort of his music to portray time as in a circus tableau and to present time complexes as though they were spatial. Shortly after Lindbergh made his famous flight, the Stratemeyer Syndicate began publishing the Ted Scott Flying Stories by Franklin W. Part of the composer's error, in Adorno's view, was his neo-classicism, but more important was his music's "pseudomorphism of painting", playing off of le temps éspace (space) rather than le temps durée (duration) of Henri Bergson. The film begins with events leading up to the flight before giving a gripping and intense view of the flight itself. In his book Philosophy of Modern Music (1948) Theodor Adorno calls Stravinsky an acrobat, a civil servant, a tailor's dummy, hebephrenic, psychotic, infantile, fascist, and devoted to making money. Louis, directed by Billy Wilder.

He compares Stravinsky's choice of, "the drabbest and least significant phrases", to Gertrude Stein's: "Everday they were gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday" ("Helen Furr and Georgine Skeene", 1922), "whose effect would be equally appreciated by someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever". James Stewart played Lindbergh in the biographical The Spirit of St. They are merely successions of notes that can conveniently be divided into groups of three, five, and seven and set against other mathematical groups", and the cadenza for solo drums is, "musical purity...achieved by a species of musical castration". The Agatha Christie book and movie Murder on the Orient Express begin with a fictionalized depiction of the Lindbergh baby kidnapping. Further, the "melodic fragments in L'Histoire du Soldat are completely meaningless themselves. A fictional version of Lindbergh is a major character in Philip Roth's 2004 counterfactual alternative history novel, The Plot Against America; this portrayal engendered some controversy. Composer Constant Lambert (1936) described pieces such as L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) as containing, "essentially cold-blooded abstraction". He also lent his name to San Diego's Lindbergh Field, which is also known now as San Diego International Airport.

What has become of the works that made up the program of the Stravinsky concert which created such a stir a few years ago? Practically the whole lot are already on the shelf, and they will remain there until a few jaded neurotics once more feel a desire to eat ashes and fill their belly with the east wind." Musical Times, London, October 1923 (ibid.). Louis hangs there. "All the signs indicate a strong reaction against the nightmare of noise and eccentricity that was one of the legacies of the war... The Lindbergh Terminal at Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport was named after him and a replica of The Spirit of St. Practically it has no relation to music at all as most of us understand the word." Musical Times, London, August 1, 1913 (Slonimsky, 1953). — CAL. There is certainly an impelling rhythm traceable. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea.

To say that much of it is hideous as sound is a mild description. Died: Maui, 1974. "The music of Le Sacre du Printemps baffles verbal description. Lindbergh Born: Michigan, 1902. Yet their influence on succeeding generations of composers was equalled if not exceeded by that of Stravinsky. His epitaph, which quotes Psalms 139:9, reads: Charles A. It must also be noted that composers such as Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Arnold Schoenberg were also exploring some of these orchestral and instrumental techniques in the early 20th century. He was buried on the grounds of the Palapala Ho'omau Church.

The most famous passage is the opening of the Rite of Spring where Stravsinky uses the extreme reaches of the bassoon to simulate the symbolic "awakening" of a spring morning. Lindbergh spent his final years on the Hawaiian island of Maui, where he died of cancer on August 26, 1974. Another notable innovation of orchestral technique that can be partially attributed to Stravinsky is the exploitation of the extreme ranges of instruments. Many believe that the tragic kidnapping and death of his son Charles Augustus psychologically influenced him to foster these children in secret so as to compensate for his terrible loss. This combining of distinct timbres would become almost a cliche in post-World War II classical music. DNA tests have confirmed the truth of these assertions. For example, in L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) the forces used are clarinet, bassoon, tenor and bass trombone, double bass, cornet, violin and percussion, a very striking combination for its time (1918). She disclosed the affair in 2003, two years after both Brigitte Hesshaimer and Anne Morrow Lindbergh had died.

But it is when he started to turn away from this tendency that he began to innovate by introducing unique combinations of instruments. Astrid later read a magazine article about Lindbergh and found snapshots and more than a hundred letters written from him to her mother. Stravinsky continued this Romantic trend of writing for huge orchestral forces, especially in the early ballets. The two managed to keep the affair completely secret; even the children did not know the true identity of their father, whom they met sporadically when he came to visit. They, in turn, were influenced by the expansion of the traditional classical orchestra by Richard Wagner through his use of large forces and unusual instruments. They had three children together: Dyrk (born 1958), Astrid (born 1960), and David (born 1967). Composers such as Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler were well regarded for their skill at writing for the medium. From 1957 until his death in 1974, Lindbergh had an affair with a woman 24 years his junior, the German hat maker Brigitte Hesshaimer.

The late 19th century and early 20th century was a time ripe with orchestral innovation. In the 1960s, he became a spokesman for the conservation of the natural world, speaking in favor of the protection of whales, against super-sonic transport planes and was instrumental in establishing protections for the primitive Filipino group the Tasaday. He did this so well, in fact, that only in recent scholarship, such as in Richard Taruskin's Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra [1], have analysts uncovered the original source material for some of the music in The Rite. Eisenhower restored his assignment with the Army Air Corps and making him Brigadier General in 1954. He strips these themes to their most basic outline, melody alone, and often contorts them beyond recognition with additive notes, inversions, diminutions, and other techniques. Dwight D. Yet in Le Sacre du Printemps we see Stravinsky again innovating in his use of folk themes. Louis, recounting his non-stop transatlantic flight, won the Pulitzer Prize in 1954.

Two notable examples are Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály. His 1953 book The Spirit of St. There were other composers in the early 20th century who collected and augmented their native folk music and used these themes in their work. Air Force and to Pan American World Airways. Such compositional "borrowing" would come into vogue in the 1960s, as in the work Sinfonia by Luciano Berio. After World War II he lived quietly in Connecticut as a consultant both to the chief of staff of the U.S. Here it is the music of Tchaikovsky, specifically Swan Lake, that Stravinsky uses as his source. He also showed Marine F4U pilots how to take off with twice the bomb load that the aircraft was rated for.

He used the same technique in the ballet The Fairy's Kiss of 1928. This improved fuel usage in cruise, and enabled aircraft to fly longer range missions such as the one that killed Admiral Yamamoto. Here he uses the music of Pergolesi as source material, sometimes directly quoting it and other times simply reinventing it, to create a new and refreshing work. His contributions include engine-leaning techniques that Lindbergh showed P-38 Lightning pilots. Stravinsky used the now very postmodern technique of direct musical quotation and pastiche as early as 1920 in his work Pulcinella. He went on to assist with the war effort by serving as a civilian consultant to aviation companies and the government, as well as flying about 50 combat missions (again as a civilian) in 1944 in the Pacific. A sort of final statement for the style, the opera was largely ridiculed as too "backward looking" even by those who had lauded the new style only three decades earlier. However, after the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, he attempted to return to the Army Air Corps, but was denied when several of Roosevelt's cabinet secretaries registered objections.

Ironically, it was Stravinsky himself who announced the death of Neoclassicism, at least in his own work if not for the world, with the completion of his opera The Rake's Progress in 1951. Roosevelt openly questioned his loyalty. Certainly by the late 1920s and 1930s, Neoclassicism as an accepted modern genre was prevalent throughout art music circles around the world. Army Air Corps when President Franklin D. Stravinsky may have been preceded in these devices by earlier composers such as Erik Satie, but no doubt when Copland was composing his Appalachian Spring ballet he was taking Stravinsky as his model. We cannot allow the natural passions and prejudices of other people to lead our country to destruction." Lindbergh resigned his commission in the U.S. The clear harmonies, looking back to the Classical music era of Mozart and Bach, and the simpler combinations of rhythm and melody were a direct response to the complexities of the Second Viennese School. We cannot blame them for looking out for what they believe to be their own interests, but we also must look out for ours.

Stravinsky announced his new style in 1923 with the stripped-down and delicately scored Octet for winds. In the same speech, Lindbergh clearly communicated that he considered Jewish-Americans to not be patriotic when he said; "But I am saying that the leaders of both the British and Jewish races, for reasons which are understandable from their viewpoint as they are inadvisable from ours, for reasons which are not American, wish to involve us in the war. 1, "Classical" of 1916-17. In it, he pointed out that Americans had solidly opposed entering the war when it began, and that three groups had been "pressing this country toward war" -- the Roosevelt Administration, the British, and the Jews. Sergei Prokofiev once chided Stravinsky for his neo-classical mannerisms, though sympathetically, as Prokofiev had broken similar musical ground in his Symphony No. At an America First rally in Des Moines, Iowa, on September 11, 1941, he made a speech titled: "Who Are the War Agitators?". Stravinsky was the greatest, if not the first, practitioner of the "neoclassic" style, a style that would be later adopted by composers as diverse as Darius Milhaud and Aaron Copland. As American entry into the war began to seem inevitable, Lindbergh stated he would publicly name "the groups that were most powerful and effective in pushing the United States towards involvement in the war".

Such techniques foreshadowed by several decades the minimalist works of composers such as Terry Riley and Steve Reich. Lindbergh was also the major spokesman for America First providing many speeches during 1940-1941. These passages are notable not only for this pastiche-quality but also for their length: Stravinsky treats them as whole and complete musical sections. As Nazi Germany began World War II, Lindbergh became a prominent speaker in favor of isolationism, going so far as to recommended that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Germany during his January 23, 1941 testimony before Congress. At various other times in the work Stravinsky also pits several ostinati against one another without regard to harmony or tempo, creating a pastiche, a sort of musical equivalent of a Cubist painting. He would return to the United States as war broke out in Europe. This is perhaps the first instance in music of extended ostinato which is neither used for variation nor for accompaniment of melody. The Lindberghs lived in England and Brittany, France during the late 1930's in order to find tranquility and avoid the celebrity that followed them everywhere in the United States after the kidnapping trial.

The most famous passage, as noted above, is the eighth note ostinato of the strings accented by eight french horns that occurs in the section Auguries of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls). Lindbergh declined to return the medal to the Germans because he claimed that to do so would be "an unnecessary insult" to the Nazi leadership. The same ballet is also notable for its relentless use of ostinati. Lindbergh's decoration later caused an outcry in the United States. In the "Rite of Spring" he introduces additive permutations, that is, subtracting or adding a note to a motif without regard to changes in meter. Göring decorated Lindbergh with German medal of honor (the Verdienstkreuz Deutcher Adler) for his services to aviation and particularly for his 1927 flight. However, Stravinsky's use of motivic development was unique in the way he permutated his motifs. Willy Messerschmitt.

The first great innovator in this method was Beethoven; the famous "fate motif" which opens Fifth Symphony and reappears throughout the work in surprising and refreshing permutations is a classic example. The dinner included diplomats and three of the greatest minds of German aviation, Ernst Heinkel, Adolf Baeumaker, and Dr. Motivic development, that is using a distinct musical phrase that is subsequently altered and developed throughout a piece of music, has its roots in the sonata form of Mozart's age. In 1938 the American ambassador to Germany, Hugh Wilson invited Lindbergh to a dinner with Hermann Göring at the American embassy in Berlin to improve American-German relations. Stravinsky began re-thinking his use of the motif and ostinato as early as The Firebird ballet, but his use of these elements reached its full flowering in The Rite of Spring. Lindbergh also undertook a survey of aviation in the Soviet Union in 1938. As a consequence, his influence on composers both during his lifetime and after his death was, and remains, considerable. Lindbergh was intrigued, and stated that Germany had taken a leading part in a number of aviation developments, including metal construction, low-wing designs, dirigibles, and Diesel engines.

Stravinsky's work embraced multiple compositional styles, revolutionised orchestration, spanned several genres, practically reinvented ballet form and incorporated multiple cultures, languages and literatures. military, where he reported on German aviation and the Luftwaffe (air force). Indeed, these characteristics are what make Stravinsky's output so unique when compared with the work of contemporaneous serial composers. In Europe during the rise of fascism, Lindbergh traveled to Germany several times at the behest of the U.S. The ballet is thus a sort of miniature encyclopedia of Stravinsky, containing many of the signatures to be found throughout his compositions, whether primitivist, neo-classic, or serial: rhythmic quirkiness and experimentation, harmonic ingenuity, and a deft ear for masterful orchestration. Hauptmann, who maintained his innocence until the end, was found guilty and was executed on April 3, 1936. Some numbers of Agon recollect the "white-note" tonality of the neo-classic period, while others (the Bransle Gay, e.g.) display his unique re-interpretation of serial method. Tired of being in the spotlight and still mourning the loss of their son, the Lindberghs moved to Europe in December 1935.

An important transitional work of this period in Stravinsky's work, was a return to the ballet: Agon, a work for twelve dancers written from 1954 to 1957. More than three years later, a media circus ensued when the man accused of the murder, Bruno Hauptmann, went on trial. He later began expanding his use of the technique in works often based on biblical texts, such as Threni (1958), A Sermon, a Narrative, and a Prayer (1961), and The Flood (1962). The boy was found dead on May 12 in Hopewell, New Jersey just a few miles from the Lindbergh's home, after a nation-wide ten week search and ransom negotiations with the kidnappers. Stravinsky first began to dabble in the twelve tone technique in smaller vocal works such as the Cantata (1952), Three Songs from Shakespeare (1953) and In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954), as if he were testing the system. Their son Charles Augustus, 20 months old, was abducted on March 1, 1932 from their home. Regardless, the next fifteen years were spent writing the works in this style. Main article: Lindbergh kidnapping.

No doubt, Stravinsky was aided in his understanding of, or even conversion to, the twelve tone method by his confidant and helper Robert Craft, who had long been advocating the change. The two had six children: Charles Augustus, Jr.(born 1930), Jon (1932), Land (1937), Anne (1940), Scott (1942) and Reeve (1945). Only after the death of Arnold Schoenberg, the inventor of the twelve tone system, in 1951 did Stravinsky begin making use of the technique in his own works. He taught her how to fly and did much of the exploring and charting of air-routes together with her. After the opera's completion Stravinsky never wrote another "neo-classic" work and instead began writing the music that came to define his final stylistic change. He married the author Anne Morrow Lindbergh in 1929. The music is direct but quirky; it borrows from classic tonal harmony but also interjects surprising dissonances; it features Stravinsky's trademark off-rhythms; and it harkens back to the operas and themes of Monteverdi, Gluck and Mozart.
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This opera, written to a libretto by Auden and based on the etchings of Hogarth, encapsulates everything that Stravinsky had perfected in the previous 20 years of his neo-classic period. These innovations are the basis of modern intercontinental air travel. The pinnacle of this period is the opera The Rake's Progress completed in 1951. Lindbergh is recognized in aviation for demonstrating and charting polar air-routes, high altitude flying techniques, and increasing aircraft flying range by decreasing fuel consumption. Apollon, Persephone (1933) and Orpheus (1947) also mark Stravinsky's concern, during this period, of not only returning to "Classic" music but also returning to "Classic" themes: in these instances, the mythology of the ancient Greeks. On March 21, 1929 he was presented the Medal of Honor for his historic trans-Atlantic flight. Some larger works from this period are the three symphonies: the Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) (1930), Symphony in C (1940) and Symphony in Three Movements (1945). He served on a variety of national and international boards and committees, including the central committee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in the United States.

Other works such as Oedipus Rex (1927), Apollon Musagete (1928) and the Dumbarton Oaks concerto continue this trend. A ticker-tape parade was held for him down 5th Avenue in New York City on June 13, 1927.[1] His public stature following this flight was such that he became an important voice on behalf of aviation activities until his death. In these new works, written roughly between 1920 and 1950, Stravinsky turns largely to wind instruments, the piano, and choral and chamber works. Lindbergh's accomplishment won him the Orteig Prize of $25,000 on offer since 1919. This "neo-classical" style involved the abandonment of the large orchestras demanded by the ballets. That had been done first in stages by the crew of the NC-4 in May 1919, with the first non-stop flight made by Alcock and Brown in June 1919. Both of these works feature what was to become a hallmark of this period; that is, Stravinsky's return, or "looking back", to the classical music of Mozart and Bach and their contemporaries. (His grandson Erik Lindbergh repeated this trip 75 years later in 2002.) Although Lindbergh was the first to fly from New York to Paris nonstop, he was not the first to make a Transatlantic flight.

The next phase of Stravinsky's compositional style, slightly overlapping the first, is marked by two works: Pulcinella 1920 and the Octet (1923) for wind instruments. He needed 33.5 hours for the trip. Other pieces from this period include: Renard (1916), Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918), and Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923). Louis which had been designed by Donald Hall and custom built by Ryan Airlines of San Diego, California. There are several famous passages in the work, but two are of particular note: the opening theme played on a bassoon with notes at the very top of its register, almost out of range; and the thumping, off kilter eighth-note motif played by strings and accented by French horns on off-rhythms (See Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for a more detailed account of this work). Lindbergh gained sudden great international fame as the first pilot to fly solo and non-stop across the Atlantic Ocean, flying from Roosevelt Airfield (Nassau County, Long Island), New York to Paris on May 20-May 21, 1927 in his single-engine airplane The Spirit of St. Here, the composer draws on the brutalism of pagan Russia, reflecting these sentiments in roughly-drawn, stinging motifs that appear throughout the work. In April 1923, while visiting friends in Lake Village, Arkansas, Lindbergh made his first ever night-time flight over Lake Village and Lake Chicot.

But it is the third ballet, The Rite of Spring, that is generally considered the apotheosis of Stravinsky's "Russian Period". Louis in the 1920s. Petrushka, too, is distinctively scored and the first of Stravinsky's ballets to draw on folk mythology. After finishing first in his class, he worked as a civilian airmail pilot on the line St. The first of the ballets, L'oiseau de feu, is notable for its unusual introduction (triplets in the low basses) and sweeping orchestration. military aviator with the United States Army Air Corps. The ballets have several shared characteristics: they are scored for extremely large orchestras; they use Russian folk themes and motifs; and they bear the mark of Rimsky-Korsakov's imaginative scoring and instrumentation. In 1924, he started training as a U.S.

The first of Stravinsky's major stylistic periods (excluding some early minor works) was inaugurated by the three ballets he composed for Diaghilev. In 1922 he quit a mechanical engineering program, joined a pilot and mechanist training with Nebraska Aircraft, bought his own airplane, a Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny", and became a stunt pilot. Most of his compositions can be placed in one of the three. Early on he showed an interest in machines. Stravinsky's career largely falls into three distinct stylistic periods. into World War I; his mother was a chemistry teacher. He has a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6340 Hollywood Boulevard. congressman who opposed the entry of the U.S.

Stravinsky's life had encompassed most of the 20th Century, including many of its modern classical music styles, and he influenced composers both during and after his lifetime. His father, Charles August Lindbergh, was a lawyer and later a U.S. His grave is close to the tomb of his long-time collaborator Diaghilev. He grew up in Little Falls, Minnesota. He died in New York City on April 6, 1971 at the age of 88 and was buried in Venice on the cemetery island of San Michele. Lindbergh was born in Detroit, Michigan, the son of Swedish immigrants. In 1962 he accepted an invitation to return to Russia for a series of concerts, but remained an émigré firmly based in the West. .

At the end of his life he was even setting Hebrew scripture in Abraham and Isaac. Charles Augustus Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974) was a pioneering United States aviator famous for piloting the first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927. The texts and literary sources for his work began with a period of interest in Russian folklore, progressed to classical authors and the Latin liturgy, and moved on to contemporary France (André Gide, in Persephone) and eventually English literature: Auden, Eliot, and medieval English verse. Stravinsky's taste in literature was wide and reflected his constant desire for new discoveries. Craft lived with Stravinsky until his death, acting as interpreter, chronicler, assistant conductor and factotum for countless musical and social tasks.

Auden, the need to acquire more familiarity with the English-speaking world coincided with his meeting the conductor and musicologist Robert Craft. H. When he planned to write an opera with W. For a time he preserved a ring of emigré Russian friends and contacts, but eventually realised that this would not sustain his intellectual and professional life in the USA.

Stravinsky had adapted to life in France, but moving to America aged 58 was a very different prospect. He continued to live in the United States until his death in 1971, unsuccessfully writing music for films. He moved to the United States in 1939 and became a naturalized citizen in 1945. He returned to Paris in 1920 to write more ballets as well as many other works.

However, because of World War I and the October Revolution in Russia he moved to Switzerland in 1914. That ballet ended up being the famous L'Oiseau de Feu. He commissioned Stravinsky to write a ballet for his theater; so in 1911, Stravinsky traveled to Paris. Eventually Stravinsky's music was noticed by Serge Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris.

At the same time he had a disregard of his social inferiors: Robert Craft was embarrassed by his habit of tapping a glass with a fork and loudly demanding attention in restaurants. For example, Otto Klemperer, who knew Schoenberg well, said that he always found Stravinsky much more co-operative and easy to deal with. Most people who knew him through dealings connected with performances spoke of him as polite, courteous and helpful. Paris, Venice, Berlin, London and New York all hosted successful appearances as pianist and conductor.

Stravinsky proved adept at playing the part of "man of the world", acquiring a keen instinct for business matters and appearing relaxed and comfortable in many of the world's major cities. The composer was also able to attract commissions: most of his work from The Firebird onwards was written for specific occasions and paid for generously. In the early 1920s Leopold Stokowski was able to give Stravinsky regular support through a pseudonymous "benefactor". Patronage too was never far away.

After her death Stravinsky and Vera were married in New York where they had gone from France to escape the war in 1940. Katerina soon learned of the relationship and accepted it as inevitable and permanent. From then until the death of Katerina in 1939 Stravinsky led a deft double-life, spending some of his time with his first family and the rest with Vera. When Stravinsky met Vera in the early 1920s she was married to the painter and stage designer Serge Sudeikin, but they soon began an affair which led to her leaving her husband.

Their marriage endured for 33 years, but the true love of his life, and partner until his death, was his second wife Vera de Bosset (1888-1982). He was still young when he married his cousin Katerina Nossenko, who he had known since early childhood, on 23 January 1906. Although a notorious philanderer (even rumoured to have affairs with high-class partners such as Coco Chanel) Stravinsky was also a family man who devoted considerable amounts of his time and expenditure to his sons and daughters. Relatively short of stature and not conventionally handsome, Stravinsky was nevertheless photogenic, as many pictures show.

Not only was he the principal composer for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballet Russes, but Stravinsky also collaborated with Pablo Picasso (Pulcinella, 1920), Jean Cocteau (Oedipus Rex, 1927) and George Balanchine (Apollon Musagete, 1928). This desire manifested itself in several of his Paris collaborations. Stravinsky displayed an inexhaustible desire to learn and explore art, literature, and life. (He succeeded: the 1913 première of Le sacre du printemps turned into a riot.).

As he himself said, with these premieres his intention was "[to send] them all to hell". The ballets trace his stylistic development: from the L'oiseau de feu, whose style draws largely on Rimsky-Korsakov, to Petrushka's emphasis on bitonality, and finally to the savage polyphonic dissonance of Le sacre du printemps. During his stay in the city, he composed three major works for the Ballets Russes—L'oiseau de feu, Petrushka (1911), and Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) (1913). Stravinsky left Russia for the first time in 1910, going to Paris to attend the premiere of his ballet L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird).

In 1902, at the age of 20, Stravinsky became the pupil of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, probably the leading Russian composer of the time. Composition came later. Petersburg, Stravinsky originally studied to be a lawyer. Though his father was a bass singer at the Mariinsky Theater in St.

Petersburg and dominated by his father and elder brother, Stravinsky's early childhood was a mix of experience that hinted little at the cosmopolitan artist he was to become. Brought up in an apartment in St. Petersburg, Russia. Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov), near St.

. He was named by Time magazine as one of the most influential people of the century. A quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian, Stravinsky was one of the most authoritative composers in 20th century music, both in the West and in his native land. Robert Craft transcribed several interviews with the composer, which were published as Conversations with Stravinsky.

In it, he famously claimed that music was incapable of "expressing anything but itself". With the help of Alexis Roland-Manuel, Stravinsky composed a theoretical work entitled Poetics of Music. He was also a writer. Stravinsky also achieved fame as a pianist and conductor, often at the premieres of his own works.

His oeuvre included everything from symphonies to piano miniatures. Stravinsky also wrote in a broad spectrum of ensemble combinations and classical forms. For some, these ballets practically reinvented the genre. He composed in the neo-classical and serialist styles, but he is best known for two works from his earlier, Russian period: Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) and L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird).

Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian-American composer of modern classical music. Milan Kundera, Testaments Betrayed: An Essay in Nine Parts, ISBN 0060927518. The composer and his works, ISBN 0571049230. Eric Walter White, Stravinsky.

Ghostwritten by Walter Nouvel. Igor Stravinsky, An Autobiography, ISBN 0393318567. Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Conversations with Stravinsky, ISBN 0520040406 . Ghostwritten by Alexis Roland-Manuel.

Igor Stravinsky, Poetics of Music, ISBN 674678559. ISBN 0295785799. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Lexicon of Musical Invective: Critical Assaults on Composers Since Beethoven's Time.

Slonimsky, Nicolas (1953). Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship, Vanderbilt University Press, 1997. Robert Craft. Stravinsky: Glimpses of a Life, St Martins Press, 1993.

Robert Craft. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Music Ho! A Study of Music in Decline, p.94–94 and 101–105. Lambert, Constant (1936).

Category:Compositions by Igor Stravinsky. The Owl and the Pussy Cat for soprano and piano (1966). Elegy for J.F.K. for baritone and three clarinets (1964). In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (Dirge Canons and Song) (1954).

Four Russian Songs for mezzo-soprano, flute, harp and guitar (1954, versions from Quatre chants russes and Three Tales for Children). Three Songs from William Shakespeare for mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet, and viola (1953). Petit ramusianum harmonique single voice or voices (1938). Quatre chants russes Quatre chants russes for voice and piano (1918/1919).

Berceuse for voice and piano (1918). Four Russian Peasant Songs for female voice unaccompanied (1917). Three Tales for Children for voice and piano (1917). Berceuses du Chat for contralto and three clarinets (1916).

Pribaoutki for voice, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, vln, vla, vc, double bass (1914). Trois petites chansons voice and piano (or small orchestra) (1913/1930). Trois poésies de la lyrique japonaise for voice and piano or chamber orchestra (1913). Balmont for voice and piano or small orchestra (1911/1954).

Two Poems of K. Deux poèmes de Paul Verlaine for bariton and piano or orchestra Op.9 (1910/1951). Two Melodies for mezzo-soprano and piano Op.6 (1908). Pastorale wordless soprano and piano (1907).

2 (1907). Faun and Shepherdess for mezzo-soprano and orchestra Op. Romance for Voice and Piano (1902). The Flood (1962).

The Rake's Progress (1951). Babel (1944). Oedipus Rex (1927). Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923).

Mavra (1922). Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918). Burleske for 4 Pantomimes and Chamber Orchestra (1916). Le rossignol (The Nightingale) (1914).

Requiem Canticles (1966). Introitus (1965). Abraham and Isaac (1963). A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer (1961).

Threni (1958). Canticum Sacrum (1955). Cantata for soprano, tenor, female voices, 2 flutes, oboe, English horn, cello (1953-1954). Mass (1948).

Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) for chorus and orchestra (1930). Pater Noster (1926). Le roi des étoiles (The King of the Stars) for Men's Choir and Orchestra (1912). Fanfare for a New Theatre for two trumpets (1964).

Monumentum Pro Gesualdo Di Venosa (arrangement) for chamber ensemble (1960). Double Canon for string quartet 'Raoul Dufy in Memoriam' (1959). Epitaphium for flute, clarinet and harp (1959). Septet (1953).

Elegy for solo viola (1944). Suite Italienne (from Pulcinella) for violin or cello and piano (1933/34). Pastorale for violin and piano (1933). Duo Concertant for violin and piano (1932).

Octet for wind instruments (1923). Concertino for string quartet (1920). Three Pieces for Clarinet (1919). Suite from Histoire du Soldat for violin, clarinet and piano (1919).

Duet for two bassoons (1918). Canon for two horns (1917). Pour Pablo Picasso, Piece for clarinet (1917). Three Pieces for string quartet (1914).

Two Sketches for a Sonata for piano (1967). Sonata for Two Pianos (1943). Tango for piano (1940). Concerto for Two Pianos (1935).

Serenade for piano (1925). Sonata for piano (1924). Les Cinq Doigts for piano (1921). Chorale for piano (1920).

Piano Rag Music for piano (1919). Valse pour les Enfants for piano (1917). Cinq piéces faciles for two pianos (1917). Souvenir d'une Marche Boche for piano (1915).

Trois piéces faciles for two pianos (1915). Valse des fleurs for two pianos (1914). Le Sacre du Printemps for two pianos (1913). Quatre Etudes for piano Op.7 (1908).

Sonata in F-Sharp Minor for piano (1904). Scherzo for piano (1902). Tarantella for piano (1898). Variations (Aldous Huxley in Memoriam) for orchestra (1963–1964).

8 Instrumental miniatures for 15 Players (1963, orchestration of Les Cinq Doigts). Movements for Piano and Orchestra (1958–[[1959]). Greeting Prelude for orchestra (1955). Tango for chamber orchestra (1940/1953).

Concerto in D for string orchestra (1946). Ebony Concerto for clarinet and jazz band (1945). Symphony in Three Movements (1945). Scherzo a la Russe for orchestra (1944).

Ode for orchestra (1943). Four Norwegian Moods for orchestra (1942). Danses Concertantes for chamber orchestra (1942). Circus Polka for orchestra (1942).

Symphony in C (1940). Concerto in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks) for Chamber Orchestra (1938). Preludium for jazz band (1937). Divertimento for orchestra (Suite from Le Baiser du Fee, 1934).

Concerto in D for violin and orchestra (1931). Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra (1929). Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments (1925). Suite No.1 for chamber orchestra (1925).

Suite No.2 for chamber orchestra (1921). Suite from Pulcinella for orchestra (1920). Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920). Quatre études for orchestra (1918).

Le chant du rossignol (Song of the Nightingale) (1917). Feu d'artifice (Fireworks) (1908). Scherzo fantastique (1908). Symphony in E-Flat Major (1907).

Agon for chamber orchestra (1957). Orpheus for chamber orchestra (1947). Jeu de cartes for orchestra (1936). Perséphone for speaker, soloists, chorus and orchestra (1933).

Le baiser de la fée (The Fairy's Kiss) for orchestra (1928). Apollon Musagète for string orchestra (1928). Pulcinella for chamber orchestra and soloists (1920). Renard (1916).

Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for orchestra (1913). Petrushka for orchestra (1911). L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird) for orchestra (1910).

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