Igor Stravinsky

Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian-American composer of modern classical music. He composed in the neo-classical and serialist styles, but he is best known for two works from his earlier, Russian period: Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) and L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). For some, these ballets practically reinvented the genre. Stravinsky also wrote in a broad spectrum of ensemble combinations and classical forms. His oeuvre included everything from symphonies to piano miniatures.

Stravinsky is shown here conducting the Columbia Symphony Orchestra in Petrushka.

Stravinsky also achieved fame as a pianist and conductor, often at the premieres of his own works. He was also a writer. With the help of Alexis Roland-Manuel, Stravinsky composed a theoretical work entitled Poetics of Music. In it, he famously claimed that music was incapable of "expressing anything but itself". Robert Craft transcribed several interviews with the composer, which were published as Conversations with Stravinsky.

A quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian, Stravinsky was one of the most authoritative composers in 20th century music, both in the West and in his native land. He was named by Time magazine as one of the most influential people of the century.

Biography

Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov), near St. Petersburg, Russia. Brought up in an apartment in St. Petersburg and dominated by his father and elder brother, Stravinsky's early childhood was a mix of experience that hinted little at the cosmopolitan artist he was to become. Though his father was a bass singer at the Mariinsky Theater in St. Petersburg, Stravinsky originally studied to be a lawyer. Composition came later. In 1902, at the age of 20, Stravinsky became the pupil of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, probably the leading Russian composer of the time.

Stravinsky left Russia for the first time in 1910, going to Paris to attend the premiere of his ballet L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). During his stay in the city, he composed three major works for the Ballets Russes—L'oiseau de feu, Petrushka (1911), and Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) (1913). The ballets trace his stylistic development: from the L'oiseau de feu, whose style draws largely on Rimsky-Korsakov, to Petrushka's emphasis on bitonality, and finally to the savage polyphonic dissonance of Le sacre du printemps. As he himself said, with these premieres his intention was "[to send] them all to hell". (He succeeded: the 1913 première of Le sacre du printemps turned into a riot.)

Stravinsky displayed an inexhaustible desire to learn and explore art, literature, and life. This desire manifested itself in several of his Paris collaborations. Not only was he the principal composer for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballet Russes, but Stravinsky also collaborated with Pablo Picasso (Pulcinella, 1920), Jean Cocteau (Oedipus Rex, 1927) and George Balanchine (Apollon Musagete, 1928).

Stravinsky and Pablo Picasso collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several sketches of the composer.

Relatively short of stature and not conventionally handsome, Stravinsky was nevertheless photogenic, as many pictures show. Although a notorious philanderer (even rumoured to have affairs with high-class partners such as Coco Chanel) Stravinsky was also a family man who devoted considerable amounts of his time and expenditure to his sons and daughters. He was still young when he married his cousin Katerina Nossenko, who he had known since early childhood, on 23 January 1906. Their marriage endured for 33 years, but the true love of his life, and partner until his death, was his second wife Vera de Bosset (1888-1982).

When Stravinsky met Vera in the early 1920s she was married to the painter and stage designer Serge Sudeikin, but they soon began an affair which led to her leaving her husband. From then until the death of Katerina in 1939 Stravinsky led a deft double-life, spending some of his time with his first family and the rest with Vera. Katerina soon learned of the relationship and accepted it as inevitable and permanent. After her death Stravinsky and Vera were married in New York where they had gone from France to escape the war in 1940.

Patronage too was never far away. In the early 1920s Leopold Stokowski was able to give Stravinsky regular support through a pseudonymous "benefactor". The composer was also able to attract commissions: most of his work from The Firebird onwards was written for specific occasions and paid for generously.

Stravinsky proved adept at playing the part of "man of the world", acquiring a keen instinct for business matters and appearing relaxed and comfortable in many of the world's major cities. Paris, Venice, Berlin, London and New York all hosted successful appearances as pianist and conductor. Most people who knew him through dealings connected with performances spoke of him as polite, courteous and helpful. For example, Otto Klemperer, who knew Schoenberg well, said that he always found Stravinsky much more co-operative and easy to deal with. At the same time he had a disregard of his social inferiors: Robert Craft was embarrassed by his habit of tapping a glass with a fork and loudly demanding attention in restaurants.

Eventually Stravinsky's music was noticed by Serge Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris. He commissioned Stravinsky to write a ballet for his theater; so in 1911, Stravinsky traveled to Paris. That ballet ended up being the famous L'Oiseau de Feu. However, because of World War I and the October Revolution in Russia he moved to Switzerland in 1914. He returned to Paris in 1920 to write more ballets as well as many other works. He moved to the United States in 1939 and became a naturalized citizen in 1945. He continued to live in the United States until his death in 1971, unsuccessfully writing music for films. Stravinsky had adapted to life in France, but moving to America aged 58 was a very different prospect. For a time he preserved a ring of emigré Russian friends and contacts, but eventually realised that this would not sustain his intellectual and professional life in the USA. When he planned to write an opera with W. H. Auden, the need to acquire more familiarity with the English-speaking world coincided with his meeting the conductor and musicologist Robert Craft. Craft lived with Stravinsky until his death, acting as interpreter, chronicler, assistant conductor and factotum for countless musical and social tasks.

The graves of Igor and Vera Stravinsky on San Michele

Stravinsky's taste in literature was wide and reflected his constant desire for new discoveries. The texts and literary sources for his work began with a period of interest in Russian folklore, progressed to classical authors and the Latin liturgy, and moved on to contemporary France (André Gide, in Persephone) and eventually English literature: Auden, Eliot, and medieval English verse. At the end of his life he was even setting Hebrew scripture in Abraham and Isaac.

In 1962 he accepted an invitation to return to Russia for a series of concerts, but remained an émigré firmly based in the West.

He died in New York City on April 6, 1971 at the age of 88 and was buried in Venice on the cemetery island of San Michele. His grave is close to the tomb of his long-time collaborator Diaghilev. Stravinsky's life had encompassed most of the 20th Century, including many of its modern classical music styles, and he influenced composers both during and after his lifetime. He has a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6340 Hollywood Boulevard.

Stylistic periods

Stravinsky's career largely falls into three distinct stylistic periods. Most of his compositions can be placed in one of the three.

The Primitive, or Russian, Period

The first of Stravinsky's major stylistic periods (excluding some early minor works) was inaugurated by the three ballets he composed for Diaghilev. The ballets have several shared characteristics: they are scored for extremely large orchestras; they use Russian folk themes and motifs; and they bear the mark of Rimsky-Korsakov's imaginative scoring and instrumentation.

The first of the ballets, L'oiseau de feu, is notable for its unusual introduction (triplets in the low basses) and sweeping orchestration. Petrushka, too, is distinctively scored and the first of Stravinsky's ballets to draw on folk mythology. But it is the third ballet, The Rite of Spring, that is generally considered the apotheosis of Stravinsky's "Russian Period". Here, the composer draws on the brutalism of pagan Russia, reflecting these sentiments in roughly-drawn, stinging motifs that appear throughout the work. There are several famous passages in the work, but two are of particular note: the opening theme played on a bassoon with notes at the very top of its register, almost out of range; and the thumping, off kilter eighth-note motif played by strings and accented by French horns on off-rhythms (See Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for a more detailed account of this work).

Other pieces from this period include: Renard (1916), Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918), and Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923).

The Neo-Classical Period

The next phase of Stravinsky's compositional style, slightly overlapping the first, is marked by two works: Pulcinella 1920 and the Octet (1923) for wind instruments. Both of these works feature what was to become a hallmark of this period; that is, Stravinsky's return, or "looking back", to the classical music of Mozart and Bach and their contemporaries. This "neo-classical" style involved the abandonment of the large orchestras demanded by the ballets. In these new works, written roughly between 1920 and 1950, Stravinsky turns largely to wind instruments, the piano, and choral and chamber works.

Other works such as Oedipus Rex (1927), Apollon Musagete (1928) and the Dumbarton Oaks concerto continue this trend.

Some larger works from this period are the three symphonies: the Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) (1930), Symphony in C (1940) and Symphony in Three Movements (1945). Apollon, Persephone (1933) and Orpheus (1947) also mark Stravinsky's concern, during this period, of not only returning to "Classic" music but also returning to "Classic" themes: in these instances, the mythology of the ancient Greeks.

The pinnacle of this period is the opera The Rake's Progress completed in 1951. This opera, written to a libretto by Auden and based on the etchings of Hogarth, encapsulates everything that Stravinsky had perfected in the previous 20 years of his neo-classic period. The music is direct but quirky; it borrows from classic tonal harmony but also interjects surprising dissonances; it features Stravinsky's trademark off-rhythms; and it harkens back to the operas and themes of Monteverdi, Gluck and Mozart.

After the opera's completion Stravinsky never wrote another "neo-classic" work and instead began writing the music that came to define his final stylistic change.

The Serialist, or Twelve Tone Period

Only after the death of Arnold Schoenberg, the inventor of the twelve tone system, in 1951 did Stravinsky begin making use of the technique in his own works. No doubt, Stravinsky was aided in his understanding of, or even conversion to, the twelve tone method by his confidant and helper Robert Craft, who had long been advocating the change. Regardless, the next fifteen years were spent writing the works in this style.

Stravinsky first began to dabble in the twelve tone technique in smaller vocal works such as the Cantata (1952), Three Songs from Shakespeare (1953) and In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954), as if he were testing the system. He later began expanding his use of the technique in works often based on biblical texts, such as Threni (1958), A Sermon, a Narrative, and a Prayer (1961), and The Flood (1962).

An important transitional work of this period in Stravinsky's work, was a return to the ballet: Agon, a work for twelve dancers written from 1954 to 1957. Some numbers of Agon recollect the "white-note" tonality of the neo-classic period, while others (the Bransle Gay, e.g.) display his unique re-interpretation of serial method. The ballet is thus a sort of miniature encyclopedia of Stravinsky, containing many of the signatures to be found throughout his compositions, whether primitivist, neo-classic, or serial: rhythmic quirkiness and experimentation, harmonic ingenuity, and a deft ear for masterful orchestration. Indeed, these characteristics are what make Stravinsky's output so unique when compared with the work of contemporaneous serial composers.

Influence and innovation

Stravinsky's work embraced multiple compositional styles, revolutionised orchestration, spanned several genres, practically reinvented ballet form and incorporated multiple cultures, languages and literatures. As a consequence, his influence on composers both during his lifetime and after his death was, and remains, considerable.

Compositional innovations

Stravinsky began re-thinking his use of the motif and ostinato as early as The Firebird ballet, but his use of these elements reached its full flowering in The Rite of Spring.

Motivic development, that is using a distinct musical phrase that is subsequently altered and developed throughout a piece of music, has its roots in the sonata form of Mozart's age. The first great innovator in this method was Beethoven; the famous "fate motif" which opens Fifth Symphony and reappears throughout the work in surprising and refreshing permutations is a classic example. However, Stravinsky's use of motivic development was unique in the way he permutated his motifs. In the "Rite of Spring" he introduces additive permutations, that is, subtracting or adding a note to a motif without regard to changes in meter.

The same ballet is also notable for its relentless use of ostinati. The most famous passage, as noted above, is the eighth note ostinato of the strings accented by eight french horns that occurs in the section Auguries of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls). This is perhaps the first instance in music of extended ostinato which is neither used for variation nor for accompaniment of melody. At various other times in the work Stravinsky also pits several ostinati against one another without regard to harmony or tempo, creating a pastiche, a sort of musical equivalent of a Cubist painting. These passages are notable not only for this pastiche-quality but also for their length: Stravinsky treats them as whole and complete musical sections.

Such techniques foreshadowed by several decades the minimalist works of composers such as Terry Riley and Steve Reich.

Neoclassicism

Stravinsky was the greatest, if not the first, practitioner of the "neoclassic" style, a style that would be later adopted by composers as diverse as Darius Milhaud and Aaron Copland. Sergei Prokofiev once chided Stravinsky for his neo-classical mannerisms, though sympathetically, as Prokofiev had broken similar musical ground in his Symphony No. 1, "Classical" of 1916-17.

Stravinsky announced his new style in 1923 with the stripped-down and delicately scored Octet for winds. The clear harmonies, looking back to the Classical music era of Mozart and Bach, and the simpler combinations of rhythm and melody were a direct response to the complexities of the Second Viennese School. Stravinsky may have been preceded in these devices by earlier composers such as Erik Satie, but no doubt when Copland was composing his Appalachian Spring ballet he was taking Stravinsky as his model.

Certainly by the late 1920s and 1930s, Neoclassicism as an accepted modern genre was prevalent throughout art music circles around the world. Ironically, it was Stravinsky himself who announced the death of Neoclassicism, at least in his own work if not for the world, with the completion of his opera The Rake's Progress in 1951. A sort of final statement for the style, the opera was largely ridiculed as too "backward looking" even by those who had lauded the new style only three decades earlier.

Quotation and pastiche

Stravinsky used the now very postmodern technique of direct musical quotation and pastiche as early as 1920 in his work Pulcinella. Here he uses the music of Pergolesi as source material, sometimes directly quoting it and other times simply reinventing it, to create a new and refreshing work. He used the same technique in the ballet The Fairy's Kiss of 1928. Here it is the music of Tchaikovsky, specifically Swan Lake, that Stravinsky uses as his source. Such compositional "borrowing" would come into vogue in the 1960s, as in the work Sinfonia by Luciano Berio.

Use of folk material

There were other composers in the early 20th century who collected and augmented their native folk music and used these themes in their work. Two notable examples are Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály. Yet in Le Sacre du Printemps we see Stravinsky again innovating in his use of folk themes. He strips these themes to their most basic outline, melody alone, and often contorts them beyond recognition with additive notes, inversions, diminutions, and other techniques. He did this so well, in fact, that only in recent scholarship, such as in Richard Taruskin's Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra [1], have analysts uncovered the original source material for some of the music in The Rite.

Orchestral innovations

The late 19th century and early 20th century was a time ripe with orchestral innovation. Composers such as Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler were well regarded for their skill at writing for the medium. They, in turn, were influenced by the expansion of the traditional classical orchestra by Richard Wagner through his use of large forces and unusual instruments.

Stravinsky continued this Romantic trend of writing for huge orchestral forces, especially in the early ballets. But it is when he started to turn away from this tendency that he began to innovate by introducing unique combinations of instruments. For example, in L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) the forces used are clarinet, bassoon, tenor and bass trombone, double bass, cornet, violin and percussion, a very striking combination for its time (1918). This combining of distinct timbres would become almost a cliche in post-World War II classical music.

Another notable innovation of orchestral technique that can be partially attributed to Stravinsky is the exploitation of the extreme ranges of instruments. The most famous passage is the opening of the Rite of Spring where Stravsinky uses the extreme reaches of the bassoon to simulate the symbolic "awakening" of a spring morning.

It must also be noted that composers such as Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Arnold Schoenberg were also exploring some of these orchestral and instrumental techniques in the early 20th century. Yet their influence on succeeding generations of composers was equalled if not exceeded by that of Stravinsky.

Criticism

"The music of Le Sacre du Printemps baffles verbal description. To say that much of it is hideous as sound is a mild description. There is certainly an impelling rhythm traceable. Practically it has no relation to music at all as most of us understand the word." Musical Times, London, August 1, 1913 (Slonimsky, 1953)

"All the signs indicate a strong reaction against the nightmare of noise and eccentricity that was one of the legacies of the war.... What has become of the works that made up the program of the Stravinsky concert which created such a stir a few years ago? Practically the whole lot are already on the shelf, and they will remain there until a few jaded neurotics once more feel a desire to eat ashes and fill their belly with the east wind." Musical Times, London, October 1923 (ibid.)

Composer Constant Lambert (1936) described pieces such as L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) as containing, "essentially cold-blooded abstraction". Further, the "melodic fragments in L'Histoire du Soldat are completely meaningless themselves. They are merely successions of notes that can conveniently be divided into groups of three, five, and seven and set against other mathematical groups", and the cadenza for solo drums is, "musical purity...achieved by a species of musical castration". He compares Stravinsky's choice of, "the drabbest and least significant phrases", to Gertrude Stein's: "Everday they were gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday" ("Helen Furr and Georgine Skeene", 1922), "whose effect would be equally appreciated by someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever".

In his book Philosophy of Modern Music (1948) Theodor Adorno calls Stravinsky an acrobat, a civil servant, a tailor's dummy, hebephrenic, psychotic, infantile, fascist, and devoted to making money. Part of the composer's error, in Adorno's view, was his neo-classicism, but more important was his music's "pseudomorphism of painting", playing off of le temps éspace (space) rather than le temps durée (duration) of Henri Bergson. "One trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's formal endeavors: the effort of his music to portray time as in a circus tableau and to present time complexes as though they were spatial. This trick, however, soon exhausts itself." (1948)

List of works

Ballets

  • L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird) for orchestra (1910)
  • Petrushka for orchestra (1911)
  • Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for orchestra (1913)
  • Renard (1916)
  • Pulcinella for chamber orchestra and soloists (1920)
  • Apollon Musagète for string orchestra (1928)
  • Le baiser de la fée (The Fairy's Kiss) for orchestra (1928)
  • Perséphone for speaker, soloists, chorus and orchestra (1933)
  • Jeu de cartes for orchestra (1936)
  • Orpheus for chamber orchestra (1947)
  • Agon for chamber orchestra (1957)

Orchestral works

  • Symphony in E-Flat Major (1907)
  • Scherzo fantastique (1908)
  • Feu d'artifice (Fireworks) (1908)
  • Le chant du rossignol (Song of the Nightingale) (1917)
  • Quatre études for orchestra (1918)
  • Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920)
  • Suite from Pulcinella for orchestra (1920)
  • Suite No.2 for chamber orchestra (1921)
  • Suite No.1 for chamber orchestra (1925)
  • Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments (1925)
  • Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra (1929)
  • Concerto in D for violin and orchestra (1931)
  • Divertimento for orchestra (Suite from Le Baiser du Fee, 1934)
  • Preludium for jazz band (1937)
  • Concerto in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks) for Chamber Orchestra (1938)
  • Symphony in C (1940)
  • Circus Polka for orchestra (1942)
  • Danses Concertantes for chamber orchestra (1942)
  • Four Norwegian Moods for orchestra (1942)
  • Ode for orchestra (1943)
  • Scherzo a la Russe for orchestra (1944)
  • Symphony in Three Movements (1945)
  • Ebony Concerto for clarinet and jazz band (1945)
  • Concerto in D for string orchestra (1946)
  • Tango for chamber orchestra (1940/1953)
  • Greeting Prelude for orchestra (1955)
  • Movements for Piano and Orchestra (1958–[[1959])
  • 8 Instrumental miniatures for 15 Players (1963, orchestration of Les Cinq Doigts)
  • Variations (Aldous Huxley in Memoriam) for orchestra (1963–1964)

Piano works

  • Tarantella for piano (1898)
  • Scherzo for piano (1902)
  • Sonata in F-Sharp Minor for piano (1904)
  • Quatre Etudes for piano Op.7 (1908)
  • Le Sacre du Printemps for two pianos (1913)
  • Valse des fleurs for two pianos (1914)
  • Trois piéces faciles for two pianos (1915)
  • Souvenir d'une Marche Boche for piano (1915)
  • Cinq piéces faciles for two pianos (1917)
  • Valse pour les Enfants for piano (1917)
  • Piano Rag Music for piano (1919)
  • Chorale for piano (1920)
  • Les Cinq Doigts for piano (1921)
  • Sonata for piano (1924)
  • Serenade for piano (1925)
  • Concerto for Two Pianos (1935)
  • Tango for piano (1940)
  • Sonata for Two Pianos (1943)
  • Two Sketches for a Sonata for piano (1967)

Chamber works

  • Three Pieces for string quartet (1914)
  • Pour Pablo Picasso, Piece for clarinet (1917)
  • Canon for two horns (1917)
  • Duet for two bassoons (1918)
  • Suite from Histoire du Soldat for violin, clarinet and piano (1919)
  • Three Pieces for Clarinet (1919)
  • Concertino for string quartet (1920)
  • Octet for wind instruments (1923)
  • Duo Concertant for violin and piano (1932)
  • Pastorale for violin and piano (1933)
  • Suite Italienne (from Pulcinella) for violin or cello and piano (1933/34)
  • Elegy for solo viola (1944)
  • Septet (1953)
  • Epitaphium for flute, clarinet and harp (1959)
  • Double Canon for string quartet 'Raoul Dufy in Memoriam' (1959)
  • Monumentum Pro Gesualdo Di Venosa (arrangement) for chamber ensemble (1960)
  • Fanfare for a New Theatre for two trumpets (1964)

Choral works

  • Le roi des étoiles (The King of the Stars) for Men's Choir and Orchestra (1912)
  • Pater Noster (1926)
  • Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) for chorus and orchestra (1930)
  • Mass (1948)
  • Cantata for soprano, tenor, female voices, 2 flutes, oboe, English horn, cello (1953-1954)
  • Canticum Sacrum (1955)
  • Threni (1958)
  • A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer (1961)
  • Abraham and Isaac (1963)
  • Introitus (1965)
  • Requiem Canticles (1966)

Opera/Theater

  • Le rossignol (The Nightingale) (1914)
  • Burleske for 4 Pantomimes and Chamber Orchestra (1916)
  • Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918)
  • Mavra (1922)
  • Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923)
  • Oedipus Rex (1927)
  • Babel (1944)
  • The Rake's Progress (1951)
  • The Flood (1962)

Vocal works

  • Romance for Voice and Piano (1902)
  • Faun and Shepherdess for mezzo-soprano and orchestra Op. 2 (1907)
  • Pastorale wordless soprano and piano (1907)
  • Two Melodies for mezzo-soprano and piano Op.6 (1908)
  • Deux poèmes de Paul Verlaine for bariton and piano or orchestra Op.9 (1910/1951)
  • Two Poems of K. Balmont for voice and piano or small orchestra (1911/1954)
  • Trois poésies de la lyrique japonaise for voice and piano or chamber orchestra (1913)
  • Trois petites chansons voice and piano (or small orchestra) (1913/1930)
  • Pribaoutki for voice, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, vln, vla, vc, double bass (1914)
  • Berceuses du Chat for contralto and three clarinets (1916)
  • Three Tales for Children for voice and piano (1917)
  • Four Russian Peasant Songs for female voice unaccompanied (1917)
  • Berceuse for voice and piano (1918)
  • Quatre chants russes Quatre chants russes for voice and piano (1918/1919)
  • Petit ramusianum harmonique single voice or voices (1938)
  • Three Songs from William Shakespeare for mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet, and viola (1953)
  • Four Russian Songs for mezzo-soprano, flute, harp and guitar (1954, versions from Quatre chants russes and Three Tales for Children)
  • In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (Dirge Canons and Song) (1954)
  • Elegy for J.F.K. for baritone and three clarinets (1964)
  • The Owl and the Pussy Cat for soprano and piano (1966)

See Also

  • Category:Compositions by Igor Stravinsky

References

  • Lambert, Constant (1936). Music Ho! A Study of Music in Decline, p.94–94 and 101–105. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Robert Craft. Stravinsky: Glimpses of a Life, St Martins Press, 1993
  • Robert Craft. Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship, Vanderbilt University Press, 1997
  • Slonimsky, Nicolas (1953). Lexicon of Musical Invective: Critical Assaults on Composers Since Beethoven's Time. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0295785799.

Further reading

  • Igor Stravinsky, Poetics of Music, ISBN 674678559. Ghostwritten by Alexis Roland-Manuel.
  • Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Conversations with Stravinsky, ISBN 0520040406 .
  • Igor Stravinsky, An Autobiography, ISBN 0393318567. Ghostwritten by Walter Nouvel.
  • Eric Walter White, Stravinsky. The composer and his works, ISBN 0571049230
  • Milan Kundera, Testaments Betrayed: An Essay in Nine Parts, ISBN 0060927518

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This trick, however, soon exhausts itself." (1948). Jefferson's buildings helped initiate the ensuing American fashion for Federal style architecture. "One trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's formal endeavors: the effort of his music to portray time as in a circus tableau and to present time complexes as though they were spatial. His major works included Monticello (his home), the Virginia State Capitol and the University of Virginia. Part of the composer's error, in Adorno's view, was his neo-classicism, but more important was his music's "pseudomorphism of painting", playing off of le temps éspace (space) rather than le temps durée (duration) of Henri Bergson. He felt that it reflected the ideas of republic and democracy where the prevalent British styles represented the monarchy. In his book Philosophy of Modern Music (1948) Theodor Adorno calls Stravinsky an acrobat, a civil servant, a tailor's dummy, hebephrenic, psychotic, infantile, fascist, and devoted to making money. Jefferson was an accomplished architect who was extremely influential in bringing the Neo-Classical style he encountered in France to the United States.

He compares Stravinsky's choice of, "the drabbest and least significant phrases", to Gertrude Stein's: "Everday they were gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday" ("Helen Furr and Georgine Skeene", 1922), "whose effect would be equally appreciated by someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever". All the documentary evidence shows that Hemings' first child, Harriet, was born in 1795 -- years after the mythical child "Tom" that Callender alleged. They are merely successions of notes that can conveniently be divided into groups of three, five, and seven and set against other mathematical groups", and the cadenza for solo drums is, "musical purity...achieved by a species of musical castration". Significantly, everyone who has researched the issue -- regardless which side they take on the Jefferson-Hemings paternity question -- agree that there is no evidence supporting the original allegation, published by Thomas Callender in 1802, that Jefferson fathered Sally Hemings' first child in France prior to 1790. Further, the "melodic fragments in L'Histoire du Soldat are completely meaningless themselves. Professor Mayer's independent report also suggests that the Foundation report is flawed by biases and faulty assumptions (including the assumption that only one man fathered all of Sally Hemings' children). Composer Constant Lambert (1936) described pieces such as L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) as containing, "essentially cold-blooded abstraction". Mayer, a member of the Scholars Commission, says in his own writings that there is "the possibility that Jefferson's brother Randolph or one of Randolph Jefferson's five sons could have fathered one or more of Sally Hemings' children." He also states that, "Indeed, eight of these 25 Jefferson males lived within 20 miles (a half-day's ride) of Monticello—including Thomas Jefferson's younger brother, Randolph Jefferson, and Randolph's five sons, who ranged in age from about 17 to 26 at the time of Eston's birth." All of these men could have passed down the Y chromosome used as "proof".

What has become of the works that made up the program of the Stravinsky concert which created such a stir a few years ago? Practically the whole lot are already on the shelf, and they will remain there until a few jaded neurotics once more feel a desire to eat ashes and fill their belly with the east wind." Musical Times, London, October 1923 (ibid.). David N. "All the signs indicate a strong reaction against the nightmare of noise and eccentricity that was one of the legacies of the war... A study by the Thomas Jefferson Foundation states that "it is very unlikely that Randolph Jefferson or any Jefferson other than Thomas Jefferson was the father of her children," while a study by an independent Scholars Commmission concludes that the Jefferson paternity thesis is not persuasive. Practically it has no relation to music at all as most of us understand the word." Musical Times, London, August 1, 1913 (Slonimsky, 1953). Two major, mutually contradictory studies were released in the early 2000s. There is certainly an impelling rhythm traceable. A full account of the controversy can be found in the Sally Hemings article.

To say that much of it is hideous as sound is a mild description. A subject of considerable controversy since Jefferson's own time was whether Jefferson was the father of any of the children of his slave Sally Hemings. "The music of Le Sacre du Printemps baffles verbal description. In 1778, the legislature passed a bill he proposed to ban further importation of slaves into Virginia; although this did not bring complete emancipation, in his words, it "stopped the increase of the evil by importation, leaving to future efforts its final eradication". Yet their influence on succeeding generations of composers was equalled if not exceeded by that of Stravinsky. In 1769, as a member of the state legislature, Jefferson proposed for that body to emancipate slaves in Virginia, but he was unsuccessful. It must also be noted that composers such as Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Arnold Schoenberg were also exploring some of these orchestral and instrumental techniques in the early 20th century. His ambivalence can be seen for example, in the first draft of the Declaration of Independence, which Jefferson wrote, in which he condemned the British crown for sponsoring the importation of slavery to the colonies, charging that the crown "has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere..." This language was dropped from the Declaration at the request of delegates from South Carolina and Georgia.

The most famous passage is the opening of the Rite of Spring where Stravsinky uses the extreme reaches of the bassoon to simulate the symbolic "awakening" of a spring morning. Many of his slaves were considered property that was held as a lien for his many accumulated debts. Another notable innovation of orchestral technique that can be partially attributed to Stravinsky is the exploitation of the extreme ranges of instruments. Some find it hypocritical that he both owned slaves and yet was publicly outspoken in his belief that slavery was immoral. This combining of distinct timbres would become almost a cliche in post-World War II classical music. Jefferson's personal records show he owned 187 slaves, some of which were inherited at the death of his wife. For example, in L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) the forces used are clarinet, bassoon, tenor and bass trombone, double bass, cornet, violin and percussion, a very striking combination for its time (1918). Jefferson's political principles were also heavily influenced by John Locke (particularly relating to the principles of inalienable rights and popular sovereignty) and Thomas Paine's Common Sense.

But it is when he started to turn away from this tendency that he began to innovate by introducing unique combinations of instruments. Jefferson had and read Wawrzyniec Grzymala Goslicki's book De optimo senatore, and in his works paraphrased some of Goslicki's phrases from the book. Stravinsky continued this Romantic trend of writing for huge orchestral forces, especially in the early ballets. and was a friend of both James Madison and Jefferson. They, in turn, were influenced by the expansion of the traditional classical orchestra by Richard Wagner through his use of large forces and unusual instruments. Subsequently, many of the ideas of the Polish Brethren were continued in English-speaking countries by Unitarian congregations -- most notably, by Joseph Priestley, who had emigrated to the U.S. Composers such as Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler were well regarded for their skill at writing for the medium. Biddle was a pioneer of Unitarianism in England.

The late 19th century and early 20th century was a time ripe with orchestral innovation. Biddle's followers had very close relations with the Polish Socinian family of Crellius (aka Spinowski). He did this so well, in fact, that only in recent scholarship, such as in Richard Taruskin's Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra [1], have analysts uncovered the original source material for some of the music in The Rite. Stegmann, a Polish Brother from Germany. He strips these themes to their most basic outline, melody alone, and often contorts them beyond recognition with additive notes, inversions, diminutions, and other techniques. Englishman John Biddle had translated two works by one of the Polish Brethren, Samuel Przypkowski; he also translated the Racovian Catechism and a work by J. Yet in Le Sacre du Printemps we see Stravinsky again innovating in his use of folk themes. Jefferson was influenced heavily by the ideas of the Polish Brethren.

Two notable examples are Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály. For the full text of this letter and that to which Jefferson was replying see Wikisource. There were other composers in the early 20th century who collected and augmented their native folk music and used these themes in their work. Though not religious himself, he viewed religious opinions in others, including public officials, as a purely personal matter with which the state should not interfere:. Such compositional "borrowing" would come into vogue in the 1960s, as in the work Sinfonia by Luciano Berio. Moreover, he personally believed, as did Deist and humanist John Locke, that human rights were endowed by a God: "Can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their only firm basis, a conviction in the minds of the people that these liberties are a gift of God? Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that His justice cannot sleep forever" (Notes on the State of Virginia, 1781-1785 Query 18). Here it is the music of Tchaikovsky, specifically Swan Lake, that Stravinsky uses as his source. He also had friends who were clergy, and he supported some churches financially.

He used the same technique in the ballet The Fairy's Kiss of 1928. Jefferson himself attended certain public Christian services during his presidency. Here he uses the music of Pergolesi as source material, sometimes directly quoting it and other times simply reinventing it, to create a new and refreshing work. Clearly, however, Jefferson's desire to erect a "wall of separation" did not include a desire to inhibit the personal religious lives of public officials. Stravinsky used the now very postmodern technique of direct musical quotation and pastiche as early as 1920 in his work Pulcinella. Allen was only 12 when Jefferson retired the presidency, there is large doubt as to the accuracy of Allen's diary entry. A sort of final statement for the style, the opera was largely ridiculed as too "backward looking" even by those who had lauded the new style only three decades earlier. As Rev.

Ironically, it was Stravinsky himself who announced the death of Neoclassicism, at least in his own work if not for the world, with the completion of his opera The Rake's Progress in 1951. This anecdote seems to contradict statements in Jefferson's personal letters. Certainly by the late 1920s and 1930s, Neoclassicism as an accepted modern genre was prevalent throughout art music circles around the world. Ethan Allen at the Library of Congress). Stravinsky may have been preceded in these devices by earlier composers such as Erik Satie, but no doubt when Copland was composing his Appalachian Spring ballet he was taking Stravinsky as his model. Good morning sir." (quoted from the handwritten history of Rev. The clear harmonies, looking back to the Classical music era of Mozart and Bach, and the simpler combinations of rhythm and melody were a direct response to the complexities of the Second Viennese School. The Christian religion is the best religion that has ever been given to man and I as chief Magistrate of this nation am bound to give it the sanction of my example.

Stravinsky announced his new style in 1923 with the stripped-down and delicately scored Octet for winds. Nor can be. 1, "Classical" of 1916-17. Allen claimed he overheard Jefferson say to a friend who had challenged him for going to church when he did not believe: "[N]o nation has ever yet existed or been governed without religion. Sergei Prokofiev once chided Stravinsky for his neo-classical mannerisms, though sympathetically, as Prokofiev had broken similar musical ground in his Symphony No. Ethan Allen (1797-1879) in which Allen claimed to have seen Jefferson walking to church one Sunday with a large red prayer book under his arm. Stravinsky was the greatest, if not the first, practitioner of the "neoclassic" style, a style that would be later adopted by composers as diverse as Darius Milhaud and Aaron Copland. On the other hand, there is one anecdote by the Rev.

Such techniques foreshadowed by several decades the minimalist works of composers such as Terry Riley and Steve Reich. Weightman June 24, 1826). These passages are notable not only for this pastiche-quality but also for their length: Stravinsky treats them as whole and complete musical sections. "May it be to the world, what I believe it will be, (to some parts sooner, to others later, but finally to all), the signal of arousing men to burst the chains under which monkish ignorance and superstition had persuaded them to bind themselves, and to assume the blessings and security of self-government" (Letter to Roger C. At various other times in the work Stravinsky also pits several ostinati against one another without regard to harmony or tempo, creating a pastiche, a sort of musical equivalent of a Cubist painting. Spafford, March 17, 1814). This is perhaps the first instance in music of extended ostinato which is neither used for variation nor for accompaniment of melody. He is always in alliance with the despot, abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own" (Letter to Horatio G.

The most famous passage, as noted above, is the eighth note ostinato of the strings accented by eight french horns that occurs in the section Auguries of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls). His letters contain the following observations: "History, I believe, furnishes no example of a priest-ridden people maintaining a free civil government" (Letter to Alexander von Humboldt, December 6, 1813), and, "In every country and in every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. The same ballet is also notable for its relentless use of ostinati. Moreover, his private letters indicate he was skeptical of too much interference by clergy in matters of civil government. In the "Rite of Spring" he introduces additive permutations, that is, subtracting or adding a note to a motif without regard to changes in meter. During his presidency, Jefferson refused to issue proclamations calling for days of prayer and thanksgiving. However, Stravinsky's use of motivic development was unique in the way he permutated his motifs. 347:.

The first great innovator in this method was Beethoven; the famous "fate motif" which opens Fifth Symphony and reappears throughout the work in surprising and refreshing permutations is a classic example. Peterson, ed., Thomas Jefferson: Writings (1984), p. Motivic development, that is using a distinct musical phrase that is subsequently altered and developed throughout a piece of music, has its roots in the sonata form of Mozart's age. He further developed his thoughts in the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1779), quoted from Merrill D. Stravinsky began re-thinking his use of the motif and ostinato as early as The Firebird ballet, but his use of these elements reached its full flowering in The Rite of Spring. Jefferson also supported what he called a "wall of separation between Church and State", which he believed was a principle expressed within the First Amendment (see Letter to the Danbury Baptist Association, 1802, and Letter to Virginia Baptists, 1808). As a consequence, his influence on composers both during his lifetime and after his death was, and remains, considerable. Virginia thereby became the first state to disestablish religion — Rhode Island, Delaware, and Pennsylvania never having had established religion.

Stravinsky's work embraced multiple compositional styles, revolutionised orchestration, spanned several genres, practically reinvented ballet form and incorporated multiple cultures, languages and literatures. Instead, in 1786 the Virginia General Assembly passed Jefferson's Bill for Religious Freedom, which he had first submitted in 1779, and was one of only three accomplishments he put in his own epitaph. Indeed, these characteristics are what make Stravinsky's output so unique when compared with the work of contemporaneous serial composers. From 1784 to 1786 Jefferson and James Madison worked together to oppose Patrick Henry's attempts to again assess taxes in Virginia to support churches. The ballet is thus a sort of miniature encyclopedia of Stravinsky, containing many of the signatures to be found throughout his compositions, whether primitivist, neo-classic, or serial: rhythmic quirkiness and experimentation, harmonic ingenuity, and a deft ear for masterful orchestration. Congress in 1903. Some numbers of Agon recollect the "white-note" tonality of the neo-classic period, while others (the Bransle Gay, e.g.) display his unique re-interpretation of serial method. This compilation was published after his death and became known as the Jefferson Bible, later printed in some 2,500 copies for the U.S.

An important transitional work of this period in Stravinsky's work, was a return to the ballet: Agon, a work for twelve dancers written from 1954 to 1957. He labored on an edited version of the Gospels, removing references to the miracles of Jesus and material he considered preternatural, leaving only Jesus' moral philosophy, of which he approved. He later began expanding his use of the technique in works often based on biblical texts, such as Threni (1958), A Sermon, a Narrative, and a Prayer (1961), and The Flood (1962). Like most deists, Jefferson did not believe in miracles. Stravinsky first began to dabble in the twelve tone technique in smaller vocal works such as the Cantata (1952), Three Songs from Shakespeare (1953) and In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954), as if he were testing the system. He had high esteem for Jesus' moral teachings, which he viewed as the "principles of a pure deism, and juster notions of the attributes of God, to reform [prior Jewish] moral doctrines to the standard of reason, justice & philanthropy, and to inculcate the belief of a future state." (Letter to Joseph Priestley, April 9, 1803.). Regardless, the next fifteen years were spent writing the works in this style. Though Jefferson did not believe in the divinity of Jesus, he several times referred to himself as a Christian.

No doubt, Stravinsky was aided in his understanding of, or even conversion to, the twelve tone method by his confidant and helper Robert Craft, who had long been advocating the change. Jefferson later expressed general agreement with his friend Joseph Priestley's Unitarianism and wrote that he would have liked to have been a member of a Unitarian church, but there were no Unitarian churches in Virginia. Only after the death of Arnold Schoenberg, the inventor of the twelve tone system, in 1951 did Stravinsky begin making use of the technique in his own works. He later removed his name from those available to become godparents, because his beliefs opposed Trinitarian theology. After the opera's completion Stravinsky never wrote another "neo-classic" work and instead began writing the music that came to define his final stylistic change. Before the American Revolution, when the Episcopal Church was the American branch of the Anglican Church of England, Jefferson was a vestryman in his local church, a lay position that was part of political office at the time. The music is direct but quirky; it borrows from classic tonal harmony but also interjects surprising dissonances; it features Stravinsky's trademark off-rhythms; and it harkens back to the operas and themes of Monteverdi, Gluck and Mozart. Jefferson was raised Episcopalian at a time when the Episcopal Church was the state religion in Virginia.

This opera, written to a libretto by Auden and based on the etchings of Hogarth, encapsulates everything that Stravinsky had perfected in the previous 20 years of his neo-classic period. Jefferson believed, furthermore, it was this Creator that endowed humanity with a number of inalienable rights, such as "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness". The pinnacle of this period is the opera The Rake's Progress completed in 1951. Jefferson repeatedly stated his belief in a creator, and in the United States Declaration of Independence uses the terms "Creator", "Nature's God", and "Divine Providence". Apollon, Persephone (1933) and Orpheus (1947) also mark Stravinsky's concern, during this period, of not only returning to "Classic" music but also returning to "Classic" themes: in these instances, the mythology of the ancient Greeks. On matters of religion, Jefferson was sometimes accused by his political opponents of being an atheist; however, he is generally regarded as a believer in Deism, a philosophy shared by many other notable intellectuals of his time. Some larger works from this period are the three symphonies: the Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) (1930), Symphony in C (1940) and Symphony in Three Movements (1945). Contemporary scholars debate over whether Jefferson suffered from Asperger's Syndrome, a high-functioning form of autism.

Other works such as Oedipus Rex (1927), Apollon Musagete (1928) and the Dumbarton Oaks concerto continue this trend. In addition, he burned all of his letters between himself and his wife at her death, creating the portrait of a man who at times could be very private. In these new works, written roughly between 1920 and 1950, Stravinsky turns largely to wind instruments, the piano, and choral and chamber works. His reluctance to speak in public is usually attributed to his taciturnity, though some historians believe it was due to a lisp. This "neo-classical" style involved the abandonment of the large orchestras demanded by the ballets. As president he discontinued the practice of delivering the State of the Union Address in person, instead sending the address to Congress in writing (the practice was eventually revived by Woodrow Wilson); he ended up giving only two public speeches during his presidency. Both of these works feature what was to become a hallmark of this period; that is, Stravinsky's return, or "looking back", to the classical music of Mozart and Bach and their contemporaries. Though it is a biographical tradition that he lacked wit, Molière and Don Quixote seem to have been his favorites; and though the utilitarian wholly crowds romanticism out of his writings, he had enough of that quality in youth to prepare to learn Gaelic in order to translate Ossian, and sent to James Macpherson for the originals.

The next phase of Stravinsky's compositional style, slightly overlapping the first, is marked by two works: Pulcinella 1920 and the Octet (1923) for wind instruments. For many years he was president of the American Philosophical Society. Other pieces from this period include: Renard (1916), Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918), and Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923). The range of his interests is remarkable. There are several famous passages in the work, but two are of particular note: the opening theme played on a bassoon with notes at the very top of its register, almost out of range; and the thumping, off kilter eighth-note motif played by strings and accented by French horns on off-rhythms (See Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for a more detailed account of this work). Yet he seems to have acted habitually, in great and little things, on system. Here, the composer draws on the brutalism of pagan Russia, reflecting these sentiments in roughly-drawn, stinging motifs that appear throughout the work. Beneath a quiet surface he was fairly aglow with intense convictions and a very emotional temperament.

But it is the third ballet, The Rite of Spring, that is generally considered the apotheosis of Stravinsky's "Russian Period". There was grace, nevertheless, in his manners; and his frank and earnest address, his quick sympathy (though he seemed cold to strangers), and his vivacious, desultory, informing talk gave him an engaging charm. Petrushka, too, is distinctively scored and the first of Stravinsky's ballets to draw on folk mythology. In later years he was negligent in dress and loose in bearing. The first of the ballets, L'oiseau de feu, is notable for its unusual introduction (triplets in the low basses) and sweeping orchestration. He had angular features, very poor posture, a very ruddy complexion, strawberry blonde hair and hazel-flecked, grey eyes. The ballets have several shared characteristics: they are scored for extremely large orchestras; they use Russian folk themes and motifs; and they bear the mark of Rimsky-Korsakov's imaginative scoring and instrumentation. Jefferson was six feet, two-and-one-half inches (189 cm) in height, large-boned, slender, erect and sinewy.

The first of Stravinsky's major stylistic periods (excluding some early minor works) was inaugurated by the three ballets he composed for Diaghilev. Jefferson appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:. Most of his compositions can be placed in one of the three.
. Stravinsky's career largely falls into three distinct stylistic periods. He also said that Americans were united in a benign religion, by this he is most likely talking about the identical morals of equality and liberty.he was sex addict most mondren historians think becuse when he was in 20's as lawyer he was caaugth going out a window by woman husband in williamsburg. He has a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6340 Hollywood Boulevard. He said this would make America a great power.

Stravinsky's life had encompassed most of the 20th Century, including many of its modern classical music styles, and he influenced composers both during and after his lifetime. The final point Jefferson brought up is that America’s citizens are not American from birth, but from sharing the same ideas. His grave is close to the tomb of his long-time collaborator Diaghilev. Not having good relations would limit much trade and stifle the economy’s growth, as well as make America a very weak political power. He died in New York City on April 6, 1971 at the age of 88 and was buried in Venice on the cemetery island of San Michele. He realized the tremendous implications of being looked down upon by the mighty eyes of mother England, as well as other countries. In 1962 he accepted an invitation to return to Russia for a series of concerts, but remained an émigré firmly based in the West. Another one of his important points was that America needs to become strong in the eyes of foreign powers.

At the end of his life he was even setting Hebrew scripture in Abraham and Isaac. He explained how unity was necessary for the imminent expansion America would encounter. The texts and literary sources for his work began with a period of interest in Russian folklore, progressed to classical authors and the Latin liturgy, and moved on to contemporary France (André Gide, in Persephone) and eventually English literature: Auden, Eliot, and medieval English verse. Jefferson largely restated these ideas in his inaugural address. Stravinsky's taste in literature was wide and reflected his constant desire for new discoveries. In the United States Declaration of Independence and the Constitution the idea that the majority couldn’t have all the power, to protect the rights of the minority, was very prominent. Craft lived with Stravinsky until his death, acting as interpreter, chronicler, assistant conductor and factotum for countless musical and social tasks. At this point in time it became very important to unify the country under common goals and ideas.

Auden, the need to acquire more familiarity with the English-speaking world coincided with his meeting the conductor and musicologist Robert Craft. Jefferson was the first Republican president. H. The second president, John Adams, was the only Federalist president that the USA saw. When he planned to write an opera with W. At the time of Jefferson’s inauguration, the country was very much divided, mainly politically among politicians, between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. For a time he preserved a ring of emigré Russian friends and contacts, but eventually realised that this would not sustain his intellectual and professional life in the USA. The principles of this address can mainly be categorized as unity and expansion, but more importantly unity.

Stravinsky had adapted to life in France, but moving to America aged 58 was a very different prospect. Thomas Jefferson, a powerful advocate of equality and liberty, gave his inaugural address on March 4, 1801. He continued to live in the United States until his death in 1971, unsuccessfully writing music for films. Jefferson's presidency from, 1801 to 1809, was the first to start and end in the White House; it was also the first Democratic-Republican presidency. He moved to the United States in 1939 and became a naturalized citizen in 1945. His epitaph, written by him with an insistence that only his words and "not a word more" be inscribed, reads:. He returned to Paris in 1920 to write more ballets as well as many other works. He is buried on his Monticello estate.

However, because of World War I and the October Revolution in Russia he moved to Switzerland in 1914. Jefferson passed away on July 4, 1826, the same day as John Adams. That ballet ended up being the famous L'Oiseau de Feu. Jefferson also appears on the $100 Series EE Savings Bond. He commissioned Stravinsky to write a ballet for his theater; so in 1911, Stravinsky traveled to Paris. five cent piece, or nickel. Eventually Stravinsky's music was noticed by Serge Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris. $2 bill and the U.S.

At the same time he had a disregard of his social inferiors: Robert Craft was embarrassed by his habit of tapping a glass with a fork and loudly demanding attention in restaurants. Jefferson's portrait appears on the U.S. For example, Otto Klemperer, who knew Schoenberg well, said that he always found Stravinsky much more co-operative and easy to deal with. Jefferson is so far the only Vice President elected to the Presidency to serve two full terms. Most people who knew him through dealings connected with performances spoke of him as polite, courteous and helpful. It was resolved on February 17, 1801 when Jefferson was elected President and Burr Vice President by the United States House of Representatives. Paris, Venice, Berlin, London and New York all hosted successful appearances as pianist and conductor. presidential election, 1800.

Stravinsky proved adept at playing the part of "man of the world", acquiring a keen instinct for business matters and appearing relaxed and comfortable in many of the world's major cities. An electoral tie resulted between Jefferson and his opponent Aaron Burr in the U.S. The composer was also able to attract commissions: most of his work from The Firebird onwards was written for specific occasions and paid for generously. He was also the second Vice President of the United States, under John Adams from 1797 until 1801, achieving that position after getting second place in the presidential election of 1796. In the early 1920s Leopold Stokowski was able to give Stravinsky regular support through a pseudonymous "benefactor". Jefferson was the first Secretary of State of the United States, serving from 1789 until 1795. Patronage too was never far away. Jefferson was a great believer in the uniqueness and the potential of the United States and is often classified as the forefather of American exceptionalism (see also exceptionalism).

After her death Stravinsky and Vera were married in New York where they had gone from France to escape the war in 1940. He is noted for the bold pronouncement: "We could in the United States make as great a variety of wines as are made in Europe, not exactly of the same kinds, but doubtless as good." While there were extensive vineyards planted at Monticello, a significant portion were of the European wine grape Vitis vinifera and did not survive the many vine diseases native to the Americas.
Jefferson's idea for the United States was that of an agricultural nation of yeoman farmers, in contrast to the vision of Alexander Hamilton, who envisioned a nation of commerce and manufacturing. Katerina soon learned of the relationship and accepted it as inevitable and permanent. During his ambassadorship to France (1784-1789) he took extensive trips through French and other European wine regions and sent the best back to the White House. From then until the death of Katerina in 1939 Stravinsky led a deft double-life, spending some of his time with his first family and the rest with Vera. Jefferson was also an avid wine lover and noted gourmet. When Stravinsky met Vera in the early 1920s she was married to the painter and stage designer Serge Sudeikin, but they soon began an affair which led to her leaving her husband. Instead, he cut a wedge out of the mound so that he could walk into it, look at the layers of occupation, and draw conclusions from them.

Their marriage endured for 33 years, but the true love of his life, and partner until his death, was his second wife Vera de Bosset (1888-1982). When exploring an Indian burial mound on his Virginia estate in 1784, Jefferson avoided the common practice of simply digging downwards until something turned up. He was still young when he married his cousin Katerina Nossenko, who he had known since early childhood, on 23 January 1906. He has sometimes been called the "father of archaeology" in recognition of his role in developing excavation techniques. Although a notorious philanderer (even rumoured to have affairs with high-class partners such as Coco Chanel) Stravinsky was also a family man who devoted considerable amounts of his time and expenditure to his sons and daughters. Jefferson's interests included archaeology, a discipline then in its infancy. Relatively short of stature and not conventionally handsome, Stravinsky was nevertheless photogenic, as many pictures show. Nearby is the University of Virginia, the original architecture and curriculum of which Jefferson also designed.

Not only was he the principal composer for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballet Russes, but Stravinsky also collaborated with Pablo Picasso (Pulcinella, 1920), Jean Cocteau (Oedipus Rex, 1927) and George Balanchine (Apollon Musagete, 1928). Jefferson himself designed his famous home, Monticello, near Charlottesville, Virginia; it included automatic doors, the first swivel chair, and other convenient devices invented by Jefferson. This desire manifested itself in several of his Paris collaborations. The Library of Congress was founded from the sale of his collection (the Library was founded in 1800; Jefferson sold his third library to Congress in 1815). Stravinsky displayed an inexhaustible desire to learn and explore art, literature, and life. The committee met and unanimously solicited Jefferson to prepare the draft of the Declaration alone. (He succeeded: the 1913 première of Le sacre du printemps turned into a riot.). Livingston.

As he himself said, with these premieres his intention was "[to send] them all to hell". The Continental Congress delegated the task of writing the Declaration to a committee which included Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. The ballets trace his stylistic development: from the L'oiseau de feu, whose style draws largely on Rimsky-Korsakov, to Petrushka's emphasis on bitonality, and finally to the savage polyphonic dissonance of Le sacre du printemps. Jefferson was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence, and a source of many other contributions to American political and civil culture. During his stay in the city, he composed three major works for the Ballets Russes—L'oiseau de feu, Petrushka (1911), and Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) (1913). It was not followed by the Virginia delegates, but it was published nationally and won Jefferson some national admirers who agreed with his ideas and who were impressed by his writing ability. Stravinsky left Russia for the first time in 1910, going to Paris to attend the premiere of his ballet L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). The summary was considered to be towards the radical side at the time in terms of the view of the colonies towards the British government.

In 1902, at the age of 20, Stravinsky became the pupil of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, probably the leading Russian composer of the time. In 1774, he wrote A Summary View of the Rights of British America which was intended as instructions for the Virginia delegates to a national congress. Composition came later. Jefferson served in the Virginia House of Burgesses. Petersburg, Stravinsky originally studied to be a lawyer. He practiced law in Virginia and in 1772 Jefferson married a widow, Martha Wayles Skelton. Though his father was a bass singer at the Mariinsky Theater in St. Jefferson inherited about 5,000 acres of land and dozens of slaves from his father, out of which he created his home which would eventually be known as Monticello.

Petersburg and dominated by his father and elder brother, Stravinsky's early childhood was a mix of experience that hinted little at the cosmopolitan artist he was to become. He attended and then attempted to institute many reforms at the College of William & Mary — where he was a member of the secret Flat Hat Club — before founding his own vision of higher education at the University of Virginia. Brought up in an apartment in St. Jefferson's parents were Peter Jefferson (March 29, 1708–August 17, 1757) and Jane Randolph (February 20, 1720–March 31, 1776), both from families who had been settled in Virginia for several generations. Petersburg, Russia. . Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov), near St. Kennedy welcomed 49 Nobel Prize winners to the White House in 1962, saying, "I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever been gathered at the White House, with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone." Achievements of his presidency include the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

. President John F. He was named by Time magazine as one of the most influential people of the century. Many people consider Jefferson to be among the most brilliant men ever to occupy the Presidency. A quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian, Stravinsky was one of the most authoritative composers in 20th century music, both in the West and in his native land. Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was the third (1801–1809) President of the United States, second (1797)–1801) Vice President of the United States, and an American statesman, ambassador to France, political philosopher, revolutionary, agriculturalist, horticulturist, land owner, architect, archaeologist, slaveowner, author, inventor, and founder of the University of Virginia. Robert Craft transcribed several interviews with the composer, which were published as Conversations with Stravinsky. Press, 1989).

In it, he famously claimed that music was incapable of "expressing anything but itself". Jefferson's Literary Commonplace Book (Princeton: Princeton Univ. With the help of Alexis Roland-Manuel, Stravinsky composed a theoretical work entitled Poetics of Music. Wilson, Douglas L., ed. He was also a writer. (New York: Norton, 1995). Stravinsky also achieved fame as a pianist and conductor, often at the premieres of his own works. The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776-1826, 3 vols.

His oeuvre included everything from symphonies to piano miniatures. Smith, James Morton, ed. Stravinsky also wrote in a broad spectrum of ensemble combinations and classical forms. Pathbreaking study of the central place of debt in Jefferson's life and thought. For some, these ballets practically reinvented the genre. Principle and Interest: Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of Debt (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995; reprint ed., Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001). He composed in the neo-classical and serialist styles, but he is best known for two works from his earlier, Russian period: Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) and L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). Sloan, Herbert J.

Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian-American composer of modern classical music. Places in the footnotes Jefferson's later revisions done in his personal copy. Milan Kundera, Testaments Betrayed: An Essay in Nine Parts, ISBN 0060927518. Edition of Jefferson's only published book, follows the 1787 Stockdale edition that was the basis for almost all nineteenth-century reprints. The composer and his works, ISBN 0571049230. Notes on the State of Virginia (New York: Penguin, 1999). Eric Walter White, Stravinsky. Shuffelton, Frank, ed.

Ghostwritten by Walter Nouvel. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (Oxford University Press, 1992). Igor Stravinsky, An Autobiography, ISBN 0393318567. Peterson, Merrill D. Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Conversations with Stravinsky, ISBN 0520040406 . Important symposium volume, the product of a 250th birthday conference at the University of Virginia. Ghostwritten by Alexis Roland-Manuel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993.

Igor Stravinsky, Poetics of Music, ISBN 674678559. Jeffersonian Legacies. ISBN 0295785799. Onuf, Peter S., ed. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Excellent, challenging re-exmaination of Jefferson's political thought and his vision of American national development. Lexicon of Musical Invective: Critical Assaults on Composers Since Beethoven's Time. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000).

Slonimsky, Nicolas (1953). Jefferson's Empire: The Languages of American Nationhood. Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship, Vanderbilt University Press, 1997. Onuf, Peter S. Robert Craft. Notable monograph. Stravinsky: Glimpses of a Life, St Martins Press, 1993. The Constitutional Thought of Thomas Jefferson (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000).

Robert Craft. Mayer, David N. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. The classic multi-volume biography of TJ by Dumas Malone. Music Ho! A Study of Music in Decline, p.94–94 and 101–105. (Boston: Little Brown and Company, various dates). Lambert, Constant (1936). Jefferson and His Time, 6 vols.

Category:Compositions by Igor Stravinsky. Malone, Dumas. The Owl and the Pussy Cat for soprano and piano (1966). Important symposium volume prompted by the reversal of the conventional wisdom concerning Jefferson's liaison with Sally Hemings and its meaning in American history. Elegy for J.F.K. for baritone and three clarinets (1964). (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999). In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (Dirge Canons and Song) (1954). Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson: History, Memory, Civic Culture.

Four Russian Songs for mezzo-soprano, flute, harp and guitar (1954, versions from Quatre chants russes and Three Tales for Children). Lewis, Jan Ellen, and Onuf, Peter S., eds. Three Songs from William Shakespeare for mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet, and viola (1953). Jefferson's Manual of Parliamentary Practice, written when he was vice-president, with other relevant papers. Petit ramusianum harmonique single voice or voices (1938). Press, 1988). Quatre chants russes Quatre chants russes for voice and piano (1918/1919). Jefferson's Parliamentary Writings (Princeton: Princeton Univ.

Berceuse for voice and piano (1918). Howell, Wilbur Samuel, ed. Four Russian Peasant Songs for female voice unaccompanied (1917). Challenging essay on Jefferson's life and its historical significance. Three Tales for Children for voice and piano (1917). Thomas Jefferson: Author of America (New York: HarperCollins, 2005). Berceuses du Chat for contralto and three clarinets (1916). Hitchens, Christopher.

Pribaoutki for voice, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, vln, vla, vc, double bass (1914). What Would Jefferson Do? (New York: Harmony Books, 2004). Trois petites chansons voice and piano (or small orchestra) (1913/1930). Hartmann, Thomas. Trois poésies de la lyrique japonaise for voice and piano or chamber orchestra (1913). The leading study of this subject. Balmont for voice and piano or small orchestra (1911/1954). Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy (Charlittesville: University Press of Virginia, 1997; paperback ed., with new introduction, 1999).

Two Poems of K. Gordon-Reed, Annette. Deux poèmes de Paul Verlaine for bariton and piano or orchestra Op.9 (1910/1951). Pathbreaking study of honor culture and its relationship to the politics of Jefferson and his time. Two Melodies for mezzo-soprano and piano Op.6 (1908). Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001). Pastorale wordless soprano and piano (1907). Freeman, Joanne B.

2 (1907). Jefferson's legal commonplace book. Faun and Shepherdess for mezzo-soprano and orchestra Op. Press, 1926). Romance for Voice and Piano (1902). The Commonplace Book of Thomas Jefferson: A Repertory of His Ideas on Government (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. The Flood (1962). Chinard, Gilbert, ed.

The Rake's Progress (1951). All the correspondence between Jefferson and John and Abigail Adams. Babel (1944). of North Carolina Press, 1959). Oedipus Rex (1927). The Adams-Jefferson Letters (Chapel Hill: Univ. Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923). Cappon, Lester J., ed.

Mavra (1922). Correspondence of Jefferson with his children and grandchildren. Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918). Press of Virginia, 1986). Burleske for 4 Pantomimes and Chamber Orchestra (1916). Bear, Jr., The Family Letters of Thomas Jefferson (Charlottesville: Univ. Le rossignol (The Nightingale) (1914). Betts, Edwin Morris and James A.

Requiem Canticles (1966). Young-adult version of Bernstein's compact life. Introitus (1965). (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004). Abraham and Isaac (1963). Thomas Jefferson: The Revolution of Ideas [Oxford Portraits series]. A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer (1961). B.

Threni (1958). Bernstein, R. Canticum Sacrum (1955). (Oxford University Press, 2003) Excellent compact biography. Cantata for soprano, tenor, female voices, 2 flutes, oboe, English horn, cello (1953-1954). Thomas Jefferson. Mass (1948). B.

Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) for chorus and orchestra (1930). Bernstein, R. Pater Noster (1926). Jefferson's account books with records of daily expenses. Le roi des étoiles (The King of the Stars) for Men's Choir and Orchestra (1912). Press, 1997). Fanfare for a New Theatre for two trumpets (1964). (Princeton: Princeton Univ.

Monumentum Pro Gesualdo Di Venosa (arrangement) for chamber ensemble (1960). Jefferson's Memorandum Books, 2 vols. Double Canon for string quartet 'Raoul Dufy in Memoriam' (1959). Bear, Jr., James A., ed. Epitaphium for flute, clarinet and harp (1959). Valuable introduction by Eugene Sheridan. Septet (1953). All three of Jefferson's versions of the Gospels, with relevant correspondence about his religious opinions.

Elegy for solo viola (1944). Press, 1983). Suite Italienne (from Pulcinella) for violin or cello and piano (1933/34). Jefferson's Extracts from the Gospels (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Pastorale for violin and piano (1933). Adams, Dickinson W., ed. Duo Concertant for violin and piano (1932). Thomas Jefferson : Writings : Autobiography / Notes on the State of Virginia / Public and Private Papers / Addresses / Letters by Thomas Jefferson (1984, ISBN 094045016X).

Octet for wind instruments (1923). Online, Notes on the State of Virginia [1]. Concertino for string quartet (1920). Ohio (1803). Three Pieces for Clarinet (1919). Thomas Todd - 1807. Suite from Histoire du Soldat for violin, clarinet and piano (1919). Henry Brockholst Livingston - 1807.

Duet for two bassoons (1918). William Johnson - 1804. Canon for two horns (1917). Abolition of the external slave trade in 1808. Pour Pablo Picasso, Piece for clarinet (1917). neutrality by ending trade with the belligerents in the Napoleonic War. Three Pieces for string quartet (1914). Embargo Act of 1807, an attempt to force respect for U.S.

Two Sketches for a Sonata for piano (1967). Tertium quids create a divide in the Republican Party (the Democratic-Republican Party_(United_States)). Sonata for Two Pianos (1943). Creation of the Louisiana Territory (later renamed the Missouri Territory) in 1805. Tango for piano (1940). Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806). Concerto for Two Pianos (1935). Twelfth Amendment is ratified (1804).

Serenade for piano (1925). Land Act of 1804. Sonata for piano (1924). Madison (1803). Les Cinq Doigts for piano (1921). Marbury v. Chorale for piano (1920). Creation of the Orleans Territory in 1804.

Piano Rag Music for piano (1919). Admission of Ohio to the Union in 1803. Valse pour les Enfants for piano (1917). Louisiana Purchase (1803). Cinq piéces faciles for two pianos (1917). Souvenir d'une Marche Boche for piano (1915).

Trois piéces faciles for two pianos (1915). Valse des fleurs for two pianos (1914). Le Sacre du Printemps for two pianos (1913). Quatre Etudes for piano Op.7 (1908).

Sonata in F-Sharp Minor for piano (1904). Scherzo for piano (1902). Tarantella for piano (1898). Variations (Aldous Huxley in Memoriam) for orchestra (1963–1964).

8 Instrumental miniatures for 15 Players (1963, orchestration of Les Cinq Doigts). Movements for Piano and Orchestra (1958–[[1959]). Greeting Prelude for orchestra (1955). Tango for chamber orchestra (1940/1953).

Concerto in D for string orchestra (1946). Ebony Concerto for clarinet and jazz band (1945). Symphony in Three Movements (1945). Scherzo a la Russe for orchestra (1944).

Ode for orchestra (1943). Four Norwegian Moods for orchestra (1942). Danses Concertantes for chamber orchestra (1942). Circus Polka for orchestra (1942).

Symphony in C (1940). Concerto in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks) for Chamber Orchestra (1938). Preludium for jazz band (1937). Divertimento for orchestra (Suite from Le Baiser du Fee, 1934).

Concerto in D for violin and orchestra (1931). Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra (1929). Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments (1925). Suite No.1 for chamber orchestra (1925).

Suite No.2 for chamber orchestra (1921). Suite from Pulcinella for orchestra (1920). Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920). Quatre études for orchestra (1918).

Le chant du rossignol (Song of the Nightingale) (1917). Feu d'artifice (Fireworks) (1908). Scherzo fantastique (1908). Symphony in E-Flat Major (1907).

Agon for chamber orchestra (1957). Orpheus for chamber orchestra (1947). Jeu de cartes for orchestra (1936). Perséphone for speaker, soloists, chorus and orchestra (1933).

Le baiser de la fée (The Fairy's Kiss) for orchestra (1928). Apollon Musagète for string orchestra (1928). Pulcinella for chamber orchestra and soloists (1920). Renard (1916).

Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for orchestra (1913). Petrushka for orchestra (1911). L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird) for orchestra (1910).

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