Igor Stravinsky

Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian-American composer of modern classical music. He composed in the neo-classical and serialist styles, but he is best known for two works from his earlier, Russian period: Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) and L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). For some, these ballets practically reinvented the genre. Stravinsky also wrote in a broad spectrum of ensemble combinations and classical forms. His oeuvre included everything from symphonies to piano miniatures.

Stravinsky is shown here conducting the Columbia Symphony Orchestra in Petrushka.

Stravinsky also achieved fame as a pianist and conductor, often at the premieres of his own works. He was also a writer. With the help of Alexis Roland-Manuel, Stravinsky composed a theoretical work entitled Poetics of Music. In it, he famously claimed that music was incapable of "expressing anything but itself". Robert Craft transcribed several interviews with the composer, which were published as Conversations with Stravinsky.

A quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian, Stravinsky was one of the most authoritative composers in 20th century music, both in the West and in his native land. He was named by Time magazine as one of the most influential people of the century.

Biography

Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov), near St. Petersburg, Russia. Brought up in an apartment in St. Petersburg and dominated by his father and elder brother, Stravinsky's early childhood was a mix of experience that hinted little at the cosmopolitan artist he was to become. Though his father was a bass singer at the Mariinsky Theater in St. Petersburg, Stravinsky originally studied to be a lawyer. Composition came later. In 1902, at the age of 20, Stravinsky became the pupil of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, probably the leading Russian composer of the time.

Stravinsky left Russia for the first time in 1910, going to Paris to attend the premiere of his ballet L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). During his stay in the city, he composed three major works for the Ballets Russes—L'oiseau de feu, Petrushka (1911), and Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) (1913). The ballets trace his stylistic development: from the L'oiseau de feu, whose style draws largely on Rimsky-Korsakov, to Petrushka's emphasis on bitonality, and finally to the savage polyphonic dissonance of Le sacre du printemps. As he himself said, with these premieres his intention was "[to send] them all to hell". (He succeeded: the 1913 première of Le sacre du printemps turned into a riot.)

Stravinsky displayed an inexhaustible desire to learn and explore art, literature, and life. This desire manifested itself in several of his Paris collaborations. Not only was he the principal composer for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballet Russes, but Stravinsky also collaborated with Pablo Picasso (Pulcinella, 1920), Jean Cocteau (Oedipus Rex, 1927) and George Balanchine (Apollon Musagete, 1928).

Stravinsky and Pablo Picasso collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several sketches of the composer.

Relatively short of stature and not conventionally handsome, Stravinsky was nevertheless photogenic, as many pictures show. Although a notorious philanderer (even rumoured to have affairs with high-class partners such as Coco Chanel) Stravinsky was also a family man who devoted considerable amounts of his time and expenditure to his sons and daughters. He was still young when he married his cousin Katerina Nossenko, who he had known since early childhood, on 23 January 1906. Their marriage endured for 33 years, but the true love of his life, and partner until his death, was his second wife Vera de Bosset (1888-1982).

When Stravinsky met Vera in the early 1920s she was married to the painter and stage designer Serge Sudeikin, but they soon began an affair which led to her leaving her husband. From then until the death of Katerina in 1939 Stravinsky led a deft double-life, spending some of his time with his first family and the rest with Vera. Katerina soon learned of the relationship and accepted it as inevitable and permanent. After her death Stravinsky and Vera were married in New York where they had gone from France to escape the war in 1940.

Patronage too was never far away. In the early 1920s Leopold Stokowski was able to give Stravinsky regular support through a pseudonymous "benefactor". The composer was also able to attract commissions: most of his work from The Firebird onwards was written for specific occasions and paid for generously.

Stravinsky proved adept at playing the part of "man of the world", acquiring a keen instinct for business matters and appearing relaxed and comfortable in many of the world's major cities. Paris, Venice, Berlin, London and New York all hosted successful appearances as pianist and conductor. Most people who knew him through dealings connected with performances spoke of him as polite, courteous and helpful. For example, Otto Klemperer, who knew Schoenberg well, said that he always found Stravinsky much more co-operative and easy to deal with. At the same time he had a disregard of his social inferiors: Robert Craft was embarrassed by his habit of tapping a glass with a fork and loudly demanding attention in restaurants.

Eventually Stravinsky's music was noticed by Serge Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris. He commissioned Stravinsky to write a ballet for his theater; so in 1911, Stravinsky traveled to Paris. That ballet ended up being the famous L'Oiseau de Feu. However, because of World War I and the October Revolution in Russia he moved to Switzerland in 1914. He returned to Paris in 1920 to write more ballets as well as many other works. He moved to the United States in 1939 and became a naturalized citizen in 1945. He continued to live in the United States until his death in 1971, unsuccessfully writing music for films. Stravinsky had adapted to life in France, but moving to America aged 58 was a very different prospect. For a time he preserved a ring of emigré Russian friends and contacts, but eventually realised that this would not sustain his intellectual and professional life in the USA. When he planned to write an opera with W. H. Auden, the need to acquire more familiarity with the English-speaking world coincided with his meeting the conductor and musicologist Robert Craft. Craft lived with Stravinsky until his death, acting as interpreter, chronicler, assistant conductor and factotum for countless musical and social tasks.

The graves of Igor and Vera Stravinsky on San Michele

Stravinsky's taste in literature was wide and reflected his constant desire for new discoveries. The texts and literary sources for his work began with a period of interest in Russian folklore, progressed to classical authors and the Latin liturgy, and moved on to contemporary France (André Gide, in Persephone) and eventually English literature: Auden, Eliot, and medieval English verse. At the end of his life he was even setting Hebrew scripture in Abraham and Isaac.

In 1962 he accepted an invitation to return to Russia for a series of concerts, but remained an émigré firmly based in the West.

He died in New York City on April 6, 1971 at the age of 88 and was buried in Venice on the cemetery island of San Michele. His grave is close to the tomb of his long-time collaborator Diaghilev. Stravinsky's life had encompassed most of the 20th Century, including many of its modern classical music styles, and he influenced composers both during and after his lifetime. He has a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6340 Hollywood Boulevard.

Stylistic periods

Stravinsky's career largely falls into three distinct stylistic periods. Most of his compositions can be placed in one of the three.

The Primitive, or Russian, Period

The first of Stravinsky's major stylistic periods (excluding some early minor works) was inaugurated by the three ballets he composed for Diaghilev. The ballets have several shared characteristics: they are scored for extremely large orchestras; they use Russian folk themes and motifs; and they bear the mark of Rimsky-Korsakov's imaginative scoring and instrumentation.

The first of the ballets, L'oiseau de feu, is notable for its unusual introduction (triplets in the low basses) and sweeping orchestration. Petrushka, too, is distinctively scored and the first of Stravinsky's ballets to draw on folk mythology. But it is the third ballet, The Rite of Spring, that is generally considered the apotheosis of Stravinsky's "Russian Period". Here, the composer draws on the brutalism of pagan Russia, reflecting these sentiments in roughly-drawn, stinging motifs that appear throughout the work. There are several famous passages in the work, but two are of particular note: the opening theme played on a bassoon with notes at the very top of its register, almost out of range; and the thumping, off kilter eighth-note motif played by strings and accented by French horns on off-rhythms (See Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for a more detailed account of this work).

Other pieces from this period include: Renard (1916), Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918), and Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923).

The Neo-Classical Period

The next phase of Stravinsky's compositional style, slightly overlapping the first, is marked by two works: Pulcinella 1920 and the Octet (1923) for wind instruments. Both of these works feature what was to become a hallmark of this period; that is, Stravinsky's return, or "looking back", to the classical music of Mozart and Bach and their contemporaries. This "neo-classical" style involved the abandonment of the large orchestras demanded by the ballets. In these new works, written roughly between 1920 and 1950, Stravinsky turns largely to wind instruments, the piano, and choral and chamber works.

Other works such as Oedipus Rex (1927), Apollon Musagete (1928) and the Dumbarton Oaks concerto continue this trend.

Some larger works from this period are the three symphonies: the Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) (1930), Symphony in C (1940) and Symphony in Three Movements (1945). Apollon, Persephone (1933) and Orpheus (1947) also mark Stravinsky's concern, during this period, of not only returning to "Classic" music but also returning to "Classic" themes: in these instances, the mythology of the ancient Greeks.

The pinnacle of this period is the opera The Rake's Progress completed in 1951. This opera, written to a libretto by Auden and based on the etchings of Hogarth, encapsulates everything that Stravinsky had perfected in the previous 20 years of his neo-classic period. The music is direct but quirky; it borrows from classic tonal harmony but also interjects surprising dissonances; it features Stravinsky's trademark off-rhythms; and it harkens back to the operas and themes of Monteverdi, Gluck and Mozart.

After the opera's completion Stravinsky never wrote another "neo-classic" work and instead began writing the music that came to define his final stylistic change.

The Serialist, or Twelve Tone Period

Only after the death of Arnold Schoenberg, the inventor of the twelve tone system, in 1951 did Stravinsky begin making use of the technique in his own works. No doubt, Stravinsky was aided in his understanding of, or even conversion to, the twelve tone method by his confidant and helper Robert Craft, who had long been advocating the change. Regardless, the next fifteen years were spent writing the works in this style.

Stravinsky first began to dabble in the twelve tone technique in smaller vocal works such as the Cantata (1952), Three Songs from Shakespeare (1953) and In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954), as if he were testing the system. He later began expanding his use of the technique in works often based on biblical texts, such as Threni (1958), A Sermon, a Narrative, and a Prayer (1961), and The Flood (1962).

An important transitional work of this period in Stravinsky's work, was a return to the ballet: Agon, a work for twelve dancers written from 1954 to 1957. Some numbers of Agon recollect the "white-note" tonality of the neo-classic period, while others (the Bransle Gay, e.g.) display his unique re-interpretation of serial method. The ballet is thus a sort of miniature encyclopedia of Stravinsky, containing many of the signatures to be found throughout his compositions, whether primitivist, neo-classic, or serial: rhythmic quirkiness and experimentation, harmonic ingenuity, and a deft ear for masterful orchestration. Indeed, these characteristics are what make Stravinsky's output so unique when compared with the work of contemporaneous serial composers.

Influence and innovation

Stravinsky's work embraced multiple compositional styles, revolutionised orchestration, spanned several genres, practically reinvented ballet form and incorporated multiple cultures, languages and literatures. As a consequence, his influence on composers both during his lifetime and after his death was, and remains, considerable.

Compositional innovations

Stravinsky began re-thinking his use of the motif and ostinato as early as The Firebird ballet, but his use of these elements reached its full flowering in The Rite of Spring.

Motivic development, that is using a distinct musical phrase that is subsequently altered and developed throughout a piece of music, has its roots in the sonata form of Mozart's age. The first great innovator in this method was Beethoven; the famous "fate motif" which opens Fifth Symphony and reappears throughout the work in surprising and refreshing permutations is a classic example. However, Stravinsky's use of motivic development was unique in the way he permutated his motifs. In the "Rite of Spring" he introduces additive permutations, that is, subtracting or adding a note to a motif without regard to changes in meter.

The same ballet is also notable for its relentless use of ostinati. The most famous passage, as noted above, is the eighth note ostinato of the strings accented by eight french horns that occurs in the section Auguries of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls). This is perhaps the first instance in music of extended ostinato which is neither used for variation nor for accompaniment of melody. At various other times in the work Stravinsky also pits several ostinati against one another without regard to harmony or tempo, creating a pastiche, a sort of musical equivalent of a Cubist painting. These passages are notable not only for this pastiche-quality but also for their length: Stravinsky treats them as whole and complete musical sections.

Such techniques foreshadowed by several decades the minimalist works of composers such as Terry Riley and Steve Reich.

Neoclassicism

Stravinsky was the greatest, if not the first, practitioner of the "neoclassic" style, a style that would be later adopted by composers as diverse as Darius Milhaud and Aaron Copland. Sergei Prokofiev once chided Stravinsky for his neo-classical mannerisms, though sympathetically, as Prokofiev had broken similar musical ground in his Symphony No. 1, "Classical" of 1916-17.

Stravinsky announced his new style in 1923 with the stripped-down and delicately scored Octet for winds. The clear harmonies, looking back to the Classical music era of Mozart and Bach, and the simpler combinations of rhythm and melody were a direct response to the complexities of the Second Viennese School. Stravinsky may have been preceded in these devices by earlier composers such as Erik Satie, but no doubt when Copland was composing his Appalachian Spring ballet he was taking Stravinsky as his model.

Certainly by the late 1920s and 1930s, Neoclassicism as an accepted modern genre was prevalent throughout art music circles around the world. Ironically, it was Stravinsky himself who announced the death of Neoclassicism, at least in his own work if not for the world, with the completion of his opera The Rake's Progress in 1951. A sort of final statement for the style, the opera was largely ridiculed as too "backward looking" even by those who had lauded the new style only three decades earlier.

Quotation and pastiche

Stravinsky used the now very postmodern technique of direct musical quotation and pastiche as early as 1920 in his work Pulcinella. Here he uses the music of Pergolesi as source material, sometimes directly quoting it and other times simply reinventing it, to create a new and refreshing work. He used the same technique in the ballet The Fairy's Kiss of 1928. Here it is the music of Tchaikovsky, specifically Swan Lake, that Stravinsky uses as his source. Such compositional "borrowing" would come into vogue in the 1960s, as in the work Sinfonia by Luciano Berio.

Use of folk material

There were other composers in the early 20th century who collected and augmented their native folk music and used these themes in their work. Two notable examples are Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály. Yet in Le Sacre du Printemps we see Stravinsky again innovating in his use of folk themes. He strips these themes to their most basic outline, melody alone, and often contorts them beyond recognition with additive notes, inversions, diminutions, and other techniques. He did this so well, in fact, that only in recent scholarship, such as in Richard Taruskin's Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra [1], have analysts uncovered the original source material for some of the music in The Rite.

Orchestral innovations

The late 19th century and early 20th century was a time ripe with orchestral innovation. Composers such as Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler were well regarded for their skill at writing for the medium. They, in turn, were influenced by the expansion of the traditional classical orchestra by Richard Wagner through his use of large forces and unusual instruments.

Stravinsky continued this Romantic trend of writing for huge orchestral forces, especially in the early ballets. But it is when he started to turn away from this tendency that he began to innovate by introducing unique combinations of instruments. For example, in L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) the forces used are clarinet, bassoon, tenor and bass trombone, double bass, cornet, violin and percussion, a very striking combination for its time (1918). This combining of distinct timbres would become almost a cliche in post-World War II classical music.

Another notable innovation of orchestral technique that can be partially attributed to Stravinsky is the exploitation of the extreme ranges of instruments. The most famous passage is the opening of the Rite of Spring where Stravsinky uses the extreme reaches of the bassoon to simulate the symbolic "awakening" of a spring morning.

It must also be noted that composers such as Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Arnold Schoenberg were also exploring some of these orchestral and instrumental techniques in the early 20th century. Yet their influence on succeeding generations of composers was equalled if not exceeded by that of Stravinsky.

Criticism

"The music of Le Sacre du Printemps baffles verbal description. To say that much of it is hideous as sound is a mild description. There is certainly an impelling rhythm traceable. Practically it has no relation to music at all as most of us understand the word." Musical Times, London, August 1, 1913 (Slonimsky, 1953)

"All the signs indicate a strong reaction against the nightmare of noise and eccentricity that was one of the legacies of the war.... What has become of the works that made up the program of the Stravinsky concert which created such a stir a few years ago? Practically the whole lot are already on the shelf, and they will remain there until a few jaded neurotics once more feel a desire to eat ashes and fill their belly with the east wind." Musical Times, London, October 1923 (ibid.)

Composer Constant Lambert (1936) described pieces such as L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) as containing, "essentially cold-blooded abstraction". Further, the "melodic fragments in L'Histoire du Soldat are completely meaningless themselves. They are merely successions of notes that can conveniently be divided into groups of three, five, and seven and set against other mathematical groups", and the cadenza for solo drums is, "musical purity...achieved by a species of musical castration". He compares Stravinsky's choice of, "the drabbest and least significant phrases", to Gertrude Stein's: "Everday they were gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday" ("Helen Furr and Georgine Skeene", 1922), "whose effect would be equally appreciated by someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever".

In his book Philosophy of Modern Music (1948) Theodor Adorno calls Stravinsky an acrobat, a civil servant, a tailor's dummy, hebephrenic, psychotic, infantile, fascist, and devoted to making money. Part of the composer's error, in Adorno's view, was his neo-classicism, but more important was his music's "pseudomorphism of painting", playing off of le temps éspace (space) rather than le temps durée (duration) of Henri Bergson. "One trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's formal endeavors: the effort of his music to portray time as in a circus tableau and to present time complexes as though they were spatial. This trick, however, soon exhausts itself." (1948)

List of works

Ballets

  • L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird) for orchestra (1910)
  • Petrushka for orchestra (1911)
  • Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for orchestra (1913)
  • Renard (1916)
  • Pulcinella for chamber orchestra and soloists (1920)
  • Apollon Musagète for string orchestra (1928)
  • Le baiser de la fée (The Fairy's Kiss) for orchestra (1928)
  • Perséphone for speaker, soloists, chorus and orchestra (1933)
  • Jeu de cartes for orchestra (1936)
  • Orpheus for chamber orchestra (1947)
  • Agon for chamber orchestra (1957)

Orchestral works

  • Symphony in E-Flat Major (1907)
  • Scherzo fantastique (1908)
  • Feu d'artifice (Fireworks) (1908)
  • Le chant du rossignol (Song of the Nightingale) (1917)
  • Quatre études for orchestra (1918)
  • Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920)
  • Suite from Pulcinella for orchestra (1920)
  • Suite No.2 for chamber orchestra (1921)
  • Suite No.1 for chamber orchestra (1925)
  • Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments (1925)
  • Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra (1929)
  • Concerto in D for violin and orchestra (1931)
  • Divertimento for orchestra (Suite from Le Baiser du Fee, 1934)
  • Preludium for jazz band (1937)
  • Concerto in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks) for Chamber Orchestra (1938)
  • Symphony in C (1940)
  • Circus Polka for orchestra (1942)
  • Danses Concertantes for chamber orchestra (1942)
  • Four Norwegian Moods for orchestra (1942)
  • Ode for orchestra (1943)
  • Scherzo a la Russe for orchestra (1944)
  • Symphony in Three Movements (1945)
  • Ebony Concerto for clarinet and jazz band (1945)
  • Concerto in D for string orchestra (1946)
  • Tango for chamber orchestra (1940/1953)
  • Greeting Prelude for orchestra (1955)
  • Movements for Piano and Orchestra (1958–[[1959])
  • 8 Instrumental miniatures for 15 Players (1963, orchestration of Les Cinq Doigts)
  • Variations (Aldous Huxley in Memoriam) for orchestra (1963–1964)

Piano works

  • Tarantella for piano (1898)
  • Scherzo for piano (1902)
  • Sonata in F-Sharp Minor for piano (1904)
  • Quatre Etudes for piano Op.7 (1908)
  • Le Sacre du Printemps for two pianos (1913)
  • Valse des fleurs for two pianos (1914)
  • Trois piéces faciles for two pianos (1915)
  • Souvenir d'une Marche Boche for piano (1915)
  • Cinq piéces faciles for two pianos (1917)
  • Valse pour les Enfants for piano (1917)
  • Piano Rag Music for piano (1919)
  • Chorale for piano (1920)
  • Les Cinq Doigts for piano (1921)
  • Sonata for piano (1924)
  • Serenade for piano (1925)
  • Concerto for Two Pianos (1935)
  • Tango for piano (1940)
  • Sonata for Two Pianos (1943)
  • Two Sketches for a Sonata for piano (1967)

Chamber works

  • Three Pieces for string quartet (1914)
  • Pour Pablo Picasso, Piece for clarinet (1917)
  • Canon for two horns (1917)
  • Duet for two bassoons (1918)
  • Suite from Histoire du Soldat for violin, clarinet and piano (1919)
  • Three Pieces for Clarinet (1919)
  • Concertino for string quartet (1920)
  • Octet for wind instruments (1923)
  • Duo Concertant for violin and piano (1932)
  • Pastorale for violin and piano (1933)
  • Suite Italienne (from Pulcinella) for violin or cello and piano (1933/34)
  • Elegy for solo viola (1944)
  • Septet (1953)
  • Epitaphium for flute, clarinet and harp (1959)
  • Double Canon for string quartet 'Raoul Dufy in Memoriam' (1959)
  • Monumentum Pro Gesualdo Di Venosa (arrangement) for chamber ensemble (1960)
  • Fanfare for a New Theatre for two trumpets (1964)

Choral works

  • Le roi des étoiles (The King of the Stars) for Men's Choir and Orchestra (1912)
  • Pater Noster (1926)
  • Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) for chorus and orchestra (1930)
  • Mass (1948)
  • Cantata for soprano, tenor, female voices, 2 flutes, oboe, English horn, cello (1953-1954)
  • Canticum Sacrum (1955)
  • Threni (1958)
  • A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer (1961)
  • Abraham and Isaac (1963)
  • Introitus (1965)
  • Requiem Canticles (1966)

Opera/Theater

  • Le rossignol (The Nightingale) (1914)
  • Burleske for 4 Pantomimes and Chamber Orchestra (1916)
  • Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918)
  • Mavra (1922)
  • Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923)
  • Oedipus Rex (1927)
  • Babel (1944)
  • The Rake's Progress (1951)
  • The Flood (1962)

Vocal works

  • Romance for Voice and Piano (1902)
  • Faun and Shepherdess for mezzo-soprano and orchestra Op. 2 (1907)
  • Pastorale wordless soprano and piano (1907)
  • Two Melodies for mezzo-soprano and piano Op.6 (1908)
  • Deux poèmes de Paul Verlaine for bariton and piano or orchestra Op.9 (1910/1951)
  • Two Poems of K. Balmont for voice and piano or small orchestra (1911/1954)
  • Trois poésies de la lyrique japonaise for voice and piano or chamber orchestra (1913)
  • Trois petites chansons voice and piano (or small orchestra) (1913/1930)
  • Pribaoutki for voice, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, vln, vla, vc, double bass (1914)
  • Berceuses du Chat for contralto and three clarinets (1916)
  • Three Tales for Children for voice and piano (1917)
  • Four Russian Peasant Songs for female voice unaccompanied (1917)
  • Berceuse for voice and piano (1918)
  • Quatre chants russes Quatre chants russes for voice and piano (1918/1919)
  • Petit ramusianum harmonique single voice or voices (1938)
  • Three Songs from William Shakespeare for mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet, and viola (1953)
  • Four Russian Songs for mezzo-soprano, flute, harp and guitar (1954, versions from Quatre chants russes and Three Tales for Children)
  • In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (Dirge Canons and Song) (1954)
  • Elegy for J.F.K. for baritone and three clarinets (1964)
  • The Owl and the Pussy Cat for soprano and piano (1966)

See Also

  • Category:Compositions by Igor Stravinsky

References

  • Lambert, Constant (1936). Music Ho! A Study of Music in Decline, p.94–94 and 101–105. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Robert Craft. Stravinsky: Glimpses of a Life, St Martins Press, 1993
  • Robert Craft. Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship, Vanderbilt University Press, 1997
  • Slonimsky, Nicolas (1953). Lexicon of Musical Invective: Critical Assaults on Composers Since Beethoven's Time. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0295785799.

Further reading

  • Igor Stravinsky, Poetics of Music, ISBN 674678559. Ghostwritten by Alexis Roland-Manuel.
  • Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Conversations with Stravinsky, ISBN 0520040406 .
  • Igor Stravinsky, An Autobiography, ISBN 0393318567. Ghostwritten by Walter Nouvel.
  • Eric Walter White, Stravinsky. The composer and his works, ISBN 0571049230
  • Milan Kundera, Testaments Betrayed: An Essay in Nine Parts, ISBN 0060927518

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This trick, however, soon exhausts itself." (1948). states are named after Grant: Grant County, Arkansas; Grant County, Kansas; Grant County, Minnesota; Grant County, Nebraska; Grant County, New Mexico; Grant County, North Dakota; Grant County, Oklahoma; Grant County, Washington; and Grant County, West Virginia. "One trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's formal endeavors: the effort of his music to portray time as in a circus tableau and to present time complexes as though they were spatial. Counties in nine U.S. Part of the composer's error, in Adorno's view, was his neo-classicism, but more important was his music's "pseudomorphism of painting", playing off of le temps éspace (space) rather than le temps durée (duration) of Henri Bergson. S." Grant suggesting "Uncle Sam"), The Great Captain and, in his youth, Ulys, Lyss and Useless. In his book Philosophy of Modern Music (1948) Theodor Adorno calls Stravinsky an acrobat, a civil servant, a tailor's dummy, hebephrenic, psychotic, infantile, fascist, and devoted to making money. Grant's nicknames included: The Hero of Appomattox, "Unconditional Surrender" Grant, Sam Grant (originating at West Point, from "U.

He compares Stravinsky's choice of, "the drabbest and least significant phrases", to Gertrude Stein's: "Everday they were gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday" ("Helen Furr and Georgine Skeene", 1922), "whose effect would be equally appreciated by someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever". Grant Bridge over the Ohio River at Portsmouth, Ohio. They are merely successions of notes that can conveniently be divided into groups of three, five, and seven and set against other mathematical groups", and the cadenza for solo drums is, "musical purity...achieved by a species of musical castration". There is a U.S. Further, the "melodic fragments in L'Histoire du Soldat are completely meaningless themselves. Grant Memorial, located on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., honors Grant. Composer Constant Lambert (1936) described pieces such as L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) as containing, "essentially cold-blooded abstraction". The Ulysses S.

What has become of the works that made up the program of the Stravinsky concert which created such a stir a few years ago? Practically the whole lot are already on the shelf, and they will remain there until a few jaded neurotics once more feel a desire to eat ashes and fill their belly with the east wind." Musical Times, London, October 1923 (ibid.). $50 bill. "All the signs indicate a strong reaction against the nightmare of noise and eccentricity that was one of the legacies of the war... Grant's portrait appears on the U.S. Practically it has no relation to music at all as most of us understand the word." Musical Times, London, August 1, 1913 (Slonimsky, 1953). In World War II, the British Army produced an armored vehicle known as the Grant tank (a version of the American M3 model, which was ironically nicknamed the "Lee"). There is certainly an impelling rhythm traceable. His body lies in New York City, beside that of his wife, in Grant's Tomb, the largest mausoleum in North America.

To say that much of it is hideous as sound is a mild description. on Thursday July 23, 1885, at Mount McGregor, Saratoga County, New York. "The music of Le Sacre du Printemps baffles verbal description. Grant died at 8:06 a.m. Yet their influence on succeeding generations of composers was equalled if not exceeded by that of Stravinsky. Ulysses S. It must also be noted that composers such as Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Arnold Schoenberg were also exploring some of these orchestral and instrumental techniques in the early 20th century. Twain called the memoirs "the most remarkable work of its kind since the Commentaries of Julius Caesar," and they are widely regarded as among the finest memoirs ever written.

The most famous passage is the opening of the Rite of Spring where Stravsinky uses the extreme reaches of the bassoon to simulate the symbolic "awakening" of a spring morning. The memoirs succeeded, selling over 300,000 copies and earning the Grant family over $450,000 ($9,500,000 in 2005 dollars). Another notable innovation of orchestral technique that can be partially attributed to Stravinsky is the exploitation of the extreme ranges of instruments. Although wracked with pain and unable to speak at the end, he triumphed, finishing them just a few days before his death. This combining of distinct timbres would become almost a cliche in post-World War II classical music. Now, terminally ill and in what many historian's believe was his greatest struggle, Grant fought to finish his memoirs. For example, in L'Histoire du Soldat (A Soldier's Tale) the forces used are clarinet, bassoon, tenor and bass trombone, double bass, cornet, violin and percussion, a very striking combination for its time (1918). Grant accepted Twain's offer.

But it is when he started to turn away from this tendency that he began to innovate by introducing unique combinations of instruments. He rightly realized that Grant was, at that time, the most significant American alive, and he offered Grant a generous contract, including 75% of the book's sales as royalties. Stravinsky continued this Romantic trend of writing for huge orchestral forces, especially in the early ballets. Twain, who was suspicious of publishers, was appalled by the magazine's offer. They, in turn, were influenced by the expansion of the traditional classical orchestra by Richard Wagner through his use of large forces and unusual instruments. Independently of the magazine publishers, the famous author, Mark Twain, approached Grant. Composers such as Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler were well regarded for their skill at writing for the medium. It was a standard contract, one which they issued to most any new writer.

The late 19th century and early 20th century was a time ripe with orchestral innovation. Afterwards, the publishers made Grant an offer to write his memoirs. He did this so well, in fact, that only in recent scholarship, such as in Richard Taruskin's Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra [1], have analysts uncovered the original source material for some of the music in The Rite. He first wrote a couple of articles for The Century magazine, which were warmly received. He strips these themes to their most basic outline, melody alone, and often contorts them beyond recognition with additive notes, inversions, diminutions, and other techniques. Only upon his family's future financial independence becoming in doubt, did he agree to write anything at all. Yet in Le Sacre du Printemps we see Stravinsky again innovating in his use of folk themes. Grant's Memoirs are considered a masterpiece, both for their writing style and their historical content, and until Grant bankrupted, he steadfastly refused to write them.

Two notable examples are Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály. In one of the most ironic twists in all history, Ward's treachery led directly to a great gift to posterity. There were other composers in the early 20th century who collected and augmented their native folk music and used these themes in their work. Presidents were given pensions). Such compositional "borrowing" would come into vogue in the 1960s, as in the work Sinfonia by Luciano Berio. Grant and his family were left destitute (this was before the era in which retired U.S. Here it is the music of Tchaikovsky, specifically Swan Lake, that Stravinsky uses as his source. And to make matters worse, Grant found out at the same time that he was suffering from throat cancer.

He used the same technique in the ballet The Fairy's Kiss of 1928. In this case, Ward swindled Grant in 1884, bankrupted the company, Grant and Ward, and fled. Here he uses the music of Pergolesi as source material, sometimes directly quoting it and other times simply reinventing it, to create a new and refreshing work. McClellan, failure was in the wings. Stravinsky used the now very postmodern technique of direct musical quotation and pastiche as early as 1920 in his work Pulcinella. Ward was known as the "Young Napoleon of Finance." Perhaps Grant should have taken that name seriously; as with the other Young Napoleon, George B. A sort of final statement for the style, the opera was largely ridiculed as too "backward looking" even by those who had lauded the new style only three decades earlier. In 1881, Grant placed almost all of his financial assets into an investment banking partnership with Ferdinand Ward, as suggested by Grant's son Buck (Ulysses, Jr.), who was having success on Wall Street.

Ironically, it was Stravinsky himself who announced the death of Neoclassicism, at least in his own work if not for the world, with the completion of his opera The Rake's Progress in 1951. In 1883, Grant was elected the eighth president of the National Rifle Association. Certainly by the late 1920s and 1930s, Neoclassicism as an accepted modern genre was prevalent throughout art music circles around the world. He decided that Japan's claim to the islands was stronger and ruled in Japan's favor. Stravinsky may have been preceded in these devices by earlier composers such as Erik Satie, but no doubt when Copland was composing his Appalachian Spring ballet he was taking Stravinsky as his model. China objected, and Grant was asked to arbitrate the matter. The clear harmonies, looking back to the Classical music era of Mozart and Bach, and the simpler combinations of rhythm and melody were a direct response to the complexities of the Second Viennese School. In 1879, the Meiji government of Japan announced the annexation of the Ryukyu Islands.

Stravinsky announced his new style in 1923 with the stripped-down and delicately scored Octet for winds. In the Shibakoen section of Tokyo, a tree still stands that Grant planted during his stay. 1, "Classical" of 1916-17. Grant also visited Japan. Sergei Prokofiev once chided Stravinsky for his neo-classical mannerisms, though sympathetically, as Prokofiev had broken similar musical ground in his Symphony No. He visited Sunderland, where he opened the first free municipal public library in England. Stravinsky was the greatest, if not the first, practitioner of the "neoclassic" style, a style that would be later adopted by composers as diverse as Darius Milhaud and Aaron Copland. After the end of his second term, Grant spent two years traveling around the world.

Such techniques foreshadowed by several decades the minimalist works of composers such as Terry Riley and Steve Reich. Grant appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:. These passages are notable not only for this pastiche-quality but also for their length: Stravinsky treats them as whole and complete musical sections.
. At various other times in the work Stravinsky also pits several ostinati against one another without regard to harmony or tempo, creating a pastiche, a sort of musical equivalent of a Cubist painting. He referred to the people who approached him in the lobby as "those damn lobbyists," possibly giving rise to the modern term lobbyist. This is perhaps the first instance in music of extended ostinato which is neither used for variation nor for accompaniment of melody. Grant was known to visit the Willard Hotel to escape the stress of the White House.

The most famous passage, as noted above, is the eighth note ostinato of the strings accented by eight french horns that occurs in the section Auguries of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls). In 1876 Grant helped to calm the nation over the Hayes-Tilden election controversy by appointing a federal commission that helped to settle the election. The same ballet is also notable for its relentless use of ostinati. In foreign affairs the greatest achievement of the Grant administration was the Treaty of Washington negotiated by Grant's best appointment, Secretary of State Hamilton Fish, in 1871. In the "Rite of Spring" he introduces additive permutations, that is, subtracting or adding a note to a motif without regard to changes in meter. In 1876, Colorado was admitted into the Union. However, Stravinsky's use of motivic development was unique in the way he permutated his motifs. A number of government agencies were instituted during the Grant administration:.

The first great innovator in this method was Beethoven; the famous "fate motif" which opens Fifth Symphony and reappears throughout the work in surprising and refreshing permutations is a classic example. The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, establishing voting rights, was ratified in (1870). Motivic development, that is using a distinct musical phrase that is subsequently altered and developed throughout a piece of music, has its roots in the sonata form of Mozart's age. In 1869 and 1871, Grant signed bills promoting voting rights and prosecuting Klan leaders. Stravinsky began re-thinking his use of the motif and ostinato as early as The Firebird ballet, but his use of these elements reached its full flowering in The Rite of Spring. He favored a limited number of troops to be stationed in the South—sufficient numbers to protect rights of southern blacks and suppress the violent tactics of the Ku Klux Klan; not so many that would harbor resentment in the general population. As a consequence, his influence on composers both during his lifetime and after his death was, and remains, considerable. The most tumultuous was the continuing process of Reconstruction.

Stravinsky's work embraced multiple compositional styles, revolutionised orchestration, spanned several genres, practically reinvented ballet form and incorporated multiple cultures, languages and literatures. history. Indeed, these characteristics are what make Stravinsky's output so unique when compared with the work of contemporaneous serial composers. Despite all the scandals, Grant's administration presided over significant events in U.S. The ballet is thus a sort of miniature encyclopedia of Stravinsky, containing many of the signatures to be found throughout his compositions, whether primitivist, neo-classic, or serial: rhythmic quirkiness and experimentation, harmonic ingenuity, and a deft ear for masterful orchestration. His failure to establish adequate political allies was a factor in the scandals getting out of control. Some numbers of Agon recollect the "white-note" tonality of the neo-classic period, while others (the Bransle Gay, e.g.) display his unique re-interpretation of serial method. He alienated party leaders by giving many posts to his friends and political contributors, rather than listen to their recommendations.

An important transitional work of this period in Stravinsky's work, was a return to the ballet: Agon, a work for twelve dancers written from 1954 to 1957. He was weak in his selection of subordinates. He later began expanding his use of the technique in works often based on biblical texts, such as Threni (1958), A Sermon, a Narrative, and a Prayer (1961), and The Flood (1962). Although there is no evidence that Grant himself profited from corruption among his subordinates, he did not take a firm stance against malefactors and failed to react strongly even after their guilt was established. Stravinsky first began to dabble in the twelve tone technique in smaller vocal works such as the Cantata (1952), Three Songs from Shakespeare (1953) and In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954), as if he were testing the system. Belknap, was involved in an investigation that revealed that he had taken bribes in exchange for the sale of Native American trading posts. Regardless, the next fifteen years were spent writing the works in this style. After the Whiskey Ring, Grant's Secretary of War, William W.

No doubt, Stravinsky was aided in his understanding of, or even conversion to, the twelve tone method by his confidant and helper Robert Craft, who had long been advocating the change. Babcock, the private secretary to the President, was indicted as a member of the ring and escaped conviction only because of a presidential pardon. Only after the death of Arnold Schoenberg, the inventor of the twelve tone system, in 1951 did Stravinsky begin making use of the technique in his own works. Orville E. After the opera's completion Stravinsky never wrote another "neo-classic" work and instead began writing the music that came to define his final stylistic change. The most famous scandal was the Whiskey Ring fraud in which over $3 million in taxes were taken from the federal government. The music is direct but quirky; it borrows from classic tonal harmony but also interjects surprising dissonances; it features Stravinsky's trademark off-rhythms; and it harkens back to the operas and themes of Monteverdi, Gluck and Mozart. Scofield.

This opera, written to a libretto by Auden and based on the etchings of Hogarth, encapsulates everything that Stravinsky had perfected in the previous 20 years of his neo-classic period. Attorney Cyrus I. The pinnacle of this period is the opera The Rake's Progress completed in 1951. Grant's presidency was plagued with scandals, such as the Sanborn Incident at the Treasury and problems with U.S. Apollon, Persephone (1933) and Orpheus (1947) also mark Stravinsky's concern, during this period, of not only returning to "Classic" music but also returning to "Classic" themes: in these instances, the mythology of the ancient Greeks. In the general election that year, he won with a majority of 3,012,833 out of a total of 5,716,082 votes cast. Some larger works from this period are the three symphonies: the Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) (1930), Symphony in C (1940) and Symphony in Three Movements (1945). He was chosen as the Republican presidential candidate at the Republican National Convention in Chicago, Illinois on May 20, 1868, with no real opposition.

Other works such as Oedipus Rex (1927), Apollon Musagete (1928) and the Dumbarton Oaks concerto continue this trend. Grant was the 18th President of the United States and served two terms from March 4, 1869, to March 4, 1877. In these new works, written roughly between 1920 and 1950, Stravinsky turns largely to wind instruments, the piano, and choral and chamber works. He was appointed as such by President Andrew Johnson on July 25, 1866. This "neo-classical" style involved the abandonment of the large orchestras demanded by the ballets. After the war, Congress authorized Grant the newly created rank of General of the Army (the equivalent of a four-star, "full" general rank in the modern Army). Both of these works feature what was to become a hallmark of this period; that is, Stravinsky's return, or "looking back", to the classical music of Mozart and Bach and their contemporaries. Grant.

The next phase of Stravinsky's compositional style, slightly overlapping the first, is marked by two works: Pulcinella 1920 and the Octet (1923) for wind instruments. He fights." It was a two-word description that completely caught the essence of Ulysses S. Other pieces from this period include: Renard (1916), Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918), and Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923). Lincoln had been quoted after the massive losses at Shiloh, "I can't spare this general. There are several famous passages in the work, but two are of particular note: the opening theme played on a bassoon with notes at the very top of its register, almost out of range; and the thumping, off kilter eighth-note motif played by strings and accented by French horns on off-rhythms (See Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for a more detailed account of this work). Immediately after Lee's surrender, Grant had the sad honor of serving as a pallbearer at the funeral of his greatest champion, Abraham Lincoln. Here, the composer draws on the brutalism of pagan Russia, reflecting these sentiments in roughly-drawn, stinging motifs that appear throughout the work. Within a few weeks, the American Civil War was effectively over, although minor actions would continue until Kirby Smith surrendered his forces in the Trans-Mississippi Department on June 2, 1865.

But it is the third ballet, The Rite of Spring, that is generally considered the apotheosis of Stravinsky's "Russian Period". There, Grant offered generous terms that did much to ease the tensions between the armies and preserve some semblance of Southern pride, which would be needed to reconcile the warring sides. Petrushka, too, is distinctively scored and the first of Stravinsky's ballets to draw on folk mythology. At the beginning of April of 1865, Grant's relentless pressure finally forced Lee to evacuate Richmond and after a nine-day retreat, Lee surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. The first of the ballets, L'oiseau de feu, is notable for its unusual introduction (triplets in the low basses) and sweeping orchestration. Sheridan and Sherman both followed Grant's strategy of total war by destroying the economic infrastructures of the Valley and a large swath of Georgia and the Carolinas. The ballets have several shared characteristics: they are scored for extremely large orchestras; they use Russian folk themes and motifs; and they bear the mark of Rimsky-Korsakov's imaginative scoring and instrumentation. Later in November, Sherman began his March to the Sea.

The first of Stravinsky's major stylistic periods (excluding some early minor works) was inaugurated by the three ballets he composed for Diaghilev. It became clear the North was winning the war, and Lincoln was reelected by a wide margin. Most of his compositions can be placed in one of the three. Then, Grant dispatched Philip Sheridan to the Shenandoah Valley to deal with Early. Stravinsky's career largely falls into three distinct stylistic periods. First, Sherman took Atlanta. He has a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6340 Hollywood Boulevard. In early September the efforts of Grant's coordinated strategy finally bore fruit.

Stravinsky's life had encompassed most of the 20th Century, including many of its modern classical music styles, and he influenced composers both during and after his lifetime. Abraham Lincoln's reelection prospects looked bleak. His grave is close to the tomb of his long-time collaborator Diaghilev. Early reached the outskirts of Washington, D.C., and, threatening the city's inhabitants, embarrassed the Administration. He died in New York City on April 6, 1971 at the age of 88 and was buried in Venice on the cemetery island of San Michele. Early to invade north through the Shenandoah Valley, hoping that Grant would disengage some of his forces to pursue him. In 1962 he accepted an invitation to return to Russia for a series of concerts, but remained an émigré firmly based in the West. To make matters worse for Abraham Lincoln, Lee detached a small army under the command of Major General Jubal A.

At the end of his life he was even setting Hebrew scripture in Abraham and Isaac. There was a presidential election in the fall, and the citizens of the North had difficulty seeing any progress in the war effort. The texts and literary sources for his work began with a period of interest in Russian folklore, progressed to classical authors and the Latin liturgy, and moved on to contemporary France (André Gide, in Persephone) and eventually English literature: Auden, Eliot, and medieval English verse. With Grant's and Sherman's armies, respectively stalled in Virginia and Georgia, politics took center stage. Stravinsky's taste in literature was wide and reflected his constant desire for new discoveries. Faced with fully manned trenches in front of him, Grant was left with no alternative but to settle down to a siege. Craft lived with Stravinsky until his death, acting as interpreter, chronicler, assistant conductor and factotum for countless musical and social tasks. “Baldy” Smith.

Auden, the need to acquire more familiarity with the English-speaking world coincided with his meeting the conductor and musicologist Robert Craft. Arriving at Petersburg, Virginia, first, Grant should have captured the rail junction city, but he failed because of an overly cautious subordinate, William F. H. He stole a march on Lee, slipping his troops across the James River. When he planned to write an opera with W. Even after suffering horrific casualties at the Battle of Cold Harbor, Grant kept up the pressure. For a time he preserved a ring of emigré Russian friends and contacts, but eventually realised that this would not sustain his intellectual and professional life in the USA. Grant wrested the initiative from Lee, and it became clear that Lee would never have the ability to invade the North again.

Stravinsky had adapted to life in France, but moving to America aged 58 was a very different prospect. Now, he was forced to continually fight on the defensive and his army was prevented from reinforcing and reprovisioning. He continued to live in the United States until his death in 1971, unsuccessfully writing music for films. Most of Lee's great victories had been won on the offensive, employing surprise movements and fierce assaults. He moved to the United States in 1939 and became a naturalized citizen in 1945. In spite of mounting Union casualties, the contest's dynamics changed in Grant's favor. He returned to Paris in 1920 to write more ballets as well as many other works. These words summed up his attitude about the fighting, and the very next day, May 12, he ordered a massive assault that nearly broke Lee's lines.

However, because of World War I and the October Revolution in Russia he moved to Switzerland in 1914. On May 11, Grant wrote a famous dispatch containing the line "I propose to fight it out along this line if it takes all summer". That ballet ended up being the famous L'Oiseau de Feu. The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House lasted 14 days. He commissioned Stravinsky to write a ballet for his theater; so in 1911, Stravinsky traveled to Paris. The campaign continued and Lee, anticipating Grant's move, beat him to Spotsylvania, Virginia, where, on May 8, the fighting resumed. Eventually Stravinsky's music was noticed by Serge Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris. Grant, ignoring the setback, declined the offer and ordered an advance around Lee's flank to the southeast.

At the same time he had a disregard of his social inferiors: Robert Craft was embarrassed by his habit of tapping a glass with a fork and loudly demanding attention in restaurants. Lee backed off, permitting Grant to do what all of Grant's predecessors, as commanders of the Army of the Potomac, had done in this situation and that was retreat. For example, Otto Klemperer, who knew Schoenberg well, said that he always found Stravinsky much more co-operative and easy to deal with. With the pause in the fighting, there came one of those rare moments when the course of history fell upon the decision of a single man. Most people who knew him through dealings connected with performances spoke of him as polite, courteous and helpful. Grant was leading a campaign that, in order to win the war, had to destroy the Confederacy's ability to make war. Paris, Venice, Berlin, London and New York all hosted successful appearances as pianist and conductor. In spite of there being no clear winner, it was an inauspicious start for the Union.

Stravinsky proved adept at playing the part of "man of the world", acquiring a keen instinct for business matters and appearing relaxed and comfortable in many of the world's major cities. The Battle of the Wilderness was a stubborn, bloody two-day fight. The composer was also able to attract commissions: most of his work from The Firebird onwards was written for specific occasions and paid for generously. It was a terrible place to fight, but Lee sent in his Army of Northern Virginia anyway because he wanted to catch Grant off guard. In the early 1920s Leopold Stokowski was able to give Stravinsky regular support through a pseudonymous "benefactor". It began early in May of 1864 when the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River, marching into an area of scrubby undergrowth and second growth trees known as the Wilderness. Patronage too was never far away. Lee in an epic contest.

After her death Stravinsky and Vera were married in New York where they had gone from France to escape the war in 1940. It pitted Grant against the great commander Robert E. Katerina soon learned of the relationship and accepted it as inevitable and permanent. The Overland Campaign was the thrust needed by the Union to defeat the Confederacy. From then until the death of Katerina in 1939 Stravinsky led a deft double-life, spending some of his time with his first family and the rest with Vera. Grant was the first general to attempt such a coordinated strategy in the war and the first to understand the concepts of total war, in which the destruction of an enemy's economic infrastructure that supplied its armies was as important as tactical victories on the battlefield. When Stravinsky met Vera in the early 1920s she was married to the painter and stage designer Serge Sudeikin, but they soon began an affair which led to her leaving her husband. Averell to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia; Nathaniel Banks to capture Mobile, Alabama.

Their marriage endured for 33 years, but the true love of his life, and partner until his death, was his second wife Vera de Bosset (1888-1982). Johnston, and capture Atlanta; George Crook and William W. He was still young when he married his cousin Katerina Nossenko, who he had known since early childhood, on 23 January 1906. Meade, and Benjamin Franklin Butler against Lee near Richmond; Franz Sigel in the Shenandoah Valley; Sherman to invade Georgia, defeat Joseph E. Although a notorious philanderer (even rumoured to have affairs with high-class partners such as Coco Chanel) Stravinsky was also a family man who devoted considerable amounts of his time and expenditure to his sons and daughters. He devised a coordinated strategy that would strike at the heart of the Confederacy from multiple directions: Grant, George G. Relatively short of stature and not conventionally handsome, Stravinsky was nevertheless photogenic, as many pictures show. Sherman in immediate command of all forces in the West and moved his headquarters to Virginia where he turned his attention to the long-frustrated Union effort to destroy the army of Lee; his secondary objective was to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, but Grant knew that the latter would happen automatically once the former was accomplished.

Not only was he the principal composer for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballet Russes, but Stravinsky also collaborated with Pablo Picasso (Pulcinella, 1920), Jean Cocteau (Oedipus Rex, 1927) and George Balanchine (Apollon Musagete, 1928). In March 1864, Grant put Major General William T. This desire manifested itself in several of his Paris collaborations. Grant has been described as a "butcher" for his strategy, particularly in 1864, but he was able to achieve objectives that his predecessor generals had not, even though they suffered similar casualties over time. Stravinsky displayed an inexhaustible desire to learn and explore art, literature, and life. Such tactics often resulted in heavy casualties for Grant's men, but they wore down the Confederate forces proportionately even more and inflicted irreplaceable losses. (He succeeded: the 1913 première of Le sacre du printemps turned into a riot.). Once an offensive or a siege began, Grant refused to stop the attack until the enemy surrendered or was driven from the field.

As he himself said, with these premieres his intention was "[to send] them all to hell". Lee), Grant was not afraid to order direct assaults or tight sieges against Confederate forces, often when the Confederates were themselves launching offensives against him. The ballets trace his stylistic development: from the L'oiseau de feu, whose style draws largely on Rimsky-Korsakov, to Petrushka's emphasis on bitonality, and finally to the savage polyphonic dissonance of Le sacre du printemps. Although a master of combat by out-maneuvering his opponent (such as at Vicksburg and in the Overland Campaign against Robert E. During his stay in the city, he composed three major works for the Ballets Russes—L'oiseau de feu, Petrushka (1911), and Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) (1913). Grant's fighting style was what one fellow general called "that of a bulldog". Stravinsky left Russia for the first time in 1910, going to Paris to attend the premiere of his ballet L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). On March 12, Grant became general-in-chief of all the armies of the United States.

In 1902, at the age of 20, Stravinsky became the pupil of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, probably the leading Russian composer of the time. Congress with Grant in mind—on March 2, 1864. Composition came later. Grant's willingness to fight and ability to win impressed President Abraham Lincoln, who appointed him lieutenant general—a new rank recently authorized by the U.S. Petersburg, Stravinsky originally studied to be a lawyer. The assaulting wave sent the Confederates into a head-long retreat, opening the way for the Union to invade Atlanta, Georgia, and the heart of the Confederacy. Though his father was a bass singer at the Mariinsky Theater in St. Instead, exceeding their orders, Thomas's men made a spectacular charge straight up Missionary Ridge and broke the fortified center of the Confederate line.

Petersburg and dominated by his father and elder brother, Stravinsky's early childhood was a mix of experience that hinted little at the cosmopolitan artist he was to become. In response, Grant ordered Thomas to conduct a minor attack in the center as a diversion. Brought up in an apartment in St. Determined Confederate resistance stymied Union attacks on the right and left. Petersburg, Russia. The Battle of Chattanooga started out as a stalemate. Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov), near St. In late November, they went on the offensive.

. Upon reprovisioning and reinforcing, the morale of Union troops lifted. He was named by Time magazine as one of the most influential people of the century. Greatly alarmed by what he saw, Grant quickly devised a plan and, with the help of reinforcements, successfully carried it out, opening a supply line. A quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian, Stravinsky was one of the most authoritative composers in 20th century music, both in the West and in his native land. They were cut off from receiving supplies and on reduced rations. Robert Craft transcribed several interviews with the composer, which were published as Conversations with Stravinsky. Upon his arrival in Chattanooga on October 23, Grant found the troops in a deplorable state.

In it, he famously claimed that music was incapable of "expressing anything but itself". Thomas. With the help of Alexis Roland-Manuel, Stravinsky composed a theoretical work entitled Poetics of Music. He immediately relieved Rosecrans and replaced him with George H. He was also a writer. On October 17, Grant was placed in overall charge of the besieged forces. Stravinsky also achieved fame as a pianist and conductor, often at the premieres of his own works. They took up positions on the hillsides, overlooking the city and surrounding the Federals.

His oeuvre included everything from symphonies to piano miniatures. The victorious Confederate forces, led by Braxton Bragg, followed closely behind. Stravinsky also wrote in a broad spectrum of ensemble combinations and classical forms. Afterwards, the defeated Union forces under William Rosecrans retreated to the city of Chattanooga, Tennessee. For some, these ballets practically reinvented the genre. In September of 1863, the Confederates won the Battle of Chickamauga. He composed in the neo-classical and serialist styles, but he is best known for two works from his earlier, Russian period: Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) and L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird). It was the second time Grant captured a Confederate army in its entirety.

Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian-American composer of modern classical music. It was a devastating defeat for the Southern cause, effectively splitting the Confederacy in two, and, in conjunction with the Union victory at Gettysburg the previous day, is widely considered the turning point of the war. Milan Kundera, Testaments Betrayed: An Essay in Nine Parts, ISBN 0060927518. Cut off and with no possibility of relief, Pemberton surrendered to Grant on July 4, 1863. The composer and his works, ISBN 0571049230. Finding that assaults against the impregnable breastworks were futile, he settled in for a six-week siege. Eric Walter White, Stravinsky. The defeated Confederates retreated inside their fortifications at Vicksburg, and Grant promptly surrounded the city.

Ghostwritten by Walter Nouvel. Knowing that the Confederates could no longer send reinforcements to the Vicksburg garrison, Grant turned west and won at Champion Hill. Igor Stravinsky, An Autobiography, ISBN 0393318567. Living off the land, Grant's army went eastward, captured the city of Jackson, Mississippi and severed the rail line to Vicksburg. Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Conversations with Stravinsky, ISBN 0520040406 . Pemberton, an opportunity to concentrate their forces against him. Ghostwritten by Alexis Roland-Manuel. Operating in enemy territory, Grant moved swiftly, never giving the Confederates, under the command of John C.

Igor Stravinsky, Poetics of Music, ISBN 674678559. (This was the largest amphibious operation in American military history and would hold that record until the Battle of Normandy in World War II.) Grant moved inland and, in a daring move, defying conventional military principles, cut loose from most of his supply lines. ISBN 0295785799. Navy ships that had run the guns at Vicksburg. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Grant marched his troops down the west bank of the Mississippi and crossed the river by using the U.S. Lexicon of Musical Invective: Critical Assaults on Composers Since Beethoven's Time. The resulting operation is considered one of the most masterful in military history.

Slonimsky, Nicolas (1953). Then in the spring of 1863, Grant launched his real plan for taking the city. Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship, Vanderbilt University Press, 1997. Never really expecting any of them to succeed, because of the geographic and logistical obstacles, he carried them out anyway because they kept the soldiers busy. Robert Craft. In the campaign to capture the Mississippi River fortress of Vicksburg, Mississippi, Grant spent the winter of 1862–63 conducting a series of operations, attempting to gain access to the city, through the region's bayous. Stravinsky: Glimpses of a Life, St Martins Press, 1993. When Halleck was promoted to general-in-chief of the Union Army, Grant resumed his position as commander of the Army of the Tennessee.

Robert Craft. Sherman, did Grant remain. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Only by the intervention of his subordinate and good friend, William T. Music Ho! A Study of Music in Decline, p.94–94 and 101–105. Removed from planning strategy, Grant decided to resign. Lambert, Constant (1936). In response, Halleck took command of the Army in the field himself and put Grant on the shelf.

Category:Compositions by Igor Stravinsky. As a military theoritician, Halleck considered the battle as nothing more than a fight between two armed mobs. The Owl and the Pussy Cat for soprano and piano (1966). Halleck, Grant's theater commander, was upset by Grant being surprised and the disorganised nature of the fighting. Elegy for J.F.K. for baritone and three clarinets (1964). Henry W. In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (Dirge Canons and Song) (1954). Despite Shiloh being a Union victory, it came at a high price; it was the bloodiest battle in United States history up until then, with over 23,000 casualties.

Four Russian Songs for mezzo-soprano, flute, harp and guitar (1954, versions from Quatre chants russes and Three Tales for Children). Then, on the second day, with the help of timely reinforcements, Grant counterattacked, turning a serious reverse into a victory. Three Songs from William Shakespeare for mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet, and viola (1953). With grim determination, he stabilized his line. Petit ramusianum harmonique single voice or voices (1938). Nevertheless, Grant refused to retreat. Quatre chants russes Quatre chants russes for voice and piano (1918/1919). The sheer violence of the Confederate attack sent the Union forces reeling.

Berceuse for voice and piano (1918). Albert Sidney Johnston at the Battle of Shiloh. Four Russian Peasant Songs for female voice unaccompanied (1917). In early April of 1862, he was surprised by Gen. Three Tales for Children for voice and piano (1917). I propose to move immediately upon your works". Berceuses du Chat for contralto and three clarinets (1916). It was at Fort Donelson that he not only captured a entire Confederate army, but he electrified the Northern people with his famous demand, "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted.

Pribaoutki for voice, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, vln, vla, vc, double bass (1914). In February of 1862, Grant gave the Union cause its first major victory of the war by capturing Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in Tennessee. Trois petites chansons voice and piano (or small orchestra) (1913/1930). On August 7, Grant was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers. Trois poésies de la lyrique japonaise for voice and piano or chamber orchestra (1913). The governor felt that a West Point man could be put to better use and appointed him colonel of the 21st Illinois Infantry (effective June 17, 1861). Balmont for voice and piano or small orchestra (1911/1954). On April 24, 1861, ten days after the fall of Fort Sumter, Captain Grant arrived in Springfield, Illinois, with a company of men he had raised.

Two Poems of K. Louis, and finally an assistant in the leather shop owned by his father and brother in Galena, Illinois. Deux poèmes de Paul Verlaine for bariton and piano or orchestra Op.9 (1910/1951). Seven years of civilian life followed, in which he was a farmer, a real estate agent in St. Two Melodies for mezzo-soprano and piano Op.6 (1908). After the Mexican war ended in 1848, he remained in the army until resigning on July 31, 1854. Pastorale wordless soprano and piano (1907). He was twice brevetted for bravery: at Molino del Rey and Chapultepec.

2 (1907). Grant served in the Mexican-American War under Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott, taking part in the battles of Resaca de la Palma, Palo Alto, Monterrey, and Veracruz. Faun and Shepherdess for mezzo-soprano and orchestra Op. (Buck) Grant, Jr., Ellen (Nellie) Grant, and Jesse Root Grant. Romance for Voice and Piano (1902). They had four children: Frederick Dent Grant, Ulysses S. The Flood (1962). Grant married Julia Boggs Dent (1826–1902) on August 22, 1848.

The Rake's Progress (1951). Grant drank distilled liquor and smoked huge numbers of cigars (one story had it that he smoked over 10,000 in five years) which may have contributed to his throat cancer of later life. Babel (1944). At the academy, he established a reputation as a fearless and expert horseman. Oedipus Rex (1927). He graduated from West Point in 1843, ranking 21st in a class of 39. Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923). Upon graduation, Grant adopted the form of his new name with middle initial only, never acknowledging that the "S" stood for Simpson.

Mavra (1922). Hamer erroneously nominated him as Ulysses Simpson Grant, and although Grant protested the change, it was difficult to resist the bureaucracy. Histoire du soldat (A Soldier's Tale) (1918). Hamer. Burleske for 4 Pantomimes and Chamber Orchestra (1916). Congressman, Thomas L. Le rossignol (The Nightingale) (1914). At the age of 17, Grant received a cadetship to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, through his U.S.

Requiem Canticles (1966). In the fall of 1823 they moved to the village of Georgetown in Brown County, Ohio, where Grant spent most of his time until he was 17. Introitus (1965). His father, a tanner, and his mother were born in Pennsylvania. Abraham and Isaac (1963). Grant was born Hiram Ulysses Grant in Point Pleasant, Clermont County, Ohio, 25 miles (40 km) north of Cincinnati on the Ohio River, to Jesse Grant and Hannah Simpson. A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer (1961). .

Threni (1958). His support for the legal rights of blacks to vote and hold public office were unpopular at the time, but have gained him more respect in modern times. Canticum Sacrum (1955). More recent treatments have emphasized the accomplishments of his administration, including his struggle to preserve Reconstruction. Cantata for soprano, tenor, female voices, 2 flutes, oboe, English horn, cello (1953-1954). He is instead mostly criticized for not taking a strong stance against the corruption, and not acting to stop it. Mass (1948). They agree that Grant was not personally corrupt; it was his subordinates in the executive branch who were at fault.

Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) for chorus and orchestra (1930). Although Grant was a successful general, he is considered by historians to be one of America's least successful presidents, who led an administration plagued by scandal and corruption. Pater Noster (1926). Fuller as "the greatest general of his age and one of the greatest strategists of any age." He won many important battles, rose to become general-in-chief of all Union armies, and is credited with winning the war. Le roi des étoiles (The King of the Stars) for Men's Choir and Orchestra (1912). C. Fanfare for a New Theatre for two trumpets (1964). F.

Monumentum Pro Gesualdo Di Venosa (arrangement) for chamber ensemble (1960). Grant has been described by military historian J. Double Canon for string quartet 'Raoul Dufy in Memoriam' (1959). Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was a Union general in the American Civil War and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). Epitaphium for flute, clarinet and harp (1959). Ulysses S. Septet (1953). Colorado – August 1, 1876.

Elegy for solo viola (1944). Morrison Remick Waite (Chief Justice) – 1874. Suite Italienne (from Pulcinella) for violin or cello and piano (1933/34). Ward Hunt – 1873. Pastorale for violin and piano (1933). Bradley – 1870. Duo Concertant for violin and piano (1932). Joseph P.

Octet for wind instruments (1923). William Strong – 1870. Concertino for string quartet (1920). Office of the Surgeon General (1871). Three Pieces for Clarinet (1919). (Today it is known as the Office of Personnel Management.). Suite from Histoire du Soldat for violin, clarinet and piano (1919). Arthur, a Grant faithful.

Duet for two bassoons (1918). "Advisory Board on Civil Service" (1871); after it expired in 1873, it became the role model for the "Civil Service Commission" instituted in 1883 by President Chester A. Canon for two horns (1917). Office of the Solicitor General (1870). Pour Pablo Picasso, Piece for clarinet (1917). Post Office Department (1872). Three Pieces for string quartet (1914). Department of Justice (1870).

Two Sketches for a Sonata for piano (1967). Sonata for Two Pianos (1943). Tango for piano (1940). Concerto for Two Pianos (1935).

Serenade for piano (1925). Sonata for piano (1924). Les Cinq Doigts for piano (1921). Chorale for piano (1920).

Piano Rag Music for piano (1919). Valse pour les Enfants for piano (1917). Cinq piéces faciles for two pianos (1917). Souvenir d'une Marche Boche for piano (1915).

Trois piéces faciles for two pianos (1915). Valse des fleurs for two pianos (1914). Le Sacre du Printemps for two pianos (1913). Quatre Etudes for piano Op.7 (1908).

Sonata in F-Sharp Minor for piano (1904). Scherzo for piano (1902). Tarantella for piano (1898). Variations (Aldous Huxley in Memoriam) for orchestra (1963–1964).

8 Instrumental miniatures for 15 Players (1963, orchestration of Les Cinq Doigts). Movements for Piano and Orchestra (1958–[[1959]). Greeting Prelude for orchestra (1955). Tango for chamber orchestra (1940/1953).

Concerto in D for string orchestra (1946). Ebony Concerto for clarinet and jazz band (1945). Symphony in Three Movements (1945). Scherzo a la Russe for orchestra (1944).

Ode for orchestra (1943). Four Norwegian Moods for orchestra (1942). Danses Concertantes for chamber orchestra (1942). Circus Polka for orchestra (1942).

Symphony in C (1940). Concerto in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks) for Chamber Orchestra (1938). Preludium for jazz band (1937). Divertimento for orchestra (Suite from Le Baiser du Fee, 1934).

Concerto in D for violin and orchestra (1931). Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra (1929). Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments (1925). Suite No.1 for chamber orchestra (1925).

Suite No.2 for chamber orchestra (1921). Suite from Pulcinella for orchestra (1920). Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920). Quatre études for orchestra (1918).

Le chant du rossignol (Song of the Nightingale) (1917). Feu d'artifice (Fireworks) (1908). Scherzo fantastique (1908). Symphony in E-Flat Major (1907).

Agon for chamber orchestra (1957). Orpheus for chamber orchestra (1947). Jeu de cartes for orchestra (1936). Perséphone for speaker, soloists, chorus and orchestra (1933).

Le baiser de la fée (The Fairy's Kiss) for orchestra (1928). Apollon Musagète for string orchestra (1928). Pulcinella for chamber orchestra and soloists (1920). Renard (1916).

Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) for orchestra (1913). Petrushka for orchestra (1911). L'oiseau de feu (The Firebird) for orchestra (1910).

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