Tropical cyclone

Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004.

In meteorology, a tropical cyclone (also referred to as a tropical depression, tropical storm, typhoon, or hurricane depending on strength and geographical context) is a type of low pressure system which generally forms in the tropics. While they can be highly destructive, tropical cyclones are an important part of the atmospheric circulation system, which moves heat from the equatorial region toward the higher latitudes.

Terms for tropical cyclones

Eye of Typhoon Odessa, Pacific Ocean, August 1985

Terms used in weather reports for tropical cyclones that have surface winds over 64 knots (73.6 mph) or 32 m/s vary by region:

  • Hurricane: Atlantic basin and North Pacific Ocean east of the dateline
  • Typhoon: Northwest Pacific west of the dateline
  • Severe tropical cyclone: Southwest Pacific west of 160°E and the southeast Indian Ocean east of 90°E
  • Severe cyclonic storm: North Indian Ocean
  • Tropical cyclone: Southwest Indian Ocean and the South Pacific east of 160°E.
  • Cyclone (unofficially): South Atlantic Ocean

There are many regional names for tropical cyclones, including Bagyo in the Philippines and Taino in Haiti.

Etymology

The word typhoon has two possible origins:

  • From the Chinese 大風 (daaih fūng (Cantonese); dà fēng (Mandarin)) which means "great wind". (The Chinese term as 颱風 táifēng, and 台風 taifu in Japanese, has an independent origin traceable variously to 風颱, 風篩 or 風癡 hongthai, going back to Song 宋 (960-1278) and Yuan 元(1260-1341) dynasties. The first record of the character 颱 appeared in 1685's edition of Summary of Taiwan 臺灣記略).
  • From Urdu, Persian or Arabic ţūfān (طوفان) < Greek tuphōn (Τυφών).

Portuguese tufão is also related to typhoon. See tuphōn for more information.

The word hurricane is derived from the name of a native Caribbean Amerindian storm god, Huracan, via Spanish huracán.

The word cyclone is from the Greek "κύκλος", meaning "circle." An Egyptian word Cykline meaning to "to spin" has been cited as a possible origin. [citation needed]

Mechanics of tropical cyclones

Hurricanes form when the energy released by the condensation of moisture in rising air causes a positive feedback loop. The air heats up, rising further, which leads to more condensation. The air flowing out of the top of this “chimney” drops towards the ground, forming powerful winds.

Structurally, a tropical cyclone is a large, rotating system of clouds, wind and thunderstorms. Its primary energy source is the release of the heat of condensation from water vapor condensing at high altitudes, the heat ultimately derived from the sun. Therefore, a tropical cyclone can be thought of as a giant vertical heat engine supported by mechanics driven by physical forces such as the rotation and gravity of the Earth. Continued condensation leads to higher winds, continued evaporation, and continued condensation, feeding back into itself. This gives rise to factors that give the system enough energy to be self-sufficient and cause a positive feedback loop where it can draw more energy as long as the source of heat, warm water, remains. Factors such as a continued lack of equilibrium in air mass distribution would also give supporting energy to the cyclone. The orbital revolution of the Earth causes the system to spin, an effect known as the Coriolis force, giving it a cyclone characteristic and affecting the trajectory of the storm.

The factors to form a tropical cyclone include a pre-existing weather disturbance, warm tropical oceans, moisture, and relatively light winds aloft. If the right conditions persist and allow it to create a feedback loop by maximizing the energy intake possible, for example, such as high winds to increase the rate of evaporation, they can combine to produce the violent winds, incredible waves, torrential rains, and floods associated with this phenomenon.

Condensation as a driving force is what primarily distinguishes tropical cyclones from other meteorological phenomena, and because this is strongest in a tropical climate, this defines the initial domain of the tropical cyclone. By contrast, mid-latitude cyclones, for example, draw their energy mostly from pre-existing horizontal temperature gradients in the atmosphere. In order to continue to drive its heat engine, a tropical cyclone must remain over warm water, which provides the atmospheric moisture needed. The evaporation of this moisture is accelerated by the high winds and reduced atmospheric pressure in the storm, resulting in a positive feedback loop. As a result, when a tropical cyclone passes over land, its strength diminishes rapidly.

Scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research estimate that a hurricane releases heat energy at the rate of 50 to 200 trillion watts -- about the amount of energy released by exploding a 10-megaton nuclear bomb every 20 minutes [1].

While the most obvious motion of clouds is toward the center, tropical cyclones also develop an upper-level (high-altitude) outward flow of clouds. These originate from air that has released its moisture and is expelled at high altitude through the "chimney" of the storm engine. This outflow produces high, thin cirrus clouds that spiral away from the center. The high cirrus clouds may be the first signs of an approaching hurricane.

Formation

Waves in the trade winds in the Atlantic Ocean—areas of converging winds that move along the same track as the prevailing wind—create instabilities in the atmosphere that may lead to the formation of hurricanes.

The formation of tropical cyclones is the topic of extensive ongoing research, and is still not fully understood. Five factors are necessary to make tropical cyclone formation possible:

  1. Sea surface temperatures above 26.5 degrees Celsius (79.7 degrees Fahrenheit) to at least a depth of 50 meters (164 feet). The moisture in the air above the warm water is the energy source for tropical cyclones.
  2. Upper-atmosphere conditions conducive to thunderstorm formation. Temperature in the atmosphere must decrease quickly with height, and the mid-troposphere must be relatively moist.
  3. A pre-existing weather disturbance. This is most frequently provided by tropical waves—non-rotating areas of thunderstorms that move through tropical oceans.
  4. A distance of approximately 10 degrees or more from the equator, so that the Coriolis effect is strong enough to initiate the cyclone's rotation. (2004's Hurricane Ivan was the strongest storm to form closer than 10 degrees from the equator; it started forming at 9.7 degrees north.)
  5. Low vertical wind shear (change in wind speed or direction over height). High wind shear can break apart the vertical structure of a tropical cyclone.

Tropical cyclones occasionally form despite not meeting these conditions.

Only specific weather disturbances can result in tropical cyclones. These include:

  1. Tropical waves, or easterly waves, which, as mentioned above, are westward moving areas of convergent winds. This often assists in the development of thunderstorms, which can develop into tropical cyclones. Most tropical cyclones form from these. A similar phenomenon to tropical waves are West African disturbance lines, which are squally lines of convection that form over Africa and move into the Atlantic.
  2. Tropical upper tropospheric troughs, which are cold-core upper level lows. A warm-core tropical cyclone may result when one of these (on occasion) works down to the lower levels and produces deep convection.
  3. Decaying frontal boundaries may occasionally stall over warm waters and produce lines of active convection. If a low level circulation forms under this convection, it may develop into a tropical cyclone.

Times of formation

Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer when water temperatures are warmest. However, each particular basin has its own seasonal patterns.

In the North Atlantic, a distinct hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking from late August through September. The statistical peak of the North Atlantic hurricane season is September 10. The Northeast Pacific has a broader period of activity, but in a similar timeframe to the Atlantic. The Northwest Pacific sees tropical cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and a peak in early September. In the North Indian basin, storms are most common from April to December, with peaks in May and November.

In the Southern Hemisphere, tropical cyclone activity begins in late October and ends in May. Southern Hemisphere activity peaks in mid-February to early March.

Worldwide, an average of 80 tropical cyclones form each year.

Locations of formation

Most tropical cyclones form in a worldwide band of thunderstorm activity called the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ).

Nearly all of them form between 10 and 30 degrees of the equator and 87% form within 20 degrees of it. Because the Coriolis effect initiates and maintains tropical cyclone rotation, such cyclones almost never form or move within about 10 degrees of the equator [2], where the Coriolis effect is weakest. However, it is possible for tropical cyclones to form within this boundary if there is another source of initial rotation. These conditions are extremely rare, and such storms are believed to form at most once per century. Hurricane Ivan of 2004 developed within 10 degrees of the equator. A combination of a pre-existing disturbance, upper level divergence and a monsoon-related cold spell led to Typhoon Vamei at only 1.5 degrees north of the equator in 2001. It is estimated that such conditions occur only once every 400 years.

Major basins

There are seven main basins of tropical cyclone formation:

  • North Atlantic Basin: The most-studied of all tropical basins, it includes the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico. Tropical cyclone formation here varies widely from year to year, ranging from over twenty to one per year. The average is about ten. The United States Atlantic coast, Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean Islands and Bermuda are frequently affected by storms in this basin. Venezuela, the south-east of Canada and Atlantic "Macaronesian" islands are also occasionally affected. The U.S. National Hurricane Center (NHC) based in Miami, Florida, issues forecasts for storms for all nations in the region; the Canadian Hurricane Centre, based in Halifax, Nova Scotia, also issues forecasts and warnings for storms expected to affect Canadian territory and waters. Hurricanes that strike Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean island nations, often do intense damage, as hurricanes are deadlier over warmer water. Additionally, they can hit the coast of the U.S., especially Florida, North Carolina, the U.S. Gulf Coast and occasionally New Jersey, New York and New England (usually hurricanes weaken to tropical storms before they reach these northern regions). The coast of Atlantic Canada receives hurricane landfalls on rare occasion, such as Hurricane Juan in 2003. Many of the more intense Atlantic storms are Cape Verde-type hurricanes, which form off the west coast of Africa near the Cape Verde islands.
  • Western North Pacific Ocean: Tropical storm activity in this region frequently affects China, Japan, the Philippines, and Taiwan, but also many other countries in South-East Asia, such as Vietnam, South Korea and Indonesia, plus numerous Oceanian islands. This is by far the most active basin, accounting for one-third of all tropical cyclone activity in the world. The eastern coasts of Taiwan and Philippines also have the highest tropical cyclone landfall frequency in the world. National meteorology organizations and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are responsible for issuing forecasts and warnings in this basin.
  • Eastern North Pacific Ocean: This is the second most active basin in the world, and the most dense (a large number of storms for a small area of ocean). Storms that form here can affect western Mexico, Hawaii, northern Central America, and on extremely rare occasions, California. In the U.S., the Central Pacific Hurricane Center is responsible for forecasting the western part of this area while the National Hurricane Center is responsible for the eastern part.
  • South Western Pacific Ocean: Tropical activity in this region largely affects Australia and Oceania, and is forecast by Australia and Papua New Guinea.
  • Northern Indian Ocean: This basin is divided into two areas, the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, with the Bay of Bengal dominating (5 to 6 times more activity). This basin's season has an interesting double peak; one in April and May before the onset of the monsoon, and another in October and November just after. Hurricanes which form in this basin have historically cost the most lives — most notably, the 1970 Bhola cyclone killed 200,000. Nations affected by this basin include India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar, and Pakistan, and all of these countries issue regional forecasts and warnings. Rarely, a tropical cyclone formed in this basin will affect the Arabian Peninsula.
  • Southeastern Indian Ocean: Tropical activity in this region affects Australia and Indonesia, and is forecast by those nations.
  • Southwestern Indian Ocean: This basin is the least understood, due to a lack of historical data. Cyclones forming here impact Madagascar, Mozambique, Mauritius, and Kenya, and these nations issue forecasts and warnings for the basin.

Unusual formation areas

Hurricane Vince on October 9, 2005 at 2300 UTC near the Madeira Islands.

The following areas spawn tropical cyclones only very rarely.

  • South Atlantic Ocean: A combination of cooler waters, the lack of an ITCZ, and wind shear makes it very difficult for the South Atlantic to support tropical activity. However, three tropical cyclones have been observed here — a weak tropical storm in 1991 off the coast of Africa, Cyclone Catarina (sometimes also referred to as Aldonça), which made landfall in Brazil in 2004 at Category 1 strength, and a smaller storm in January 2004, east of Salvador, Brazil. The January storm is thought to have reached tropical storm intensity based on scatterometre winds.
  • Central North Pacific: Shear in this area of the Pacific Ocean severely limits tropical development. However, this region is commonly frequented by tropical cyclones that form in the much more favorable Eastern North Pacific Basin.
  • Eastern South Pacific: Tropical cyclone formation is rare in this region; when they do form, it is frequently linked to El Niño episodes. Most of the storms that enter this region formed farther west in the Southwest Pacific. They affect the islands of Polynesia in exceptional instances.
  • Mediterranean Sea: Storms which appear similar to tropical cyclones in structure sometimes occur in the Mediterranean basin. Such cyclones formed in September 1947, September 1969, January 1982, September 1983, and January 1995. However, there is debate on whether these storms were tropical in nature.
  • Northeastern Atlantic Ocean: In October 2005, Hurricane Vince formed near Madeira, then moved northeastward, passing south of the Portuguese south coast, and made landfall in southwestern Spain as a tropical depression. Vince's origin was the northeasternmost in the eastern Atlantic ever recorded, and Vince was the first storm in recorded history to reach the Iberian Peninsula as a tropical cyclone, i.e. before being transformed into an extratropical low or absorbed into other systems of low pressure.
  • Australia: SW Pacific Basin includes the eastern part of Australia and the Fiji area.
  • Australia: SE Indian Basin includes the eastern part of the Indian ocean and the northern and western part of the Australian basin.
  • Southern South China Sea Tropical cyclones normally do not develop in the Southern South China Sea due to its close proximity to the equator. Areas within ten degrees laditude of the equator do not experience a significant coriolis force, a vital ingredient in tropical cyclone formation. However, in December 2001, Typhoon Vamei formed in the Southern South China Sea and made landfall in Malaysia. It caused flooding in southern Malaysia and some damage in Singapore. It formed from a thunderstorm formation in Borneo that moved into the South China Sea.
  • The Great Lakes A storm system that appeared similar to a tropical cyclone formed in 1996 on Lake Huron it formed an eye and could have breifly been sub-tropical.

Average Season

Structure and classification

Structure of a hurricane

A strong tropical cyclone consists of the following components.

  • Surface low: All tropical cyclones rotate around an area of low atmospheric pressure near the Earth's surface. The pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest that occur on Earth's surface at sea level.
  • Warm core: Tropical cyclones are characterized and driven by the release of large amounts of latent heat of condensation as moist air is carried upwards and its water vapor condenses. This heat is distributed vertically, around the center of the storm. Thus, at any given altitude (except close to the surface where water temperature dictates air temperature) the environment inside the cyclone is warmer than its outer surroundings.
  • Central Dense Overcast (CDO): The Central Dense Overcast is a dense shield of very intense thunderstorm activity that make up the inner portion of the hurricane. This contains the eye wall, and the eye itself. The classic hurricane contains a symmetrical CDO, which means that it is perfectly circular and round on all sides.
  • Eye: A strong tropical cyclone will harbor an area of sinking air at the center of circulation. Weather in the eye is normally calm and free of clouds (however, the sea may be extremely violent). Eyes are home to the coldest temperatures of the storm at the surface, and the warmest temperatures at the upper levels. The eye is normally circular in shape, and may range in size from 8 km to 200 km (5 miles to 125 miles) in diameter. In weaker cyclones, the CDO covers the circulation center, resulting in no visible eye.
  • Eyewall: A band around the eye of greatest wind speed, where clouds reach highest and precipitation is heaviest. The heaviest wind damage occurs where a hurricane's eyewall passes over land.
  • Outflow: The upper levels of a tropical cyclone feature winds headed away from the center of the storm with an anticyclonic rotation. Winds at the surface are strongly cyclonic, weaken with height, and eventually reverse themselves. Tropical cyclones owe this unique characteristic to the warm core at the center of the storm.

Intensities of tropical cyclones

Tropical cyclones are classified into three main groups: tropical depressions, tropical storms, and a third group whose name depends on the region.

A tropical depression is an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of less than 17 metres per second (33 knots, 38 mph, or 62 km/h). It has no eye, and does not typically have the spiral shape of more powerful storms. It is already becoming a low-pressure system, however, hence the name "depression".

A tropical storm is an organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds between 17 and 33 meters per second (34–63 knots, 39–73 mph, or 62–117 km/h). At this point, the distinctive cyclonic shape starts to develop, though an eye is usually not present. Government weather services assign first names to systems that reach this intensity (thus the term named storm).

At hurricane and typhoon intensity, a tropical cyclone tends to develop an eye, an area of relative calm (and lowest atmospheric pressure) at the center of the circulation. The eye is often visible in satellite images as a small, circular, cloud-free spot. Surrounding the eye is the eyewall, an area about 10 to 50 miles (16 to 80 kilometers) wide in which the strongest thunderstorms and winds circulate around the storm's center.

The circulation of clouds around a cyclone's center imparts a distinct spiral shape to the system. Bands or arms may extend over great distances as clouds are drawn toward the cyclone. The direction of the cyclonic circulation depends on the hemisphere; it is counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Maximum sustained winds in the strongest tropical cyclones have been measured at more than 85 m/s (165 knots, 190 mph, 305 km/h). Intense, mature hurricanes can sometimes exhibit an inward curving of the eyewall top that resembles a football stadium: this phenomenon is thus sometimes referred to as stadium effect.

Eyewall replacement cycles naturally occur in intense tropical cyclones. When cyclones reach peak intensity they usually - but not always - have an eyewall and radius of maximum winds that contract to a very small size, around 5 to 15 miles. At this point, some of the outer rainbands may organize into an outer ring of thunderstorms that slowly moves inward and robs the inner eyewall of its needed moisture and momentum. During this phase, the tropical cyclone is weakening (i.e. the maximum winds die off a bit and the central pressure goes up). Eventually the outer eyewall replaces the inner one completely and the storm can be the same intensity as it was previously or, in some cases, even stronger.

Categories and ranking

Hurricanes are ranked according to their maximum winds using the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. A Category 1 storm has the lowest maximum winds, a Category 5 hurricane has the highest. The rankings are not absolute in terms of effects. Lower-category storms can inflict greater damage than higher-category storms, depending on factors such as local terrain and total rainfall. For instance, a Category 2 hurricane that strikes a major urban area will likely do more damage than a large Category 5 hurricane that strikes a mostly rural region. In fact, tropical systems of less than hurricane strength can produce significant damage and human casualties, especially from flooding and landslides.

The National Hurricane Center classifies hurricanes of Category 3 and above as Major Hurricanes. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center classifies typhoons with wind speeds of at least 150 mi/h (67 m/s or 241 km/h, equivalent to a strong Category 4 storm) as Super Typhoons.

The definition of sustained winds recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and used by most weather agencies is that of a 10-minute average. The U.S. weather service defines sustained winds based on 1-minute average speed measured about 10 meters (33 ft) above the surface.

Other storm systems

Many other forms of cyclone can form in nature. Several of these relate to the formation or dissipation of tropical cyclones.

Extratropical cyclone

An extratropical cyclone is a storm that derives energy from horizontal temperature differences, which are typical in higher latitudes. A tropical cyclone can become extratropical as it moves toward higher latitudes if its energy source changes from heat released by condensation to differences in temperature between air masses; more rarely, an extratropical cyclone can transform into a subtropical storm, and from there into a tropical cyclone. From space, extratropical storms have a characteristic "comma-shaped" cloud pattern. Extratropical cyclones can also be dangerous because their low-pressure centers cause powerful winds.

Subtropical storm

A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical cyclone and some characteristics of an extratropical cyclone. They can form in a wide band of latitude, from the equator to 50°. Although subtropical storms rarely attain hurricane-force winds, they may become tropical in nature as their core warms.

European windstorms

In the United Kingdom and Europe, some severe northeast Atlantic cyclonic depressions are referred to as "hurricanes," even though they rarely originate in the tropics. These European windstorms can generate hurricane-force winds but are not given individual names. However, two powerful extratropical cyclones that ravaged France, Germany, and the United Kingdom in December 1999, "Lothar" and "Martin", were named due to their unexpected power (equivalent to a category 1 or 2 hurricane). In British Shipping Forecasts, winds of force 12 on the Beaufort scale are described as "hurricane force."

Movement and track

Large-scale winds

Although tropical cyclones are large systems generating enormous energy, their movements over the earth's surface are often compared to that of leaves carried along by a stream. That is, large-scale winds—the streams in the earth's atmosphere—are responsible for moving and steering tropical cyclones. The path of motion is referred to as a tropical cyclone's track.

The major force affecting the track of tropical systems in all areas are winds circulating around high-pressure areas. Over the North Atlantic Ocean, tropical systems are steered generally westward by the east-to-west winds on the south side of the Bermuda High, a persistent high-pressure area over the North Atlantic. Also, in the area of the North Atlantic where hurricanes form, trade winds, which are prevailing westward-moving wind currents, steer tropical waves (precursors to tropical depressions and cyclones) westward from off the African coast toward the Caribbean and North America.

Coriolis effect

The earth's rotation also imparts an acceleration (termed the Coriolis Acceleration or Coriolis Effect). This acceleration causes cyclonic systems to turn towards the poles in the absence of strong steering currents (i.e. in the north, the northern part of the cyclone has winds to the west, and the Coriolis force pulls them slightly north. The southern part is pulled south, but since it is closer to the equator, the Coriolis force is a bit weaker there). Thus, tropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere, which commonly move west in the beginning, normally turn north (and are then usually blown east), and cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere are deflected south, if no strong pressure systems are counteracting the Coriolis Acceleration. The Coriolis acceleration also initiates cyclonic rotation, but it is not the driving force that brings this rotation to high speeds. (Much of that is due to the conservation of angular momentum - air is drawn in from an area much larger than the cyclone such that the tiny angular velocity of that air will be magnified greatly when the distance to the storm center shrinks.)

Interaction with high and low pressure systems

Finally, when a tropical cyclone moves into higher latitude, its general track around a high-pressure area can be deflected significantly by winds moving toward a low-pressure area. Such a track direction change is termed recurve. A hurricane moving from the Atlantic toward the Gulf of Mexico, for example, will recurve to the north and then northeast if it encounters winds blowing northwestward toward a high-pressure system passing over North Africa. Many tropical cyclones along the coast. East Coast and in the Gulf of Mexico are eventually forced toward the northeast by high-pressure areas which move from west to east over North Africa.

Forecasting

Hurricane Epsilon strengthened and organized in the Central North Atlantic Ocean despite highly unfavorable conditions. This unusual system defied most NHC forecasts and demonstrated the difficulties of predicting tropical cyclones.

Because of the forces that affect tropical cyclone tracks, accurate track predictions depend on determining the position and strength of high- and low-pressure areas, and predicting how those areas will change during the life of a tropical system.

With their understanding of the forces that act on tropical cyclones, and a wealth of data from earth-orbiting satellites and other sensors, scientists have increased the accuracy of track forecasts over recent decades. High-speed computers and sophisticated simulation software allow forecasters to produce computer models that forecast tropical cyclone tracks based on the future position and strength of high- and low-pressure systems. But while track forecasts have become more accurate than 20 years ago, scientists say they are less skillful at predicting the intensity of tropical cyclones. They attribute the lack of improvement in intensity forecasting to the complexity of tropical systems and an incomplete understanding of factors that affect their development.

Landfall

Officially, "landfall" is when a storm's center (the center of the eye, not its edge) reaches land. Naturally, storm conditions may be experienced on the coast and inland well before landfall. In fact, for a storm moving inland, the landfall area experiences half the storm before the actual landfall. For emergency preparedness, actions should be timed from when a certain wind speed will reach land, not from when landfall will occur.

For a list of notable and unusual landfalling hurricanes, see list of notable tropical cyclones.

Dissipation

A tropical cyclone can cease to have tropical characteristics in several ways:

  • It moves over land, thus depriving it of the warm water it needs to power itself, and quickly loses strength. Most strong storms lose their strength very rapidly after landfall, and become disorganized areas of low pressure within a day or two. There is, however, a chance they could regenerate if they manage to get back over open warm water. If a storm is over mountains for even a short time, it can rapidly lose its structure. However, many storm fatalities occur in mountainous terrain, as the dying storm unleashes torrential rainfall which can lead to deadly floods and mudslides.
  • It remains in the same area of ocean for too long, drawing heat off of the ocean surface until it becomes too cool to support the storm. Without warm surface water, the storm cannot survive.
  • It experiences wind shear, causing the convection to lose direction and the heat engine to break down.
  • It can be weak enough to be consumed by another area of low pressure, disrupting it and joining to become a large area of non-cyclonic thunderstorms. (Such, however, can strengthen the non-tropical system as a whole.)
  • It enters colder waters. This does not necessarily mean the death of the storm, but the storm will lose its tropical characteristics. These storms are extratropical cyclones.
  • An outer eye wall forms (typically around 50 miles from the center of the storm), choking off the convection toward the inner eye wall. Such weakening is generally temporary unless it meets other conditions above.

Even after a tropical cyclone is said to be extratropical or dissipated, it can still have tropical storm force (or occasionally hurricane force) winds and drop several inches of rainfall. When a tropical cyclone reaches higher latitudes or passes over land, it may merge with weather fronts or develop into a frontal cyclone, also called extratropical cyclone. In the Atlantic ocean, such tropical-derived cyclones of higher latitudes can be violent and may occasionally remain at hurricane-force wind speeds when they reach Europe as a European windstorm.

Artificial dissipation

In the 1960s and 1970s, the United States government attempted to weaken hurricanes in its Project Stormfury by seeding selected storms with silver iodide. It was thought that the seeding would cause supercooled water in the outer rainbands to freeze, causing the inner eyewall to collapse and thus reducing the winds. The winds of Hurricane Debbie dropped as much as 30 percent, but then regained their strength after each of two seeding forays. In an earlier episode, disaster struck when a hurricane east of Jacksonville, Florida, was seeded, promptly changed its course, and smashed into Savannah, Georgia[citation needed]. Because there was so much uncertainty about the behavior of these storms, the federal government would not approve seeding operations unless the hurricane had a less than 10 percent chance of making landfall within 48 hours. The project was dropped after it was discovered that eyewall replacement cycles occur naturally in strong hurricanes, casting doubt on the result of the earlier attempts. Today it is known that silver iodide seeding is not likely to have an effect because the amount of supercooled water in the rainbands of a tropical cyclone is too low.[3]

Other approaches have been suggested over time, including cooling the water under a tropical cyclone by towing icebergs into the tropical oceans; dropping large quantities of ice into the eye at very early stages so that latent heat is absorbed by ice at the entrance (storm cell perimeter bottom) instead of heat energy being converted to kinetic energy at high altitudes vertically above; covering the ocean in a substance that inhibits evaporation; or blasting the cyclone apart with nuclear weapons. These approaches all suffer from the same flaw: tropical cyclones are simply too large for any of them to be practical [4].

However, it has been suggested by some that we can change the course of a storm during its early stages of formation, (detailed by an article, Controlling Hurricanes, Scientific American, 2005), such as using satellite to alter the environmental conditions or, more realistically, spreading degradable film of oil over the ocean, which prevent water vapor from fueling the storm.

Monitoring, observation and tracking

Intense tropical cyclones pose a particular observation challenge. As they are a dangerous oceanic phenomenon, weather stations are rarely available on the site of the storm itself. Surface level observations are generally available only if the storm is passing over an island or a coastal area, or it has overtaken an unfortunate ship. Even in these cases, real-time measurement taking is generally possible only in the periphery of the cyclone, where conditions are less catastrophic.

It is however possible to take in-situ measurements, in real-time, by sending specially equipped reconnaissance flights into the cyclone. In the Atlantic basin, these flights are regularly flown by US government hurricane hunters [5]. The aircraft used are WC-130 Hercules and WP-3D Orions, both four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft. These aircraft fly directly into the cyclone and take direct and remote-sensing measurements. The aircraft also launch GPS dropsondes inside the cyclone. These sondes measure temperature, humidity, pressure, and especially winds between flight level and the ocean's surface.

A new era in hurricane observation began when a remotely piloted Aerosonde, a small drone aircraft, was flown through Tropical Storm Ophelia as it passed Virginia's Eastern Shore during the 2005 hurricane season. This demonstrated a new way to probe the storms at low altitudes that human pilots seldom dare[6].

Tropical cyclones far from land are tracked by weather satellites capturing visible and infrared images from space, usually at half-hour to quarter-hour intervals. As a storm approaches land, it can be observed by land-based Doppler radar. Radar plays a crucial role around landfall because it shows a storm's location and intensity minute by minute.

Recently, academic researchers have begun to deploy mobile weather stations fortified to withstand hurricane-force winds. The two largest programs are the Florida Coastal Monitoring Program [7] and the Wind Engineering Mobile Instrumented Tower Experiment [8]. During landfall, the NOAA Hurricane Research Division compares and verifies data from reconnaissance aircraft (which includes wind speed data taken at flight level and from GPS dropwindsondes and stepped-frequency microwave radiometers) to wind speed data transmitted in real time from weather stations erected near or at the coast. The National Hurricane Center uses the data to evaluate conditions at landfall and to verify forecasts.

Naming of tropical cyclones

Storms reaching tropical storm strength (winds exceeding 17 metres per second, 38 mph, or 62 km/h) are given names, to assist in recording insurance claims, to assist in warning people of the coming storm, and to further indicate that these are important storms that should not be ignored. These names are taken from lists which vary from region to region and are drafted a few years ahead of time. The lists are decided upon, depending on the regions, either by committees of the World Meteorological Organization (called primarily to discuss many other issues), or by national weather services involved in the forecasting of the storms.

Each year, the names of particularly destructive storms (if there were any) are "retired" and new names are chosen to take their place.

Naming schemes

The WMO's Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee selects the names for Atlantic Basin and central and eastern Pacific storms.

In the Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific regions, feminine and masculine names are assigned alternately in alphabetic order during a given season. The "gender" of the season's first storm also alternates year to year: the first storm of an odd-numbered year gets feminine name, while the first storm of an even-numbered year gets a masculine name. Six lists of names are prepared in advance, and each list is used once every six years. Five letters — "Q," "U," "X," "Y" and "Z" — are omitted in the Atlantic; only "Q" and "U" are omitted in the Eastern Pacific, so the format accommodates 21 or 24 named storms in a hurricane season. Names of storms may be retired by request of affected countries if they have caused extensive damage. The affected countries then decide on a replacement name of the same gender (and if possible, the same ethnicity) as the name being retired.

If there are more than 21 named storms in an Atlantic season or 24 named storms in an Eastern Pacific season, the rest are named as letters from the Greek alphabet: the 22nd storm is called "Alpha," the 23rd "Beta," and so on. This was first necessary during the 2005 season when the names Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, and Zeta were all used. There is no precedent for a storm named with a Greek Letter causing enough damage to justify retirement; how this situation would be handled is unknown.

Further information: List of notable tropical cyclones

In the Central North Pacific region, the name lists are maintained by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. Four lists of Hawaiian names are selected and used in sequential order without regard to year.

In the Western North Pacific, name lists are maintained by the WMO Typhoon Committee. Five lists of names are used, with each of the 14 nations on the Typhoon Committee submitting two names to each list. Names are used in the order of the countries' English names, sequentially without regard to year. Japan Meteorological Agency uses a secondary naming system in Western North Pacific that numbers a typhoon on the order it formed, resetting on December 31 of every year. The Typhoon Songda in September 2004 is internally called the typhoon number 18 and is recorded as the typhoon 0418 with 04 taken from the year.

The Australian Bureau of Meteorology maintains three lists of names, one for each of the Western, Northern and Eastern Australian regions. There are also Fiji region and Papua New Guinea region names.

The Seychelles Meteorological Service maintains a list for the Southwest Indian Ocean.

History of tropical cyclone naming

For several hundred years after Europeans arrived in the West Indies, hurricanes there were named after the saint's day on which the storm struck.

The practice of giving storms people's names was introduced by Clement Lindley Wragge, an Anglo-Australian meteorologist at the end of the 19th century. He used feminine names, the names of politicians who had offended him, and names from history and mythology.

During World War II, tropical cyclones were given feminine names, mainly for the convenience of the forecasters and in a somewhat ad hoc manner. For a few years afterwards, names from the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet were used.

The modern naming convention came about in response to the need for unambiguous radio communications with ships and aircraft. As transportation traffic increased and meteorological observations improved in number and quality, several typhoons, hurricanes or cyclones might have to be tracked at any given time. To help in their identification, beginning in 1953 the practice of systematically naming tropical storms and hurricanes was initiated by the United States National Hurricane Center, and is now maintained by the WMO.

In keeping with the common English language practice of referring to inanimate objects such as boats, trains, etc., using the female pronoun "she," names used were exclusively feminine. The first storm of the year was assigned a name beginning with the letter "A", the second with the letter "B", etc. However, since tropical storms and hurricanes are primarily destructive, some considered this practice sexist. The National Weather Service responded to these concerns in 1979 with the introduction of masculine names to the nomenclature. It was also in 1979 that the practice of preparing a list of names before the season began. The names are usually of English, French or Spanish origin in the Atlantic basin, since these are the three predominant languages of the region where the storms typically form.

Renaming of tropical cyclones

In most cases, a tropical cyclone retains its name throughout its life. However, a tropical cyclone may be renamed in several occasions.

1. A tropical storm enters the southwestern Indian Ocean from the east

In the south Indian Ocean, RSMC la Reunion names a tropical storm once it crosses 90°E from the east, even though it has been named. In this case, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) will put two names together with a hyphen.

Examples: Bertie-Alvin (2005)

2. A tropical storm crosses from the Atlantic into the Pacific, or vice versa, before 2001

It was the policy of National Hurricane Center (NHC) to rename a tropical storm which crossed from Atlantic into Pacific, or vice versa.

Examples: Cesar-Douglas (1996), Joan-Miriam (1988)

In 2001, when Iris moved across Central America, NHC mentioned that Iris would retain its name if it regenerated in the Pacific. However, the Pacific tropical depression developed from the remnants of Iris was called Fifteen-E instead. The depression later became tropical storm Manuel.

NHC explained that Iris had dissipated as a tropical cyclone prior to entering the eastern North Pacific basin; the new depression was properly named Fifteen-E, rather than Iris.

In 2003, when Larry was about to move across Mexico, NHC attempted to provide greater clarity:

Up to now, there has been no tropical cyclone retaining its name during the passage from Atlantic to Pacific, or vice versa.

3. Uncertainties of the continuation

When the remnants of a tropical cyclone redevelop, the redeveloping system will be treated as a new tropical cyclone if there are uncertainties of the continuation, even though the original system may contribute to the forming of the new system.

Example: TD 10-TD 12 (2005)

4. Human faults

Sometimes, there may be human faults leading to the renaming of a tropical cyclone.

Example: Ken-Lola (1989)

Effects

The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in Gulfport, Mississippi. Katrina was the costliest tropical cyclone in United States history.

A mature tropical cyclone can release heat at a rate upwards of 6x1014 watts [9]. Tropical cyclones on the open sea cause large waves, heavy rain, and high winds, disrupting international shipping and sometimes sinking ships. However, the most devastating effects of a tropical cyclone occur when they cross coastlines, making landfall. A tropical cyclone moving over land can do direct damage in four ways.

  • High winds - Hurricane strength winds can damage or destroy vehicles, buildings, bridges, etc. High winds also turn loose debris into flying projectiles, making the outdoor environment even more dangerous.
  • Storm surge - Tropical cyclones cause an increase in sea level, which can flood coastal communities. This is the worst effect, as cyclones claim 80% of their victims when they first strike shore.
  • Heavy rain - The thunderstorm activity in a tropical cyclone causes intense rainfall. Rivers and streams flood, roads become impassable, and landslides can occur.
  • Tornado activity - The broad rotation of a hurricane often spawns tornadoes. While these tornadoes are normally not as strong as their non-tropical counterparts, they can still cause tremendous damage.
Graphic illustrating storm surge

Often, the secondary effects of a tropical cyclone are equally damaging. They include:

  • Disease - The wet environment in the aftermath of a tropical cyclone, combined with the destruction of sanitation facilities and a warm tropical climate, can induce epidemics of disease which claim lives long after the storm passes. One of the most common post-hurricane injuries is stepping on a nail in storm debris, leading to a risk of tetanus or other infection. Infections of cuts and bruises can be greatly amplified by wading in sewage-polluted water.
  • Power outages - Tropical cyclones often knock out power to tens or hundreds of thousands of people (or occasionally millions if a large urban area is affected), prohibiting vital communication and hampering rescue efforts.
  • Transportation difficulties - Tropical cyclones often destroy key bridges, overpasses, and roads, complicating efforts to transport food, clean water, and medicine to the areas that need it.

Beneficial effects of tropical cyclones

Although cyclones take an enormous toll in lives and personal property, they may bring much-needed precipitation to otherwise dry regions. Hurricane Allen ended the Texas drought of 1980. Hurricane Camille averted drought conditions and ended water deficits along much of its path. Hurricane Floyd did the same thing in New Jersey in 1999. The destruction caused by Camille on the Gulf coast spurred redevelopment as well, greatly increasing local property values. On the other hand, disaster response officials point out that redevelopment encourages more people to live in clearly dangerous areas subject to future deadly storms (as shown by the effects of Hurricane Katrina). Of course, many former residents and businesses do relocate to inland areas away from the threat of future hurricanes as well.

Hurricanes also help to maintain global heat balance by moving warm, moist tropical air to the mid-latitudes and polar regions. James Lovelock has also hypothesised that by raising nutrients from the sea floor to surface layers of the ocean, hurricanes also increase biological activity in areas where life would be difficult through nutrient loss in the deeper reaches of the ocean.

Long term trends in cyclone activity

While the number of storms in the Atlantic has increased since 1995, there seems to be no signs of a global trend; the annual global number of tropical cyclones remains about 90 ± 10. [10].

Atlantic storms are certainly becoming more destructive financially, since five of the ten most expensive storms in United States history have occurred since 1990. This can to a large extent be attributed to the number of people living in susceptible coastal area, and massive development in the region since the last surge in Atlantic hurricane activity in the 1960s.

Often in part because of the threat of hurricanes, many coastal regions had sparse population between major ports until the advent of automobile tourism; therefore, the most severe portions of hurricanes striking the coast often went unmeasured. The combined effects of ship destruction and remote landfall severely limit the number of intense hurricanes in the official record before the era of hurricane reconnaissance aircraft and satellite meteorology. Although the record shows a distinct increase in the number and strength of intense hurricanes, therefore, experts regard the early data as suspect.

The number and strength of Atlantic hurricanes may undergo a 50-70-year cycle. Although more common since 1995, few above-normal hurricane seasons occurred during 1970-1994. Destructive hurricanes struck frequently from 1926-60, including many major New England hurricanes. A record 21 Atlantic tropical storms formed in 1933, only recently exceeded in 2005. Tropical hurricanes occurred infrequently during the seasons of 1900-1925; however, many intense storms formed 1870-1899. During the 1887 season, 19 tropical storms formed, of which a record 4 occurred after 1 November and 11 strengthened into hurricanes. Few hurricanes occurred in the 1840s to 1860s; however, many struck in the early 1800s, including an 1821 storm that made a direct hit on New York City which some historical weather experts say may have been as high as Category 4 in strength.

These unusually active hurricane seasons predated satellite coverage of the Atlantic basin that now enables forecasters to see all tropical cyclones. Before the satellite era began in 1961, tropical storms or hurricanes went undetected unless a ship reported a voyage through the storm. The official record, therefore, probably misses many storms in which no ship experienced gale-force winds, recognized it as a tropical storm (as opposed to a high-latitude extra-tropical cyclone, a tropical wave, or a brief squall), returned to port, and reported the experience.

Global warming?

A common question is whether global warming can or will cause more frequent or more fierce tropical cyclones. So far, virtually all climatologists seem to agree that a single storm, or even a single season, cannot clearly be attributed to a single cause such as global warming or natural variation [11]. The question is thus whether a statistical trend in frequency or strength of cyclones exists. The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration says in their Hurricane FAQ that "it is highly unlikely that global warming has (or will) contribute to a drastic change in the number or intensity of hurricanes." [12].

Regarding strength, a similar conclusion was consensus until recently. This consensus is now questioned by K. Emanuel (2005) (Nature 436, 686–688, preprint). In this article, K. Emanuel states that the potential hurricane destructiveness, a measure which combines strength, duration, and frequency of hurricanes, "is highly correlated with tropical sea surface temperature, reflecting well-documented climate signals, including multidecadal oscillations in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and global warming." K. Emanuel further predicts "a substantial increase in hurricane-related losses in the twenty-first century".

Along similar lines, P.J. Webster et al. published an article in Science 309, 1844-1846 examining "changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity" over the last 35 years, a period where satellite data is available. The main finding is that while the number of cyclones "decreased in all basins except the North Atlantic during the past decade" there is a "large increase in the number and proportion of hurricanes reaching categories 4 and 5". I.e., while the number of cyclones decreased overall, the number of very strong cyclones increased.

Both Emanuel and Webster et al., consider the sea surface temperature as of key importance in the development of cyclones. The question then becomes: what caused the observed increase in sea surface temperatures? In the Atlantic, it could be due to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), a 50–70 year pattern of temperature variability. K. Emanuel, however, found the recent temperature increase was outside the range of previous oscillations. So, both a natural variation (such as the AMO) and global warming could have made contributions to the warming of the tropical Atlantic over the past decades, but an exact attribution is so far impossible to make. [13]

While Emanuel analyzes total annual energy dissipation, Webster et al. analyze the slightly less relevant percentage of hurricanes in the combined categories 4 and 5, and find that this percentage has increased in each of six distinct hurricane basins: North Atlantic, North East and North West Pacific, South Pacific, and North and South Indian. Because each individual basin may be subject to intra-basin oscillations similar to the AMO, any single-basin statistic remains open to question. But if the local oscillations are not synchronized by some as-yet-unidentified global oscillation, the independence of the basins allows joint statistical tests that are more powerful than any set of individual basin tests. Unfortunately Webster et al. do not undertake any such test.

Under the assumption that the six basins are statistically independent except for the effect of global warming, Stoft has carried out the obvious paired t-test and found that the null-hypothesis of no impact of global warming on the percentage of category 4 & 5 hurricanes can be rejected at the 0.1% level—there is only a 1 in 1000 chance of simultaneously finding the observed six increases in the cat-4&5 percentages. This statistic needs refining because the variables being tested are not normally distributed with equal variances, but it may provide the best evidence yet that the impact of global warming on hurricane intensity has been detected.

Notable cyclones

Tropical cyclones that cause massive destruction are fortunately rare, but when they happen, they can cause damage in the thousands of lives and the billions of dollars.

The deadliest tropical cyclone on record hit the densely populated Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) on November 13, 1970, likely as a Category 3 tropical cyclone. It killed an estimated 500,000 people. The North Indian basin has historically been the deadliest, with three storms since 1900 killing over 100,000 people, each in Bangladesh. [14]

In the Atlantic basin, at least two storms have killed more than 10,000 people. Hurricane Mitch during the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season caused severe flooding and mudslides in Honduras, killing about 18,000 people and changing the landscape enough that entirely new maps of the country were needed. The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, which made landfall at Galveston, Texas as an estimated Category 4 storm, killed 8,000 to 12,000 people, and remains the deadliest natural disaster in the history of the United States. The deadliest Atlantic storm on record was the Great Hurricane of 1780, which killed about 22,000 people in the Antilles.

The relative sizes of Typhoon Tip, Tropical Cyclone Tracy, and the United States.

The most intense storm on record was Typhoon Tip in the northwestern Pacific Ocean in 1979, which had a minimum pressure of only 870 mbar and maximum sustained wind speeds of 190 mph (305 km/h). It weakened before striking Japan. Tip does not hold the record for fastest sustained winds in a cyclone alone; Typhoon Keith in the Pacific, and Hurricane Camille and Hurricane Allen in the North Atlantic currently share this record as well [15], although recorded wind speeds that fast are suspect, since most monitoring equipment is likely to be destroyed by such conditions.

Camille was the only storm to actually strike land while at that intensity, making it, with 190 mph (305 km/h) sustained winds and 210 mph (335 km/h) gusts, the strongest tropical cyclone of record to ever hit land. For comparison, these speeds are encountered at the center of a strong tornado, but Camille was much larger and long-lived than any tornado.

Typhoon Nancy in 1961 had recorded wind speeds of 213 mph (343 km/h), but recent research indicates that wind speeds from the 1940s to the 1960s were gauged too high, and this is no longer considered the fastest storm on record. [16] Similarly, a gust caused by Typhoon Paka over Guam was recorded at 236 mph (380 km/h); however, this reading had to be discarded, since the anemometer was damaged by the storm. Had it been confirmed, this would be the strongest non-tornadic wind ever recorded at the Earth's surface. (The current record is held by a non-hurricane wind registering 231 mph (372 km/h) at Mount Washington in New Hampshire.) [17]

Tip was also the largest cyclone on record, with a circulation 1,350 miles (2,170 km) wide. The average tropical cyclone is only 300 miles (480 km) wide. The smallest storm on record, 1974's Cyclone Tracy, which devastated Darwin, Australia, was roughly 30 miles (50 km) wide. [18]

Hurricane Iniki in 1992 was the most powerful storm to strike Hawaii in recorded history, hitting Kauai as a Category 4 hurricane, killing six and causing $3 billion in damage.

The first recorded South Atlantic hurricane

On March 26, 2004, Cyclone Catarina became the first recorded South Atlantic hurricane. Previous South Atlantic cyclones in 1991 and 2004 reached only tropical storm strength. Hurricanes may have formed there prior to 1960 but were not observed until weather satellites began monitoring the Earth's oceans in that year.

A tropical cyclone need not be particularly strong to cause memorable damage; Tropical Storm Allison in June 2001 had its name retired for killing 41 people and causing over $5 billion damage in East Texas, even though it never became a hurricane; the damage from Allison was mostly due to flooding, not winds or storm surge. Hurricane Jeanne in 2004 was only a tropical storm when it made a glancing blow on Haiti, but the flooding and mudslides it caused killed over 3,000 people.

On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall in Louisiana and Mississippi. The U.S. National Hurricane Center, in its August review of the tropical storm season stated that Katrina is probably the worst natural disaster in U.S. history. Its death toll is above 1300, mainly from flooding and the aftermath. It is also estimated to have caused an estimated $40 to $120 billion in damages. Before that, the most costly (in money, not human terms) storm had been 1992's Hurricane Andrew, which caused an estimated $25 billion in damage in Florida.


This page about Hurricanes includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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Before that, the most costly (in money, not human terms) storm had been 1992's Hurricane Andrew, which caused an estimated $25 billion in damage in Florida. First included in Super Robot Wars F Final, characters and mecha from Evangelion have since become extremely popular parts of the series, and have appeared in Super Robot Wars Alpha, Alpha 3, MX, and other releases. It is also estimated to have caused an estimated $40 to $120 billion in damages. Aspects of Evangelion have made numerous appearances in the Super Robot Wars series by Banpresto. Its death toll is above 1300, mainly from flooding and the aftermath. Currently, there is no definitive information on what the movie will focus on.[3]. history. Hideaki Anno, the director of the anime, will not be directing this live-action film, and a director has yet to be chosen.

National Hurricane Center, in its August review of the tropical storm season stated that Katrina is probably the worst natural disaster in U.S. It is estimated to be released as late as 2010. The U.S. Production of a live action version of Evangelion was announced in May 2003 by the American company ADV Films (which holds world-wide rights to the series outside of Asia and Australia), and will be made by ADV, Gainax, and Weta Workshop Ltd. On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall in Louisiana and Mississippi. This later inspired a manga, which uses most of the Evangelion characters in a "normal" schoolyard drama series. Hurricane Jeanne in 2004 was only a tropical storm when it made a glancing blow on Haiti, but the flooding and mudslides it caused killed over 3,000 people. While Girlfriend of Steel was shoehorned into the original plot, the sequel to the game, Girlfriend of Steel 2, takes place in a complete alternate universe.

A tropical cyclone need not be particularly strong to cause memorable damage; Tropical Storm Allison in June 2001 had its name retired for killing 41 people and causing over $5 billion damage in East Texas, even though it never became a hurricane; the damage from Allison was mostly due to flooding, not winds or storm surge. The series has also spawned various computer games, including Girlfriend of Steel. Hurricanes may have formed there prior to 1960 but were not observed until weather satellites began monitoring the Earth's oceans in that year. A large deal of the merchandise has an amusingly detached or hilarious non-relation to the dark nature of the series, which is why Hideaki Anno is so opposed to them. Previous South Atlantic cyclones in 1991 and 2004 reached only tropical storm strength. Merchandise for Evangelion still comes out fairly regularly despite the fact that it is a decade old. On March 26, 2004, Cyclone Catarina became the first recorded South Atlantic hurricane. The manga is also translated into Brazilian Portuguese by Conrad Editora, Mexican Spanish by Editorial Vid, Argentinian Spanish by Editorial Ivrea and French by Glénat, Swedish by Bonnier Carlsen and Polish by Rafal Rzepka.

Hurricane Iniki in 1992 was the most powerful storm to strike Hawaii in recorded history, hitting Kauai as a Category 4 hurricane, killing six and causing $3 billion in damage. The manga is translated into English in North America by VIZ Media and in Singapore by Chuang Yi, and the Singaporean translation is imported to Australia by Madman Entertainment. [18]. In Japan, the manga is serialized in the magazine Shonen Ace. The smallest storm on record, 1974's Cyclone Tracy, which devastated Darwin, Australia, was roughly 30 miles (50 km) wide. The manga is currently still in production, though its first volume was actually released prior to the airing of Evangelion's first episode. The average tropical cyclone is only 300 miles (480 km) wide. Other changes include a decrease in the number of Angels and the ealier arrival of Kaworu Nagisa.

Tip was also the largest cyclone on record, with a circulation 1,350 miles (2,170 km) wide. It covers a similar story as the series, but from the perspective of Shinji Ikari, whose personality is altered to be somewhat more decisive than his anime incarnation. (The current record is held by a non-hurricane wind registering 231 mph (372 km/h) at Mount Washington in New Hampshire.) [17]. A manga of the series, drawn by series character designer Yoshiyuki Sadamoto, was published by Kadokawa Shoten. Had it been confirmed, this would be the strongest non-tornadic wind ever recorded at the Earth's surface. "N² mine", as translated by ADV, is technically not an error since Japanese word heiki (兵器) is a term that means weapon; but fails a semantic test as mines are not used in the same manner they are used in the series (for example, being dropped from planes and being used in suicide missions). [16] Similarly, a gust caused by Typhoon Paka over Guam was recorded at 236 mph (380 km/h); however, this reading had to be discarded, since the anemometer was damaged by the storm. Furthermore, the word "Angel" can be seen appearing on video screens in NERV HQ during Angel attacks, and this was the case in the original version of the series as broadcast in Japan; it is not an alteration to the ADV release.

Typhoon Nancy in 1961 had recorded wind speeds of 213 mph (343 km/h), but recent research indicates that wind speeds from the 1940s to the 1960s were gauged too high, and this is no longer considered the fastest storm on record. Unlike the translation of "Children" into "Child", which was altered by ADV, the use of "Angel" in the English dub was specified by Anno and Gainax. For comparison, these speeds are encountered at the center of a strong tornado, but Camille was much larger and long-lived than any tornado. It should be noted, however, that the English angel is derived from the Greek for "messenger" (ἄγγελος, ου, ὁ). Camille was the only storm to actually strike land while at that intensity, making it, with 190 mph (305 km/h) sustained winds and 210 mph (335 km/h) gusts, the strongest tropical cyclone of record to ever hit land. The Japanese word used to refer to the Angels is shito (使徒), which literally means "messenger" or "apostle." The usual Japanese word for "angel" is tenshi (天使). Tip does not hold the record for fastest sustained winds in a cyclone alone; Typhoon Keith in the Pacific, and Hurricane Camille and Hurricane Allen in the North Atlantic currently share this record as well [15], although recorded wind speeds that fast are suspect, since most monitoring equipment is likely to be destroyed by such conditions. The English language dub produced by ADV, however, uses the word "Child" instead of "Children.".

It weakened before striking Japan. Shinji is the "Third Children," not the "Third Child.") This is intentional, and not a translation error. The most intense storm on record was Typhoon Tip in the northwestern Pacific Ocean in 1979, which had a minimum pressure of only 870 mbar and maximum sustained wind speeds of 190 mph (305 km/h). "Children," the plural of "Child," is used to refer to each of the Eva pilots in the singular (i.e. The deadliest Atlantic storm on record was the Great Hurricane of 1780, which killed about 22,000 people in the Antilles. Nerv is the German term for "nerve". The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, which made landfall at Galveston, Texas as an estimated Category 4 storm, killed 8,000 to 12,000 people, and remains the deadliest natural disaster in the history of the United States. Seele is the German term for "soul".

Hurricane Mitch during the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season caused severe flooding and mudslides in Honduras, killing about 18,000 people and changing the landscape enough that entirely new maps of the country were needed. The term Gehirn is German for "brain". In the Atlantic basin, at least two storms have killed more than 10,000 people. There are frequent allusions to the biblical Adam and Eve throughout the series, as well as to the Evangelion's relationship with the Tree of Life. [14]. Additionally, the term "Eva", a frequent abbreviation of Evangelion used in the anime, is the name of the biblical Eve in Greek, coming from the Hebrew name "Chavva" meaning "breath" or "life". The North Indian basin has historically been the deadliest, with three storms since 1900 killing over 100,000 people, each in Bangladesh. This dual meaning may be the reason both the series itself and the "mecha" are called Evangelion.

It killed an estimated 500,000 people. It only came to mean "good message" or "good news" over time and eventually became most commonly associated with the Christian gospels. The deadliest tropical cyclone on record hit the densely populated Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) on November 13, 1970, likely as a Category 3 tropical cyclone. Initially, the word meant "good messenger", the prefix "eu" meaning "good" and "angelion" meaning "messenger" (from the same word that means "angel") and was used to describe the runners who brought news in ancient Greece. Tropical cyclones that cause massive destruction are fortunately rare, but when they happen, they can cause damage in the thousands of lives and the billions of dollars. Evangelion is an anglicised version of the Greek "εὐαγγέλιον" (euangelion) for "good news", and is typically translated "gospel" in the Bible. This statistic needs refining because the variables being tested are not normally distributed with equal variances, but it may provide the best evidence yet that the impact of global warming on hurricane intensity has been detected. The Japanese term for the first book in the Bible is "Souseiki," perhaps a wordplay (with two different beginning and ending kanji) with "Shin Seiki" in the Japanese title.

Under the assumption that the six basins are statistically independent except for the effect of global warming, Stoft has carried out the obvious paired t-test and found that the null-hypothesis of no impact of global warming on the percentage of category 4 & 5 hurricanes can be rejected at the 0.1% level—there is only a 1 in 1000 chance of simultaneously finding the observed six increases in the cat-4&5 percentages. Genesis (γένεσις, εωσ, ἡ) means "origin, source" or "birth, race" and is also the Greek title for the first book of the Hebrew Scriptures, describing the creation of the universe and early Hebrew history. do not undertake any such test. Neon, the neuter form of the word "Neos" (νέον, νέα, νέον), literally means "new" or "young". Unfortunately Webster et al. It literally translates to "New Beginning Gospel" and is read in two parts. But if the local oscillations are not synchronized by some as-yet-unidentified global oscillation, the independence of the basins allows joint statistical tests that are more powerful than any set of individual basin tests. The title, Neon Genesis Evangelion (νέον γένεσις εὐαγγέλιον), appears to be wholly Greek.

Because each individual basin may be subject to intra-basin oscillations similar to the AMO, any single-basin statistic remains open to question. The decision to call the series Neon Genesis Evangelion in English was originally made by Gainax, and not, as some fans have believed, by translators. analyze the slightly less relevant percentage of hurricanes in the combined categories 4 and 5, and find that this percentage has increased in each of six distinct hurricane basins: North Atlantic, North East and North West Pacific, South Pacific, and North and South Indian. The two translate literally from Japanese and a borrowed term from Greek, respectively, as "New Era/Century" and "Gospel". While Emanuel analyzes total annual energy dissipation, Webster et al. The Japanese title for the series, Shin Seiki Evangelion, is composed of two parts: "Shin Seiki" and "Evangelion". [13]. Some of these more confusing lines were re-recorded for the 'Platinum Edition' DVD in 2004.

So, both a natural variation (such as the AMO) and global warming could have made contributions to the warming of the tropical Atlantic over the past decades, but an exact attribution is so far impossible to make. In some aspects they can be misleading, and even contradictary to the original, causing increased confusion towards the show, and increasing the likelihood of outrightly wrong interpretations for numerous English-speaking audiences. Emanuel, however, found the recent temperature increase was outside the range of previous oscillations. The translated dubbed versions of the series and movies of Evangelion were done by ADV Films and Manga Entertainment. K. Numerous webcomics, such as Okashina Okashi, Tsunami Channel and Punks and Nerds have featured Evangelion tributes. The question then becomes: what caused the observed increase in sea surface temperatures? In the Atlantic, it could be due to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), a 50–70 year pattern of temperature variability. English image board 4chan has a meme ("zOMG! It's Rei!") based on the character Rei Ayanami.

Both Emanuel and Webster et al., consider the sea surface temperature as of key importance in the development of cyclones. In the online community, Eva is a common source of parody. I.e., while the number of cyclones decreased overall, the number of very strong cyclones increased. Anno is believed to be featured as a guest voice in the piece, taking on the roles of the "Space God" and "Black Space God". The main finding is that while the number of cyclones "decreased in all basins except the North Atlantic during the past decade" there is a "large increase in the number and proportion of hurricanes reaching categories 4 and 5". The drama is set after episode 26 and has the characters discussing a sequel to the show, clearly breaking the fourth wall. published an article in Science 309, 1844-1846 examining "changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity" over the last 35 years, a period where satellite data is available. In the Eva soundtrack Addition, a twenty minute audio drama was included that reunited the entire voice acting cast, titled "After the End".

Webster et al. Even Anno himself decided to poke fun at his work. Along similar lines, P.J. It is interesting to note that despite EVA 05 being mentioned as a good guy in the film, the series of the toyline is still referred as "Neon Genesis Evangelion" and that the graphics on the blister card (with Japanese writing) are left untouched; some movies and shows usually rename or repackage an existing product with a generic name/graphic logo to save money from royalty fees. Emanuel further predicts "a substantial increase in hurricane-related losses in the twenty-first century". However, Jake rejects the offer after telling him that his parents do not allow him to accept gifts. Emanuel states that the potential hurricane destructiveness, a measure which combines strength, duration, and frequency of hurricanes, "is highly correlated with tropical sea surface temperature, reflecting well-documented climate signals, including multidecadal oscillations in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and global warming." K. In another scene, we see Robin Williams's character, Sy, offering the figure to Jake for free.

In this article, K. The first time we see the figure, is when the York family visits the SavMart (a parody of Walmart) chain store, whereas the character Jake (Dylan Smith) begs his mother to buy him the "Eva" 05 action figure. Emanuel (2005) (Nature 436, 686–688, preprint). In the 2002 movie "One Hour Photo" starring Robin Williams, the "Evangelion" real model action figure by Bandai, can be seen in several parts of the movie. This consensus is now questioned by K. Furthermore, "Evangelion" has also been referenced in American media as well. Regarding strength, a similar conclusion was consensus until recently. Gainax's own His and Her Circumstances and FLCL had a few Eva parodies, as did Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi and even Invader Zim's Christmas Episode had a cameo parody of Evangelion.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration says in their Hurricane FAQ that "it is highly unlikely that global warming has (or will) contribute to a drastic change in the number or intensity of hurricanes." [12]. The same can be said for both WarGrowlmon and Gallantmon Crimson Mode, as they were modeled after EVA-01. The U.S. In the Digimon Tamers series, a lot of Evangelion elements were used in the backstories for the three main children, their friends, and D-Reaper. The question is thus whether a statistical trend in frequency or strength of cyclones exists. Evangelion has also been explicitly referenced and parodied. So far, virtually all climatologists seem to agree that a single storm, or even a single season, cannot clearly be attributed to a single cause such as global warming or natural variation [11]. Evangelion also introduced a new wave of fans who are far less interested in the technical aspects of science fiction anime and more interested in analyzing the metaphysical symbolism that they perceived, in contrast to Gundam and many previous anime which were presented as hard science.

A common question is whether global warming can or will cause more frequent or more fierce tropical cyclones. Indeed, the style set and created by Evangelion has become the standard for most mecha shows since the late 90s. The official record, therefore, probably misses many storms in which no ship experienced gale-force winds, recognized it as a tropical storm (as opposed to a high-latitude extra-tropical cyclone, a tropical wave, or a brief squall), returned to port, and reported the experience. Evangelion however changed this with its fast and sleek Evas, making a noticeable contrast to the arguably bulky and cumbersome looking Patlabors and Transformers of the past. Before the satellite era began in 1961, tropical storms or hurricanes went undetected unless a ship reported a voyage through the storm. Previously, almost all mecha or giant robot shows took their "mechanical suit" designs from Gundam, Mazinger, and other similar shows from the 60s, 70s and 80s. These unusually active hurricane seasons predated satellite coverage of the Atlantic basin that now enables forecasters to see all tropical cyclones. Evangelion also dramatically changed the design of giant robots in many animated works.

Few hurricanes occurred in the 1840s to 1860s; however, many struck in the early 1800s, including an 1821 storm that made a direct hit on New York City which some historical weather experts say may have been as high as Category 4 in strength. Some feel that RahXephon is another work that bears strong influence from this series. During the 1887 season, 19 tropical storms formed, of which a record 4 occurred after 1 November and 11 strengthened into hurricanes. While many find that the video game Xenogears (1998) shows obvious and major signs of being heavily influenced by Evangelion, its creators (Xenogears co-creator/co-writer Soraya Saga in particular) have denied this vehemently. Tropical hurricanes occurred infrequently during the seasons of 1900-1925; however, many intense storms formed 1870-1899. More superficially, "Evangelion" started a wave of using Christian symbolism in other anime and related fields. A record 21 Atlantic tropical storms formed in 1933, only recently exceeded in 2005. The show "His and Her Circumstances" (1999) which was also directed by Hideaki Anno shares many of the techniques (the experimental 'ripping-apart' of the animation and use of real photographs) and portrayed psychological conflicts in much the same way.

Destructive hurricanes struck frequently from 1926-60, including many major New England hurricanes. The psychological nature of the show influenced later works such as Revolutionary Girl Utena (1997) and Serial Experiments Lain (1997), both of which, like Eva, center around an ambiguous world-changing event to come. Although more common since 1995, few above-normal hurricane seasons occurred during 1970-1994. However, as much as Evangelion owes to the past, it also has a large influence on a variety of anime shows in the present as well. The number and strength of Atlantic hurricanes may undergo a 50-70-year cycle. This is a direct echoing of Jean Paul Sartre's assertion in his book Being and Nothingness, in which he views consciousness as the ultimate factor in determining reality - it is a power which can negate certain things, and create a new subjective reality in the process. Although the record shows a distinct increase in the number and strength of intense hurricanes, therefore, experts regard the early data as suspect. In other words, he is absolutely free to create the world as he wants, to negate only what he wishes, and leave only what he knows will give him happiness.

The combined effects of ship destruction and remote landfall severely limit the number of intense hurricanes in the official record before the era of hurricane reconnaissance aircraft and satellite meteorology. To view it another way, only by negating certain possibilities does Shinji's reality form. Often in part because of the threat of hurricanes, many coastal regions had sparse population between major ports until the advent of automobile tourism; therefore, the most severe portions of hurricanes striking the coast often went unmeasured. Through Shinji's own free will, he is able to create the ground, rules, in fact the whole world around him. This can to a large extent be attributed to the number of people living in susceptible coastal area, and massive development in the region since the last surge in Atlantic hurricane activity in the 1960s. It is depicted as a simple white background in which the only drawn figure is Shinji, floating about in absolute nothingness. Atlantic storms are certainly becoming more destructive financially, since five of the ten most expensive storms in United States history have occurred since 1990. As well, in the very final televised episode, Shinji is shown a world in which there is absolute possibility.

[10]. Rei has no soul of her own, and loses her "self" in each reincarnation; Shinji is desperately trying to overcome a lack of self confidence; and Asuka covers up her own despair and inner turmoil by acting overconfident and giving the appearance that she is self-assured. While the number of storms in the Atlantic has increased since 1995, there seems to be no signs of a global trend; the annual global number of tropical cyclones remains about 90 ± 10. Viewers will note that Rei, Shinji, and Asuka can each be seen to resemble a different kind of Despair. James Lovelock has also hypothesised that by raising nutrients from the sea floor to surface layers of the ocean, hurricanes also increase biological activity in areas where life would be difficult through nutrient loss in the deeper reaches of the ocean. Namely, that Despair comes in three forms: Despair at not being conscious of having a self; Despair at not willing to be oneself; and even Despair at willing to be oneself. Hurricanes also help to maintain global heat balance by moving warm, moist tropical air to the mid-latitudes and polar regions. The Sickness Unto Death is a book written by Søren Kierkegaard (one of the first, and most religiously-oriented Existentialists) regarding the human condition as a type of Despair.

Of course, many former residents and businesses do relocate to inland areas away from the threat of future hurricanes as well. For instance, episode 16's title was translated as "Sickness Unto Death, And..." in the English subtitled version. On the other hand, disaster response officials point out that redevelopment encourages more people to live in clearly dangerous areas subject to future deadly storms (as shown by the effects of Hurricane Katrina). However, there are more specific instances of Existentialism's influence on Evangelion. The destruction caused by Camille on the Gulf coast spurred redevelopment as well, greatly increasing local property values. Though open to speculation, this is evident in both the televised and Movie endings of the series. Hurricane Floyd did the same thing in New Jersey in 1999. As such, the Human Instrumentality Project of Evangelion is an attempt to break down the barriers that separate mankind, and Shinji's ultimate decision is whether or not the limitations and inherent freedoms of the human condition as individual creatures are good things, or whether they should be denied.

Hurricane Camille averted drought conditions and ended water deficits along much of its path. However, according to Existentialism, human beings, partly because of their isolation, are uniquely free to choose their own interpretations of events, to create their own realities and most importantly, to own these realities as true expressions of their world and themselves. Hurricane Allen ended the Texas drought of 1980. Essentially human beings are alone, without any sort of method by which to break away from such loneliness. Although cyclones take an enormous toll in lives and personal property, they may bring much-needed precipitation to otherwise dry regions. Because human beings are physically trapped within their own bodies, their thoughts and actions are trapped within their own realm of knowledge, never to be shared in their most personal form with anyone else. They include:. The core tenet of Existentialism is that human beings ultimately influence their own reality, through the choices they make.

Often, the secondary effects of a tropical cyclone are equally damaging. Its central themes are heavily based on Freudian Psychoanalysis mentioned above as it concerns the characters and general plot creation, as well as Existentialism, which itself owes much to Psychoanalysis. A tropical cyclone moving over land can do direct damage in four ways. Evangelion is a work with a variety of different source materials for its core composition. However, the most devastating effects of a tropical cyclone occur when they cross coastlines, making landfall. The only major edits that viewers have noticed is the deletion of when Mistao and Asuka curse; it was replaced with a censor bleep. Tropical cyclones on the open sea cause large waves, heavy rain, and high winds, disrupting international shipping and sometimes sinking ships. At this point, the rumors were supressed, and to everyone's suprise, Evangeleion aired with mostly no edits.

A mature tropical cyclone can release heat at a rate upwards of 6x1014 watts [9]. Also, at the time Evangelion was airing on The Anime Network, and many guessed that Evangelion wouldn't air because it was already on TAN. Example: Ken-Lola (1989). Many speculated that this wouldn't happen, because of what had happened to ADV and CN over Evangelion and Giant Robot Week. Sometimes, there may be human faults leading to the renaming of a tropical cyclone. This surfaced again with the rumors that Evangelion would air on Adult Swim. Human faults. Some believed that ADV Films were very disatified of the airings, and had put Evangelion on a "black list," along with (rumored) the rest of the ADV library.

4. When Neon Genesis Evangelion aired on Toonami's Giant Robot Week in 2003, it was obvious that much of the episode that was aired (Episodes 1 and 2) were heavily edited, including edits to Misato's binge drinking and, for some odd reason, the absense of Pen-Pen, Evangelion's Mascot. Example: TD 10-TD 12 (2005). It can be argued also that the wide distribution of his series through ADV Films and television in Europe, Australia, and the Americas has also contributed to his standing. When the remnants of a tropical cyclone redevelop, the redeveloping system will be treated as a new tropical cyclone if there are uncertainties of the continuation, even though the original system may contribute to the forming of the new system. This general opinion changed somewhat when the twin Evangelion movies came out in the late 90's, bringing Anno more respect and recognition as a filmmaker as well as fair amounts of fans of his work. Uncertainties of the continuation. It can also be argued that the show's content was, in the end, more influenced by Anno than by Bandai, though despite creative conflicts between the sponsors and the director, the series was not widely perceived during its run (1995-96) as being the work of a visionary director or auteur such as Hayao Miyazaki.

3. In response to this, fans argue that the show reveals an extremely complex understanding of psychological theory and that if the show was strictly a commercial venture, it would not have such an uncommercial ending. Up to now, there has been no tropical cyclone retaining its name during the passage from Atlantic to Pacific, or vice versa. Additionally, the primary corporate backers were toy companies Bandai and Sega, giving rise to the criticism that the series was simply intended as a strictly commercial venture. In 2003, when Larry was about to move across Mexico, NHC attempted to provide greater clarity:. Despite being generally highly regarded, the series has received criticism due to the many religious and psychological references, which some viewers saw as being superficial. NHC explained that Iris had dissipated as a tropical cyclone prior to entering the eastern North Pacific basin; the new depression was properly named Fifteen-E, rather than Iris. He made his live-action debut with "Love and Pop" in 1998 (posters were designed by longtime collaberator Yoshiyuki Sadamoto), then went back to animation with the 26-episode "His and Her Circumstances", then made the live-action "Shiki-Jistu" in 2001 (which used brief pieces of animation in key scenes), and was uninvolved with animation until his participation in supervising (but not directing) the 2004 Cutey Honey OAV Project.

The depression later became tropical storm Manuel. The shift in tone and style corresponded with a shift in Anno's worldview that would lead him to abandon the "otaku lifestyle" and temporarily leave anime for live action film making. However, the Pacific tropical depression developed from the remnants of Iris was called Fifteen-E instead. (It is also worth noting here that in this episode the Angels were going to speak to Shinji, but the creative team dropped this in favor of a more original concept in which the Angel shows Shinji various images within his mind, while he 'talks' to himself.) Several sources (interview with Kazuya Tsurumaki, interview with Hiroki Azuma) seem to indicate that although Evangelion was sketchily pre-planned, the story details were open to alteration, possibly for the purpose of adapting to audience demands or more likely (regarding Anno's tastes and fights with sponsors) free directorial decision making. In 2001, when Iris moved across Central America, NHC mentioned that Iris would retain its name if it regenerated in the Pacific. On the other hand there is some evidence that Anno's frustrations began earlier than End of Evangelion, and that this film was the culmination of a growing anger as evidenced by the sudden shift in tone around episode 16. Examples: Cesar-Douglas (1996), Joan-Miriam (1988). In addition, the plot of End of Evangelion does seem to match that of the TV series, providing closure to things such as the Instrumentality Project, the true purpose of NERV, and the private agenda of Gendou Ikari.

It was the policy of National Hurricane Center (NHC) to rename a tropical storm which crossed from Atlantic into Pacific, or vice versa. The deaths of these two characters correspond to events in End of Evangelion and would tend to disprove the theory that the tragic and violent end of various characters in End of Evangelion is due to Anno's frustration towards some fans. A tropical storm crosses from the Atlantic into the Pacific, or vice versa, before 2001. The theory of a pre-planned ending in addition to episodes 25 and 26 is backed up by some evidence, including a still in the intro depicting Unit 01 with wings and still-frame shots of the deaths of Misato and Ritsuko which appeared in the TV ending. 2. Others have argued that Anno intended End of Evangelion to be the proper climax all along but that he was unable to show it because of budget restraint and television content laws. Examples: Bertie-Alvin (2005). Some believe that it was a manifestation of Anno's frustrations with the fan culture that attacked his original ending, and used End of Evangelion as revenge against those.

In this case, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) will put two names together with a hyphen. Despite the success of End of Evangelion, its ending was considered controversial by many fans. In the south Indian Ocean, RSMC la Reunion names a tropical storm once it crosses 90°E from the east, even though it has been named. (Blockbusters in Japan usually make $40-60 million, and a movie is considered to have done well if it makes more than $10 million). A tropical storm enters the southwestern Indian Ocean from the east. The film made around $12 million at the Japanese box office. 1. End of Evangelion.

However, a tropical cyclone may be renamed in several occasions. The project was completed later in the year, and contained the complete section of Rebirth, i.e. In most cases, a tropical cyclone retains its name throughout its life. Due to scheduling difficulties, they released Death and Rebirth consisting of a character-based recap of the entire series (Death) and half of the "proper" ending to Evangelion (Rebirth). The names are usually of English, French or Spanish origin in the Atlantic basin, since these are the three predominant languages of the region where the storms typically form. Prompted by these responses, Gainax launched the project to create a movie with a "proper" ending for the series in 1997. It was also in 1979 that the practice of preparing a list of names before the season began. Among these were death threats and letters of disappointment from fans who thought Anno had ruined the series for them.

The National Weather Service responded to these concerns in 1979 with the introduction of masculine names to the nomenclature. After the ending of the TV series, Gainax and Hideaki Anno received numerous letters and emails from fans, both congratulating and criticizing the last two episodes. However, since tropical storms and hurricanes are primarily destructive, some considered this practice sexist. However, when aired again in a time slot more suitable for adults, its popularity exploded and rekindled many adults' interest in anime. The first storm of the year was assigned a name beginning with the letter "A", the second with the letter "B", etc. When first aired in Japan at a time slot intended for teenagers, Evangelion was not especially popular. In keeping with the common English language practice of referring to inanimate objects such as boats, trains, etc., using the female pronoun "she," names used were exclusively feminine. For example, we can see in a paragraph, circa 1990, from literary theorist Victor Burgen which might be described as "Eva in a nutshell":.

To help in their identification, beginning in 1953 the practice of systematically naming tropical storms and hurricanes was initiated by the United States National Hurricane Center, and is now maintained by the WMO. Though the religious and biological concepts are sometimes (perhaps intentionally) used in ways different from how contemporary Christianity or biology used them, Anno's use of Freudian jargon and psychoanalytical theory is fairly up to date with what was contemporary theory at the time. As transportation traffic increased and meteorological observations improved in number and quality, several typhoons, hurricanes or cyclones might have to be tracked at any given time. Evangelion is thick with allusions to biological, military, religious, and psychological concepts. The modern naming convention came about in response to the need for unambiguous radio communications with ships and aircraft. The feeling of constant anxiety in Evangelion can be seen as a reflection of the constant anxiety Japan felt after the attacks destroyed the image of Japan as a clean, violence-free society. For a few years afterwards, names from the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet were used. The series started broadcast after the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995, and production occurred around the period of the attack.

During World War II, tropical cyclones were given feminine names, mainly for the convenience of the forecasters and in a somewhat ad hoc manner. It fully embraced the style of mecha anime, and in particular shows a large influence from Yoshiyuki Tomino's Space Runaway Ideon; particularly, there are scenes in End of Evangelion which are clear homages to the last movie for the Ideon series. He used feminine names, the names of politicians who had offended him, and names from history and mythology. Evangelion, however, shows the reversal of this trend. The practice of giving storms people's names was introduced by Clement Lindley Wragge, an Anglo-Australian meteorologist at the end of the 19th century. Mamoru Oshii had been quoted as saying that nobody wanted to watch "simple anime-like works" anymore. For several hundred years after Europeans arrived in the West Indies, hurricanes there were named after the saint's day on which the storm struck. For example, Miyazaki's My Neighbor Totoro (1988), and Kiki's Delivery Service (1989) were both low-key works, and Akira (1988) took most of its influence from American comic books.

The Seychelles Meteorological Service maintains a list for the Southwest Indian Ocean. From the period from 1984 to the release of Evangelion, most highly acclaimed anime had a style somehow distanced from the usual styles of anime. There are also Fiji region and Papua New Guinea region names. The list goes on and on, with multiple equally plausible interpretations existing, and references to areas other than Judeo-Christian concepts also appear, most notably concepts held by Freudian psychology. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology maintains three lists of names, one for each of the Western, Northern and Eastern Australian regions. (Some fans have also chosen to interpret the triplet nature of the magi to represent the Holy Trinity of Christianity, or—in the field of psychology—the Freudian concept of the Ego, superego, and id of the unconscious mind, among others.) The Tree of Sephiroth (Tree of Life)—an illustration of ten orbs showing the relationship between heaven and earth—is also mentioned. The Typhoon Songda in September 2004 is internally called the typhoon number 18 and is recorded as the typhoon 0418 with 04 taken from the year. The Magi supercomputers are collectively named after the "Magi" (wise men, or astrologers) who were mentioned in one of the synoptic Gospels as having visited Jesus at his birth.

Japan Meteorological Agency uses a secondary naming system in Western North Pacific that numbers a typhoon on the order it formed, resetting on December 31 of every year. It has been theorized that Kaoru represents Jesus, as he is an Angel in human form (although Christianity actually teaches that Jesus is not an angel, but rather God in human form). Names are used in the order of the countries' English names, sequentially without regard to year. The angels may well be in reference to the angels of God from the Hebrew and Christian texts. Five lists of names are used, with each of the 14 nations on the Typhoon Committee submitting two names to each list. The Christian crucifix sign is often shown, frequently as energy beams shooting up skyward. In the Western North Pacific, name lists are maintained by the WMO Typhoon Committee. It is clear that Adam and Eve (in other languages, such as Spanish and Portuguese, called Eva) are a direct reference to the first human beings from the book of Genesis.

Four lists of Hawaiian names are selected and used in sequential order without regard to year. In assistant director Kazuya Tsurumaki's own words: "We just thought the visual symbols of Christianity looked cool." Whether this mindset changed during the course of making the series, influencing the intended depth of meaning of the symbols, is another question altogether. In the Central North Pacific region, the name lists are maintained by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. The staff of the project have said that they originally used Christian symbolism (Christianity is practiced by around only 1% of the population in Japan) only to give the project a unique edge against other giant robot shows. There is no precedent for a storm named with a Greek Letter causing enough damage to justify retirement; how this situation would be handled is unknown. The most prominent symbolism takes its inspiration from Judeo-Christian sources and frequently displays related symbols. This was first necessary during the 2005 season when the names Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, and Zeta were all used. Their interpretation will vary from individual to individual.

If there are more than 21 named storms in an Atlantic season or 24 named storms in an Eastern Pacific season, the rest are named as letters from the Greek alphabet: the 22nd storm is called "Alpha," the 23rd "Beta," and so on. from outside sources, and the varied meanings that may be found in them. The affected countries then decide on a replacement name of the same gender (and if possible, the same ethnicity) as the name being retired. One of the many intriguing features of Evangelion is its extensive use of symbols, imagery, etc. Names of storms may be retired by request of affected countries if they have caused extensive damage. In the 7th DVD of the Platinum Collection, it is shown that episodes 25 & 26 and End of Evangelion are in fact just two separate endings to the series, such as multiple endings in video games, and have no real connection to one another other than both are separate continuations of episode 24. Five letters — "Q," "U," "X," "Y" and "Z" — are omitted in the Atlantic; only "Q" and "U" are omitted in the Eastern Pacific, so the format accommodates 21 or 24 named storms in a hurricane season. Yet another group of fans sees the final two episodes as being a part of the introspective detours from the second half of End of Evangelion.

Six lists of names are prepared in advance, and each list is used once every six years. The line is sometimes considered to be a reference to the end of Space Runaway Ideon, in which case it ironically implies a pyrrhic victory and death. The "gender" of the season's first storm also alternates year to year: the first storm of an odd-numbered year gets feminine name, while the first storm of an even-numbered year gets a masculine name. Others believe that the characters are congratulating Shinji for finding his own identity, as his realization that he is an individual identity is the deciding factor in whether or not Instrumentality will occur (therefore, the characters are congratulating Shinji because his decision to remain an individual means that they can all remain individuals) -- this interpretation is reconcilable with End of Evangelion. In the Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific regions, feminine and masculine names are assigned alternately in alphabetic order during a given season. Some fans believe that the final scene of episode 26 where all of the characters are shown telling Shinji, "Congratulations" is a sign that Shinji accepts the Instrumentality Project and therefore is at odds with End of Evangelion. The WMO's Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee selects the names for Atlantic Basin and central and eastern Pacific storms. The highly stylized nature of these episodes leaves them very open to interpretation.

Each year, the names of particularly destructive storms (if there were any) are "retired" and new names are chosen to take their place. There is some debate as to whether The End of Evangelion is a complement to, or a replacement of the TV episodes 25 and 26. The lists are decided upon, depending on the regions, either by committees of the World Meteorological Organization (called primarily to discuss many other issues), or by national weather services involved in the forecasting of the storms. In End of Evangelion, Shinji is directly involved in the initiation of Instrumentality, but ultimately rejects it at the last moment. These names are taken from lists which vary from region to region and are drafted a few years ahead of time. The specifics of Instrumentality are not explored in the series, either. Storms reaching tropical storm strength (winds exceeding 17 metres per second, 38 mph, or 62 km/h) are given names, to assist in recording insurance claims, to assist in warning people of the coming storm, and to further indicate that these are important storms that should not be ignored. The ending is left open to interpretation: clearly, Shinji eventually overcomes his issues with others and comes to accept being with them, but whether Instrumentality follows through or if it occurs at all are left unanswered, directly.

The National Hurricane Center uses the data to evaluate conditions at landfall and to verify forecasts. In the series, episodes 25 and 26 consist of abstract introspection by the characters, especially Shinji. During landfall, the NOAA Hurricane Research Division compares and verifies data from reconnaissance aircraft (which includes wind speed data taken at flight level and from GPS dropwindsondes and stepped-frequency microwave radiometers) to wind speed data transmitted in real time from weather stations erected near or at the coast. The plot of The End of Evangelion and the plot of the series seem to diverge at the end of series episode 24. The two largest programs are the Florida Coastal Monitoring Program [7] and the Wind Engineering Mobile Instrumented Tower Experiment [8]. When everyone comes to this state, they will no longer feel the pain or loneliness that would typically precipitate from interaction between humans; it is comparable, but not equal, to death. Recently, academic researchers have begun to deploy mobile weather stations fortified to withstand hurricane-force winds. This causes their bodies to revert to LCL.

Radar plays a crucial role around landfall because it shows a storm's location and intensity minute by minute. This artificial evolution strives to merge all human souls into one by disposing the individuals of their AT-Fields that separate egos from each other. As a storm approaches land, it can be observed by land-based Doppler radar. SEELE is the main driving force behind this project, for reasons unknown, but they mention that humanity must evolve or it will die, thus the need for a forced evolution. Tropical cyclones far from land are tracked by weather satellites capturing visible and infrared images from space, usually at half-hour to quarter-hour intervals. Considering the religious implications of the term "evangelion", this event was said to bring about the salvation of mankind in the context of a newly created Earth and humanity's becoming one with God. This demonstrated a new way to probe the storms at low altitudes that human pilots seldom dare[6]. The secret second task, the Human Instrumentality Project, intends to start an artificial evolution of mankind.

A new era in hurricane observation began when a remotely piloted Aerosonde, a small drone aircraft, was flown through Tropical Storm Ophelia as it passed Virginia's Eastern Shore during the 2005 hurricane season. While Ritsuko does mention at the beginning of the series that the Evas do have some biological components to them, the extent to which the Evas are biological is not immediately apparent; it is finally revealed, towards the end of the series, that Eva's are essentially Angels (made from Adam, the first Angel, except unit 01 which is almost certainly made from Lilith, the second Angel) onto which mechanical components are incorporated during its creation — part of the reason being to restrain and control them. These sondes measure temperature, humidity, pressure, and especially winds between flight level and the ocean's surface. It is later apparent that the Evas are not really "robots" but rather living, biomechanical organisms, in contrary to the popular belief of the general public. The aircraft also launch GPS dropsondes inside the cyclone. That is not to say that it is impossible to synchronize in such a situation, as is shown in an experiment in Episode 14, in which Rei and Shinji synchronize with each other's Evas. These aircraft fly directly into the cyclone and take direct and remote-sensing measurements. Each Eva has its own designated pilot, due to the bond between the pilot's soul and the soul of the Eva; otherwise, any other person who tries to synchronize (simply put, to technically work as one mind) with the Eva is more likely to be refused.

The aircraft used are WC-130 Hercules and WP-3D Orions, both four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft. Though unit 02 does not ever go truly berserk, Asuka says in "The End of Evangelion" that she feels the presence of her mother protecting her in the Eva. In the Atlantic basin, these flights are regularly flown by US government hurricane hunters [5]. Unit 00 goes berserk and lashes out at the tormentors of Ritsuko Akagi's mother, apperently attempting to kill Rei. It is however possible to take in-situ measurements, in real-time, by sending specially equipped reconnaissance flights into the cyclone. One example is when Unit 01 goes "berserk," acts without control of its pilot or NERV and refuses to shut down (or in one instance, to start without Shinji). Even in these cases, real-time measurement taking is generally possible only in the periphery of the cyclone, where conditions are less catastrophic. The Evas also appear to behave under the influence of the soul inside it.

Surface level observations are generally available only if the storm is passing over an island or a coastal area, or it has overtaken an unfortunate ship. It is frequently speculated that qualifying pilots must have lost a mother, whose soul is used as the soul of the Eva. As they are a dangerous oceanic phenomenon, weather stations are rarely available on the site of the storm itself. Pilots are selected by the Marduk Institute, which is later discovered to be composed of about 108 ghost companies, (108 is the number of sins in Japanese Buddhism, and the number of beads on a typical Buddhist rosary/mala) but Gendou Ikari and Ritsuko Akagi are actually in charge of selecting pilots. Intense tropical cyclones pose a particular observation challenge. The Evas have the outward appearance of massive humanoid robots and can apparently be piloted only by children conceived after the Second Impact. However, it has been suggested by some that we can change the course of a storm during its early stages of formation, (detailed by an article, Controlling Hurricanes, Scientific American, 2005), such as using satellite to alter the environmental conditions or, more realistically, spreading degradable film of oil over the ocean, which prevent water vapor from fueling the storm. NERV carries out two tasks: to defend the Earth from Angel attack with a small number of Evangelions (Evas), and the Human Instrumentality Project, which, according to Gendou, is the path to becoming one with God.

These approaches all suffer from the same flaw: tropical cyclones are simply too large for any of them to be practical [4]. NERV is, in theory, under the control of SEELE, but NERV has its own agenda, driven by its commander Gendou Ikari. Other approaches have been suggested over time, including cooling the water under a tropical cyclone by towing icebergs into the tropical oceans; dropping large quantities of ice into the eye at very early stages so that latent heat is absorbed by ice at the entrance (storm cell perimeter bottom) instead of heat energy being converted to kinetic energy at high altitudes vertically above; covering the ocean in a substance that inhibits evaporation; or blasting the cyclone apart with nuclear weapons. In the conflict with Angels, mankind is represented by the mysterious organizations NERV, GEHIRN (which started out as the investigation team for the Second Impact but became NERV later on), SEELE, and the Marduk Institute. Today it is known that silver iodide seeding is not likely to have an effect because the amount of supercooled water in the rainbands of a tropical cyclone is too low.[3]. The true nature of the Second Impact was concealed from the general public, who was led to believe that the devastation was caused by a small meteorite, traveling close to the speed of light, impacting in Antarctica. The project was dropped after it was discovered that eyewall replacement cycles occur naturally in strong hurricanes, casting doubt on the result of the earlier attempts. On September 13 an attempt was made to capture it which ended in apparent failure when it proceeded to self-destruct, creating what would be called the Second Impact.

Because there was so much uncertainty about the behavior of these storms, the federal government would not approve seeding operations unless the hurricane had a less than 10 percent chance of making landfall within 48 hours. In 2000, a group of scientists conducted an expedition in Antarctica where a large being of light, deemed by them as the first Angel, Adam, was discovered. In an earlier episode, disaster struck when a hurricane east of Jacksonville, Florida, was seeded, promptly changed its course, and smashed into Savannah, Georgia[citation needed]. Other designs, such as the sleek Evangelions, created a great counterbalance to the bulky super robots of old. The winds of Hurricane Debbie dropped as much as 30 percent, but then regained their strength after each of two seeding forays. The attractive designs of the three main female leads, Asuka, Rei, and Misato have been immortalized in the dōjinshi community and in subsequent anime. It was thought that the seeding would cause supercooled water in the outer rainbands to freeze, causing the inner eyewall to collapse and thus reducing the winds. The character designs have also contributed to the popularity of Evangelion.

In the 1960s and 1970s, the United States government attempted to weaken hurricanes in its Project Stormfury by seeding selected storms with silver iodide. There have also been many hypotheses on the nature of the relationships between the characters, including:. In the Atlantic ocean, such tropical-derived cyclones of higher latitudes can be violent and may occasionally remain at hurricane-force wind speeds when they reach Europe as a European windstorm. The characters' personalities reflect their tactics, and their interactions reveal the nature of each in respect to each other. When a tropical cyclone reaches higher latitudes or passes over land, it may merge with weather fronts or develop into a frontal cyclone, also called extratropical cyclone. A commonly held theory (also supported within the series itself) as to the meaning behind the characters is that Rei, Asuka, Shinji, and Misato all represent different methods people use to validate their own existence/individuality and separate themselves from their fellow human beings (analogous to the concept of AT-Fields). Even after a tropical cyclone is said to be extratropical or dissipated, it can still have tropical storm force (or occasionally hurricane force) winds and drop several inches of rainfall. Most characters are, in their own way, socially maladjusted, and the patterns of relationships between the characters are complex.

A tropical cyclone can cease to have tropical characteristics in several ways:. Fellow pilots Rei Ayanami, a silent girl frequently mistaken for being unemotional; and Asuka Langley Soryu, a fiery, proud, red-headed girl; are also primary characters, as well as Shinji's father and NERV commander Gendo Ikari, NERV's head of strategy and tactics Misato Katsuragi, and NERV's head scientist, Ritsuko Akagi. For a list of notable and unusual landfalling hurricanes, see list of notable tropical cyclones. For many years he had lived away from his father with one of his teachers until he was summoned mysteriously at the start of the series. For emergency preparedness, actions should be timed from when a certain wind speed will reach land, not from when landfall will occur. The main character of Evangelion is Shinji Ikari, a shy, dour adolescent boy and Eva pilot. In fact, for a storm moving inland, the landfall area experiences half the storm before the actual landfall.
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Naturally, storm conditions may be experienced on the coast and inland well before landfall. For the rest of Latin America, and between 2000 and 2003 (in numerous occasions) Neon Genesis Evangelion was broadcast on the Argentinian-based, anime and animation satellite channel Locomotion (which later, on August of 2005, became Animax).. Officially, "landfall" is when a storm's center (the center of the eye, not its edge) reaches land. The series was also internationally broadcast in Latin America by cable channel I-Sat during 2003 and 2004. They attribute the lack of improvement in intensity forecasting to the complexity of tropical systems and an incomplete understanding of factors that affect their development. Neither of the movies have been broadcast. But while track forecasts have become more accurate than 20 years ago, scientists say they are less skillful at predicting the intensity of tropical cyclones. None of the airings have suffered censorship and/or cuts.

High-speed computers and sophisticated simulation software allow forecasters to produce computer models that forecast tropical cyclone tracks based on the future position and strength of high- and low-pressure systems. After the series ended was re-broadcast twice. With their understanding of the forces that act on tropical cyclones, and a wealth of data from earth-orbiting satellites and other sensors, scientists have increased the accuracy of track forecasts over recent decades. In Chile, the television series was broadcast by Chilevision during the time slot between 6:00 and 6:30 PM in 2004 with episodes dubbed into Latin American Spanish. Because of the forces that affect tropical cyclone tracks, accurate track predictions depend on determining the position and strength of high- and low-pressure areas, and predicting how those areas will change during the life of a tropical system. DVDs and manga are available in major stores. East Coast and in the Gulf of Mexico are eventually forced toward the northeast by high-pressure areas which move from west to east over North Africa. At the same time, the now-extinct Locomotion channel aired the series in Brazillian Portuguese language.

Many tropical cyclones along the coast. The series was dubbed in Portuguese. Such a track direction change is termed recurve. A hurricane moving from the Atlantic toward the Gulf of Mexico, for example, will recurve to the north and then northeast if it encounters winds blowing northwestward toward a high-pressure system passing over North Africa. It was soon moved to after midnight. Finally, when a tropical cyclone moves into higher latitude, its general track around a high-pressure area can be deflected significantly by winds moving toward a low-pressure area. Many believed the schedule a mistake, since the timing meant that many small children could watch it. (Much of that is due to the conservation of angular momentum - air is drawn in from an area much larger than the cyclone such that the tiny angular velocity of that air will be magnified greatly when the distance to the storm center shrinks.). It started on the 8th of December 1997.

The Coriolis acceleration also initiates cyclonic rotation, but it is not the driving force that brings this rotation to high speeds. In Portugal, the series is fairly popular, since it was originally aired weekend mornings on the most popular channel in Portugal (SIC). Thus, tropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere, which commonly move west in the beginning, normally turn north (and are then usually blown east), and cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere are deflected south, if no strong pressure systems are counteracting the Coriolis Acceleration. There never had been a completely and professionally synchronised German version until the release of the Platinum Edition DVD set in 2005 by ADV Films. The southern part is pulled south, but since it is closer to the equator, the Coriolis force is a bit weaker there). the original Japanese version subtitled with more or less correct German translations. in the north, the northern part of the cyclone has winds to the west, and the Coriolis force pulls them slightly north. e.

This acceleration causes cyclonic systems to turn towards the poles in the absence of strong steering currents (i.e. In Germany NGE was broadcast in 1998 and again in December 2000/January 2001 by VOX once a week after midnight as a subtitled version, i. The earth's rotation also imparts an acceleration (termed the Coriolis Acceleration or Coriolis Effect). The Evangelion movies were never broadcast on TV, but were released in 2005 on DVD by Panini Video, changing a few voice actors. Also, in the area of the North Atlantic where hurricanes form, trade winds, which are prevailing westward-moving wind currents, steer tropical waves (precursors to tropical depressions and cyclones) westward from off the African coast toward the Caribbean and North America. The manga, also translated in Italian, was released by Panini Comics (previously called Planet Manga). Over the North Atlantic Ocean, tropical systems are steered generally westward by the east-to-west winds on the south side of the Bermuda High, a persistent high-pressure area over the North Atlantic. Dynamic Italia didn't cut or censor the series in any way: they also put in the Italian version the unreleased scenes from Japanese Home Video edition.

The major force affecting the track of tropical systems in all areas are winds circulating around high-pressure areas. It enjoyed great success. The path of motion is referred to as a tropical cyclone's track.. In Italy, the series was first released on VHS/DVD by Dynamic Italia (now called Dynit) and was then broadcast, dubbed in Italian, on the local MTV. That is, large-scale winds—the streams in the earth's atmosphere—are responsible for moving and steering tropical cyclones. The entire series and the two movies are now available on DVD through Madman Entertainment[1], along with a new "Platinum" edition of the series, remastered from a fully restored video source. Although tropical cyclones are large systems generating enormous energy, their movements over the earth's surface are often compared to that of leaves carried along by a stream. The success of Evangelion prompted SBS to gain the rights to several other anime series and many anime features, including the two Evangelion movies, which it later broadcast in their entirety, with both Death and Rebirth and The End of Evangelion screened again in 2005.

In British Shipping Forecasts, winds of force 12 on the Beaufort scale are described as "hurricane force.". As a result, SBS broadcast Evangelion twice a week, with the original run shown on Saturdays at 8:30pm, beginning on the 2nd of January 1999, and the second run shown on Mondays at 8:30pm, beginning on the 22nd of March, 1999. However, two powerful extratropical cyclones that ravaged France, Germany, and the United Kingdom in December 1999, "Lothar" and "Martin", were named due to their unexpected power (equivalent to a category 1 or 2 hurricane). Consequently, SBS decided to rebroadcast the entire series, despite the fact that it had not yet fully completed the original run. These European windstorms can generate hurricane-force winds but are not given individual names. News of the broadcast slowly spread, and as a result, there was an upsurge of viewers midway through the season. In the United Kingdom and Europe, some severe northeast Atlantic cyclonic depressions are referred to as "hurricanes," even though they rarely originate in the tropics. This was the first anime series to be broadcast on SBS, and in prime time.

Although subtropical storms rarely attain hurricane-force winds, they may become tropical in nature as their core warms. In Australia, the series was broadcast by SBS Television. They can form in a wide band of latitude, from the equator to 50°. This ended around episode 16 when the block that aired the two shows was canceled and the shows themselves moved to 5 a.m. A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical cyclone and some characteristics of an extratropical cyclone. In these showings the show had no edits to the episode's content but occasionaly sped up the ending in favor of airing the next episode preview alongside the ending theme. Extratropical cyclones can also be dangerous because their low-pressure centers cause powerful winds. Later Evangelion and Nadesico were repeated on the channel.

From space, extratropical storms have a characteristic "comma-shaped" cloud pattern. In the United Kingdom, the show and its accompanying films were released on VHS and DVD by ADV Films and Manga Entertainment's UK divisions and has aired on the UK's Sci-Fi Channel along with Martian Successor Nadesico and Blue Gender during the Summer of 2002 and finished its run in the January of 2003. A tropical cyclone can become extratropical as it moves toward higher latitudes if its energy source changes from heat released by condensation to differences in temperature between air masses; more rarely, an extratropical cyclone can transform into a subtropical storm, and from there into a tropical cyclone. This second showing was edited considerably less than the previous showing, though, allegedly due to its poor time slot, the series has not fared as well as it has in some other countries. An extratropical cyclone is a storm that derives energy from horizontal temperature differences, which are typical in higher latitudes. It is also shown on Saturday nights at 1:00 a.m. Several of these relate to the formation or dissipation of tropical cyclones. starting October 20, 2005.

Many other forms of cyclone can form in nature. The entire series began airing on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim block Thursday nights at 12:30 a.m. weather service defines sustained winds based on 1-minute average speed measured about 10 meters (33 ft) above the surface. The first two episodes were aired on Cartoon Network's Toonami block as part of a special called "Giant Robot Week" in 2003 (albeit in very heavily edited forms which, among other edits, hid Misato's mass consumption of beer and omitted the character Pen-Pen altogether). The U.S. The series was one of a small number of anime to have the honor of being broadcast on San Francisco Bay Area PBS member station KTEH (in Japanese with English subtitles,) and has also been broadcast on The Anime Network. The definition of sustained winds recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and used by most weather agencies is that of a 10-minute average. Most of the voice actors used in the English dubbed versions are the same in each version.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center classifies typhoons with wind speeds of at least 150 mi/h (67 m/s or 241 km/h, equivalent to a strong Category 4 storm) as Super Typhoons. In the United States, the television series debuted on VHS and later on DVD by ADV Films, while the movies are distributed by Manga Entertainment. The National Hurricane Center classifies hurricanes of Category 3 and above as Major Hurricanes.
. In fact, tropical systems of less than hurricane strength can produce significant damage and human casualties, especially from flooding and landslides. The two movies were subsequently re-edited and re-released as a single movie, Revival of Evangelion (1998). For instance, a Category 2 hurricane that strikes a major urban area will likely do more damage than a large Category 5 hurricane that strikes a mostly rural region. Death and Rebirth is essentially a highly condensed re-edit of the series (Death) plus the first half of The End of Evangelion (Rebirth), while The End of Evangelion is a fully developed extension to the end of episode 24, intended as an alternate presentation of the series ending.

Lower-category storms can inflict greater damage than higher-category storms, depending on factors such as local terrain and total rainfall. Evangelion consists of 26 television episodes which were first aired on TV Tokyo from October 4, 1995, to March 27, 1996, and was followed by two movies: Death and Rebirth and The End of Evangelion, each first screened in 1997. The rankings are not absolute in terms of effects. . A Category 1 storm has the lowest maximum winds, a Category 5 hurricane has the highest. The unedited/DVD versions are recommended only for ages 16 and up due to disturbing scenes of violence, emotional trauma, and upsetting sexual themes. Hurricanes are ranked according to their maximum winds using the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The first two episodes were also shown once on Toonami, albeit in a highly edited form.

Eventually the outer eyewall replaces the inner one completely and the storm can be the same intensity as it was previously or, in some cases, even stronger. The show premiered on Adult Swim on Thursday, October 20, 2005, although it had been previously debuted in the United States on KTEH, a PBS station located in San Jose, California. the maximum winds die off a bit and the central pressure goes up). The television series aired in Japan from 1995 to 1996, ran for 26 episodes, and was released on VHS and DVD in North America and the UK by ADV Films. During this phase, the tropical cyclone is weakening (i.e. As a result, characters in the anime display a variety of mood disorders and problems with emotional health, especially depression, trauma, and separation anxiety disorder. At this point, some of the outer rainbands may organize into an outer ring of thunderstorms that slowly moves inward and robs the inner eyewall of its needed moisture and momentum. The creator/director, Hideaki Anno, suffered from a long period of depression prior to creating Evangelion; much of the show is based on his own experiences in dealing with depression and in psychoanalytic theory he learned from his psychotherapy.

When cyclones reach peak intensity they usually - but not always - have an eyewall and radius of maximum winds that contract to a very small size, around 5 to 15 miles. Although the series starts as a regular mecha anime, the focus tends to shift from action to flashbacks and analyses of the primary characters, particularly the main character Shinji Ikari. Eyewall replacement cycles naturally occur in intense tropical cyclones. Conventional weapons are useless against the Angels, and the only known defense against them are the biomechanical mechas created by the paramilitary organization NERV, the Evangelions (Evas). Intense, mature hurricanes can sometimes exhibit an inward curving of the eyewall top that resembles a football stadium: this phenomenon is thus sometimes referred to as stadium effect. Just as humanity is finishing its recovery from this disaster, Tokyo-3 began suffering attacks by strange monsters referred to as Angels. Maximum sustained winds in the strongest tropical cyclones have been measured at more than 85 m/s (165 knots, 190 mph, 305 km/h). It takes place in 2015, fifteen years after the catastrophic Second Impact, reportedly caused by a meteor strike, which wiped out half of Earth's population and tilted its axis.

The direction of the cyclonic circulation depends on the hemisphere; it is counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Neon Genesis Evangelion (新世紀エヴァンゲリオン Shin Seiki Evangerion?) is a Japanese animated television series, begun in 1995, directed and written by Hideaki Anno, and produced by Gainax. Bands or arms may extend over great distances as clouds are drawn toward the cyclone. New York: Routledge. The circulation of clouds around a cyclone's center imparts a distinct spiral shape to the system. 104–123). Surrounding the eye is the eyewall, an area about 10 to 50 miles (16 to 80 kilometers) wide in which the strongest thunderstorms and winds circulate around the storm's center. Benjamin (Ed.), Abjection, Melancholia, and Love: The Work of Julia Kristeva (pp.

The eye is often visible in satellite images as a small, circular, cloud-free spot. Fletcher and A. At hurricane and typhoon intensity, a tropical cyclone tends to develop an eye, an area of relative calm (and lowest atmospheric pressure) at the center of the circulation. In J. Government weather services assign first names to systems that reach this intensity (thus the term named storm). Geometry and Abjection. At this point, the distinctive cyclonic shape starts to develop, though an eye is usually not present. (1990).

A tropical storm is an organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds between 17 and 33 meters per second (34–63 knots, 39–73 mph, or 62–117 km/h). ^  Burgen, V. It is already becoming a low-pressure system, however, hence the name "depression". Madman's Homepage. It has no eye, and does not typically have the spiral shape of more powerful storms. ^  Madman Entertainment(2006). A tropical depression is an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of less than 17 metres per second (33 knots, 38 mph, or 62 km/h). Cruel Angel's Thesis (musical theme).

Tropical cyclones are classified into three main groups: tropical depressions, tropical storms, and a third group whose name depends on the region. List of Neon Genesis Evangelion topics. A strong tropical cyclone consists of the following components. List of Neon Genesis Evangelion media. The following areas spawn tropical cyclones only very rarely. Neon Genesis Evangelion Official Expanded Universe. There are seven main basins of tropical cyclone formation:. Neon Genesis Evangelion Timeline.

It is estimated that such conditions occur only once every 400 years. Neon Genesis Evangelion glossary. A combination of a pre-existing disturbance, upper level divergence and a monsoon-related cold spell led to Typhoon Vamei at only 1.5 degrees north of the equator in 2001. Characters in Neon Genesis Evangelion. Hurricane Ivan of 2004 developed within 10 degrees of the equator. Evangelion (mecha). These conditions are extremely rare, and such storms are believed to form at most once per century. Angel (Neon Genesis Evangelion).

However, it is possible for tropical cyclones to form within this boundary if there is another source of initial rotation. Truman and Douglas MacArthur. Because the Coriolis effect initiates and maintains tropical cyclone rotation, such cyclones almost never form or move within about 10 degrees of the equator [2], where the Coriolis effect is weakest. Toji and Kensuke are a parody on Harry S. Nearly all of them form between 10 and 30 degrees of the equator and 87% form within 20 degrees of it. Toji and Kensuke represent pacifism and militarism. Most tropical cyclones form in a worldwide band of thunderstorm activity called the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Ritsuko represents the industrialised and technocratic north, while Misato stands for the rural south.

Worldwide, an average of 80 tropical cyclones form each year. Ritsuko and Misato represent the Antagonism of intellect and emotion. Southern Hemisphere activity peaks in mid-February to early March. Shinji and Asuka represent Orient and Occident. In the Southern Hemisphere, tropical cyclone activity begins in late October and ends in May. Gendo, Shinji, and Rei represent the three parts of the Christian Trinity. In the North Indian basin, storms are most common from April to December, with peaks in May and November. The five children each represent the 5 stages of Death: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and Acceptance.

The Northwest Pacific sees tropical cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and a peak in early September. Rei, Shinji, and Asuka represent the three categories of Despair according to Søren Kierkegaard. The Northeast Pacific has a broader period of activity, but in a similar timeframe to the Atlantic. Shinji, Rei, and Asuka are respective archetypes of three personality disorders: avoidant (cluster C), schizoid (cluster A), and narcissistic (cluster B). The statistical peak of the North Atlantic hurricane season is September 10. Shinji, Rei, and Asuka represent the Japanese gods Susanoo, Amaterasu, and Ama-no-Uzume. In the North Atlantic, a distinct hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking from late August through September. Rei and Asuka represent the Thanatos and Eros drives in Shinji's psyche, Shinji himself represents the Destrudo.

However, each particular basin has its own seasonal patterns. Shinji, Rei, and Asuka represent the Ego, Superego and Id. Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer when water temperatures are warmest. These include:. Only specific weather disturbances can result in tropical cyclones.

Tropical cyclones occasionally form despite not meeting these conditions. Five factors are necessary to make tropical cyclone formation possible:. The formation of tropical cyclones is the topic of extensive ongoing research, and is still not fully understood. The high cirrus clouds may be the first signs of an approaching hurricane.

This outflow produces high, thin cirrus clouds that spiral away from the center. These originate from air that has released its moisture and is expelled at high altitude through the "chimney" of the storm engine. While the most obvious motion of clouds is toward the center, tropical cyclones also develop an upper-level (high-altitude) outward flow of clouds. Scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research estimate that a hurricane releases heat energy at the rate of 50 to 200 trillion watts -- about the amount of energy released by exploding a 10-megaton nuclear bomb every 20 minutes [1].

As a result, when a tropical cyclone passes over land, its strength diminishes rapidly. The evaporation of this moisture is accelerated by the high winds and reduced atmospheric pressure in the storm, resulting in a positive feedback loop. In order to continue to drive its heat engine, a tropical cyclone must remain over warm water, which provides the atmospheric moisture needed. By contrast, mid-latitude cyclones, for example, draw their energy mostly from pre-existing horizontal temperature gradients in the atmosphere.

Condensation as a driving force is what primarily distinguishes tropical cyclones from other meteorological phenomena, and because this is strongest in a tropical climate, this defines the initial domain of the tropical cyclone. If the right conditions persist and allow it to create a feedback loop by maximizing the energy intake possible, for example, such as high winds to increase the rate of evaporation, they can combine to produce the violent winds, incredible waves, torrential rains, and floods associated with this phenomenon. The factors to form a tropical cyclone include a pre-existing weather disturbance, warm tropical oceans, moisture, and relatively light winds aloft. The orbital revolution of the Earth causes the system to spin, an effect known as the Coriolis force, giving it a cyclone characteristic and affecting the trajectory of the storm.

Factors such as a continued lack of equilibrium in air mass distribution would also give supporting energy to the cyclone. This gives rise to factors that give the system enough energy to be self-sufficient and cause a positive feedback loop where it can draw more energy as long as the source of heat, warm water, remains. Continued condensation leads to higher winds, continued evaporation, and continued condensation, feeding back into itself. Therefore, a tropical cyclone can be thought of as a giant vertical heat engine supported by mechanics driven by physical forces such as the rotation and gravity of the Earth.

Its primary energy source is the release of the heat of condensation from water vapor condensing at high altitudes, the heat ultimately derived from the sun. Structurally, a tropical cyclone is a large, rotating system of clouds, wind and thunderstorms. [citation needed]. The word cyclone is from the Greek "κύκλος", meaning "circle." An Egyptian word Cykline meaning to "to spin" has been cited as a possible origin.

The word hurricane is derived from the name of a native Caribbean Amerindian storm god, Huracan, via Spanish huracán. See tuphōn for more information. Portuguese tufão is also related to typhoon. The word typhoon has two possible origins:.

There are many regional names for tropical cyclones, including Bagyo in the Philippines and Taino in Haiti. Terms used in weather reports for tropical cyclones that have surface winds over 64 knots (73.6 mph) or 32 m/s vary by region:. . While they can be highly destructive, tropical cyclones are an important part of the atmospheric circulation system, which moves heat from the equatorial region toward the higher latitudes.

In meteorology, a tropical cyclone (also referred to as a tropical depression, tropical storm, typhoon, or hurricane depending on strength and geographical context) is a type of low pressure system which generally forms in the tropics. Transportation difficulties - Tropical cyclones often destroy key bridges, overpasses, and roads, complicating efforts to transport food, clean water, and medicine to the areas that need it. Power outages - Tropical cyclones often knock out power to tens or hundreds of thousands of people (or occasionally millions if a large urban area is affected), prohibiting vital communication and hampering rescue efforts. Infections of cuts and bruises can be greatly amplified by wading in sewage-polluted water.

One of the most common post-hurricane injuries is stepping on a nail in storm debris, leading to a risk of tetanus or other infection. Disease - The wet environment in the aftermath of a tropical cyclone, combined with the destruction of sanitation facilities and a warm tropical climate, can induce epidemics of disease which claim lives long after the storm passes. While these tornadoes are normally not as strong as their non-tropical counterparts, they can still cause tremendous damage. Tornado activity - The broad rotation of a hurricane often spawns tornadoes.

Rivers and streams flood, roads become impassable, and landslides can occur. Heavy rain - The thunderstorm activity in a tropical cyclone causes intense rainfall. This is the worst effect, as cyclones claim 80% of their victims when they first strike shore. Storm surge - Tropical cyclones cause an increase in sea level, which can flood coastal communities.

High winds also turn loose debris into flying projectiles, making the outdoor environment even more dangerous. High winds - Hurricane strength winds can damage or destroy vehicles, buildings, bridges, etc. Such weakening is generally temporary unless it meets other conditions above. An outer eye wall forms (typically around 50 miles from the center of the storm), choking off the convection toward the inner eye wall.

These storms are extratropical cyclones. This does not necessarily mean the death of the storm, but the storm will lose its tropical characteristics. It enters colder waters. (Such, however, can strengthen the non-tropical system as a whole.).

It can be weak enough to be consumed by another area of low pressure, disrupting it and joining to become a large area of non-cyclonic thunderstorms. It experiences wind shear, causing the convection to lose direction and the heat engine to break down. Without warm surface water, the storm cannot survive. It remains in the same area of ocean for too long, drawing heat off of the ocean surface until it becomes too cool to support the storm.

However, many storm fatalities occur in mountainous terrain, as the dying storm unleashes torrential rainfall which can lead to deadly floods and mudslides. If a storm is over mountains for even a short time, it can rapidly lose its structure. There is, however, a chance they could regenerate if they manage to get back over open warm water. Most strong storms lose their strength very rapidly after landfall, and become disorganized areas of low pressure within a day or two.

It moves over land, thus depriving it of the warm water it needs to power itself, and quickly loses strength. Tropical cyclones owe this unique characteristic to the warm core at the center of the storm. Winds at the surface are strongly cyclonic, weaken with height, and eventually reverse themselves. Outflow: The upper levels of a tropical cyclone feature winds headed away from the center of the storm with an anticyclonic rotation.

The heaviest wind damage occurs where a hurricane's eyewall passes over land. Eyewall: A band around the eye of greatest wind speed, where clouds reach highest and precipitation is heaviest. In weaker cyclones, the CDO covers the circulation center, resulting in no visible eye. The eye is normally circular in shape, and may range in size from 8 km to 200 km (5 miles to 125 miles) in diameter.

Eyes are home to the coldest temperatures of the storm at the surface, and the warmest temperatures at the upper levels. Weather in the eye is normally calm and free of clouds (however, the sea may be extremely violent). Eye: A strong tropical cyclone will harbor an area of sinking air at the center of circulation. The classic hurricane contains a symmetrical CDO, which means that it is perfectly circular and round on all sides.

This contains the eye wall, and the eye itself. Central Dense Overcast (CDO): The Central Dense Overcast is a dense shield of very intense thunderstorm activity that make up the inner portion of the hurricane. Thus, at any given altitude (except close to the surface where water temperature dictates air temperature) the environment inside the cyclone is warmer than its outer surroundings. This heat is distributed vertically, around the center of the storm.

Warm core: Tropical cyclones are characterized and driven by the release of large amounts of latent heat of condensation as moist air is carried upwards and its water vapor condenses. The pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest that occur on Earth's surface at sea level. Surface low: All tropical cyclones rotate around an area of low atmospheric pressure near the Earth's surface. The Great Lakes A storm system that appeared similar to a tropical cyclone formed in 1996 on Lake Huron it formed an eye and could have breifly been sub-tropical.

It formed from a thunderstorm formation in Borneo that moved into the South China Sea. It caused flooding in southern Malaysia and some damage in Singapore. However, in December 2001, Typhoon Vamei formed in the Southern South China Sea and made landfall in Malaysia. Areas within ten degrees laditude of the equator do not experience a significant coriolis force, a vital ingredient in tropical cyclone formation.

Southern South China Sea Tropical cyclones normally do not develop in the Southern South China Sea due to its close proximity to the equator. Australia: SE Indian Basin includes the eastern part of the Indian ocean and the northern and western part of the Australian basin. Australia: SW Pacific Basin includes the eastern part of Australia and the Fiji area. before being transformed into an extratropical low or absorbed into other systems of low pressure.

Vince's origin was the northeasternmost in the eastern Atlantic ever recorded, and Vince was the first storm in recorded history to reach the Iberian Peninsula as a tropical cyclone, i.e. Northeastern Atlantic Ocean: In October 2005, Hurricane Vince formed near Madeira, then moved northeastward, passing south of the Portuguese south coast, and made landfall in southwestern Spain as a tropical depression. However, there is debate on whether these storms were tropical in nature. Such cyclones formed in September 1947, September 1969, January 1982, September 1983, and January 1995.

Mediterranean Sea: Storms which appear similar to tropical cyclones in structure sometimes occur in the Mediterranean basin. They affect the islands of Polynesia in exceptional instances. Most of the storms that enter this region formed farther west in the Southwest Pacific. Eastern South Pacific: Tropical cyclone formation is rare in this region; when they do form, it is frequently linked to El Niño episodes.

However, this region is commonly frequented by tropical cyclones that form in the much more favorable Eastern North Pacific Basin. Central North Pacific: Shear in this area of the Pacific Ocean severely limits tropical development. The January storm is thought to have reached tropical storm intensity based on scatterometre winds. However, three tropical cyclones have been observed here — a weak tropical storm in 1991 off the coast of Africa, Cyclone Catarina (sometimes also referred to as Aldonça), which made landfall in Brazil in 2004 at Category 1 strength, and a smaller storm in January 2004, east of Salvador, Brazil.

South Atlantic Ocean: A combination of cooler waters, the lack of an ITCZ, and wind shear makes it very difficult for the South Atlantic to support tropical activity. Cyclones forming here impact Madagascar, Mozambique, Mauritius, and Kenya, and these nations issue forecasts and warnings for the basin. Southwestern Indian Ocean: This basin is the least understood, due to a lack of historical data. Southeastern Indian Ocean: Tropical activity in this region affects Australia and Indonesia, and is forecast by those nations.

Rarely, a tropical cyclone formed in this basin will affect the Arabian Peninsula. Nations affected by this basin include India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar, and Pakistan, and all of these countries issue regional forecasts and warnings. Hurricanes which form in this basin have historically cost the most lives — most notably, the 1970 Bhola cyclone killed 200,000. This basin's season has an interesting double peak; one in April and May before the onset of the monsoon, and another in October and November just after.

Northern Indian Ocean: This basin is divided into two areas, the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, with the Bay of Bengal dominating (5 to 6 times more activity). South Western Pacific Ocean: Tropical activity in this region largely affects Australia and Oceania, and is forecast by Australia and Papua New Guinea. In the U.S., the Central Pacific Hurricane Center is responsible for forecasting the western part of this area while the National Hurricane Center is responsible for the eastern part. Storms that form here can affect western Mexico, Hawaii, northern Central America, and on extremely rare occasions, California.

Eastern North Pacific Ocean: This is the second most active basin in the world, and the most dense (a large number of storms for a small area of ocean). National meteorology organizations and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are responsible for issuing forecasts and warnings in this basin. The eastern coasts of Taiwan and Philippines also have the highest tropical cyclone landfall frequency in the world. This is by far the most active basin, accounting for one-third of all tropical cyclone activity in the world.

Western North Pacific Ocean: Tropical storm activity in this region frequently affects China, Japan, the Philippines, and Taiwan, but also many other countries in South-East Asia, such as Vietnam, South Korea and Indonesia, plus numerous Oceanian islands. Many of the more intense Atlantic storms are Cape Verde-type hurricanes, which form off the west coast of Africa near the Cape Verde islands. The coast of Atlantic Canada receives hurricane landfalls on rare occasion, such as Hurricane Juan in 2003. Gulf Coast and occasionally New Jersey, New York and New England (usually hurricanes weaken to tropical storms before they reach these northern regions).

Additionally, they can hit the coast of the U.S., especially Florida, North Carolina, the U.S. Hurricanes that strike Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean island nations, often do intense damage, as hurricanes are deadlier over warmer water. National Hurricane Center (NHC) based in Miami, Florida, issues forecasts for storms for all nations in the region; the Canadian Hurricane Centre, based in Halifax, Nova Scotia, also issues forecasts and warnings for storms expected to affect Canadian territory and waters. The U.S.

Venezuela, the south-east of Canada and Atlantic "Macaronesian" islands are also occasionally affected. The United States Atlantic coast, Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean Islands and Bermuda are frequently affected by storms in this basin. The average is about ten. Tropical cyclone formation here varies widely from year to year, ranging from over twenty to one per year.

North Atlantic Basin: The most-studied of all tropical basins, it includes the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico. If a low level circulation forms under this convection, it may develop into a tropical cyclone. Decaying frontal boundaries may occasionally stall over warm waters and produce lines of active convection. A warm-core tropical cyclone may result when one of these (on occasion) works down to the lower levels and produces deep convection.

Tropical upper tropospheric troughs, which are cold-core upper level lows. A similar phenomenon to tropical waves are West African disturbance lines, which are squally lines of convection that form over Africa and move into the Atlantic. Most tropical cyclones form from these. This often assists in the development of thunderstorms, which can develop into tropical cyclones.

Tropical waves, or easterly waves, which, as mentioned above, are westward moving areas of convergent winds. High wind shear can break apart the vertical structure of a tropical cyclone. Low vertical wind shear (change in wind speed or direction over height). (2004's Hurricane Ivan was the strongest storm to form closer than 10 degrees from the equator; it started forming at 9.7 degrees north.).

A distance of approximately 10 degrees or more from the equator, so that the Coriolis effect is strong enough to initiate the cyclone's rotation. This is most frequently provided by tropical waves—non-rotating areas of thunderstorms that move through tropical oceans. A pre-existing weather disturbance. Temperature in the atmosphere must decrease quickly with height, and the mid-troposphere must be relatively moist.

Upper-atmosphere conditions conducive to thunderstorm formation. The moisture in the air above the warm water is the energy source for tropical cyclones. Sea surface temperatures above 26.5 degrees Celsius (79.7 degrees Fahrenheit) to at least a depth of 50 meters (164 feet). From Urdu, Persian or Arabic ţūfān (طوفان) < Greek tuphōn (Τυφών).

The first record of the character 颱 appeared in 1685's edition of Summary of Taiwan 臺灣記略). (The Chinese term as 颱風 táifēng, and 台風 taifu in Japanese, has an independent origin traceable variously to 風颱, 風篩 or 風癡 hongthai, going back to Song 宋 (960-1278) and Yuan 元(1260-1341) dynasties. From the Chinese 大風 (daaih fūng (Cantonese); dà fēng (Mandarin)) which means "great wind". Cyclone (unofficially): South Atlantic Ocean.

Tropical cyclone: Southwest Indian Ocean and the South Pacific east of 160°E. Severe cyclonic storm: North Indian Ocean. Severe tropical cyclone: Southwest Pacific west of 160°E and the southeast Indian Ocean east of 90°E. Typhoon: Northwest Pacific west of the dateline.

Hurricane: Atlantic basin and North Pacific Ocean east of the dateline.

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