Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes

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Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes were one of the most popular Philly soul groups of the 1970s. Though ostensibly led by Melvin, Teddy Pendergrass was the most influential member of the group. They were signed to Gamble & Huff's Philadelphia International label. Though they had several hits from 1972 to 1975, they dried up after the departure of Pendergrass. The group continued touring, however, until Melvin died in 1997.


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The group continued touring, however, until Melvin died in 1997. The word muse is used figuratively to denote someone who inspires an artist. Though they had several hits from 1972 to 1975, they dried up after the departure of Pendergrass. The poet Sappho of Lesbos was also paid the very great compliment of being called "the tenth Muse". They were signed to Gamble & Huff's Philadelphia International label. One side-effect of this movement was the use of the word "museum" (originally, "cult place of the Muses") to refer to a place for the public display of knowledge. Though ostensibly led by Melvin, Teddy Pendergrass was the most influential member of the group. nine Muses), and was attended by Voltaire and Benjamin Franklin.

Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes were one of the most popular Philly soul groups of the 1970s. A popular Masonic lodge in pre-Revolutionary Paris was called Neuf Soeurs ("nine sisters", i.e. Many Enlightenment figures sought to re-establish a "Cult of the Muses" in the 18th century. The Library of Alexandria and its circle of scholars were formed around a mousaion ("museum" or shrine of the Muses) close by the tomb of Alexander the Great. Muse-worship was also often associated with the hero-cults of poets: the tombs of Archilochus on Thasos and Hesiod and Thamyris (whom they blinded) in Boeotia all played host to festivals in which poetic recitations were accompanied by sacrifices to the Muses.

The Muses were especially venerated in Boeotia, near Helicon, and in Delphi and the Parnassus, where Apollo became known as Mousagetes "Muse-leader". The Muses were also occasionally referred to as Corycides or Corycian nymphs after a cave on Mount Parnassos called the Corycian Cave. Other fountains, called Hippocrene and Pirene were also important to the Muses. They were sometimes called Aganippids because of their association with a fountain called Aganippe.

Local cults of the Muses were often associated with springs or fountains. When Pythagoras arrived at Croton, his first advice to the Crotoniates was to build a shrine of the Muses at the center of the city, to promote civic harmony and learning. And Dante Alighieri, in Canto II of The Inferno:. ..

Two classic examples: Homer, Book I of The Odyssey:. Originally the invocation of the Muse was an indication that the speaker was working inside the poetic tradition, according to the established formulae. They have served as aid to an author, or as the true speaker for which an author is only a mouthpiece. The muses are typically invoked at or near the beginning of an epic poem or story.

They blinded Thamyris for his hubris in challenging them to a contest. They also gathered the pieces of the dead body of Orpheus, son of Calliope, and buried them. The Muses judged the contest between Apollo and Marsyas. Solon sought to perpetuate his political reforms by establishing recitations of his poetry—complete with invocations to his practical-minded Muses—by Athenian boys at festivals every year.

For poet and lawgiver Solon (fragment 13), the Muses were the key to the good life, since they brought both prosperity and friendship. Herodotus, whose primary medium of delivery was public recitation, named each one of the nine books of his Histories after a different Muse. In the archaic period, before the widespread availability of books, this included nearly all of learning: the first Greek book on astronomy, by Thales, was set in dactylic hexameter, as were many works of pre-Socratic philosophy; both Plato and the Pythagoreans explicitly included philosophy as a sub-species of mousike (Strabo 10.3.10). The Muses were therefore both the embodiments and sponsors of performed metrical speech: mousike, whence "music", was the art of the Muses.

The word is probably derived from the Indo-European root *men-, which is also the source of Greek Mnemosyne, Latin Minerva, and English "mind", "mental" and "memory". In Pindar, to "carry a mousa" is "to sing a song". Greek mousa is a common noun as well as a type of goddess: it literally means "song" or "poem". In Roman, Renaissance and Neoclassical art, Muses depicted in sculptures or paintings are often distinguished by certain props or poses, as emblems. Euterpe (music) carries a flute; Calliope (epic poetry) carries a writing tablet; Clio (history) carries a scroll and books; Erato (lyric poetry) is often seen with a lyre and a crown of roses; Melpomene (tragedy) is often seen with a tragic mask; Polyhymnia (sacred poetry) is often seen with a pensive expression; Terpsichore (dancing) is often seen dancing and carrying a lyre; Thalia (comedy) is often seen with a comic mask; and Urania (astronomy) carries a staff pointed at a celestial globe.

However, the association of specific muses with specific art forms is a later innovation, and has been called pedantic. Together, they form a complete picture of the subjects proper to poetic art in the archaic period. The canonical nine Muses are:. Together, they form the complete picture of the preconditions of poetic art in cult practice.

9.29.1). According to Pausanias there were three original Muses: Aoide ("song", "voice"), Melete ("practice" or "occasion") and Mneme ("memory") (Paus. Compare the Roman inspiring nymphs of springs, the Camenae. For Alcman and Mimnermus, they were even more primordial, springing from Uranus and Gaia.

According to Hesiod's Theogony, they are the daughters of Zeus, king of the gods, and Mnemosyne, goddess of memory. The Olympian system set Apollo as their leader, Apollon Mousagetes.. They were water nymphs, associated with the springs of Helicon and Pieris. In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek Μουσαι, Mousai) are nine archaic goddesses who embody the right evocation of myth, inspired through remembered and improvised song and traditional music and dances.

Urania (astronomy). Thalia (comedy). Terpsichore (dancing). Polyhymnia (sacred poetry).

Melpomene (tragedy). Erato (lyric poetry). Clio (history). Calliope (epic poetry).

Euterpe (music).

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