Godzilla

Godzilla, as portrayed during the late Heisei era (Godzilla vs. SpaceGodzilla, 1994)

Godzilla (ゴジラ - Gojira) is a giant Japanese movie monster (kaiju) first seen in the 1954 Japanese tokusatsu film Gojira, produced by Toho Film Company Ltd. To date, Toho has produced 28 Godzilla films. In 1998 TriStar Pictures produced a nominal remake of the original set in contemporary New York city. A new film is slated to be produced by Advanced Audiovisual Productions. (For a list of these films, see below.)

Godzilla is characterized as amphibious, nearly indestructible and highly regenerative, and breathing a sort of nuclear fire or "heat-ray". The earliest two Godzilla films visually and thematically evoke the US bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the aftermath and human damage of Godzilla's attacks. Although much of Godzilla's significance as an anti-war symbol has been lost in the transition to pop culture, the nuclear breath remains as a visual vestige of the creature's early Cold War politics.

History

Origins

the first Godzilla movie always appilies to all Subsequent movies, most of the time the creature is described as prehistoric, often a surviving dinosaur, and its first attacks on Japan are linked to atomic testing in the Pacific Ocean, including but not limited to using nuclear mutation as an explanation for the creature's great size and strange powers.

  • His iconic design (a charcoal-colored monster-like figure with small pointed ears, rough bumpy scales, powerful tail, and bony colored dorsal fins shaped like maple leaves).
  • He is virtually indestructible, impervious to all modern weaponry.
  • He can release a powerful atomic energy beam, usually blue but in some films red, from his mouth (which is ominously signalled when his dorsal fins glow/flash in the same color as the atomic beam).

The name "Gojira" is a combination of gorira which means "gorilla" and kujira, which means "whale" in Japanese. The name was allegedly originally a nickname of a large worker at Toho Studios. But since Gojira was neither a gorilla nor a whale, the name "Gojira" was devised in a different way for the film's story; Gojira's name was "originally" spelled in katakana (呉爾羅).

Gojira was first released in the United States in 1955 in Japanese-American communities only, under Toho's international title, Godzilla. In 1956, it was adapted by an American company into Godzilla, King of the Monsters (based on Toho's international title), edited and with added, principal scenes featuring Raymond Burr, and this version became an international success. As a result, the monster came to be known as "Godzilla" also in Japan (the belief that American distributors were responsible for the name "Godzilla" is a misconception, since Toho came up with the name for international markets to begin with).

Culture

Godzilla was originally an allegory for the effects of the hydrogen bomb, and the unintended consequences that such weapons might have on Earth. The radioactive contamination of the Japanese fishing boat Daigo Fukuryu Maru through the United States' Castle Bravo thermonuclear device test on Bikini Atoll, on March 1, 1954 lead to much press coverage in Japan preceding the release of the first movie in 1954. The Versus and Millennium Series have largely continued this concept. Some have pointed out the parallels, conscious or unconscious, between Godzilla's relationship to Japan and that of the United States; first a terrible enemy who causes enormous destruction, but then becoming a good friend and defender in times of peril.

Films have been made over the last five decades, each reflecting the social and political climate in Japan. All but one of the 29 films were produced by Toho: a version was made in 1998 by TriStar Pictures and set in the United States by the directors of Independence Day (ID4) and is somewhat despised by most Godzilla fans. Toho immediately followed it with 1999's Godzilla 2000: Millennium, which began the current series of films, known informally as the Mireniamu or Millennium series.

Much of Godzilla's popularity in the United States can be credited with TV broadcasts of the Toho Studios monster movies during the 1960s and 1970s. The American company UPA contracted with Toho to distribute its monster movies of the time, and UPA continues to hold the license today for the Godzilla films of the 1960s and 1970s. Sony currently holds some of those rights, as well as the rights to every Godzilla film produced from 1991 onward. The Blue Öyster Cult song "Godzilla" also contributed to the popularity of the movies. The creature also made an appearance in a Nike commercial, in which Godzilla went one-on-one with NBA star Charles Barkley.

In 1996, after his then-final appearance in Godzilla vs. Destoroyah, Godzilla received an award for Lifetime Achievement at the MTV Movie Awards. Creator and producer Tomoyuki Tanaka accepted on his behalf via satellite but was joined by "Godzilla" himself.

On his 50th (Japanese) birthday, on 29 November 2004, Godzilla got a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Synopsis

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

The deoxygenation of Tokyo bay, caused by Dr. Serizawa's oxygen destroyer, killed Godzilla at the end of the first movie, dissolving his flesh and bone into nothingness. Nonetheless, Gojira - or Godzilla - returned in a series of films, all from Toho.

In the subsequent films, another of Godzilla's species take his place or Godzilla simply doesn't stay dead (there is some debate about this). In Godzilla 2000, it is discussed that Godzilla possesses a component known as "Organizer G-1", or "Regenerator G-1" in the English version of the film, which allows him to heal from any wound, possibly even regenerate himself from mere fragments. This would make it possible for Godzilla to continue indefinitely, even though he appears to die. Such an ability was used in Godzilla, Mothra, King Ghidorah; where Godzilla's heart beats after Godzilla explodes.

The Japanese version of Godzilla was greatly inspired by the commercial success of King Kong, and the 1953 success of The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms. Godzilla would go on to inspire Gorgo, Gamera, and many others.

Films

Godzilla fires his atomic ray in Destroy All Monsters (1968).

The Godzilla series is generally broken into three eras, reflecting the broader division of daikaiju eiga into the Shōwa era, Heisei era, and Millennium era.

Shōwa Godzilla Series (昭和ゴジラシリーズ) 1954–1975

The initial series of movies is named for the Showa period in Japan (as all of these films were produced before Emperor Hirohito's death in 1989). This Showa timeline spanned from 1954, with Godzilla (1954), to 1975, with Terror of Mechagodzilla. With the exception of the serious Godzilla (1954) and the semi-serious sequels Godzilla Raids Again and Mothra vs. Godzilla, this period also featured a somewhat more lighthearted Godzilla. This tendency started with King Kong vs. Godzilla, which had the highest ticket sales of any Godzilla movie. Starting with Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (made 10 years after the first Godzilla film), Godzilla became a semi-playful antihero, and as years went by, he evolved into an anthropomorphic superhero. The films Son of Godzilla and All Monsters Attack were aimed largely at youthful audiences, featuring the appearance of Godzilla's son, Minya. The Showa period saw the addition of many monsters into the Godzilla continuity, three of which (Mothra, Rodan and Varan) had their own solo movies, as well as a movie for the Toho-ized King Kong. This period featured a rough continuity, although the chronology is confused, as some of the later movies were set in an arbitrary future time, often 1999.

In all films of this original series, Godzilla was 50 meters tall, and weighed 20,000 tons. The American release Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956) incorrectly stated Godzilla's height to be 400 feet, an inaccuracy that lingers today.

Versus Series or Heisei Series (VSシリーズ) 1984–1995

The timeline was revamped in 1984 with The Return of Godzilla; this movie was created as a direct sequel to the 1954 film, and ignores the continuity of the Showa series. Known as the VS Series, (unofficially known to American fans as the "Heisei Series", for the ruling emperor of the time), the continuity ended in 1995's Godzilla vs. Destoroyah after a run of seven films. The reason for the continuity shift was based on a realization that the marketing of the movies had removed the reason it was so loved. When it was discovered that Godzilla was popular with children, sequels were toned down in obvious screen violence, and Godzilla was made out to be a good guy instead of an indestructible, abhorrent mistake of men. However, the further Godzilla was taken away from his roots, the less popular he became. Hence, The Return of Godzilla brought the series back to form.

American Columbia/TriStar Godzilla film, 1998

The only Godzilla movie not made by Toho is the 1998 film Godzilla, directed by Roland Emmerich. Despite being one of the highest grossing films of the year when factoring in overseas profits, the film was widely panned by cult followers of the Godzilla franchise, critics on both sides of the Pacific, and movie-goers in general. The $136 million US boxoffice fell far short of marketing expectations, thus the film is generally viewed as a failure despite turning a profit worldwide.

In the 1998 film, Godzilla had been a reptile mutated after a French atomic test, on a French Polynesian island. Set in New York City and produced by Columbia Pictures, this movie is not considered to be part of any of the three eras of the Godzilla series.

GINO (Godzilla In Name Only)

The monster in the 1998 film has since been dubbed GINO (Godzilla In Name Only) by many Godzilla fans.

GINO is so called for multiple reasons. The most obvious is that the American movie restarts the saga from the beginning, setting the main action in New York City. Another is that it is produced by a different company. However, the biggest change is in the Godzilla character itself. The Godzilla in this movie is almost entirely computer-animated, and bears little resemblance in look or manner to his Japanese counterpart. Instead, he resembles a gigantic bipedal iguana or Komodo dragon. Also, the behavior of the American Godzilla is viewed as running contrary to the long-established Japanese Godzilla traditions. Examples of this changed behavior include the American Godzilla running away and hiding from the military instead of fighting, a lack of radioactive fire-breath, the laying of eggs by Godzilla, and the ease with which the monster is dispatched by the military at the end of the film.

Millennium Series (ミレニアムシリーズ) 1999–2004

The Millennium Series is the official term for the series of Godzilla movies, unofficially called the "Shinsei Series" (or even the "Alternate Reality Series") by American fans, made after the VS Series ended with Godzilla vs. Destoroyah. Unlike the previous two series, this era does not feature a continuous timeline. Only two of the films in this era, Godzilla Against Mechagodzilla and Godzilla: Tokyo SOS, are directly related to one another. The rest follow entirely different timelines. The common theme to this era is that all movies use Godzilla (1954) as the jumping-off point.

Since the films are different, the sizes are different in some cases. Godzilla's most prominent size in this series is 55 meters. The exceptions: In Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack and in the VS series, he was 60 meters to 80, and in Godzilla: Final Wars and Godzilla VS Destoroyah, he was 100 meters (he was supposed to be 50 meters in Final Wars, but budgetary cutbacks in miniature sets forced this size change).

In response to negative fan reaction to the 1998 American Godzilla film, Toho inserted derogatory references to the American film and creature design in two of its Millennium movies. The Gotham attack was referred to in the 2001 movie Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack. The monster that had appeared in New York was not, in fact, Godzilla, but an entirely different yet similar monster. In Godzilla: Final Wars (2004) a kaiju named Zilla, of identical to design to the American interpretation of Godzilla, attacks Sydney, Australia. It is later killed by the "true" Godzilla from a hit to the tail, and its radioactive breath.

Filmography

Since 1954, there have been 29 official Godzilla films produced. All of these, with the lone exception of the 23rd, were produced by Toho Studios in Japan. (Please note that the titles listed below are Toho's preferred English titles; for further discussion, see Toho Kingdom.)

Yoshimitsu Banno, director of Godzilla vs. Hedorah, has acquired permission to make a 40-minute film for IMAX theaters, and has secured close to complete funding.

Other media

Television

Putting the Godzilla films' suits and effects crew to further use were several Japanese television shows; Ultraman and some shows inspired by it used the suits occasionally for cameos but Godzilla Island primarily followed the further adventures of the kaiju featured in the films.

  • Ultraman
  • Ultra Q
  • Meteor Man Zone
  • Godzilla Island
  • Monster Planet Of Godzilla

The success of the Godzilla franchise has also spawned two U.S. Saturday morning cartoons, both featuring an investigative scientific team who call upon Godzilla as an ally. The series make several homages to the Shōwa films and several antagonist monsters have been inspired by extant Toho creations.

  • The Godzilla Power Hour
  • Godzilla: The Series

Comics

Several manga have been derived from specific Godzilla films, and both Marvel and Dark Horse have published Godzilla comic book series (1977–1979 and 1987–1999, respectively).

Video games

Godzilla and his fellow monsters have appeared in several video games, including:

  • Godzilla: Monster of Monsters
  • Super Godzilla
  • Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee
  • Godzilla: Domination
  • Godzilla: Save the Earth

References in culture

As with any pop culture icon, Godzilla has been parodied, referenced to and homaged in many movies, TV shows, comic books, internet articles, and so on. Here is a partial list of such references:

  • Featured in the Animaniacs short, "Warners and the Beanstalk" where Yakko tells the Giant, "Would you like it in Japan with Godzilla and Rodan?"(a parody of Green Eggs and Ham) The Giant ignores Yakko's offer resulting in Godzilla burning him with his Atomic breath, and Rodan blowing him away.
  • In the last scene of The Simpsons 10th season finale "Thirty Minutes Over Tokyo", Godzilla attacks a plane going from Japan to the USA that the Simpsons are on. Godzilla is distracted by Mothra, Rodan and Gamera, allowing the plane to escape.
Godzilla's cameo in Drawn Together
  • In the episode of the Comedy Central animated reality show parody Drawn Together entitled "Super Nanny", Godzilla plays a minor role as Ling-Ling's conscience (with his size probably meant as a subtle joke to Ling-Ling's cultural responsibility).
  • In The Fairly Oddparents TV movie School's Out: The Musical before the Mayor starts singing it shows Godzilla destroying the city.
  • In Austin Powers in Goldmember, Austin crashes his car into a dinosaur like parade float while in Japan, causing it to roll around the streets uncontrollably. It is identified by a civilian as Godzilla, but another civilian corrects him, stating that it only looks like Godzilla due to copyright issues.
  • Mariah Carey's video for "Boy (I Need You)", which takes place in a futuristic Japanese metropolis, features a yellow, fire-breathing Godzilla-like monster, also brought to life by suitmation.
  • In Olive the Other Reindeer, a show often shown on Cartoon Network during the Christmas season, Olive, Santa, and Santa's reindeer sing a song titled "Merry Christmas After All" while traveling the world delivering presents. However, when they visit Tokyo, Ultraman flies by them, waves, and then starts dancing and singing with Godzilla.
  • There is a Warcraft creature called Gahz'rilla who is a hydra. However, his name gives away that he is a parody of Godzilla.
  • One The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy episode is titled

" Giant Billy and Mandy: All Out Attack"

  • Godzilla has cameoed or inspired likenesses in several other (usually animated) shows:
    • Reign Storm
    • Garfield and Friends
    • Animaniacs
    • Jimmy Neutron
    • Invader Zim
    • Rugrats
    • The Fairly OddParents
  • There is a drink in Malaysia called "Milo Godzilla", consisting of a cup of Milo with ice cream and/or whipped cream on top of it.

Paleontology

At least two prehistoric creatures from the fossil record have been named after Godzilla:

  • Gojirasaurus quayi is a theropod dinosaur that lived in the Triassic Period; a partial skeleton was unearthed in Quay County, New Mexico.
  • Dakosaurus andiniensis, a crocodile from the Jurassic Period, was nicknamed "Godzilla" before being scientifically classified.

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At least two prehistoric creatures from the fossil record have been named after Godzilla:. Navy usage) or "paraffin budgie" (the latter term being mostly used in the UK offshore oil industry). " Giant Billy and Mandy: All Out Attack". Some common nicknames for helicopters are "copter", "chopper", "whirlybird", "windmill", "helo" (common U.S. Here is a partial list of such references:. A helicopter should not be mistaken for an autogyro, which is a historical predecessor of the helicopter that gains lift from an unpowered rotor. As with any pop culture icon, Godzilla has been parodied, referenced to and homaged in many movies, TV shows, comic books, internet articles, and so on. Marine Corps and will be the first mass produced tilt-rotor aircraft to enter service.

Godzilla and his fellow monsters have appeared in several video games, including:. Hybrid types that combine features of helicopters and fixed wing designs include the experimental Fairey Rotodyne of the 1950s and the Bell Boeing Osprey, which is on order by the U.S. Several manga have been derived from specific Godzilla films, and both Marvel and Dark Horse have published Godzilla comic book series (1977–1979 and 1987–1999, respectively). Rotomotion is currently selling a line of small (less than 50 kg) rotorcraft UAVs, including an all electric helicopter. The series make several homages to the Shōwa films and several antagonist monsters have been inspired by extant Toho creations. Some companies, notably Schweizer Aircraft Corporation in the USA, are developing remotely-controlled variants of light helicopters for use in future battlefields. Saturday morning cartoons, both featuring an investigative scientific team who call upon Godzilla as an ally. In identifying conventional helicopters during flight it is helpful to know that when viewed from below, the rotor of a French, Russian, or Soviet designed helicopter rotates counter-clockwise, whilst that of a helicopter built in Italy, the UK or the USA rotates clockwise.

The success of the Godzilla franchise has also spawned two U.S. For this reason, good pilotage demands operation within safe flight regimes and avoiding hazardous conditions. Putting the Godzilla films' suits and effects crew to further use were several Japanese television shows; Ultraman and some shows inspired by it used the suits occasionally for cameos but Godzilla Island primarily followed the further adventures of the kaiju featured in the films. Each of these conditions is potentially fatal and recovery might not be possible. Hedorah, has acquired permission to make a 40-minute film for IMAX theaters, and has secured close to complete funding. The following is a list of some of the potential hazards:. Yoshimitsu Banno, director of Godzilla vs. For helicopters the hazards are particularly acute since they are flying at relatively low altitude, with little time to react to a sudden event.

(Please note that the titles listed below are Toho's preferred English titles; for further discussion, see Toho Kingdom.). As with any moving vehicle, operation outside of safe regimes could result in loss of control, structural damage, or fatality. All of these, with the lone exception of the 23rd, were produced by Toho Studios in Japan. The whirling rotor blades of a helicopter can cause large charges to build up on the airframe, large enough to cause injury to shipboard personnel should they touch any part of the helicopter as it approaches the deck. Since 1954, there have been 29 official Godzilla films produced. A secondary purpose of the haul-down device is to equalize electrostatic potential between the helicopter and ship. It is later killed by the "true" Godzilla from a hit to the tail, and its radioactive breath. Navy implementation of this device, based on Beartrap, is called the "RAST" system (for Recovery Assist, Secure and Traverse) and is an integral part of the LAMPS MK III (SH-60B) weapons system.

In Godzilla: Final Wars (2004) a kaiju named Zilla, of identical to design to the American interpretation of Godzilla, attacks Sydney, Australia. The U.S. The monster that had appeared in New York was not, in fact, Godzilla, but an entirely different yet similar monster. This device was pioneered by the Royal Canadian Navy and was called "Beartrap". The Gotham attack was referred to in the 2001 movie Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack. Tension is maintained on the cable as the helicopter descends, assisting the pilot with accurate positioning of the aircraft on the deck; once on deck locking beams close on the probe, locking the aircraft to the flight deck. In response to negative fan reaction to the 1998 American Godzilla film, Toho inserted derogatory references to the American film and creature design in two of its Millennium movies. Shipboard landing for some helicopters is assisted though use of a haul-down device that involves attachment of a cable to a probe on the bottom of the aircraft prior to landing.

The exceptions: In Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack and in the VS series, he was 60 meters to 80, and in Godzilla: Final Wars and Godzilla VS Destoroyah, he was 100 meters (he was supposed to be 50 meters in Final Wars, but budgetary cutbacks in miniature sets forced this size change). In the Royal Navy, landing on is usually achieved by lining up slightly astern and on the port quarter, as the ship steams into the wind and the aircraft captain slides across and over the deck. Godzilla's most prominent size in this series is 55 meters. Navy it is commonly and properly referred to as the flight deck. Since the films are different, the sizes are different in some cases. In the U.S. The common theme to this era is that all movies use Godzilla (1954) as the jumping-off point. A helicopter deck (or helo deck) is a helicopter pad on the deck of a ship, usually located on the stern and always clear of obstacles that would prove hazardous to a helicopter landing.

The rest follow entirely different timelines. The traditional low-tech system is to mount coloured chalk on the rotor tips, and see how they mark a linen sheet.
. Only two of the films in this era, Godzilla Against Mechagodzilla and Godzilla: Tokyo SOS, are directly related to one another. The most common adjustment measurement system is to use a stroboscopic flash lamp, and observe painted markings or coloured reflectors on the underside of the rotor blades. Unlike the previous two series, this era does not feature a continuous timeline. Adjustment is difficult in part because measurement of the vibration is hard. Destoroyah
. Usually the feedback system uses a mass as a "stable reference" and a linkage from the mass operates a flap to adjust the rotor's angle of attack to counter the vibration.

The Millennium Series is the official term for the series of Godzilla movies, unofficially called the "Shinsei Series" (or even the "Alternate Reality Series") by American fans, made after the VS Series ended with Godzilla vs. Some also use mechanical feedback systems to sense and counter vibration. Examples of this changed behavior include the American Godzilla running away and hiding from the military instead of fighting, a lack of radioactive fire-breath, the laying of eggs by Godzilla, and the ease with which the monster is dispatched by the military at the end of the film. Most also have vibration dampers for height and pitch. Also, the behavior of the American Godzilla is viewed as running contrary to the long-established Japanese Godzilla traditions. To reduce vibration, all helicopters have rotor adjustments for height and pitch. Instead, he resembles a gigantic bipedal iguana or Komodo dragon. An unadjusted helicopter can easily vibrate so much that it will shake itself apart.

The Godzilla in this movie is almost entirely computer-animated, and bears little resemblance in look or manner to his Japanese counterpart. Helicopters vibrate. However, the biggest change is in the Godzilla character itself. The redesigns followed the closure of some city heliports and government action to constrain flight paths in national parks and other places of natural beauty. Another is that it is produced by a different company. Urban communities have often expressed great dislike of noisy aircraft, and police and passenger helicopters can be unpopular. The most obvious is that the American movie restarts the saga from the beginning, setting the main action in New York City. During the closing years of the 20th century designers began working on helicopter noise reduction.

GINO is so called for multiple reasons. There are several reasons why a helicopter cannot fly as fast as a fixed wing aircraft. The monster in the 1998 film has since been dubbed GINO (Godzilla In Name Only) by many Godzilla fans. The current record is around 400 km/h set by the Westland Lynx. Set in New York City and produced by Columbia Pictures, this movie is not considered to be part of any of the three eras of the Godzilla series. The single most obvious limitation of the helicopter is its slow speed. In the 1998 film, Godzilla had been a reptile mutated after a French atomic test, on a French Polynesian island. While fixed-wing aircraft are generally designed so pilots sit on the left side of the aircraft, freeing up their right hand for dealing with radios, engine controls, and the like, helicopters are generally designed so pilots sit on the right side of the aircraft so they can keep their right hand (usually the strong hand) on the cyclic at all times, leaving the radios and engine controls for their left hand (usually the weaker hand).

The $136 million US boxoffice fell far short of marketing expectations, thus the film is generally viewed as a failure despite turning a profit worldwide. Small helicopters can be so unstable that it may be impossible for the pilot to ever let go of the cyclic while in flight. Despite being one of the highest grossing films of the year when factoring in overseas profits, the film was widely panned by cult followers of the Godzilla franchise, critics on both sides of the Pacific, and movie-goers in general. Changing collective will also cause a change in torque, which will require the pilot to adjust the foot pedals. The only Godzilla movie not made by Toho is the 1998 film Godzilla, directed by Roland Emmerich. Increasing collective will reduce rotor RPM, requiring an increase in throttle to maintain constant rotor RPM. Hence, The Return of Godzilla brought the series back to form. Moving the cyclic forward causes the helicopter to move forward, but will also cause a reduction in lift, which will require extra collective for more lift.

However, the further Godzilla was taken away from his roots, the less popular he became. Adjusting one flight control on a helicopter almost always has an effect that requires an adjustment of the other controls. When it was discovered that Godzilla was popular with children, sequels were toned down in obvious screen violence, and Godzilla was made out to be a good guy instead of an indestructible, abhorrent mistake of men. Hovering a helicopter has been compared to balancing yourself while standing on a large beach ball. The reason for the continuity shift was based on a realization that the marketing of the movies had removed the reason it was so loved. When a hovering helicopter is nudged in one direction by a gust of wind, it will tend to continue in that direction, and the pilot must adjust the cyclic to correct the motion. Destoroyah after a run of seven films. Simply hovering requires continuous, active corrections from the pilot.

Known as the VS Series, (unofficially known to American fans as the "Heisei Series", for the ruling emperor of the time), the continuity ended in 1995's Godzilla vs. In contrast, helicopters are very unstable. The timeline was revamped in 1984 with The Return of Godzilla; this movie was created as a direct sequel to the 1954 film, and ignores the continuity of the Showa series. Many small, fixed wing aircraft are stable enough that a pilot can let go of the controls while looking at a map or dealing with a radio, and the plane will generally stay on course. The American release Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956) incorrectly stated Godzilla's height to be 400 feet, an inaccuracy that lingers today. If a gust of wind or a nudge to one of the controls causes a fixed wing aircraft to pitch, roll, or yaw, the aerodynamic design of the aircraft will tend to correct the motion, and the aircraft will return to its original attitude. In all films of this original series, Godzilla was 50 meters tall, and weighed 20,000 tons. Fixed wing aircraft are usually inherently stable.

This period featured a rough continuity, although the chronology is confused, as some of the later movies were set in an arbitrary future time, often 1999. It took inventors many years to recognize precession, and to learn how to arrange the cyclic's control system to overcome it. The Showa period saw the addition of many monsters into the Godzilla continuity, three of which (Mothra, Rodan and Varan) had their own solo movies, as well as a movie for the Toho-ized King Kong. The helicopter's control linkages rotate the pitching forces 90 degrees backwards against the rotor spin, to push on the sides of the rotor rather than its front and back. The films Son of Godzilla and All Monsters Attack were aimed largely at youthful audiences, featuring the appearance of Godzilla's son, Minya. For example, forward motion requires less lift at the front of the disk and more lift at the rear of the disk, so the pilot pushes the cyclic forward. Starting with Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (made 10 years after the first Godzilla film), Godzilla became a semi-playful antihero, and as years went by, he evolved into an anthropomorphic superhero. So control forces on the rotor are rotated 90 degrees before the desired motion.

Godzilla, which had the highest ticket sales of any Godzilla movie. This is called "gyroscopic precession". This tendency started with King Kong vs. This is because when one tries to tilt a spinning object (like a rotor), it moves at right angles to the direction of the force. Godzilla, this period also featured a somewhat more lighthearted Godzilla. A very peculiar feature of the cyclic is that the lift is made to occur 90 degrees of rotation before the direction of tilt. With the exception of the serious Godzilla (1954) and the semi-serious sequels Godzilla Raids Again and Mothra vs. (see Height-velocity diagram).

This Showa timeline spanned from 1954, with Godzilla (1954), to 1975, with Terror of Mechagodzilla. Autorotation can allow a pilot to make an emergency landing if the engine failure occurs while the helicopter is traveling high enough or fast enough. The initial series of movies is named for the Showa period in Japan (as all of these films were produced before Emperor Hirohito's death in 1989). A transmission connects the main rotor to the tail rotor so that all flight controls are available after engine failure. The Godzilla series is generally broken into three eras, reflecting the broader division of daikaiju eiga into the Shōwa era, Heisei era, and Millennium era. This technique is known as autorotation. Godzilla would go on to inspire Gorgo, Gamera, and many others. The main rotor acts like a "windmill" and turns.

The Japanese version of Godzilla was greatly inspired by the commercial success of King Kong, and the 1953 success of The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms. Helicopters are powered aircraft, but they can still fly without power by using the momentum in the rotors and using downward motion to force air through the rotors. Such an ability was used in Godzilla, Mothra, King Ghidorah; where Godzilla's heart beats after Godzilla explodes. On a helicopter, this can happen in any of three ways. This would make it possible for Godzilla to continue indefinitely, even though he appears to die. This condition is called aerodynamic stall. In Godzilla 2000, it is discussed that Godzilla possesses a component known as "Organizer G-1", or "Regenerator G-1" in the English version of the film, which allows him to heal from any wound, possibly even regenerate himself from mere fragments. If the angle of attack of any wing, including rotor blades, is too high, the airflow above the wing separates causing instant loss of lift and increase in drag.

In the subsequent films, another of Godzilla's species take his place or Godzilla simply doesn't stay dead (there is some debate about this). And the angle of attack is decreased on the advancing blade to produce less lift, compensating for the faster airspeed over the blade. Nonetheless, Gojira - or Godzilla - returned in a series of films, all from Toho. The angle of attack is increased on the retreating blade to produce more lift, compensating for the slower airspeed over the blade. Serizawa's oxygen destroyer, killed Godzilla at the end of the first movie, dissolving his flesh and bone into nothingness. To compensate for the added lift on the advancing blade and the decreased lift on the retreating blade, the angle of attack of the blades is regulated as the blade spins around the helicopter. The deoxygenation of Tokyo bay, caused by Dr. As the blade swings to the other side of the helicopter, it moves at rotor tip speed minus aircraft speed and is called the retreating blade.

On his 50th (Japanese) birthday, on 29 November 2004, Godzilla got a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. As a helicopter moves forward, the rotor blades on one side move at rotor tip speed plus the aircraft speed and is called the advancing blade. Creator and producer Tomoyuki Tanaka accepted on his behalf via satellite but was joined by "Godzilla" himself. If the pilot pushes the cyclic forward, then the helicopter tilts forward, and the rotor produces a thrust in the forward direction. Destoroyah, Godzilla received an award for Lifetime Achievement at the MTV Movie Awards. This causes the helicopter to tilt in the same direction as the cyclic. In 1996, after his then-final appearance in Godzilla vs. When it is tilted, the links give a pitch-up at some azimuthal angle and a pitch-down at the opposite angle, hence creating a sinusoidal variation in blade angle of attack.

The creature also made an appearance in a Nike commercial, in which Godzilla went one-on-one with NBA star Charles Barkley. When the swashplate is not tilted, the blades are all at the collective angle. The Blue Öyster Cult song "Godzilla" also contributed to the popularity of the movies. The rotating section rotates with the rotor and is connected to blade pitch horns through pitch links, one link for each blade. Sony currently holds some of those rights, as well as the rights to every Godzilla film produced from 1991 onward. The cyclic controls the angle of the stationary section of the swashplate, which in turn controls the angle of the rotating section of the swashplate. The American company UPA contracted with Toho to distribute its monster movies of the time, and UPA continues to hold the license today for the Godzilla films of the 1960s and 1970s. The cyclic is similar to a joystick and is usually positioned in front of the pilot.

Much of Godzilla's popularity in the United States can be credited with TV broadcasts of the Toho Studios monster movies during the 1960s and 1970s. This variation in lift causes the rotor disk to tilt, and the helicopter to move during hover flight or change attitude in forward flight. Toho immediately followed it with 1999's Godzilla 2000: Millennium, which began the current series of films, known informally as the Mireniamu or Millennium series. The cyclic changes the pitch of the blades cyclically, causing the lift to vary across the plane of the rotor disk. All but one of the 29 films were produced by Toho: a version was made in 1998 by TriStar Pictures and set in the United States by the directors of Independence Day (ID4) and is somewhat despised by most Godzilla fans. Turbine engined helicopters, and some piston helicopters, use servo-feedback loop in their engine controls to maintain rotor RPM and relieves the pilot of routine responsibility for that task. Films have been made over the last five decades, each reflecting the social and political climate in Japan. The pilot manipulates the throttle to maintain rotor RPM and therefore regulates the effect of drag on the rotor system.

Some have pointed out the parallels, conscious or unconscious, between Godzilla's relationship to Japan and that of the United States; first a terrible enemy who causes enormous destruction, but then becoming a good friend and defender in times of peril. In many piston-powered helicopters, the pilot must manage the engine and rotor RPM. The Versus and Millennium Series have largely continued this concept. In general, RPM must be maintained within a tight tolerance, usually a few percent. The radioactive contamination of the Japanese fishing boat Daigo Fukuryu Maru through the United States' Castle Bravo thermonuclear device test on Bikini Atoll, on March 1, 1954 lead to much press coverage in Japan preceding the release of the first movie in 1954. If the RPM is too high, damage to the main rotor hub from excessive forces could result. Godzilla was originally an allegory for the effects of the hydrogen bomb, and the unintended consequences that such weapons might have on Earth. If the RPM is too low, rapid descent with power, known as settling with power could result.

As a result, the monster came to be known as "Godzilla" also in Japan (the belief that American distributors were responsible for the name "Godzilla" is a misconception, since Toho came up with the name for international markets to begin with). Helicopter rotors are designed to operate at a specific RPM. In 1956, it was adapted by an American company into Godzilla, King of the Monsters (based on Toho's international title), edited and with added, principal scenes featuring Raymond Burr, and this version became an international success. RPM control is critical to proper operation for several reasons. Gojira was first released in the United States in 1955 in Japanese-American communities only, under Toho's international title, Godzilla. The throttle control is a twist grip on the collective control. But since Gojira was neither a gorilla nor a whale, the name "Gojira" was devised in a different way for the film's story; Gojira's name was "originally" spelled in katakana (呉爾羅). The throttle controls the absolute power produced by the engine that is connected to the rotor by a transmission.

The name was allegedly originally a nickname of a large worker at Toho Studios. Simultaneously increasing the collective and adding power with the throttle causes a helicopter to rise. The name "Gojira" is a combination of gorira which means "gorilla" and kujira, which means "whale" in Japanese. The collective control is usually a lever at the pilot's left side, near his leg. the first Godzilla movie always appilies to all Subsequent movies, most of the time the creature is described as prehistoric, often a surviving dinosaur, and its first attacks on Japan are linked to atomic testing in the Pacific Ocean, including but not limited to using nuclear mutation as an explanation for the creature's great size and strange powers. When the angle of attack is increased, the blade produces more lift. . The collective pitch control lever controls the collective pitch, or angle of attack, of the helicopter blades altogether, that is, equally throughout the 360 degree plane-of-rotation of the main rotor system.

Although much of Godzilla's significance as an anti-war symbol has been lost in the transition to pop culture, the nuclear breath remains as a visual vestige of the creature's early Cold War politics. Helicopters maneuver with three flight controls besides the pedals. The earliest two Godzilla films visually and thematically evoke the US bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the aftermath and human damage of Godzilla's attacks. More lift at the rear of the rotary wing will cause the aircraft to pitch forward, an increase on the left will cause a roll to the right and so on. Godzilla is characterized as amphibious, nearly indestructible and highly regenerative, and breathing a sort of nuclear fire or "heat-ray". For pitch (tilting forward and back) or roll (tilting sideways) the angle of attack of the main rotor blades is altered or cycled during the rotation creating a differential of lift at different points of the rotary wing. (For a list of these films, see below.). Yaw controls are usually operated with anti-torque pedals, on the floor in the same place as a fixed-wing aircraft's rudder pedals.

A new film is slated to be produced by Advanced Audiovisual Productions. Dual-rotor helicopters have a differential between the two rotor transmissions that can be adjusted by an electric or hydraulic motor to transmit differential torque and thus turn the helicopter. In 1998 TriStar Pictures produced a nominal remake of the original set in contemporary New York city. Varying the pitch of the tail rotor alters the sideways thrust produced. To date, Toho has produced 28 Godzilla films. For rotation about the vertical axis (yaw) the anti-torque system is used. Godzilla (ゴジラ - Gojira) is a giant Japanese movie monster (kaiju) first seen in the 1954 Japanese tokusatsu film Gojira, produced by Toho Film Company Ltd. In a helicopter, however, there often isn't enough airspeed for this method to be practical.

Dakosaurus andiniensis, a crocodile from the Jurassic Period, was nicknamed "Godzilla" before being scientifically classified. In a fixed-wing aircraft, this is easy: small movable surfaces are adjusted to change the aircraft's shape so that the air rushing past pushes it in the desired direction. Gojirasaurus quayi is a theropod dinosaur that lived in the Triassic Period; a partial skeleton was unearthed in Quay County, New Mexico. Useful flight requires that an aircraft be controlled in all three dimensions (see flight dynamics). There is a drink in Malaysia called "Milo Godzilla", consisting of a cup of Milo with ice cream and/or whipped cream on top of it. Although this method is simple and eliminates precession, development of such helicopters ceased soon, because their extreme noise levels preclude both military and civilian use. The Fairly OddParents. The most unusual design is the roto-rocket principle, where the single main rotor draws power not from the shaft, but from its own wingtip jet nozzles, which are either pressurized from a fuselage-mounted gas turbine or have their own pulsejet combustion chambers.

Rugrats. The NOTAR system was developed in the United States and is used exclusively by McDonnel Douglas Helicopters, or MD Helicopters. Invader Zim. The NOTAR eliminates the tail rotor by conducting high-velocity air through the tail boom. Jimmy Neutron. A recent development in helicopter technology is the NOTAR system, which stands for NO TAil Rotor. Animaniacs. V-22 Osprey tilting rotorcraft is similar, although its nacelles can be rotated, and shares some of the inherent technical problems of a cross system.

Garfield and Friends. The U.S. Reign Storm. The world's largest ever helicopter, the Soviet Mil-V-12 prototype, was a cross of two Mil Mi-6 turbine-rotor units built onto a modified Antonov cargo plane. Godzilla has cameoed or inspired likenesses in several other (usually animated) shows:

    . The 1930s German FW-61 helicopter was built to such design. One The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy episode is titled. Such helicopters are rare, because structural integrity of the wings is difficult to maintain against the amplified resonance of far off-board rotor-turbine units.

    However, his name gives away that he is a parody of Godzilla. In the cross system, the rotary wing aircraft resembles a traditional fixed-wing airplane, with the two main rotors mounted at the extremities of its wings. There is a Warcraft creature called Gahz'rilla who is a hydra. These were placed at the corners of an equilateral triangle and all turned the same direction. However, when they visit Tokyo, Ultraman flies by them, waves, and then starts dancing and singing with Godzilla. A helicopter built by Juan de la Cierva had three main rotors. In Olive the Other Reindeer, a show often shown on Cartoon Network during the Christmas season, Olive, Santa, and Santa's reindeer sing a song titled "Merry Christmas After All" while traveling the world delivering presents. The main drawback of a waggon is limited agility in air and the need for a highly trained crew, as the large main rotors have long outreach beyond the fuselage and may easily hit nearby obstacles (in 2001, a South Korean army CH-47 Chinook crashed onto a bridge for that reason while being shown live on TV).

    Mariah Carey's video for "Boy (I Need You)", which takes place in a futuristic Japanese metropolis, features a yellow, fire-breathing Godzilla-like monster, also brought to life by suitmation. The rotors and turbines are located very high on top of the fuselage, making them less sensitive to damage and dirt. It is identified by a civilian as Godzilla, but another civilian corrects him, stating that it only looks like Godzilla due to copyright issues. Waggon helicopters are practical for military logistical purposes, because entry and unloading is easily facilitated via the unobstructed front and rear ramps. In Austin Powers in Goldmember, Austin crashes his car into a dinosaur like parade float while in Japan, causing it to roll around the streets uncontrollably. A prime example is the Boeing CH-47 Chinook, that can carry 14 tons of payload. In The Fairly Oddparents TV movie School's Out: The Musical before the Mayor starts singing it shows Godzilla destroying the city. examples), the two main rotors are located at the front and rear extremity of a long, boxy fuselage that resembles a railway wagon.

    In the episode of the Comedy Central animated reality show parody Drawn Together entitled "Super Nanny", Godzilla plays a minor role as Ling-Ling's conscience (with his size probably meant as a subtle joke to Ling-Ling's cultural responsibility). In the flying-waggon or tandem rotor system (sometimes called "flying banana" for the peculiar shape of early U.S. Godzilla is distracted by Mothra, Rodan and Gamera, allowing the plane to escape. Kamans have high stability and powerful lifting capability, thus the latest Kaman V-Max model is a dedicated sky crane design, used for construction works. In the last scene of The Simpsons 10th season finale "Thirty Minutes Over Tokyo", Godzilla attacks a plane going from Japan to the USA that the Simpsons are on. During the Cold War the American Kaman company started to produce similar helicopters for USAF firefighting purposes. Featured in the Animaniacs short, "Warners and the Beanstalk" where Yakko tells the Giant, "Would you like it in Japan with Godzilla and Rodan?"(a parody of Green Eggs and Ham) The Giant ignores Yakko's offer resulting in Godzilla burning him with his Atomic breath, and Rodan blowing him away. The contra-rotating rotors are located on top of the fuselage, close to each other.

    Godzilla: Save the Earth. The Kaman system of intermeshing rotors, which was developed in Nazi Germany for a small anti-submarine warfare helicopter, features two main rotors on separate, obliquely mounted axles. Godzilla: Domination. Another example is the Kamov Ka-26, a successful crop duster aircraft. Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee. Co-axial helicopters in flight are highly resistant to side-winds, which makes them suitable for shipboard use, even without a rope-pulley landing system. Super Godzilla. The co-axial design, where rotors are mounted on top of each other at the top of the fuselage and share a common main axle complex, was first built by Theodore von Karman and Asbóth Oszkár in 1918 and later became the hallmark of soviet Kamov design bureau (see for example the Kamov Ka-50 "Hokum").

    Godzilla: Monster of Monsters. These methods introduce even more mechanical complexity to the design and are usually relegated to specialized helicopter types. Godzilla: The Series. All of these systems are designed for the same purpose: the torques from each rotor have opposite signs, so the net effect on the vehicle is negligable. The Godzilla Power Hour. Such designs use two rotors which turn in opposite directions, or contra-rotate. Monster Planet Of Godzilla. There are alternatives to Sikorsky's layout, which save the weight of a tail boom and rotor.

    Godzilla Island. In extreme cases, such as that of the Mil Mi-24, the wings are large enough to obstruct airflow down from the rotors, making the helicopter all but unable to hover. Meteor Man Zone. They are also used as external mounts for weapons. Ultra Q. Many military helicopters, especially attack types, have short wings called stub wings to add lift during forward motion. Ultraman. Another reason for the angled vertical stabilizer is to make it possible to stage a successful high-speed, run-on landing, in case of the tail rotor failure or damage.

    He can release a powerful atomic energy beam, usually blue but in some films red, from his mouth (which is ominously signalled when his dorsal fins glow/flash in the same color as the atomic beam). This is commonly known as slip-streaming and can make hovering turns difficult on windy days. He is virtually indestructible, impervious to all modern weaponry. At high speeds, it is possible for the vertical stabilizer to counteract the entire torque, leaving more power available for forward flight. His iconic design (a charcoal-colored monster-like figure with small pointed ears, rough bumpy scales, powerful tail, and bony colored dorsal fins shaped like maple leaves). To reduce this waste during cruise, the vertical stabilizer is often angled to produce a force which helps counter the main rotor torque. A tail rotor typically uses about 5 to 6% of the engine's power, and this power does not help the helicopter produce lift or forward motion.

    The amount of power required to prevent a helicopter from spinning is significant. Notars adjust thrust by opening and closing a sliding circular cover near the end of the tail boom. Other helicopters use a NOTAR (an acronym meaning no tail rotor) design: they blow air through a long slot along the tail boom, utilizing the Coanda effect to produce forces to counter the torque. It is less efficient but the advantages are that less noise is generated, it's safer for people that may walk near it and there is less chance of the blades being damaged by objects because it's shrouded, unlike the traditional tail rotor.

    The fenestron rotor system on the model EC120 helicopter uses a shaft driven system and gearbox to turn the fan. If the tail rotor is shrouded (i.e., a fan embedded in the vertical tail) it is called a fenestron. AH-64 Apache).
    Sometimes the blades of a tail rotor are not separated by the same angle, but laid out in an X-shape, which is supposed to reduce the noise levels for military use (e.g.

    The world's fastest helicopter, the Westland Lynx can perform aerobatic loops and rolls with this conventional rotor system. Almost all civilian helicopters have the main rotor and tail rotor system. The Mil Mi-26 can lift 27 metric tons, the Robinson R22 has a crew of two and a gross weight of 1300 lbs (590 kg). The world's largest and smallest series-produced helicopters follow this principle.

    When the thrust from the tail rotor is sufficient to cancel out the torque from the main rotor, the helicopter will not rotate around the main rotor shaft. This rotor creates thrust which is in the opposite direction from the torque generated by the main rotor. At low speeds, the most common way to counteract this torque is to have a smaller vertical propeller mounted at the rear of the aircraft called a tail rotor. It is as follows: turning the rotor generates lift but it also applies a reverse torque to the vehicle, which would spin the helicopter fuselage in the opposite direction to the rotor.

    The most common design is the Sikorsky-layout, which is used by approximately 95% of all helicopters manufactured to date. There are several possible design layouts for arranging a helicopter's rotors. The helicopter's rotor can simply be regarded as rotating wings, from where the military appellation of "rotary wing aircraft" originates. A helicopter makes use of the same principle, except that instead of moving the entire aircraft, only the wings themselves are moved in a circular motion.

    However, the more the lift of the airfoil, the more drag that is caused. This pressure difference integrated over the airfoil area causes a net lift. Thus, by causing the air to flow faster over the top surface than the bottom, the airfoil causes a pressure difference directed upward. The higher the speed of a fluid, the lower the dynamic pressure (as opposed to static pressure) on the surface.

    The longer path that the fluid (in this case air) must travel across the top surface equates to a higher speed. In conventional aircraft, the wing profile (called airfoil) is designed to have a shape where the bottom surface has a shorter path than the top surface. Turboshaft engines are the preferred powerplant for all but the smallest and least expensive helicopters today. The availability of lightweight turboshaft engines in the second half of the 20th century led to the development of larger, faster, and higher performance helicopters.

    Improvements in fuels and engines during the first half of the 20th century were a critical factor in helicopter development. Igor Sikorsky is reported to have delayed his own helicopter research until suitable engines were commercially available. This is largely due to higher engine power density requirements when compared with fixed wing aircraft.
    Reliable helicopters capable of stable hover flight were developed decades after fixed wing aircraft.

    The Bell 47 designed by Arthur Young became the first helicopter to be licensed (in March 1946) for certified civilian use in the United States and two decades later the Bell 206 became the most succesful commercial helicopter ever built with more hours and set (and broken) more industry records than any other aircraft in the world. Mass production of the military version of the Sikorsky XR-4 began in May 1942 for the United States Army. Models such the Flettner FL 282 Kolibri were use in the Mediterranean Sea. Nazi Germany used the helicopter in combat during WWII in little numbers.

    The German Focke-Wulf Fw 61 first flew with limited control achieving vertical and forward flight in 1934. A flight of the first fully controllable helicopter was demonstrated by Raúl Pateras de Pescara 1916 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Developers such as Jan Bahyl, Oszkár Asbóth, Louis Breguet, Paul Cornu, Emile Berliner, Ogneslav Kostovic Stepanovic and Igor Sikorsky pioneered this type of aircraft, with Juan de la Cierva introducing the first practical autogiro in 1923 that was to be the basis for the modern helicopter. The first somewhat practical idea of a human carrying helicopter was first conceived by Leonardo da Vinci around 1490, but it was not until after the invention of the powered aeroplane in the 20th century that actual models were produced.

    "Pao Phu Tau" was a 4th century book in China that described some of the ideas in a rotary wing aircraft. This toy eventually made its way to Europe via trade and has been depicted in a 1463 European painting. Since around 400 BC the Chinese had a flying top that was used as a children's toy. Speed and range limitations also constrain commercial applications.

    For these reasons, helicopters are not economically viable for commercial transportation. The costs are due to inherent mechanical complexity and greater power requirements for a given gross weight. Helicopters suffer from significantly higher operating and maintenance costs compared with fixed wing aircraft. Unmanned helicopters are used in industrial and military applications in areas deemed dangerous for manned flight.

    Helicopters have many uses, both military and civil, including troop transportation, infantry support, firefighting, shipboard operations, business transportation, casualty evacuation (including MEDEVAC, and air/sea/mountain rescue), police and civilian surveillance, carrying goods (some helicopters can carry slung loads, accommodating awkwardly shaped items), or as a mount for still, film or television cameras. . However these other configurations have considerably more cruise speed than a helicopter (270 km/h for a helicopter, 460 km/h for a tiltrotor, 900+ km/h for a vectored thrust airplane), giving each their place in the operational spectrum. Compared to other vertical lift aircraft like Tiltrotors (V-22 Osprey for example) and Vectored Thrust airplanes (AV-8 Harrier for example), helicopters are very efficient, carrying more than twice the payload, consuming less fuel in hover and costing considerably less to buy and operate.

    Subject only to refuelling facilities and load/altitude limitations, a helicopter can travel to any location, and land anywhere with enough space (a diameter of length 1.5 times the rotor disk). The compensating advantage is maneuverability: helicopters can hover in place, reverse, and above all take off and land vertically. Compared to conventional fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters are much more complex, more expensive to buy and operate, relatively slow, have shorter range and restricted payload. The first stable, single-rotor, fully-controllable helicopter to enter large full-scale production was made by Igor Sikorsky in 1942.

    The engine-driven helicopter was invented by the Slovak inventor Jan Bahyl. The word helicopter is derived from the Greek words helix (spiral) and pteron (wing). Helicopters are classified as rotary-wing aircraft to distinguish them from conventional fixed-wing aircraft. A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors (propellers).

    Vortex ring state, a problem the V-22 Osprey was associated with. Operating within the shaded area of the height-velocity diagram. Low-G condition. Ground resonance.

    Settling with power. Retreating blade stall. If this ring is augmented by terrain, wind, rain, or sea spray, the helicopter can lose enough lift to experience settling with power and hit the ground. In these, the downward wind from the rotor causes a circular vortex to form around the rotor.

    Helicopters are susceptible to potentially disastrous vortex ring effects. Low or negative-G situations encountered in a semi-rigid system will result in blade flapping down until it hits the tail boom or other airframe structure, followed by rotor separation, causing a crash. Rotorhead design is a limiting factor on many helicopters. The adjustment is either by adjusting the angle of attack of the blades, or by engine-powered vacuum devices that suck air into the blades, adjusting the lift.

    In most such designs, the lift is varied cyclically and according to the speed of the helicopter. Fully rigid rotors exist and create very responsive helicopters. The blades are made from composites which can bend without breaking. In some designs the hub is rigid.

    At high speeds, the force on the rotors is such that they "flap" excessively and the retreating blade can reach too high an angle and stall. Conversely, the retreating blade flaps down, develops a higher angle of attack, and generates more lift. In consequence, rotor blades are designed to "flap" - lift and twist in such a way that the advancing blade flaps up and develops a smaller angle of attack, thus producing less lift than a rigid blade would. Because the advancing blade has higher airspeed than the retreating blade, a perfectly rigid blade would generate more lift on that side and tip the aircraft over.

    Most rotors are not rigid. It is theoretically possible to have spiralling rotors, similar in principle to variable-pitch swept wings, which could exceed the speed of sound, but no presently known materials are light enough, strong enough, and flexible enough to construct them. It is possible for this blade to exceed the speed of sound, and thus produce vastly increased drag and vibration. The airspeed of the forward-going rotor blade is much higher than that of the helicopter itself.

    In a moving helicopter, however, the speed of the blades relative to the air depends on the speed of the helicopter as well as on their rotational velocity. When the helicopter is at rest, the outer tips of the rotor travel at a speed determined by the length of the blade and the RPM. Unique to helicopters is vertical ring vortex which is when a helicopter in a hover or decent comes into contact with its own down wash causing imense turbulence and complete loss of lift. Any low rotor RPM flight condition accompanied by increasing collective pitch application will cause aerodynamic stall.

    This is called retreating blade stall. With a low enough relative airspeed and a high enough angle of attack, aerodynamic stall is inevitable. As helicopter speeds increase, the retreating blade experiences lower relative airspeeds and the controls compensate with higher angle of attack. As helicopter speed increases, the advancing blades approach the speed of sound and generate shock waves that disrupt the airflow over the blade causing loss of lift.

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