Godzilla

Godzilla, as portrayed during the late Heisei era (Godzilla vs. SpaceGodzilla, 1994)

Godzilla (ゴジラ - Gojira) is a giant Japanese movie monster (kaiju) first seen in the 1954 Japanese tokusatsu film Gojira, produced by Toho Film Company Ltd. To date, Toho has produced 28 Godzilla films. In 1998 TriStar Pictures produced a nominal remake of the original set in contemporary New York city. A new film is slated to be produced by Advanced Audiovisual Productions. (For a list of these films, see below.)

Godzilla is characterized as amphibious, nearly indestructible and highly regenerative, and breathing a sort of nuclear fire or "heat-ray". The earliest two Godzilla films visually and thematically evoke the US bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the aftermath and human damage of Godzilla's attacks. Although much of Godzilla's significance as an anti-war symbol has been lost in the transition to pop culture, the nuclear breath remains as a visual vestige of the creature's early Cold War politics.

History

Origins

the first Godzilla movie always appilies to all Subsequent movies, most of the time the creature is described as prehistoric, often a surviving dinosaur, and its first attacks on Japan are linked to atomic testing in the Pacific Ocean, including but not limited to using nuclear mutation as an explanation for the creature's great size and strange powers.

  • His iconic design (a charcoal-colored monster-like figure with small pointed ears, rough bumpy scales, powerful tail, and bony colored dorsal fins shaped like maple leaves).
  • He is virtually indestructible, impervious to all modern weaponry.
  • He can release a powerful atomic energy beam, usually blue but in some films red, from his mouth (which is ominously signalled when his dorsal fins glow/flash in the same color as the atomic beam).

The name "Gojira" is a combination of gorira which means "gorilla" and kujira, which means "whale" in Japanese. The name was allegedly originally a nickname of a large worker at Toho Studios. But since Gojira was neither a gorilla nor a whale, the name "Gojira" was devised in a different way for the film's story; Gojira's name was "originally" spelled in katakana (呉爾羅).

Gojira was first released in the United States in 1955 in Japanese-American communities only, under Toho's international title, Godzilla. In 1956, it was adapted by an American company into Godzilla, King of the Monsters (based on Toho's international title), edited and with added, principal scenes featuring Raymond Burr, and this version became an international success. As a result, the monster came to be known as "Godzilla" also in Japan (the belief that American distributors were responsible for the name "Godzilla" is a misconception, since Toho came up with the name for international markets to begin with).

Culture

Godzilla was originally an allegory for the effects of the hydrogen bomb, and the unintended consequences that such weapons might have on Earth. The radioactive contamination of the Japanese fishing boat Daigo Fukuryu Maru through the United States' Castle Bravo thermonuclear device test on Bikini Atoll, on March 1, 1954 lead to much press coverage in Japan preceding the release of the first movie in 1954. The Versus and Millennium Series have largely continued this concept. Some have pointed out the parallels, conscious or unconscious, between Godzilla's relationship to Japan and that of the United States; first a terrible enemy who causes enormous destruction, but then becoming a good friend and defender in times of peril.

Films have been made over the last five decades, each reflecting the social and political climate in Japan. All but one of the 29 films were produced by Toho: a version was made in 1998 by TriStar Pictures and set in the United States by the directors of Independence Day (ID4) and is somewhat despised by most Godzilla fans. Toho immediately followed it with 1999's Godzilla 2000: Millennium, which began the current series of films, known informally as the Mireniamu or Millennium series.

Much of Godzilla's popularity in the United States can be credited with TV broadcasts of the Toho Studios monster movies during the 1960s and 1970s. The American company UPA contracted with Toho to distribute its monster movies of the time, and UPA continues to hold the license today for the Godzilla films of the 1960s and 1970s. Sony currently holds some of those rights, as well as the rights to every Godzilla film produced from 1991 onward. The Blue Öyster Cult song "Godzilla" also contributed to the popularity of the movies. The creature also made an appearance in a Nike commercial, in which Godzilla went one-on-one with NBA star Charles Barkley.

In 1996, after his then-final appearance in Godzilla vs. Destoroyah, Godzilla received an award for Lifetime Achievement at the MTV Movie Awards. Creator and producer Tomoyuki Tanaka accepted on his behalf via satellite but was joined by "Godzilla" himself.

On his 50th (Japanese) birthday, on 29 November 2004, Godzilla got a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Synopsis

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

The deoxygenation of Tokyo bay, caused by Dr. Serizawa's oxygen destroyer, killed Godzilla at the end of the first movie, dissolving his flesh and bone into nothingness. Nonetheless, Gojira - or Godzilla - returned in a series of films, all from Toho.

In the subsequent films, another of Godzilla's species take his place or Godzilla simply doesn't stay dead (there is some debate about this). In Godzilla 2000, it is discussed that Godzilla possesses a component known as "Organizer G-1", or "Regenerator G-1" in the English version of the film, which allows him to heal from any wound, possibly even regenerate himself from mere fragments. This would make it possible for Godzilla to continue indefinitely, even though he appears to die. Such an ability was used in Godzilla, Mothra, King Ghidorah; where Godzilla's heart beats after Godzilla explodes.

The Japanese version of Godzilla was greatly inspired by the commercial success of King Kong, and the 1953 success of The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms. Godzilla would go on to inspire Gorgo, Gamera, and many others.

Films

Godzilla fires his atomic ray in Destroy All Monsters (1968).

The Godzilla series is generally broken into three eras, reflecting the broader division of daikaiju eiga into the Shōwa era, Heisei era, and Millennium era.

Shōwa Godzilla Series (昭和ゴジラシリーズ) 1954–1975

The initial series of movies is named for the Showa period in Japan (as all of these films were produced before Emperor Hirohito's death in 1989). This Showa timeline spanned from 1954, with Godzilla (1954), to 1975, with Terror of Mechagodzilla. With the exception of the serious Godzilla (1954) and the semi-serious sequels Godzilla Raids Again and Mothra vs. Godzilla, this period also featured a somewhat more lighthearted Godzilla. This tendency started with King Kong vs. Godzilla, which had the highest ticket sales of any Godzilla movie. Starting with Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (made 10 years after the first Godzilla film), Godzilla became a semi-playful antihero, and as years went by, he evolved into an anthropomorphic superhero. The films Son of Godzilla and All Monsters Attack were aimed largely at youthful audiences, featuring the appearance of Godzilla's son, Minya. The Showa period saw the addition of many monsters into the Godzilla continuity, three of which (Mothra, Rodan and Varan) had their own solo movies, as well as a movie for the Toho-ized King Kong. This period featured a rough continuity, although the chronology is confused, as some of the later movies were set in an arbitrary future time, often 1999.

In all films of this original series, Godzilla was 50 meters tall, and weighed 20,000 tons. The American release Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956) incorrectly stated Godzilla's height to be 400 feet, an inaccuracy that lingers today.

Versus Series or Heisei Series (VSシリーズ) 1984–1995

The timeline was revamped in 1984 with The Return of Godzilla; this movie was created as a direct sequel to the 1954 film, and ignores the continuity of the Showa series. Known as the VS Series, (unofficially known to American fans as the "Heisei Series", for the ruling emperor of the time), the continuity ended in 1995's Godzilla vs. Destoroyah after a run of seven films. The reason for the continuity shift was based on a realization that the marketing of the movies had removed the reason it was so loved. When it was discovered that Godzilla was popular with children, sequels were toned down in obvious screen violence, and Godzilla was made out to be a good guy instead of an indestructible, abhorrent mistake of men. However, the further Godzilla was taken away from his roots, the less popular he became. Hence, The Return of Godzilla brought the series back to form.

American Columbia/TriStar Godzilla film, 1998

The only Godzilla movie not made by Toho is the 1998 film Godzilla, directed by Roland Emmerich. Despite being one of the highest grossing films of the year when factoring in overseas profits, the film was widely panned by cult followers of the Godzilla franchise, critics on both sides of the Pacific, and movie-goers in general. The $136 million US boxoffice fell far short of marketing expectations, thus the film is generally viewed as a failure despite turning a profit worldwide.

In the 1998 film, Godzilla had been a reptile mutated after a French atomic test, on a French Polynesian island. Set in New York City and produced by Columbia Pictures, this movie is not considered to be part of any of the three eras of the Godzilla series.

GINO (Godzilla In Name Only)

The monster in the 1998 film has since been dubbed GINO (Godzilla In Name Only) by many Godzilla fans.

GINO is so called for multiple reasons. The most obvious is that the American movie restarts the saga from the beginning, setting the main action in New York City. Another is that it is produced by a different company. However, the biggest change is in the Godzilla character itself. The Godzilla in this movie is almost entirely computer-animated, and bears little resemblance in look or manner to his Japanese counterpart. Instead, he resembles a gigantic bipedal iguana or Komodo dragon. Also, the behavior of the American Godzilla is viewed as running contrary to the long-established Japanese Godzilla traditions. Examples of this changed behavior include the American Godzilla running away and hiding from the military instead of fighting, a lack of radioactive fire-breath, the laying of eggs by Godzilla, and the ease with which the monster is dispatched by the military at the end of the film.

Millennium Series (ミレニアムシリーズ) 1999–2004

The Millennium Series is the official term for the series of Godzilla movies, unofficially called the "Shinsei Series" (or even the "Alternate Reality Series") by American fans, made after the VS Series ended with Godzilla vs. Destoroyah. Unlike the previous two series, this era does not feature a continuous timeline. Only two of the films in this era, Godzilla Against Mechagodzilla and Godzilla: Tokyo SOS, are directly related to one another. The rest follow entirely different timelines. The common theme to this era is that all movies use Godzilla (1954) as the jumping-off point.

Since the films are different, the sizes are different in some cases. Godzilla's most prominent size in this series is 55 meters. The exceptions: In Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack and in the VS series, he was 60 meters to 80, and in Godzilla: Final Wars and Godzilla VS Destoroyah, he was 100 meters (he was supposed to be 50 meters in Final Wars, but budgetary cutbacks in miniature sets forced this size change).

In response to negative fan reaction to the 1998 American Godzilla film, Toho inserted derogatory references to the American film and creature design in two of its Millennium movies. The Gotham attack was referred to in the 2001 movie Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack. The monster that had appeared in New York was not, in fact, Godzilla, but an entirely different yet similar monster. In Godzilla: Final Wars (2004) a kaiju named Zilla, of identical to design to the American interpretation of Godzilla, attacks Sydney, Australia. It is later killed by the "true" Godzilla from a hit to the tail, and its radioactive breath.

Filmography

Since 1954, there have been 29 official Godzilla films produced. All of these, with the lone exception of the 23rd, were produced by Toho Studios in Japan. (Please note that the titles listed below are Toho's preferred English titles; for further discussion, see Toho Kingdom.)

Yoshimitsu Banno, director of Godzilla vs. Hedorah, has acquired permission to make a 40-minute film for IMAX theaters, and has secured close to complete funding.

Other media

Television

Putting the Godzilla films' suits and effects crew to further use were several Japanese television shows; Ultraman and some shows inspired by it used the suits occasionally for cameos but Godzilla Island primarily followed the further adventures of the kaiju featured in the films.

  • Ultraman
  • Ultra Q
  • Meteor Man Zone
  • Godzilla Island
  • Monster Planet Of Godzilla

The success of the Godzilla franchise has also spawned two U.S. Saturday morning cartoons, both featuring an investigative scientific team who call upon Godzilla as an ally. The series make several homages to the Shōwa films and several antagonist monsters have been inspired by extant Toho creations.

  • The Godzilla Power Hour
  • Godzilla: The Series

Comics

Several manga have been derived from specific Godzilla films, and both Marvel and Dark Horse have published Godzilla comic book series (1977–1979 and 1987–1999, respectively).

Video games

Godzilla and his fellow monsters have appeared in several video games, including:

  • Godzilla: Monster of Monsters
  • Super Godzilla
  • Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee
  • Godzilla: Domination
  • Godzilla: Save the Earth

References in culture

As with any pop culture icon, Godzilla has been parodied, referenced to and homaged in many movies, TV shows, comic books, internet articles, and so on. Here is a partial list of such references:

  • Featured in the Animaniacs short, "Warners and the Beanstalk" where Yakko tells the Giant, "Would you like it in Japan with Godzilla and Rodan?"(a parody of Green Eggs and Ham) The Giant ignores Yakko's offer resulting in Godzilla burning him with his Atomic breath, and Rodan blowing him away.
  • In the last scene of The Simpsons 10th season finale "Thirty Minutes Over Tokyo", Godzilla attacks a plane going from Japan to the USA that the Simpsons are on. Godzilla is distracted by Mothra, Rodan and Gamera, allowing the plane to escape.
Godzilla's cameo in Drawn Together
  • In the episode of the Comedy Central animated reality show parody Drawn Together entitled "Super Nanny", Godzilla plays a minor role as Ling-Ling's conscience (with his size probably meant as a subtle joke to Ling-Ling's cultural responsibility).
  • In The Fairly Oddparents TV movie School's Out: The Musical before the Mayor starts singing it shows Godzilla destroying the city.
  • In Austin Powers in Goldmember, Austin crashes his car into a dinosaur like parade float while in Japan, causing it to roll around the streets uncontrollably. It is identified by a civilian as Godzilla, but another civilian corrects him, stating that it only looks like Godzilla due to copyright issues.
  • Mariah Carey's video for "Boy (I Need You)", which takes place in a futuristic Japanese metropolis, features a yellow, fire-breathing Godzilla-like monster, also brought to life by suitmation.
  • In Olive the Other Reindeer, a show often shown on Cartoon Network during the Christmas season, Olive, Santa, and Santa's reindeer sing a song titled "Merry Christmas After All" while traveling the world delivering presents. However, when they visit Tokyo, Ultraman flies by them, waves, and then starts dancing and singing with Godzilla.
  • There is a Warcraft creature called Gahz'rilla who is a hydra. However, his name gives away that he is a parody of Godzilla.
  • One The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy episode is titled

" Giant Billy and Mandy: All Out Attack"

  • Godzilla has cameoed or inspired likenesses in several other (usually animated) shows:
    • Reign Storm
    • Garfield and Friends
    • Animaniacs
    • Jimmy Neutron
    • Invader Zim
    • Rugrats
    • The Fairly OddParents
  • There is a drink in Malaysia called "Milo Godzilla", consisting of a cup of Milo with ice cream and/or whipped cream on top of it.

Paleontology

At least two prehistoric creatures from the fossil record have been named after Godzilla:

  • Gojirasaurus quayi is a theropod dinosaur that lived in the Triassic Period; a partial skeleton was unearthed in Quay County, New Mexico.
  • Dakosaurus andiniensis, a crocodile from the Jurassic Period, was nicknamed "Godzilla" before being scientifically classified.

This page about Godzilla includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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At least two prehistoric creatures from the fossil record have been named after Godzilla:.
. " Giant Billy and Mandy: All Out Attack". China and France are also developing other satellite navigation systems. Here is a partial list of such references:. The European Union is developing Galileo as an alternative to GPS, planned to be in operation by 2010. As with any pop culture icon, Godzilla has been parodied, referenced to and homaged in many movies, TV shows, comic books, internet articles, and so on. There are plans to restore GLONASS to full operation by 2008.

Godzilla and his fellow monsters have appeared in several video games, including:. Russia operates an independent system called GLONASS (global navigation system), although with only twelve active satellites as of 2004, the system is of limited usefulness. Several manga have been derived from specific Godzilla films, and both Marvel and Dark Horse have published Godzilla comic book series (1977–1979 and 1987–1999, respectively). There were also incidents of unintentional jamming, traced back to malfunctioning TV antenna preamplifiers. The series make several homages to the Shōwa films and several antagonist monsters have been inspired by extant Toho creations. According to the reference below, "IFR pilots should have a fallback plan in case of a GPS malfunction". Saturday morning cartoons, both featuring an investigative scientific team who call upon Godzilla as an ally. And there has been at least one well-documented case of unintentional jamming; if similar, but stronger, signals were generated on purpose, they could interfere with aviation GPS receivers at a range of 50 km.

The success of the Godzilla franchise has also spawned two U.S. A detailed description of how to build a GPS jammer was posted on a hackers' site by an anonymous author. Putting the Godzilla films' suits and effects crew to further use were several Japanese television shows; Ultraman and some shows inspired by it used the suits occasionally for cameos but Godzilla Island primarily followed the further adventures of the kaiju featured in the films. Air Force conducted GPS jamming exercises in 2003. Hedorah, has acquired permission to make a 40-minute film for IMAX theaters, and has secured close to complete funding. The U.S. Yoshimitsu Banno, director of Godzilla vs. In either case, the jammers are attractive targets for anti-radiation missiles.

(Please note that the titles listed below are Toho's preferred English titles; for further discussion, see Toho Kingdom.). Some officials believe that jammers could be used to attract the precision-guided munitions towards noncombatant infrastructure, other officials believe that the jammers are completely ineffective. All of these, with the lone exception of the 23rd, were produced by Toho Studios in Japan. invasion of Afghanistan. Since 1954, there have been 29 official Godzilla films produced. government believes that such jammers were used occasionally during the U.S. It is later killed by the "true" Godzilla from a hit to the tail, and its radioactive breath. The U.S.

In Godzilla: Final Wars (2004) a kaiju named Zilla, of identical to design to the American interpretation of Godzilla, attacks Sydney, Australia. GPS jammers are available, from Russia, and are about the size of a cigarette box. The monster that had appeared in New York was not, in fact, Godzilla, but an entirely different yet similar monster. A large part of modern munitions, the so-called "smart bombs" or precision-guided munitions, use GPS. The Gotham attack was referred to in the 2001 movie Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack. The increased accuracy comes mostly from being able to use both the L1 and L2 frequencies and thus better compensate for the varying signal delay in the ionosphere (see above). In response to negative fan reaction to the 1998 American Godzilla film, Toho inserted derogatory references to the American film and creature design in two of its Millennium movies. Military (and selected civilian) users still enjoy some technical advantages which can give quicker satellite lock and increased accuracy.

The exceptions: In Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack and in the VS series, he was 60 meters to 80, and in Godzilla: Final Wars and Godzilla VS Destoroyah, he was 100 meters (he was supposed to be 50 meters in Final Wars, but budgetary cutbacks in miniature sets forced this size change). Authorized military units are still able to decrypt the corrected signals using a tamper-resistant hardware module called an SAASM, Selective Availability / Anti-Spoofing Module. Godzilla's most prominent size in this series is 55 meters. The original SA system could only limit the accuracy of GPS signals world-wide, or not at all. Since the films are different, the sizes are different in some cases. The US military maintains the ability to use a more advanced version of Selective Availability, called "Selective Deniability", to reduce the accuracy of civilian GPS units in a specific area without affecting the rest of the world. The common theme to this era is that all movies use Godzilla (1954) as the jumping-off point. [9].

The rest follow entirely different timelines. The military resisted for most of the 1990s, but SA was eventually turned off in 2000 following an announcement by then US President Bill Clinton, allowing all users to enjoy nearly the same level of access. Only two of the films in this era, Godzilla Against Mechagodzilla and Godzilla: Tokyo SOS, are directly related to one another. This would save the FAA millions of dollars every year in maintenance of their own, less accurate, radio navigation systems. Unlike the previous two series, this era does not feature a continuous timeline. In the 1990s the FAA started pressuring the military to turn off SA permanently. Destoroyah. During the Gulf War, the shortage of military GPS units and the wide availability of civilian ones among personnel resulted in disabling the Selective Availability.

The Millennium Series is the official term for the series of Godzilla movies, unofficially called the "Shinsei Series" (or even the "Alternate Reality Series") by American fans, made after the VS Series ended with Godzilla vs. In order to improve the usefulness of GPS for civilian navigation, Differential GPS was used by many civilian GPS receivers to greatly improve accuracy. Examples of this changed behavior include the American Godzilla running away and hiding from the military instead of fighting, a lack of radioactive fire-breath, the laying of eggs by Godzilla, and the ease with which the monster is dispatched by the military at the end of the film. The inaccuracy of the civilian signal was deliberately encoded so as not to change very quickly, for instance the entire eastern US area might read 30 m off, but 30 m off everywhere and in the same direction. Also, the behavior of the American Godzilla is viewed as running contrary to the long-established Japanese Godzilla traditions. SA typically added signal errors of up to about 10 m horizontally and 30 m vertically. Instead, he resembles a gigantic bipedal iguana or Komodo dragon. Additional accuracy was available in the signal, but in an encrypted form that was only available to the United States military, its allies and a few others, mostly government users.

The Godzilla in this movie is almost entirely computer-animated, and bears little resemblance in look or manner to his Japanese counterpart. When it was first deployed, GPS included a feature called Selective Availability (or SA) that introduced intentional errors of up to a hundred meters into the publicly available navigation signals, making it difficult to use for guiding long range missiles to precise targets. However, the biggest change is in the Godzilla character itself. The accuracy of GPS can be improved in a number of ways:. Another is that it is produced by a different company. The citation accompanying the presentation of the trophy honors the GPS Team "for the most significant development for safe and efficient navigation and surveillance of air and spacecraft since the introduction of radio navigation 50 years ago.". The most obvious is that the American movie restarts the saga from the beginning, setting the main action in New York City. Air Force, the Aerospace Corporation, Rockwell International Corporation, and IBM Federal Systems Company.

GINO is so called for multiple reasons. This team consists of researchers from the Naval Research Laboratory, the U.S. The monster in the 1998 film has since been dubbed GINO (Godzilla In Name Only) by many Godzilla fans. Collier Trophy, the most prestigious aviation award in the United States. Set in New York City and produced by Columbia Pictures, this movie is not considered to be part of any of the three eras of the Godzilla series. On February 10, 1993, the National Aeronautic Association selected the Global Positioning System Team as winners of the 1992 Robert J. In the 1998 film, Godzilla had been a reptile mutated after a French atomic test, on a French Polynesian island. Two GPS developers have received the National Academy of Engineering Charles Stark Draper prize year 2003:.

The $136 million US boxoffice fell far short of marketing expectations, thus the film is generally viewed as a failure despite turning a profit worldwide. Bartolomé Coll has recently developed the basic notions necessary for a fully relativistic theory of Positioning Systems [7]. Despite being one of the highest grossing films of the year when factoring in overseas profits, the film was widely panned by cult followers of the Godzilla franchise, critics on both sides of the Pacific, and movie-goers in general. Whether relativity must be considered as a mere correction to a Newtonian GPS theory, or, rather, as the necessary foundation of a cleaner (and more fundamental) GPS theory, is currently under debate. The only Godzilla movie not made by Toho is the 1998 film Godzilla, directed by Roland Emmerich. Neil Ashby presented a good account of how these relativistic corrections are applied, why, and their orders of magnitude, in Physics Today (May 2002) [6]. Hence, The Return of Godzilla brought the series back to form. This offset is a practical demonstration of the theory of relativity in a real-world system; it is exactly that predicted by the theory, within the limits of accuracy of measurement.

However, the further Godzilla was taken away from his roots, the less popular he became. This amounts to a discrepancy of around 38 microseconds per day, which is corrected by electronics on each satellite. When it was discovered that Godzilla was popular with children, sequels were toned down in obvious screen violence, and Godzilla was made out to be a good guy instead of an indestructible, abhorrent mistake of men. The clocks on the satellites are also affected by both special and general relativity, which causes them to run at a slightly faster rate than do clocks on the Earth's surface. The reason for the continuity shift was based on a realization that the marketing of the movies had removed the reason it was so loved. Several frequencies make up the GPS electromagnetic spectrum:. Destoroyah after a run of seven films. Shorter multipath signals from ground reflections can often be very close to the direct signals, and can greatly reduce precision.

Known as the VS Series, (unofficially known to American fans as the "Heisei Series", for the ruling emperor of the time), the continuity ended in 1995's Godzilla vs. For shorter delay multipath signals that result from reflections from the ground, special antenna features may be used such as a ground plane, or a choke ring antenna. The timeline was revamped in 1984 with The Return of Godzilla; this movie was created as a direct sequel to the 1954 film, and ignores the continuity of the Showa series. A variety of receiver techniques, most notably Narrow Correlator spacing, have been developed to mitigate multipath errors. The American release Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956) incorrectly stated Godzilla's height to be 400 feet, an inaccuracy that lingers today. For long delay multipath signals, the receiver itself can filter the signals out. In all films of this original series, Godzilla was 50 meters tall, and weighed 20,000 tons. GPS signals can also be affected by multipath reflections of the radio signals off the ground and/or surrounding structures (buildings, canyon walls, etc).

This period featured a rough continuity, although the chronology is confused, as some of the later movies were set in an arbitrary future time, often 1999. Newer GPS receivers can compare the phase difference between the L1 and L2 frequencies to actually measure the atmospheric effects on the signals and apply precise corrections.[citation needed]. The Showa period saw the addition of many monsters into the Godzilla continuity, three of which (Mothra, Rodan and Varan) had their own solo movies, as well as a movie for the Toho-ized King Kong. Because ionospheric delay affects the speed of radio waves differently based on their frequencies, a second frequency band was added to help eliminate this type of error. The films Son of Godzilla and All Monsters Attack were aimed largely at youthful audiences, featuring the appearance of Godzilla's son, Minya. Once the receiver's rough location is known, an internal mathematical model can be used to estimate and correct for the error. Starting with Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (made 10 years after the first Godzilla film), Godzilla became a semi-playful antihero, and as years went by, he evolved into an anthropomorphic superhero. The effect is minimized when the satellite is directly overhead and becomes greater toward the horizon, as the satellite signals must travel through the greater "thickness" of the ionosphere as the angle increases.

Godzilla, which had the highest ticket sales of any Godzilla movie. One of biggest problems for GPS accuracy is that changing atmospheric conditions change the speed of the GPS signals unpredictably as they pass through the ionosphere. This tendency started with King Kong vs. The receiver is able to determine exactly when the signals were received by adjusting its internal clock (and therefore the spheres' radii) so that the spheres intersect near one point. Godzilla, this period also featured a somewhat more lighthearted Godzilla. Fortunately, even the relatively simple clock within the receiver provides an accurate comparison of the timing of the signals from the different satellites. With the exception of the serious Godzilla (1954) and the semi-serious sequels Godzilla Raids Again and Mothra vs. One complication is that GPS receivers do not have atomic clocks, so the precise time is not known when the signals arrive.

This Showa timeline spanned from 1954, with Godzilla (1954), to 1975, with Terror of Mechagodzilla. In practice, GPS calculations are more complex for several reasons. The initial series of movies is named for the Showa period in Japan (as all of these films were produced before Emperor Hirohito's death in 1989). Once the location and distance of each satellite is known, the receiver should theoretically be located at the intersection of four imaginary spheres, one around each satellite, with a radius equal to the time delay between the satellite and the receiver multiplied by the speed of the radio signals. The Godzilla series is generally broken into three eras, reflecting the broader division of daikaiju eiga into the Shōwa era, Heisei era, and Millennium era. Each satellite uses a different sequence, which lets them share the same radio frequencies, using Code Division Multiple Access, while still allowing receivers to identify each satellite. Godzilla would go on to inspire Gorgo, Gamera, and many others. In order to measure the delay, the satellite sends a repeating 1,023 bit long pseudo random sequence; the receiver knows the seed of the sequence, constructs an identical sequence and shifts it until the two sequences match.

The Japanese version of Godzilla was greatly inspired by the commercial success of King Kong, and the 1953 success of The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms. The receiver calculates the orbit of each satellite based on information encoded in their radio signals, and measures the distance to each satellite, called a pseudorange, based on the time delay from when the satellite signals were sent until they were received. Such an ability was used in Godzilla, Mothra, King Ghidorah; where Godzilla's heart beats after Godzilla explodes. GPS receivers calculate their current position (latitude, longitude, elevation), and the precise time, using the process of trilateration after measuring the distance to at least four satellites by comparing the satellites' coded time signal transmissions. This would make it possible for Godzilla to continue indefinitely, even though he appears to die. Each satellite repeatedly broadcasts its own orbital elements, and a precise time-code. In Godzilla 2000, it is discussed that Godzilla possesses a component known as "Organizer G-1", or "Regenerator G-1" in the English version of the film, which allows him to heal from any wound, possibly even regenerate himself from mere fragments. They regularly synchronize the atomic clocks onboard each satellite, and send updates to the satellites of their observed position in orbit.

In the subsequent films, another of Godzilla's species take his place or Godzilla simply doesn't stay dead (there is some debate about this). Ground-based observatories around the world monitor the flight paths of the GPS satellites. Nonetheless, Gojira - or Godzilla - returned in a series of films, all from Toho. [5]. Serizawa's oxygen destroyer, killed Godzilla at the end of the first movie, dissolving his flesh and bone into nothingness. The orbits are designed so at least four satellites are always within line of sight from almost any place on earth. The deoxygenation of Tokyo bay, caused by Dr. Each satellite circles the Earth twice each day at an altitude of 20,200 kilometres (12,600 miles).

On his 50th (Japanese) birthday, on 29 November 2004, Godzilla got a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. The GPS system is made up of a satellite constellation of 24 working satellites and three spares in intermediate circular orbits, in 6 orbital planes. Creator and producer Tomoyuki Tanaka accepted on his behalf via satellite but was joined by "Godzilla" himself. The oldest GPS satellite still in operation was launched in February 1989. Destoroyah, Godzilla received an award for Lifetime Achievement at the MTV Movie Awards. The most recent launch was in September 2005. In 1996, after his then-final appearance in Godzilla vs. [4].

The creature also made an appearance in a Nike commercial, in which Godzilla went one-on-one with NBA star Charles Barkley. The first modern Block-II satellite was launched in February 1989, and a complete constellation of 24 satellites was in orbit by 1993. The Blue Öyster Cult song "Godzilla" also contributed to the popularity of the movies. By 1985, ten more experimental Block-I satellites had been launched to validate the concept. Sony currently holds some of those rights, as well as the rights to every Godzilla film produced from 1991 onward. In 1983, after Soviet jet interceptors shot down the civilian airliner KAL 007 in restricted Soviet airspace, killing all 269 people on board, Ronald Reagan announced that the GPS system would be made available for civilian uses once it was completed. The American company UPA contracted with Toho to distribute its monster movies of the time, and UPA continues to hold the license today for the Godzilla films of the 1960s and 1970s. The GPS satellites were initially manufactured by Rockwell and now manufactured by Lockheed Martin.

Much of Godzilla's popularity in the United States can be credited with TV broadcasts of the Toho Studios monster movies during the 1960s and 1970s. The first experimental Block-I GPS satellite was launched in February 1978 [3]. Toho immediately followed it with 1999's Godzilla 2000: Millennium, which began the current series of films, known informally as the Mireniamu or Millennium series. It was only a small leap of logic to realize that the converse was also true; if the satellite's position was known then they could identify their own position on Earth. All but one of the 29 films were produced by Toho: a version was made in 1998 by TriStar Pictures and set in the United States by the directors of Independence Day (ID4) and is somewhat despised by most Godzilla fans. They realized that since they knew their exact location on the globe, they could pinpoint where the satellite was along its orbit by measuring the Doppler distortion. Films have been made over the last five decades, each reflecting the social and political climate in Japan. They discovered that, due to the Doppler effect, the frequency of the signal being transmitted by Sputnik was higher as the satellite approached, and lower as it continued away from them.

Some have pointed out the parallels, conscious or unconscious, between Godzilla's relationship to Japan and that of the United States; first a terrible enemy who causes enormous destruction, but then becoming a good friend and defender in times of peril. Kershner were monitoring Sputnik's radio transmissions. The Versus and Millennium Series have largely continued this concept. Richard B. The radioactive contamination of the Japanese fishing boat Daigo Fukuryu Maru through the United States' Castle Bravo thermonuclear device test on Bikini Atoll, on March 1, 1954 lead to much press coverage in Japan preceding the release of the first movie in 1954. scientists led by Dr. Godzilla was originally an allegory for the effects of the hydrogen bomb, and the unintended consequences that such weapons might have on Earth. A team of U.S.

As a result, the monster came to be known as "Godzilla" also in Japan (the belief that American distributors were responsible for the name "Godzilla" is a misconception, since Toho came up with the name for international markets to begin with). The inspiration for the GPS system came when the Soviets launched the first Sputnik in 1957. In 1956, it was adapted by an American company into Godzilla, King of the Monsters (based on Toho's international title), edited and with added, principal scenes featuring Raymond Burr, and this version became an international success. However, this is usually corrected on the display within 15 minutes once the UTC offset message is received for the first time. Gojira was first released in the United States in 1955 in Japanese-American communities only, under Toho's international title, Godzilla. New GPS units will initially show the incorrect time after achieving a GPS lock for the first time. But since Gojira was neither a gorilla nor a whale, the name "Gojira" was devised in a different way for the film's story; Gojira's name was "originally" spelled in katakana (呉爾羅). Receivers thus apply a clock-correction offset (which is periodically transmitted along with the other data) in order to display UTC correctly, and optionally adjust for a local time zone.

The name was allegedly originally a nickname of a large worker at Toho Studios. Today, GPS time is 14 seconds ahead [2] of UTC, because it does not follow leap seconds. The name "Gojira" is a combination of gorira which means "gorilla" and kujira, which means "whale" in Japanese. The atomic clocks on the satellites are set to "GPS time", which is the number of seconds since 00:00:00 UTC, January 6, 1980. the first Godzilla movie always appilies to all Subsequent movies, most of the time the creature is described as prehistoric, often a surviving dinosaur, and its first attacks on Japan are linked to atomic testing in the Pacific Ocean, including but not limited to using nuclear mutation as an explanation for the creature's great size and strange powers. For instance, when deploying sensors (for seismology or other monitoring application), GPS may be used to provide each recording apparatus with some precise time source, so that the time of events may be recorded accurately. . Many synchronization systems use GPS as a source of accurate time, hence one of the most common applications of this use is that of GPS as a reference clock for time code generators or NTP clocks.

Although much of Godzilla's significance as an anti-war symbol has been lost in the transition to pop culture, the nuclear breath remains as a visual vestige of the creature's early Cold War politics. This allows the data to be reported in real-time, using either web browser based tools or customized software. The earliest two Godzilla films visually and thematically evoke the US bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the aftermath and human damage of Godzilla's attacks. The recorded data can be stored within the tracking unit, or it may be transmitted to a central location, or internet-connected computer, using a cellular modem, 2-way radio, or satellite. Godzilla is characterized as amphibious, nearly indestructible and highly regenerative, and breathing a sort of nuclear fire or "heat-ray". A GPS tracking system uses GPS to determine the location of a vehicle, person, or pet and to record the position at regular intervals in order to create a track file or log of activities. (For a list of these films, see below.). On the other extreme, some airlines integrate GPS tracking of the aircraft into their aircraft's seat-back television entertainment systems, available even during takeoff and landing to all passengers.

A new film is slated to be produced by Advanced Audiovisual Productions. Additionally, some airline companies disallow use of hand-held receivers for security reasons, such as unwillingness to let ordinary passengers track the flight route. In 1998 TriStar Pictures produced a nominal remake of the original set in contemporary New York city. Most airlines allow private use of ordinary GPS units on their flights, except during landing and take-off, like all other electronic devices. To date, Toho has produced 28 Godzilla films. Geocaching often includes walking or hiking to natural locations, and is popular with both children and adults. Godzilla (ゴジラ - Gojira) is a giant Japanese movie monster (kaiju) first seen in the 1954 Japanese tokusatsu film Gojira, produced by Toho Film Company Ltd. Geocaching involves using a hand-held GPS unit to travel to a specific longitude and lattitude to search for objects deliberately hidden there by other Geocachers.

Dakosaurus andiniensis, a crocodile from the Jurassic Period, was nicknamed "Godzilla" before being scientifically classified. The availability of hand-held GPS receivers for a cost of about $90 and up (as of March 2005) has led to recreational applications including Geocaching. Gojirasaurus quayi is a theropod dinosaur that lived in the Triassic Period; a partial skeleton was unearthed in Quay County, New Mexico. For information about navigation systems for the visually impaired, including MoBIC, Drishti, Brunel Navigation System for the Blind, NOPPA, BrailleNote GPS, and Trekker, refer to the main article GPS for the visually impaired. There is a drink in Malaysia called "Milo Godzilla", consisting of a cup of Milo with ice cream and/or whipped cream on top of it. More costly and precise receivers are used by land surveyors to locate boundaries, structures, and survey markers, and for road construction. The Fairly OddParents. Low cost GPS receivers are often combined in a bundle with a PDA, car computer, or vehicle tracking system.

Rugrats. Glider pilots use the logged signal to verify their arrival at turnpoints in competitions. Invader Zim. Hand-held GPS receivers can be used by mountain climbers and hikers. Jimmy Neutron. The system can also be used by computer controlled harvesters, mine trucks and other vehicles. Animaniacs. GPS is used by people around the world as a navigation aid in cars, airplanes, and ships.

Garfield and Friends. Commercial civilian GPS receivers are required to have limits on the velocities and altitudes at which they will report coordinates; this is to prevent them from being used to create improvised missiles. Reign Storm. The satellites also carry nuclear detonation detectors, which form a major portion of the United States Nuclear Detonation Detection System. Godzilla has cameoed or inspired likenesses in several other (usually animated) shows:

    . GPS allows accurate targeting of cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions (or "smart bombs"), as well as improved command and control of forces through improved locational awareness. One The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy episode is titled. .

    However, his name gives away that he is a parody of Godzilla. Although the cost of maintaining the system is approximately US$400 million per year, including the replacement of aging satellites, GPS is available for free use in civilian applications as a public good. There is a Warcraft creature called Gahz'rilla who is a hydra. The satellite constellation is managed daily by the 2d Space Operations Squadron at Schriever Air Force Base. However, when they visit Tokyo, Ultraman flies by them, waves, and then starts dancing and singing with Godzilla. United States Department of Defense developed the system, officially named NAVSTAR GPS (Navigation Signal Timing and Ranging Global Positioning System). In Olive the Other Reindeer, a show often shown on Cartoon Network during the Christmas season, Olive, Santa, and Santa's reindeer sing a song titled "Merry Christmas After All" while traveling the world delivering presents. GPS accuracy can be improved further, to about 1 cm (half an inch) over short distances, using techniques such as Differential GPS (DGPS).

    Mariah Carey's video for "Boy (I Need You)", which takes place in a futuristic Japanese metropolis, features a yellow, fire-breathing Godzilla-like monster, also brought to life by suitmation. The Wide-Area Augmentation System (WAAS), available since August 2000, increases the accuracy of GPS signals to within 2 meters (6 ft) [1] for compatible receivers. It is identified by a civilian as Godzilla, but another civilian corrects him, stating that it only looks like Godzilla due to copyright issues. GPS also provides an extremely precise time reference, required for some scientific research, including the study of earthquakes. In Austin Powers in Goldmember, Austin crashes his car into a dinosaur like parade float while in Japan, causing it to roll around the streets uncontrollably. Since GPS was declared fully operational in 1993, it has become a vital global utility, indispensible for modern navigation on land, sea, and air around the world, as well as an important tool for map-making, and land surveying. In The Fairly Oddparents TV movie School's Out: The Musical before the Mayor starts singing it shows Godzilla destroying the city. A constellation of more than two dozen GPS satellites broadcasts precise timing signals by radio to electronic GPS receivers which allow them to accurately determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) in real time, day or night, in any weather.

    In the episode of the Comedy Central animated reality show parody Drawn Together entitled "Super Nanny", Godzilla plays a minor role as Ling-Ling's conscience (with his size probably meant as a subtle joke to Ling-Ling's cultural responsibility). The Global Positioning System, usually called GPS, is the Earth's only fully-functional satellite navigation system. Godzilla is distracted by Mothra, Rodan and Gamera, allowing the plane to escape. GPS Anti-Jamming Protection. In the last scene of The Simpsons 10th season finale "Thirty Minutes Over Tokyo", Godzilla attacks a plane going from Japan to the USA that the Simpsons are on. The hunt for an unintentional GPS jammer. Featured in the Animaniacs short, "Warners and the Beanstalk" where Yakko tells the Giant, "Would you like it in Japan with Godzilla and Rodan?"(a parody of Green Eggs and Ham) The Giant ignores Yakko's offer resulting in Godzilla burning him with his Atomic breath, and Rodan blowing him away. GPS jamming.

    Godzilla: Save the Earth. noaa.gov Selective Availability Factsheet (pdf) or [10]. Godzilla: Domination. This is similar in principle to the combination of GPS and inertial navigation used in ships and aircraft, but less accurate and less expensive because it only fills in for short periods. Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee. Many automobile GPS systems combine the GPS unit with a gyroscope and speedometer pickup, allowing the computer to maintain a continuous navigation solution by dead reckoning when buildings, terrain, or tunnels block the satellite signals. Super Godzilla. This can be accomplished by using a combination of differential GPS (DGPS) correction data, transmitting GPS signal phase information and ambiguity resolution techniques via statistical tests—possibly with processing in real-time (real-time kinematic positioning, RTK).

    Godzilla: Monster of Monsters. This is done by resolving the number of cycles in which the signal is transmitted and received by the receiver. Godzilla: The Series. In this approach, accurate determination of range signal can be resolved to an accuracy of less than 10 centimetres. The Godzilla Power Hour. Relative Kinematic Positioning (RKP) is another approach for a precise GPS-based positioning system. Monster Planet Of Godzilla. Wide Area GPS Enhancement (WAGE) is an attempt to improve GPS accuracy by providing more accurate satellite clock and ephemeris (orbital) data to specially-equipped receivers.

    Godzilla Island. CPGPS working to within 1% of perfect transition matching can achieve 3 mm ambiguity; in reality, CPGPS coupled with DGPS normally realizes 20-30 cm accuracy. Meteor Man Zone. The phase difference error in the normal GPS amounts to a 2-3 m ambiguity. Ultra Q. CPGPS solves this problem by using the L1 carrier, which has a period 1/1000 that of the C/A bit width, to define the transition point instead. Ultraman. A successful correlation could be defined in a number of various places along the rising/falling edge of the pulse, which imparts timing errors.

    He can release a powerful atomic energy beam, usually blue but in some films red, from his mouth (which is ominously signalled when his dorsal fins glow/flash in the same color as the atomic beam). The problem arises from the fact that the transition from 0-1 or 1-0 on the C/A signal is not instantaneous, it takes a non-zero amount of time, and thus the correlation (satellite-receiver sequence matching) operation is imperfect. He is virtually indestructible, impervious to all modern weaponry. This technique utilizes the 1.575 GHz L1 carrier wave to act as a sort of clock signal, resolving ambiguity caused by variations in the location of the pulse transition (logic 1-0 or 0-1) of the C/A PRN signal. His iconic design (a charcoal-colored monster-like figure with small pointed ears, rough bumpy scales, powerful tail, and bony colored dorsal fins shaped like maple leaves). A Carrier-Phase Enhancement (CPGPS). Exploitation of DGPS for Guidance Enhancement (EDGE) is an effort to integrate DGPS into precision guided munitions such as the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM).

    These correction data are typically useful for only about a thirty to fifty kilometer radius around the transmitter. But in this case, the correction data are transmitted from a local source, typically at an airport or another location where accurate positioning is needed. This is similar to WAAS, in that similar correction data are used. A Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS).

    However, variants of the WAAS system are being developed in Europe (EGNOS, the Euro Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service), and Japan (MSAS, the Multi-Functional Satellite Augmentation System), which are virtually identical to WAAS. The current WAAS system only works for North America (where the reference stations are located), and due to the satellite location the system is only generally usable in the eastern and western coastal regions. Although only a few WAAS satellites are currently available as of 2004, it is hoped that eventually WAAS will provide sufficient reliability and accuracy that it can be used for critical applications such as GPS-based instrument approaches in aviation (landing an airplane in conditions of little or no visibility). This uses a series of ground reference stations to calculate GPS correction messages, which are uploaded to a series of additional satellites in geosynchronous orbit for transmission to GPS receivers, including information on ionospheric delays, individual satellite clock drift, and suchlike.

    The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). The "difference" is broadcast as a local FM signal, allowing many civilian GPS receivers to "fix" the signal for greatly improved accuracy. Differential GPS (DGPS) can improve the normal GPS accuracy of 4-20 meters to 1-3 meters.[8] DGPS uses a network of stationary GPS receivers to calculate the difference between their actual known position and the position as calculated by their received GPS signal. Bradford Parkinson, teacher of aeronautics and astronautics at Stanford University developed the system.

    Ivan Getting, emeritus president of The Aerospace Corporation and engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology established the basis for GPS, improving on the World War II land-based radio system called LORAN (Long-range Radio Aid to Navigation). The first Block IIF satellite that would provide this signal is set to be launched in 2007. This frequency falls into an internationally protected range for aeronautical navigation, promising little or no interference under all circumstances. L5 (1176.45 MHz):
    Proposed for use as a civilian safety-of-life signal.

    L4 (1841.40 MHz):
    Being studied for additional ionospheric correction. L3 (1381.05 MHz):
    Carries the signal for the GPS constellation's alternative role of detecting missile/rocket launches (supplementing Defense Support Program satellites), nuclear detonations, and other high-energy infrared events. Recognizing the civilian need for increased accuracy, "modernized" IIR-M (IIR-14 (M) and later) satellites carry a civilian signal interleaved with an improved military signal on both the L1 and L2 frequencies. In spite of not having the P(Y) code encryption key, several high-end GPS receiver manufacturers have developed techniques for utilizing this signal (in a round-about manner) to increase accuracy and remove error caused by the ionosphere.

    The keys are changed on a daily basis. government and are generally provided only for military use. The encryption keys required to directly use the P(Y) code are tightly controlled by the U.S. L2 (1227.60 MHz):
    Usually carries only the P(Y) code.

    L1 (1575.42 MHz):
    Carries a publicly usable coarse-acquisition (C/A) code as well as an encrypted precision P(Y) code. Precise time reference. GPS tracking. GPS on airplanes.

    Geocaching. GPS for the visually impaired. Surveying. Navigation.

    Military Applications.

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