Godzilla

Godzilla, as portrayed during the late Heisei era (Godzilla vs. SpaceGodzilla, 1994)

Godzilla (ゴジラ - Gojira) is a giant Japanese movie monster (kaiju) first seen in the 1954 Japanese tokusatsu film Gojira, produced by Toho Film Company Ltd. To date, Toho has produced 28 Godzilla films. In 1998 TriStar Pictures produced a nominal remake of the original set in contemporary New York city. A new film is slated to be produced by Advanced Audiovisual Productions. (For a list of these films, see below.)

Godzilla is characterized as amphibious, nearly indestructible and highly regenerative, and breathing a sort of nuclear fire or "heat-ray". The earliest two Godzilla films visually and thematically evoke the US bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the aftermath and human damage of Godzilla's attacks. Although much of Godzilla's significance as an anti-war symbol has been lost in the transition to pop culture, the nuclear breath remains as a visual vestige of the creature's early Cold War politics.

History

Origins

the first Godzilla movie always appilies to all Subsequent movies, most of the time the creature is described as prehistoric, often a surviving dinosaur, and its first attacks on Japan are linked to atomic testing in the Pacific Ocean, including but not limited to using nuclear mutation as an explanation for the creature's great size and strange powers.

  • His iconic design (a charcoal-colored monster-like figure with small pointed ears, rough bumpy scales, powerful tail, and bony colored dorsal fins shaped like maple leaves).
  • He is virtually indestructible, impervious to all modern weaponry.
  • He can release a powerful atomic energy beam, usually blue but in some films red, from his mouth (which is ominously signalled when his dorsal fins glow/flash in the same color as the atomic beam).

The name "Gojira" is a combination of gorira which means "gorilla" and kujira, which means "whale" in Japanese. The name was allegedly originally a nickname of a large worker at Toho Studios. But since Gojira was neither a gorilla nor a whale, the name "Gojira" was devised in a different way for the film's story; Gojira's name was "originally" spelled in katakana (呉爾羅).

Gojira was first released in the United States in 1955 in Japanese-American communities only, under Toho's international title, Godzilla. In 1956, it was adapted by an American company into Godzilla, King of the Monsters (based on Toho's international title), edited and with added, principal scenes featuring Raymond Burr, and this version became an international success. As a result, the monster came to be known as "Godzilla" also in Japan (the belief that American distributors were responsible for the name "Godzilla" is a misconception, since Toho came up with the name for international markets to begin with).

Culture

Godzilla was originally an allegory for the effects of the hydrogen bomb, and the unintended consequences that such weapons might have on Earth. The radioactive contamination of the Japanese fishing boat Daigo Fukuryu Maru through the United States' Castle Bravo thermonuclear device test on Bikini Atoll, on March 1, 1954 lead to much press coverage in Japan preceding the release of the first movie in 1954. The Versus and Millennium Series have largely continued this concept. Some have pointed out the parallels, conscious or unconscious, between Godzilla's relationship to Japan and that of the United States; first a terrible enemy who causes enormous destruction, but then becoming a good friend and defender in times of peril.

Films have been made over the last five decades, each reflecting the social and political climate in Japan. All but one of the 29 films were produced by Toho: a version was made in 1998 by TriStar Pictures and set in the United States by the directors of Independence Day (ID4) and is somewhat despised by most Godzilla fans. Toho immediately followed it with 1999's Godzilla 2000: Millennium, which began the current series of films, known informally as the Mireniamu or Millennium series.

Much of Godzilla's popularity in the United States can be credited with TV broadcasts of the Toho Studios monster movies during the 1960s and 1970s. The American company UPA contracted with Toho to distribute its monster movies of the time, and UPA continues to hold the license today for the Godzilla films of the 1960s and 1970s. Sony currently holds some of those rights, as well as the rights to every Godzilla film produced from 1991 onward. The Blue Öyster Cult song "Godzilla" also contributed to the popularity of the movies. The creature also made an appearance in a Nike commercial, in which Godzilla went one-on-one with NBA star Charles Barkley.

In 1996, after his then-final appearance in Godzilla vs. Destoroyah, Godzilla received an award for Lifetime Achievement at the MTV Movie Awards. Creator and producer Tomoyuki Tanaka accepted on his behalf via satellite but was joined by "Godzilla" himself.

On his 50th (Japanese) birthday, on 29 November 2004, Godzilla got a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Synopsis

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

The deoxygenation of Tokyo bay, caused by Dr. Serizawa's oxygen destroyer, killed Godzilla at the end of the first movie, dissolving his flesh and bone into nothingness. Nonetheless, Gojira - or Godzilla - returned in a series of films, all from Toho.

In the subsequent films, another of Godzilla's species take his place or Godzilla simply doesn't stay dead (there is some debate about this). In Godzilla 2000, it is discussed that Godzilla possesses a component known as "Organizer G-1", or "Regenerator G-1" in the English version of the film, which allows him to heal from any wound, possibly even regenerate himself from mere fragments. This would make it possible for Godzilla to continue indefinitely, even though he appears to die. Such an ability was used in Godzilla, Mothra, King Ghidorah; where Godzilla's heart beats after Godzilla explodes.

The Japanese version of Godzilla was greatly inspired by the commercial success of King Kong, and the 1953 success of The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms. Godzilla would go on to inspire Gorgo, Gamera, and many others.

Films

Godzilla fires his atomic ray in Destroy All Monsters (1968).

The Godzilla series is generally broken into three eras, reflecting the broader division of daikaiju eiga into the Shōwa era, Heisei era, and Millennium era.

Shōwa Godzilla Series (昭和ゴジラシリーズ) 1954–1975

The initial series of movies is named for the Showa period in Japan (as all of these films were produced before Emperor Hirohito's death in 1989). This Showa timeline spanned from 1954, with Godzilla (1954), to 1975, with Terror of Mechagodzilla. With the exception of the serious Godzilla (1954) and the semi-serious sequels Godzilla Raids Again and Mothra vs. Godzilla, this period also featured a somewhat more lighthearted Godzilla. This tendency started with King Kong vs. Godzilla, which had the highest ticket sales of any Godzilla movie. Starting with Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (made 10 years after the first Godzilla film), Godzilla became a semi-playful antihero, and as years went by, he evolved into an anthropomorphic superhero. The films Son of Godzilla and All Monsters Attack were aimed largely at youthful audiences, featuring the appearance of Godzilla's son, Minya. The Showa period saw the addition of many monsters into the Godzilla continuity, three of which (Mothra, Rodan and Varan) had their own solo movies, as well as a movie for the Toho-ized King Kong. This period featured a rough continuity, although the chronology is confused, as some of the later movies were set in an arbitrary future time, often 1999.

In all films of this original series, Godzilla was 50 meters tall, and weighed 20,000 tons. The American release Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956) incorrectly stated Godzilla's height to be 400 feet, an inaccuracy that lingers today.

Versus Series or Heisei Series (VSシリーズ) 1984–1995

The timeline was revamped in 1984 with The Return of Godzilla; this movie was created as a direct sequel to the 1954 film, and ignores the continuity of the Showa series. Known as the VS Series, (unofficially known to American fans as the "Heisei Series", for the ruling emperor of the time), the continuity ended in 1995's Godzilla vs. Destoroyah after a run of seven films. The reason for the continuity shift was based on a realization that the marketing of the movies had removed the reason it was so loved. When it was discovered that Godzilla was popular with children, sequels were toned down in obvious screen violence, and Godzilla was made out to be a good guy instead of an indestructible, abhorrent mistake of men. However, the further Godzilla was taken away from his roots, the less popular he became. Hence, The Return of Godzilla brought the series back to form.

American Columbia/TriStar Godzilla film, 1998

The only Godzilla movie not made by Toho is the 1998 film Godzilla, directed by Roland Emmerich. Despite being one of the highest grossing films of the year when factoring in overseas profits, the film was widely panned by cult followers of the Godzilla franchise, critics on both sides of the Pacific, and movie-goers in general. The $136 million US boxoffice fell far short of marketing expectations, thus the film is generally viewed as a failure despite turning a profit worldwide.

In the 1998 film, Godzilla had been a reptile mutated after a French atomic test, on a French Polynesian island. Set in New York City and produced by Columbia Pictures, this movie is not considered to be part of any of the three eras of the Godzilla series.

GINO (Godzilla In Name Only)

The monster in the 1998 film has since been dubbed GINO (Godzilla In Name Only) by many Godzilla fans.

GINO is so called for multiple reasons. The most obvious is that the American movie restarts the saga from the beginning, setting the main action in New York City. Another is that it is produced by a different company. However, the biggest change is in the Godzilla character itself. The Godzilla in this movie is almost entirely computer-animated, and bears little resemblance in look or manner to his Japanese counterpart. Instead, he resembles a gigantic bipedal iguana or Komodo dragon. Also, the behavior of the American Godzilla is viewed as running contrary to the long-established Japanese Godzilla traditions. Examples of this changed behavior include the American Godzilla running away and hiding from the military instead of fighting, a lack of radioactive fire-breath, the laying of eggs by Godzilla, and the ease with which the monster is dispatched by the military at the end of the film.

Millennium Series (ミレニアムシリーズ) 1999–2004

The Millennium Series is the official term for the series of Godzilla movies, unofficially called the "Shinsei Series" (or even the "Alternate Reality Series") by American fans, made after the VS Series ended with Godzilla vs. Destoroyah. Unlike the previous two series, this era does not feature a continuous timeline. Only two of the films in this era, Godzilla Against Mechagodzilla and Godzilla: Tokyo SOS, are directly related to one another. The rest follow entirely different timelines. The common theme to this era is that all movies use Godzilla (1954) as the jumping-off point.

Since the films are different, the sizes are different in some cases. Godzilla's most prominent size in this series is 55 meters. The exceptions: In Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack and in the VS series, he was 60 meters to 80, and in Godzilla: Final Wars and Godzilla VS Destoroyah, he was 100 meters (he was supposed to be 50 meters in Final Wars, but budgetary cutbacks in miniature sets forced this size change).

In response to negative fan reaction to the 1998 American Godzilla film, Toho inserted derogatory references to the American film and creature design in two of its Millennium movies. The Gotham attack was referred to in the 2001 movie Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack. The monster that had appeared in New York was not, in fact, Godzilla, but an entirely different yet similar monster. In Godzilla: Final Wars (2004) a kaiju named Zilla, of identical to design to the American interpretation of Godzilla, attacks Sydney, Australia. It is later killed by the "true" Godzilla from a hit to the tail, and its radioactive breath.

Filmography

Since 1954, there have been 29 official Godzilla films produced. All of these, with the lone exception of the 23rd, were produced by Toho Studios in Japan. (Please note that the titles listed below are Toho's preferred English titles; for further discussion, see Toho Kingdom.)

Yoshimitsu Banno, director of Godzilla vs. Hedorah, has acquired permission to make a 40-minute film for IMAX theaters, and has secured close to complete funding.

Other media

Television

Putting the Godzilla films' suits and effects crew to further use were several Japanese television shows; Ultraman and some shows inspired by it used the suits occasionally for cameos but Godzilla Island primarily followed the further adventures of the kaiju featured in the films.

  • Ultraman
  • Ultra Q
  • Meteor Man Zone
  • Godzilla Island
  • Monster Planet Of Godzilla

The success of the Godzilla franchise has also spawned two U.S. Saturday morning cartoons, both featuring an investigative scientific team who call upon Godzilla as an ally. The series make several homages to the Shōwa films and several antagonist monsters have been inspired by extant Toho creations.

  • The Godzilla Power Hour
  • Godzilla: The Series

Comics

Several manga have been derived from specific Godzilla films, and both Marvel and Dark Horse have published Godzilla comic book series (1977–1979 and 1987–1999, respectively).

Video games

Godzilla and his fellow monsters have appeared in several video games, including:

  • Godzilla: Monster of Monsters
  • Super Godzilla
  • Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee
  • Godzilla: Domination
  • Godzilla: Save the Earth

References in culture

As with any pop culture icon, Godzilla has been parodied, referenced to and homaged in many movies, TV shows, comic books, internet articles, and so on. Here is a partial list of such references:

  • Featured in the Animaniacs short, "Warners and the Beanstalk" where Yakko tells the Giant, "Would you like it in Japan with Godzilla and Rodan?"(a parody of Green Eggs and Ham) The Giant ignores Yakko's offer resulting in Godzilla burning him with his Atomic breath, and Rodan blowing him away.
  • In the last scene of The Simpsons 10th season finale "Thirty Minutes Over Tokyo", Godzilla attacks a plane going from Japan to the USA that the Simpsons are on. Godzilla is distracted by Mothra, Rodan and Gamera, allowing the plane to escape.
Godzilla's cameo in Drawn Together
  • In the episode of the Comedy Central animated reality show parody Drawn Together entitled "Super Nanny", Godzilla plays a minor role as Ling-Ling's conscience (with his size probably meant as a subtle joke to Ling-Ling's cultural responsibility).
  • In The Fairly Oddparents TV movie School's Out: The Musical before the Mayor starts singing it shows Godzilla destroying the city.
  • In Austin Powers in Goldmember, Austin crashes his car into a dinosaur like parade float while in Japan, causing it to roll around the streets uncontrollably. It is identified by a civilian as Godzilla, but another civilian corrects him, stating that it only looks like Godzilla due to copyright issues.
  • Mariah Carey's video for "Boy (I Need You)", which takes place in a futuristic Japanese metropolis, features a yellow, fire-breathing Godzilla-like monster, also brought to life by suitmation.
  • In Olive the Other Reindeer, a show often shown on Cartoon Network during the Christmas season, Olive, Santa, and Santa's reindeer sing a song titled "Merry Christmas After All" while traveling the world delivering presents. However, when they visit Tokyo, Ultraman flies by them, waves, and then starts dancing and singing with Godzilla.
  • There is a Warcraft creature called Gahz'rilla who is a hydra. However, his name gives away that he is a parody of Godzilla.
  • One The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy episode is titled

" Giant Billy and Mandy: All Out Attack"

  • Godzilla has cameoed or inspired likenesses in several other (usually animated) shows:
    • Reign Storm
    • Garfield and Friends
    • Animaniacs
    • Jimmy Neutron
    • Invader Zim
    • Rugrats
    • The Fairly OddParents
  • There is a drink in Malaysia called "Milo Godzilla", consisting of a cup of Milo with ice cream and/or whipped cream on top of it.

Paleontology

At least two prehistoric creatures from the fossil record have been named after Godzilla:

  • Gojirasaurus quayi is a theropod dinosaur that lived in the Triassic Period; a partial skeleton was unearthed in Quay County, New Mexico.
  • Dakosaurus andiniensis, a crocodile from the Jurassic Period, was nicknamed "Godzilla" before being scientifically classified.

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At least two prehistoric creatures from the fossil record have been named after Godzilla:. Recording at 100 Mbits/s, it uses a better color compression method to give better color representation than a standard DV25 or MiniDV cassette and less compression artifacts. " Giant Billy and Mandy: All Out Attack". Broadcast-level HD cameras often record to hard-drives via a raw input/output or to tape or flash disks in formats that support higher bitrates than MiniDV cassettes such a DVCPro HD. Here is a partial list of such references:. All major Camcorder vendors provide camcorders in this segment. As with any pop culture icon, Godzilla has been parodied, referenced to and homaged in many movies, TV shows, comic books, internet articles, and so on. It records MPEG-2TS compressed HDTV video on standard DV media (DV or MiniDV cassette tape) and transfers it using Firewire.

Godzilla and his fellow monsters have appeared in several video games, including:. The standard for consumer/prosumer HDTV acquisition is High-Definition Video (HDV). Several manga have been derived from specific Godzilla films, and both Marvel and Dark Horse have published Godzilla comic book series (1977–1979 and 1987–1999, respectively). Some DVD manufacturers such as Philips are licensing the DivX codec in order to play 720p/1080i content recorded on standard consumer DVD-R discs. The series make several homages to the Shōwa films and several antagonist monsters have been inspired by extant Toho creations. This upconversion process can improve the perceived picture quality of standard-definition video. Saturday morning cartoons, both featuring an investigative scientific team who call upon Godzilla as an ally. These players, however, are not considered to be true HD DVD players since they include only an integrated scaler to upconvert the standard-definition DVD video to high-definition video.

The success of the Godzilla franchise has also spawned two U.S. There are now some DVD players that will output enhanced or high-definition signals from standard-definition DVDs. Putting the Godzilla films' suits and effects crew to further use were several Japanese television shows; Ultraman and some shows inspired by it used the suits occasionally for cameos but Godzilla Island primarily followed the further adventures of the kaiju featured in the films. Although they disagree about physical format technology, both the HD DVD and Blu-ray factions have selected the same three video codecs to be mandatory in their designs: specifically, MPEG-2 Part 2, VC-1, and H.264. Hedorah, has acquired permission to make a 40-minute film for IMAX theaters, and has secured close to complete funding. The Blu-ray format has already gained a majority support from almost every major movie studio in the USA, while the HD DVD format has received support from a smaller consortium of companies, many of whom have also pledged support for Blu-ray anyway. Yoshimitsu Banno, director of Godzilla vs. A more likely possibility is that the PlayStation 3 console (manufactured by Sony, the main advocate of Blu-ray discs) will gain a major lead in sales for Blu-ray players when it launches in 2006.

(Please note that the titles listed below are Toho's preferred English titles; for further discussion, see Toho Kingdom.). A possible outcome of a messy format war could be the emergence of combo players, as the physical disc sizes are identical. All of these, with the lone exception of the 23rd, were produced by Toho Studios in Japan. As a result, this will likely lead to certain films becoming available only on one format. Since 1954, there have been 29 official Godzilla films produced. Both sides of the HD disc camp are likely to leverage studio partners against each other through exclusive arrangements. It is later killed by the "true" Godzilla from a hit to the tail, and its radioactive breath. A format war is now very likely between the DVD Forum's HD DVD (formerly "Advanced Optical Disc") standard and the Blu-ray Disc Association's Blu-ray disc standard.

In Godzilla: Final Wars (2004) a kaiju named Zilla, of identical to design to the American interpretation of Godzilla, attacks Sydney, Australia. Recently, the DVD Forum and the Blu-ray Disc Association failed to agree on standards for high-definition 12-cm discs. The monster that had appeared in New York was not, in fact, Godzilla, but an entirely different yet similar monster. It was unclear to On2 and the arbitrator whether the Chinese government ever approved the EVD proposal as a standard. The Gotham attack was referred to in the 2001 movie Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack. On2 filed multiple breach of contract claims for arbitration, but in March of 2005 the arbitrator ruled that E-World had not broken the contract and owed nothing to On2. In response to negative fan reaction to the 1998 American Godzilla film, Toho inserted derogatory references to the American film and creature design in two of its Millennium movies. Soon after the announcement that VP6 would be used on EVD, negotiations between On2 and E-World (the consortium pushing EVD to become a standard) broke down.

The exceptions: In Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack and in the VS series, he was 60 meters to 80, and in Godzilla: Final Wars and Godzilla VS Destoroyah, he was 100 meters (he was supposed to be 50 meters in Final Wars, but budgetary cutbacks in miniature sets forced this size change). studio will commit to movies in this format without some form of copy-protection, which is not yet specified. Godzilla's most prominent size in this series is 55 meters. It is unlikely any major U.S. Since the films are different, the sizes are different in some cases. Very few titles were made available in any market for this format, although it is presumed that many would be needed to drive purchase of incompatible players. The common theme to this era is that all movies use Godzilla (1954) as the jumping-off point. A low cost for the codec itself is not a significant advantage over DVD, however, as the standalone hardware players will be incompatible with standard DVD-Video unless the manufacturer pays the royalties for the technologies necessary to make the player DVD-compatible.

The rest follow entirely different timelines. As China starts to dominate manufacturing of TV and DVD units, the country's choice of standards becomes more important for everyone. Only two of the films in this era, Godzilla Against Mechagodzilla and Godzilla: Tokyo SOS, are directly related to one another. As an advantage, VP6 would not require royalties on recorded media (although royalties would be charged for player devices at a similar cost as for other codecs). Unlike the previous two series, this era does not feature a continuous timeline. As reported, this was a result of China's desire to avoid royalties on WM9 or AVC. Destoroyah. VP6 was reported by On2 to have been chosen by China for use in the Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) format initiative.

The Millennium Series is the official term for the series of Godzilla movies, unofficially called the "Shinsei Series" (or even the "Alternate Reality Series") by American fans, made after the VS Series ended with Godzilla vs. H.264 is also used by some for encoding video podcasts. Examples of this changed behavior include the American Godzilla running away and hiding from the military instead of fighting, a lack of radioactive fire-breath, the laying of eggs by Godzilla, and the ease with which the monster is dispatched by the military at the end of the film. Since many movie trailers are released in QuickTime format, when movie distributors started releasing HD trailers on the web the format they chose was H.264. Also, the behavior of the American Godzilla is viewed as running contrary to the long-established Japanese Godzilla traditions. H.264 has made significant progress towards becoming a widespread video format on the internet thanks to Apple Computer's QuickTime software supporting the format as of version 7. Instead, he resembles a gigantic bipedal iguana or Komodo dragon. Example of broadcasters concerns.

The Godzilla in this movie is almost entirely computer-animated, and bears little resemblance in look or manner to his Japanese counterpart. However, this is currently a rumour and has not yet been challenged. However, the biggest change is in the Godzilla character itself. In fact, there is some concern in the community that Microsoft may have appropriated itself the H.264 standard, modified and improved upon it and are trying to resell the solution as VC-1, without providing dues to the MPEG-LA. Another is that it is produced by a different company. The main areas of dominance of VC-1 seem currently to be in the Blu-Ray DVD (HD DVD have not yet announced support for VC-1) and, for obvious reason, the home PCs. The most obvious is that the American movie restarts the saga from the beginning, setting the main action in New York City. It has been thought for a while that VC-1 was better adapted for the IPTV world than H.264, but press announcements have also already been made by some of the largest STB manufacturers like Amino, Pace, Kreatel demonstrating solutions based on H.264 standards.

GINO is so called for multiple reasons. So far, only a handful of very minor broadcasters are seriously considering VC-1. The monster in the 1998 film has since been dubbed GINO (Godzilla In Name Only) by many Godzilla fans. H.264 was chosen for several reasons: The standard was validated as an open standard at least a year before VC-1 was seriously considered as a potential open standard, and, then, there is a lot of uncertainty on the levies Microsoft may want to impose once the algorithm is adopted. Set in New York City and produced by Columbia Pictures, this movie is not considered to be part of any of the three eras of the Godzilla series. H.264 as a standard has already been selected and adopted by the biggest broadcasters in the USA (DirecTV, DISH Network) and Europe (BSkyB, Premiere, Canal+, TPS, ...). In the 1998 film, Godzilla had been a reptile mutated after a French atomic test, on a French Polynesian island. Other codecs are in contention such as AVC (MPEG-4 part 10, also known as H.264, approved by the ITU-T and MPEG standards bodies in early-2003) and the VP6 and now VP7 codecs from On2 Technologies.

The $136 million US boxoffice fell far short of marketing expectations, thus the film is generally viewed as a failure despite turning a profit worldwide. The codec has been submitted to SMPTE and is in SMPTE's standardization process with an intent for it to become an official SMPTE standard known as VC-1 in the near-future. Despite being one of the highest grossing films of the year when factoring in overseas profits, the film was widely panned by cult followers of the Godzilla franchise, critics on both sides of the Pacific, and movie-goers in general. As of the start of 2005, Microsoft recommends a 3.0 GHz processor with 512 MB of RAM and a 128-MB video card for 1080p playback on Windows XP, though they are now commercially available DVD players, like the KiSS DP-600, that will play back WMV HD DVD ROMs in high definition on HDTV sets. The only Godzilla movie not made by Toho is the 1998 film Godzilla, directed by Roland Emmerich. Since then, more titles have become available in this format, such as the acclaimed surf documentary Step Into Liquid. Hence, The Return of Godzilla brought the series back to form. As of November 2003, this format required a significant amount of processing power to encode and decode and the only commercially-available movie that used the codec was the Terminator 2: Extreme Edition DVD (see 1).

However, the further Godzilla was taken away from his roots, the less popular he became. It remains to be seen if the codec will be adopted for widespread use, if only as a Wi-Fi industry standard. When it was discovered that Godzilla was popular with children, sequels were toned down in obvious screen violence, and Godzilla was made out to be a good guy instead of an indestructible, abhorrent mistake of men. Microsoft is marketing its high-definition Windows Media 9 Series codec as WMV HD. The reason for the continuity shift was based on a realization that the marketing of the movies had removed the reason it was so loved. In an attempt to provide a bitrate-compatible high-definition format for high-definition video on standard DVD-ROMs, Microsoft introduced their Windows Media 9 Series codec with the ability to compress a high-definition bitstream into the same space as a conventional NTSC bitstream (approximately 5 to 9 megabits per second for 720p and higher). Destoroyah after a run of seven films. It is expected to have a big impact on the HDTV market.

Known as the VS Series, (unofficially known to American fans as the "Heisei Series", for the ruling emperor of the time), the continuity ended in 1995's Godzilla vs. Sony will include a Blu-ray player in PlayStation 3, and it will be released during 2006. The timeline was revamped in 1984 with The Return of Godzilla; this movie was created as a direct sequel to the 1954 film, and ignores the continuity of the Showa series. Blu-ray uses a blue-laser optical disc with an MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 codec. The American release Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956) incorrectly stated Godzilla's height to be 400 feet, an inaccuracy that lingers today. Blu-ray technology is currently available only in Japan with a Japanese satellite/terrestrial tuner, but is expected to be released in other world markets in 2006. In all films of this original series, Godzilla was 50 meters tall, and weighed 20,000 tons. HD programming may be recorded on optical disc using Blu-ray or on HD DVD.

This period featured a rough continuity, although the chronology is confused, as some of the later movies were set in an arbitrary future time, often 1999. D-Theater is currently a small niche market even within the niche HDTV community, and it appears as if the final D-Theater title was published in 2004. The Showa period saw the addition of many monsters into the Godzilla continuity, three of which (Mothra, Rodan and Varan) had their own solo movies, as well as a movie for the Toho-ized King Kong. This format is superior to broadcast HDTV due to its higher bandwidth and, of course, the ability to do non-realtime optimization of the encoding, which is not possible with broadcast HDTV. The films Son of Godzilla and All Monsters Attack were aimed largely at youthful audiences, featuring the appearance of Godzilla's son, Minya. Comprising less than 100 titles and utilizing a 28-Mbit/s MPEG2 stream at 720p or 1080i with either Dolby Digital 5.1 or DTS encoding, D-Theater is an encrypted D-VHS format, and only D-Theater capable D-VHS players can play back these tapes. Starting with Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (made 10 years after the first Godzilla film), Godzilla became a semi-playful antihero, and as years went by, he evolved into an anthropomorphic superhero. Aside from scarce Japanese analog MUSE-encoded laser discs that are no longer produced, as of 2005 the only current available prerecorded HD media is D-Theater.

Godzilla, which had the highest ticket sales of any Godzilla movie. This encryption can prevent someone from recording content at all or simply limit the number of copies. This tendency started with King Kong vs. This content is protected by encryption known as 5C. Godzilla, this period also featured a somewhat more lighthearted Godzilla. As of July 2004, boxes are not included in the FCC mandate. With the exception of the serious Godzilla (1954) and the semi-serious sequels Godzilla Raids Again and Mothra vs. None of the DBS providers have offered this feature on any of their supported boxes.

This Showa timeline spanned from 1954, with Godzilla (1954), to 1975, with Terror of Mechagodzilla. As part of the FCC's "plug and play" agreement, cable companies are required to provide customers that rent HD set-top boxes with a set-top box with "functional" Firewire (IEEE 1394) upon request. The initial series of movies is named for the Showa period in Japan (as all of these films were produced before Emperor Hirohito's death in 1989). Analog tape recorders with bandwidth capable of recording analog HD signals such as W-VHS recorders are no longer produced for the consumer market and are both expensive and scarce in the secondary market. The Godzilla series is generally broken into three eras, reflecting the broader division of daikaiju eiga into the Shōwa era, Heisei era, and Millennium era. Realtime MPEG-2 compression of an uncompressed digital HDTV signal is also prohibitively expensive for the consumer market at this time, but should become inexpensive within several years (although this is more relevant for consumer HD camcorders than recording HDTV). Godzilla would go on to inspire Gorgo, Gamera, and many others. However, the massive amount of data storage required to archive uncompressed streams make it unlikely that an uncompressed storage option will appear in the consumer market soon.

The Japanese version of Godzilla was greatly inspired by the commercial success of King Kong, and the 1953 success of The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms. D-VHS digitally records a 28.2-Mbit stream onto a classic VHS tape, using a FireWire (IEEE 1394) digital transport to carry a compressed MPEG-2 Transport Stream from the tuning device to the recorder. Such an ability was used in Godzilla, Mothra, King Ghidorah; where Godzilla's heart beats after Godzilla explodes. In the U.S., the only current archival option is D-VHS. This would make it possible for Godzilla to continue indefinitely, even though he appears to die. HDTV can be recorded to D-VHS (Data-VHS), W-VHS, to an HDTV-capable digital video recorder such as DirecTV's high-definition TiVo or Dish Network's DVR 921 or 942, or to a computer equipped with an HDTV capture card. In Godzilla 2000, it is discussed that Godzilla possesses a component known as "Organizer G-1", or "Regenerator G-1" in the English version of the film, which allows him to heal from any wound, possibly even regenerate himself from mere fragments. Lower-resolution sources like regular DVDs may be upscaled to the native resolution of the TV.

In the subsequent films, another of Godzilla's species take his place or Godzilla simply doesn't stay dead (there is some debate about this). An HDTV-compatible TV usually uses a 16:9 aspect ratio display with an integrated ATSC tuner. Nonetheless, Gojira - or Godzilla - returned in a series of films, all from Toho. In the United States, HDTV specifications are defined by the ATSC. Serizawa's oxygen destroyer, killed Godzilla at the end of the first movie, dissolving his flesh and bone into nothingness. Viewers without HDTV sets will continue to receive their television programming through analog transmission approaches. The deoxygenation of Tokyo bay, caused by Dr. Viewers with HDTV sets will receive picture resolution six times sharper than standard definition analog sets.

On his 50th (Japanese) birthday, on 29 November 2004, Godzilla got a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In January 2006, Televisa's XEFB-TV and Multimedios' XHAW-TV in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon began HDTV transmissions on UHF channels 48 and 50, respectively. Creator and producer Tomoyuki Tanaka accepted on his behalf via satellite but was joined by "Godzilla" himself. San Antonio in Tijuana, Mexico with 403,000 watts, directed primarily northward at San Diego. Destoroyah, Godzilla received an award for Lifetime Achievement at the MTV Movie Awards. This affiliate of the American Fox TV Network is on UHF channel 23 broadcasting from Mt. In 1996, after his then-final appearance in Godzilla vs. XETV in Tijuana, Baja California - across the border from San Diego, California - is on the air in HDTV using 720p format.

The creature also made an appearance in a Nike commercial, in which Godzilla went one-on-one with NBA star Charles Barkley. And one retailer, Elektra, started shipping televisions with HDTV receivers to support this broadcast. The Blue Öyster Cult song "Godzilla" also contributed to the popularity of the movies. Also, TV Azteca has planned to broadcast the Mexican football tournament in HDTV. Sony currently holds some of those rights, as well as the rights to every Godzilla film produced from 1991 onward. Phase Two of the national rollout will bring HDTV services to six additional cities (Matamoros, Reynosa, Nuevo Laredo, Ciudad Juarez, Mexicali and Tijuana) through the first half of 2006. The American company UPA contracted with Toho to distribute its monster movies of the time, and UPA continues to hold the license today for the Godzilla films of the 1960s and 1970s. By the third quarter of 2006, HDTV transmissions will be available in Mexico City, Guadalajara and Monterrey.

Much of Godzilla's popularity in the United States can be credited with TV broadcasts of the Toho Studios monster movies during the 1960s and 1970s. The launch will be carried out in two phases. Toho immediately followed it with 1999's Godzilla 2000: Millennium, which began the current series of films, known informally as the Mireniamu or Millennium series. In 2005, TV Azteca signed a deal with Harris Corporation's broadcast communications division for digital TV transmitters and HDTV encoding equipment to bring high-definition TV to nine Mexican cities. All but one of the 29 films were produced by Toho: a version was made in 1998 by TriStar Pictures and set in the United States by the directors of Independence Day (ID4) and is somewhat despised by most Godzilla fans. During the first half of 2005, at least one cable provider in Mexico City (Cablevision) has begun to offer 5 HDTV channels to subscribers purchasing a digital video recorder (DVR). Films have been made over the last five decades, each reflecting the social and political climate in Japan. Some events are now broadcast in high definition.

Some have pointed out the parallels, conscious or unconscious, between Godzilla's relationship to Japan and that of the United States; first a terrible enemy who causes enormous destruction, but then becoming a good friend and defender in times of peril. Mexican television company Televisa made experimental HDTV broadcasts in the early-1990s, in collaboration with Japan's NHK. The Versus and Millennium Series have largely continued this concept. It is required that at least 10 hours of HD content to be broadcast on a weekly basis during the first year of commercial digital service. The radioactive contamination of the Japanese fishing boat Daigo Fukuryu Maru through the United States' Castle Bravo thermonuclear device test on Bikini Atoll, on March 1, 1954 lead to much press coverage in Japan preceding the release of the first movie in 1954. From 2005, digital services are available in all the country. Godzilla was originally an allegory for the effects of the hydrogen bomb, and the unintended consequences that such weapons might have on Earth. After a long controversy between the government and broadcasters, ATSC was chosen over DVB-T.

As a result, the monster came to be known as "Godzilla" also in Japan (the belief that American distributors were responsible for the name "Godzilla" is a misconception, since Toho came up with the name for international markets to begin with). It is reported that two million HD receivers have been sold in Japan already. In 1956, it was adapted by an American company into Godzilla, King of the Monsters (based on Toho's international title), edited and with added, principal scenes featuring Raymond Burr, and this version became an international success. Japan terrestrial broadcast of HD via ISDB-T started in December 2003. Gojira was first released in the United States in 1955 in Japanese-American communities only, under Toho's international title, Godzilla. The old system is not compatible with the new digital standards. But since Gojira was neither a gorilla nor a whale, the name "Gojira" was devised in a different way for the film's story; Gojira's name was "originally" spelled in katakana (呉爾羅). Japan had pioneered HDTV for decades with an analog implementation.

The name was allegedly originally a nickname of a large worker at Toho Studios. The purpose of the label is create a single norm to simplify the purchase of a HDTV in Europe. The name "Gojira" is a combination of gorira which means "gorilla" and kujira, which means "whale" in Japanese. A label "HD-ready" has been created to inform consumers of the benefits of High Definition. the first Godzilla movie always appilies to all Subsequent movies, most of the time the creature is described as prehistoric, often a surviving dinosaur, and its first attacks on Japan are linked to atomic testing in the Pacific Ocean, including but not limited to using nuclear mutation as an explanation for the creature's great size and strange powers. Although most of these channesl are pay tv, there are some free to air hd stations available(Prosieben & Sat 1), as well as technical transmissions by satellite. . As for 2006, there has been a slow but steady increase in the number of HD channels available to european viewers in many countries.

Although much of Godzilla's significance as an anti-war symbol has been lost in the transition to pop culture, the nuclear breath remains as a visual vestige of the creature's early Cold War politics. Commercial HDTV services began in 2004 with Euro1080, an Belgian MPEG2/DVB-S pay channel. The earliest two Godzilla films visually and thematically evoke the US bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the aftermath and human damage of Godzilla's attacks. CBC officially launched HDTV programming on March 5, 2005. Godzilla is characterized as amphibious, nearly indestructible and highly regenerative, and breathing a sort of nuclear fire or "heat-ray". as of early-2005. (For a list of these films, see below.). CHUM Limited's Citytv in Toronto was the first HDTV broadcaster in Canada, however very few shows are shown in HDTV beyond the well-known ones such as CSI, ER, etc.

A new film is slated to be produced by Advanced Audiovisual Productions. Other networks are continuing to announce availability of HD signals. In 1998 TriStar Pictures produced a nominal remake of the original set in contemporary New York city. Global joined the crowd in late-2004. To date, Toho has produced 28 Godzilla films. They were also the first to broadcast a terrestrial HD digital ATSC signal in Canada. Godzilla (ゴジラ - Gojira) is a giant Japanese movie monster (kaiju) first seen in the 1954 Japanese tokusatsu film Gojira, produced by Toho Film Company Ltd. CTV Toronto broadcast in HD along with its western counterpart, BC CTV.

Dakosaurus andiniensis, a crocodile from the Jurassic Period, was nicknamed "Godzilla" before being scientifically classified. stations plus some PBS feeds and a couple of pay-TV movie channels. Gojirasaurus quayi is a theropod dinosaur that lived in the Triassic Period; a partial skeleton was unearthed in Quay County, New Mexico. Bell ExpressVu, a Canadian satellite company, Rogers Cable and Videotron provide somewhat more than 21 HDTV channels to their subscribers including TSN HD, SportsNet HD, Discovery HD (Canadian Edition), The Movie Network HD, and several U.S. There is a drink in Malaysia called "Milo Godzilla", consisting of a cup of Milo with ice cream and/or whipped cream on top of it. In Canada, on November 22, 2003, CBC had their first broadcast in HD, in the form of the Heritage Classic outdoor NHL game between the Edmonton Oilers and the Montreal Canadiens. The Fairly OddParents. A complete testbed is expected for 2006 (see http://sbtvd.cpqd.com.br/ for updates).

Rugrats. Brazilian universities, research and government institutions are discussing the best policies for a digital television system for use in Brazil. Invader Zim. However, most Australian DTV broadcasters are still experimenting with HDTV transmission and DTV delivery. Jimmy Neutron. Most cities in Australia that have a population of 40,000 or greater have at least one terrestrial DTV channel available (for example, Albany, Western Australia, has had DTV available for almost a year as of May, 2005). Animaniacs. Australia started HD broadcasting in January 2001, but only in August 2003 was HD content mandated.

Garfield and Friends. See also: COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 92/38/EEC of 11 May 1992. Reign Storm. The HD-MAC standard was abandoned in 1993, and since then all EU and EBU efforts have focused on the DVB system (Digital Video Broadcasting), which allows both SDTV and HDTV. Godzilla has cameoed or inspired likenesses in several other (usually animated) shows:

    . Thus, analogue HDTV could not replace conventional SDTV (terrestrial) PAL/SECAM, making HD-MAC sets unattractive to potential consumers. One The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy episode is titled. HD-MAC could be used only by cable and satellite providers, where there is a wider bandwidth available.

    However, his name gives away that he is a parody of Godzilla. Another reason for HD-MAC's failure is that it was not realistic to use 36 MHz for a high-definition signal in terrestrial broadcasting (SDTV uses 6-, 7- (VHF), or 8-MHz (UHF)). There is a Warcraft creature called Gahz'rilla who is a hydra. HD-MAC (the high-definition variant of MAC) was left for transcontinental satellite links, however. However, when they visit Tokyo, Ultraman flies by them, waves, and then starts dancing and singing with Godzilla. Owing to the advance of technology and the launch of middle-powered satellites by SES Astra, broadcasters could avoid MAC, and lower transmission costs. In Olive the Other Reindeer, a show often shown on Cartoon Network during the Christmas season, Olive, Santa, and Santa's reindeer sing a song titled "Merry Christmas After All" while traveling the world delivering presents. It was required that all high-powered satellite broadcasters use MAC from that year.

    Mariah Carey's video for "Boy (I Need You)", which takes place in a futuristic Japanese metropolis, features a yellow, fire-breathing Godzilla-like monster, also brought to life by suitmation. However, it never became popular among broadcasters. It is identified by a civilian as Godzilla, but another civilian corrects him, stating that it only looks like Godzilla due to copyright issues. The European Commission established a European standard for uncompressed digital HDTV in a 1986 directive (MAC). In Austin Powers in Goldmember, Austin crashes his car into a dinosaur like parade float while in Japan, causing it to roll around the streets uncontrollably. It broadcasts the same programs as BS-digital channel 103, but will end sometime in 2007. In The Fairly Oddparents TV movie School's Out: The Musical before the Mayor starts singing it shows Godzilla destroying the city. Though Japan has since switched to a digital HDTV system based on ISDB, the original MUSE-based BS Satellite channel 9 (NHK BS Hi-vision) is still being broadcast.

    In the episode of the Comedy Central animated reality show parody Drawn Together entitled "Super Nanny", Godzilla plays a minor role as Ling-Ling's conscience (with his size probably meant as a subtle joke to Ling-Ling's cultural responsibility). The Japanese MUSE system, developed by NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories (STRL) in the 1980s, employed filtering tricks to reduce the original source signal to decrease bandwidth utilization. Godzilla is distracted by Mothra, Rodan and Gamera, allowing the plane to escape. Japan began broadcasting analog HDTV signals in the early 1990s using an interlaced resolution of 1035 lines (1035i). In the last scene of The Simpsons 10th season finale "Thirty Minutes Over Tokyo", Godzilla attacks a plane going from Japan to the USA that the Simpsons are on. Japan has the earliest working HDTV system still in use, with design efforts going back to 1979. Featured in the Animaniacs short, "Warners and the Beanstalk" where Yakko tells the Giant, "Would you like it in Japan with Godzilla and Rodan?"(a parody of Green Eggs and Ham) The Giant ignores Yakko's offer resulting in Godzilla burning him with his Atomic breath, and Rodan blowing him away. It was transmitted only on VHF channels, and a French 819-line TV channel occupied 14 MHz of bandwidth.

    Godzilla: Save the Earth. It was used only for black-and-white TV; color TV in 819-line SECAM never went beyond the experimental stage. Godzilla: Domination. It was discontinued in 1986. Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee. The French "755i" 819-line HDTV system was used in only France, Belgium and Monaco, and in France only for the first French TV channel. Super Godzilla. When, in the late-1960s, a second TV channel and color TV were introduced in Europe, the UK dropped its 405-line TV system (completely in 1985) and France dropped its 819-line system, making all European countries agree to use 625 lines (576i) for their TV transmissions.

    Godzilla: Monster of Monsters. The French 819-line (or 755i) HDTV system was introduced in the 1950s. Godzilla: The Series. The French TV system thus became the world's first HDTV system, and, by today's standards, the French system could be called 755i (not all lines could be used for the actual image — some lines were lost during the vertical retrace). The Godzilla Power Hour. The UK used 405 lines, most other countries 625 lines (both numbers include the vertical gap, the actual resolution were lower), but France decided in 1948 to go for 819 lines. Monster Planet Of Godzilla. in the late-1940s and early-1950s, different countries used different resolutions.

    Godzilla Island. When Europe resumed TV transmissions after WWII, i.e. Meteor Man Zone. Most professionals in 3D technology foresee greater use of stereo visuals and animation as HDTV becomes the norm. Ultra Q. The Discovery HD channel has already provided a small amount of science programing in 3D. Ultraman. A number of 3D stereoscopic major animation films like Polar Express, Disney's Chicken Little and 6 more scheduled for 2006 release, will be likely to be sold for home display in one or more of the new HD disk systems in 3D.

    He can release a powerful atomic energy beam, usually blue but in some films red, from his mouth (which is ominously signalled when his dorsal fins glow/flash in the same color as the atomic beam). For more technical details see the articles on HDV, ATSC, DVB, and ISDB, respectively. He is virtually indestructible, impervious to all modern weaponry. New HD compression and recording formats such as HDV use rectanglar pixels for more efficient compression and to open HDTV aquisition for the consumer market. His iconic design (a charcoal-colored monster-like figure with small pointed ears, rough bumpy scales, powerful tail, and bony colored dorsal fins shaped like maple leaves). The pixel aspect ratio of native HD signals is 1.0, or 1 pixel length = 1 pixel width. HDTV is capable of "theater-quality" audio because it uses the Dolby Digital (AC-3) format to support "5.1" surround sound.

    Recommended receiver is Humax PR-HD 1000, but others are announced as well as PCI cards. Some German broadcasters already use MPEG-4 together with DVB-S2 (ProSieben, Sat1 and Three Premiere Channels). Some broadcasters also plan to use MPEG-4. Although MPEG-2 supports up to 4:2:2 YUV chroma subsampling and 10-bit quantization, HD broadcasts use 4:2:0 and 8-bit quantization to save bandwidth.

    MPEG-2 is most commonly used as the compression codec for digital HDTV broadcasts. NBC, Universal-HD (both owned by General Electric), CBS, HBO-HD, INHD, HDNet and TNT currently broadcast 1080i content. In North America, Fox, ABC, and ESPN (ABC and ESPN are both owned by Disney) currently broadcast 720p content. An LCD capable of native 1080i resolution still costs over a thousand US dollars.

    720p appears at full resolution on a common 1280x1024 LCD, which can be found for under $250. 720p Video also has lower storage and decoding requirements than 1080i or 1080p, and few people possess displays capable of displaying the 1920x1080 resolution without scaling. In addition, 720p is used more often with internet distribution of HD video, as all computer monitors are progressive, and most graphics cards do a sub-optimal job of de-interlacing video in real time. In general, 720p is more appropriate for fast action as it uses progressive fields, as opposed to 1080i which uses interlaced fields and thus can have a degredation of image quality with fast motion.

    The format depends on the broadcast company if destined for television broadcast, however in other scenarios the format choice will vary depending on a variety of factors. Noncinematic HDTV video recordings are recorded in either 720p or 1080i format. (See also: Deinterlacing). These may be upconverted to a higher resolution format (720i), but removing the interlace to match the common 720p format may distort the picture or require filtering which actually reduces the resolution of the final output.

    Older (pre-HDTV) recordings on video tape such as Betacam SP are often either in the form 480i60 or 576i50. (See also: Telecine). One film frame is held for three video fields, (1/20 of a second) and then the next is held for two video fields (1/30 of a second) and then the process repeats, thus achieving the correct film rate with two film frames shown in 1/12 of a second. In countries using the NTSC standard, (60 fps) a technique called 3:2 pulldown is used.

    When shown on television in countries using PAL, film must be converted to 25 frames per second by speeding it up by 4%. Depending on the available bandwidth and the amount of detail and movement in the picture, the optimum format for video transfer is thus either 720p24 or 1080p24. Photographic film destined for the theatre typically has a high resolution and is photographed at 24 frame/s. The lossy compression that is used in all digital HDTV systems will then cause the picture to be distorted.

    On the other hand, a very high resolution may require more bandwidth than is available. The field and frame rate should match the source, as should the resolution. The optimum format for a broadcast depends on the type of media used for the recording and the characteristics of the content. In addition, the technical standards for broadcasting HDTV are also able to handle 16:9 aspect ratio pictures without using letterboxing, thus further increasing the effective resolution for such content.

    HDTV has at least twice the resolution of SDTV, thus allowing much more detail to be shown compared to analog television or regular DVD. The most common are:. Most HDTV systems support some standard resolutions and frame or field rates. For example 24p means 24 progressive frames per second and 50i means 25 interlaced frames per second.

    A frame or field rate can also be specified without a resolution. It can then usually be assumed to be either 50 or 60, except for 1080p which is only supported as 1080p24, 1080p25 or 1080p30 by consumer HDTV displays. Often the frame or field rate is left out. The format 1080i50 is 1920 × 1080 pixels, interlaced encoding with 50 fields (25 frames) per second.

    For example, the format 720p60 is 1280 × 720 pixels, progressive encoding with 60 frames per second. In the context of HDTV, the formats of the broadcasts are referred to using a notation describing:. . This is a confusing use of the terms HD and HDTV.

    Even HD-ready sets do not necessarily have enough pixels to display video to the 1080-line (1920x1080) or 720-line (1280x720) HD standards in full resolution without interpolation, and HD-compatible sets are often just standard-definition sets with an HDMI input. They indicate that a TV or display is able to accept video over an HDMI connection, using a new connector design, the main purpose of which seems to be to ensure that digital video is only passed over an interface which, by agreement, incorporates copyright protection. The terms HD ready and HD compatible are being used around the industrial world for marketing purposes. The world used analog PAL, NTSC, SECAM and other standards for over half a century.

    Most patents were expiring by the end of World War II leaving the market wide open and no worldwide standard for television agreed upon. It was patent interference lawsuits and deployment issues given the tumultuous financial climate of the late 20's and 30's. Farnsworth, John Logie Baird and Vladimir Zworkin had each developed competing TV systems but resolution was not the issue that separated their substantially different technologies. Historically, the term high-definition television was also used to refer to television standards developed in the 1930s to replace the early experimental systems, although, not so long afterwards, Philo T.

    Except for early analog formats in Europe and Japan, HDTV is broadcast digitally, and therefore its introduction sometimes coincides with the introduction of digital television (DTV). High-definition television (HDTV) means broadcast of television signals with a higher resolution than traditional formats (NTSC, SÉCAM, PAL) allow. TV Azteca Plans HDTV Mexican Rollout. High Definition (HD) Image Formats for Television Production, technical report from the EBU.

    High Definition for Europe - a progressive approach, article from the EBU technical review . Images formats for HDTV, article from the EBU technical review . DVB HDTV standard. DTV channel protection ratios.

    United States Federal Standard 1037C. MUSE had a bit-reduced stereo audio transmission system that was notable in its design as it was not psychoacoustical like Musicam. Considering the technological limitations of the time, MUSE was a very cleverly-designed analog system. Whole-camera pans would result in a loss of 50% of horizontal resolution.

    Stationary images were transmitted at full resolution. Moving images were thus blurred in a manner similar to using 16mm movie film for HDTV projection. In the typical setup, three picture elements on a line were actually derived from three separate scans. The increased clarity, and detail make larger screen sizes more comfortable and pleasing to watch.

    Both systems will usually play current DVDs, and attempt to extract a near-HDTV-quality image from them, but they are not compatible with each other. One is called HD DVD, the other is Blu-ray. Two new pre-recorded disc formats will be available in spring 2006. The gaps between scaning lines are smaller or gone.

    The visual information is about 2-5 times more detailed overall. The colors will generally look more realistic, due to the cleaner signal. Most HD programming and films will be presented in the 16x9 proportioned, semi-widescreen format (though some films created in even wider ratios will still display "letterbox" bars on the top and bottom of even 16:9 sets.) Older films and programming that retain their 4:3 ratio display will be presented in a version of letterbox commonly called "pillar box", displaying bars on the right and left of 16:9 sets (rendering the term "fullscreen" a misnomer.) Or, one can usually choose to enlarge the image to fill the screen, however this option will display a distorted, stretched-out picture. You would never get a snowy, washed out, image, or vertical rolling.

    All commercial HD is digital, so the signal will either deliver a good picture, a picture with large pixelation, a series of frozen pictures, or no picture. 60i (NTSC). 50i (PAL). 60p.

    50p. 30p. 25p. 24p (cinematic film).

    NTSC is typically 720x480. Number of frames or fields per second. Progressive frames (p) or interlaced fields (i). The number of lines in the display resolution.

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