Godzilla

Godzilla, as portrayed during the late Heisei era (Godzilla vs. SpaceGodzilla, 1994)

Godzilla (ゴジラ - Gojira) is a giant Japanese movie monster (kaiju) first seen in the 1954 Japanese tokusatsu film Gojira, produced by Toho Film Company Ltd. To date, Toho has produced 28 Godzilla films. In 1998 TriStar Pictures produced a nominal remake of the original set in contemporary New York city. A new film is slated to be produced by Advanced Audiovisual Productions. (For a list of these films, see below.)

Godzilla is characterized as amphibious, nearly indestructible and highly regenerative, and breathing a sort of nuclear fire or "heat-ray". The earliest two Godzilla films visually and thematically evoke the US bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the aftermath and human damage of Godzilla's attacks. Although much of Godzilla's significance as an anti-war symbol has been lost in the transition to pop culture, the nuclear breath remains as a visual vestige of the creature's early Cold War politics.

History

Origins

the first Godzilla movie always appilies to all Subsequent movies, most of the time the creature is described as prehistoric, often a surviving dinosaur, and its first attacks on Japan are linked to atomic testing in the Pacific Ocean, including but not limited to using nuclear mutation as an explanation for the creature's great size and strange powers.

  • His iconic design (a charcoal-colored monster-like figure with small pointed ears, rough bumpy scales, powerful tail, and bony colored dorsal fins shaped like maple leaves).
  • He is virtually indestructible, impervious to all modern weaponry.
  • He can release a powerful atomic energy beam, usually blue but in some films red, from his mouth (which is ominously signalled when his dorsal fins glow/flash in the same color as the atomic beam).

The name "Gojira" is a combination of gorira which means "gorilla" and kujira, which means "whale" in Japanese. The name was allegedly originally a nickname of a large worker at Toho Studios. But since Gojira was neither a gorilla nor a whale, the name "Gojira" was devised in a different way for the film's story; Gojira's name was "originally" spelled in katakana (呉爾羅).

Gojira was first released in the United States in 1955 in Japanese-American communities only, under Toho's international title, Godzilla. In 1956, it was adapted by an American company into Godzilla, King of the Monsters (based on Toho's international title), edited and with added, principal scenes featuring Raymond Burr, and this version became an international success. As a result, the monster came to be known as "Godzilla" also in Japan (the belief that American distributors were responsible for the name "Godzilla" is a misconception, since Toho came up with the name for international markets to begin with).

Culture

Godzilla was originally an allegory for the effects of the hydrogen bomb, and the unintended consequences that such weapons might have on Earth. The radioactive contamination of the Japanese fishing boat Daigo Fukuryu Maru through the United States' Castle Bravo thermonuclear device test on Bikini Atoll, on March 1, 1954 lead to much press coverage in Japan preceding the release of the first movie in 1954. The Versus and Millennium Series have largely continued this concept. Some have pointed out the parallels, conscious or unconscious, between Godzilla's relationship to Japan and that of the United States; first a terrible enemy who causes enormous destruction, but then becoming a good friend and defender in times of peril.

Films have been made over the last five decades, each reflecting the social and political climate in Japan. All but one of the 29 films were produced by Toho: a version was made in 1998 by TriStar Pictures and set in the United States by the directors of Independence Day (ID4) and is somewhat despised by most Godzilla fans. Toho immediately followed it with 1999's Godzilla 2000: Millennium, which began the current series of films, known informally as the Mireniamu or Millennium series.

Much of Godzilla's popularity in the United States can be credited with TV broadcasts of the Toho Studios monster movies during the 1960s and 1970s. The American company UPA contracted with Toho to distribute its monster movies of the time, and UPA continues to hold the license today for the Godzilla films of the 1960s and 1970s. Sony currently holds some of those rights, as well as the rights to every Godzilla film produced from 1991 onward. The Blue Öyster Cult song "Godzilla" also contributed to the popularity of the movies. The creature also made an appearance in a Nike commercial, in which Godzilla went one-on-one with NBA star Charles Barkley.

In 1996, after his then-final appearance in Godzilla vs. Destoroyah, Godzilla received an award for Lifetime Achievement at the MTV Movie Awards. Creator and producer Tomoyuki Tanaka accepted on his behalf via satellite but was joined by "Godzilla" himself.

On his 50th (Japanese) birthday, on 29 November 2004, Godzilla got a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Synopsis

Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

The deoxygenation of Tokyo bay, caused by Dr. Serizawa's oxygen destroyer, killed Godzilla at the end of the first movie, dissolving his flesh and bone into nothingness. Nonetheless, Gojira - or Godzilla - returned in a series of films, all from Toho.

In the subsequent films, another of Godzilla's species take his place or Godzilla simply doesn't stay dead (there is some debate about this). In Godzilla 2000, it is discussed that Godzilla possesses a component known as "Organizer G-1", or "Regenerator G-1" in the English version of the film, which allows him to heal from any wound, possibly even regenerate himself from mere fragments. This would make it possible for Godzilla to continue indefinitely, even though he appears to die. Such an ability was used in Godzilla, Mothra, King Ghidorah; where Godzilla's heart beats after Godzilla explodes.

The Japanese version of Godzilla was greatly inspired by the commercial success of King Kong, and the 1953 success of The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms. Godzilla would go on to inspire Gorgo, Gamera, and many others.

Films

Godzilla fires his atomic ray in Destroy All Monsters (1968).

The Godzilla series is generally broken into three eras, reflecting the broader division of daikaiju eiga into the Shōwa era, Heisei era, and Millennium era.

Shōwa Godzilla Series (昭和ゴジラシリーズ) 1954–1975

The initial series of movies is named for the Showa period in Japan (as all of these films were produced before Emperor Hirohito's death in 1989). This Showa timeline spanned from 1954, with Godzilla (1954), to 1975, with Terror of Mechagodzilla. With the exception of the serious Godzilla (1954) and the semi-serious sequels Godzilla Raids Again and Mothra vs. Godzilla, this period also featured a somewhat more lighthearted Godzilla. This tendency started with King Kong vs. Godzilla, which had the highest ticket sales of any Godzilla movie. Starting with Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (made 10 years after the first Godzilla film), Godzilla became a semi-playful antihero, and as years went by, he evolved into an anthropomorphic superhero. The films Son of Godzilla and All Monsters Attack were aimed largely at youthful audiences, featuring the appearance of Godzilla's son, Minya. The Showa period saw the addition of many monsters into the Godzilla continuity, three of which (Mothra, Rodan and Varan) had their own solo movies, as well as a movie for the Toho-ized King Kong. This period featured a rough continuity, although the chronology is confused, as some of the later movies were set in an arbitrary future time, often 1999.

In all films of this original series, Godzilla was 50 meters tall, and weighed 20,000 tons. The American release Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956) incorrectly stated Godzilla's height to be 400 feet, an inaccuracy that lingers today.

Versus Series or Heisei Series (VSシリーズ) 1984–1995

The timeline was revamped in 1984 with The Return of Godzilla; this movie was created as a direct sequel to the 1954 film, and ignores the continuity of the Showa series. Known as the VS Series, (unofficially known to American fans as the "Heisei Series", for the ruling emperor of the time), the continuity ended in 1995's Godzilla vs. Destoroyah after a run of seven films. The reason for the continuity shift was based on a realization that the marketing of the movies had removed the reason it was so loved. When it was discovered that Godzilla was popular with children, sequels were toned down in obvious screen violence, and Godzilla was made out to be a good guy instead of an indestructible, abhorrent mistake of men. However, the further Godzilla was taken away from his roots, the less popular he became. Hence, The Return of Godzilla brought the series back to form.

American Columbia/TriStar Godzilla film, 1998

The only Godzilla movie not made by Toho is the 1998 film Godzilla, directed by Roland Emmerich. Despite being one of the highest grossing films of the year when factoring in overseas profits, the film was widely panned by cult followers of the Godzilla franchise, critics on both sides of the Pacific, and movie-goers in general. The $136 million US boxoffice fell far short of marketing expectations, thus the film is generally viewed as a failure despite turning a profit worldwide.

In the 1998 film, Godzilla had been a reptile mutated after a French atomic test, on a French Polynesian island. Set in New York City and produced by Columbia Pictures, this movie is not considered to be part of any of the three eras of the Godzilla series.

GINO (Godzilla In Name Only)

The monster in the 1998 film has since been dubbed GINO (Godzilla In Name Only) by many Godzilla fans.

GINO is so called for multiple reasons. The most obvious is that the American movie restarts the saga from the beginning, setting the main action in New York City. Another is that it is produced by a different company. However, the biggest change is in the Godzilla character itself. The Godzilla in this movie is almost entirely computer-animated, and bears little resemblance in look or manner to his Japanese counterpart. Instead, he resembles a gigantic bipedal iguana or Komodo dragon. Also, the behavior of the American Godzilla is viewed as running contrary to the long-established Japanese Godzilla traditions. Examples of this changed behavior include the American Godzilla running away and hiding from the military instead of fighting, a lack of radioactive fire-breath, the laying of eggs by Godzilla, and the ease with which the monster is dispatched by the military at the end of the film.

Millennium Series (ミレニアムシリーズ) 1999–2004

The Millennium Series is the official term for the series of Godzilla movies, unofficially called the "Shinsei Series" (or even the "Alternate Reality Series") by American fans, made after the VS Series ended with Godzilla vs. Destoroyah. Unlike the previous two series, this era does not feature a continuous timeline. Only two of the films in this era, Godzilla Against Mechagodzilla and Godzilla: Tokyo SOS, are directly related to one another. The rest follow entirely different timelines. The common theme to this era is that all movies use Godzilla (1954) as the jumping-off point.

Since the films are different, the sizes are different in some cases. Godzilla's most prominent size in this series is 55 meters. The exceptions: In Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack and in the VS series, he was 60 meters to 80, and in Godzilla: Final Wars and Godzilla VS Destoroyah, he was 100 meters (he was supposed to be 50 meters in Final Wars, but budgetary cutbacks in miniature sets forced this size change).

In response to negative fan reaction to the 1998 American Godzilla film, Toho inserted derogatory references to the American film and creature design in two of its Millennium movies. The Gotham attack was referred to in the 2001 movie Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack. The monster that had appeared in New York was not, in fact, Godzilla, but an entirely different yet similar monster. In Godzilla: Final Wars (2004) a kaiju named Zilla, of identical to design to the American interpretation of Godzilla, attacks Sydney, Australia. It is later killed by the "true" Godzilla from a hit to the tail, and its radioactive breath.

Filmography

Since 1954, there have been 29 official Godzilla films produced. All of these, with the lone exception of the 23rd, were produced by Toho Studios in Japan. (Please note that the titles listed below are Toho's preferred English titles; for further discussion, see Toho Kingdom.)

Yoshimitsu Banno, director of Godzilla vs. Hedorah, has acquired permission to make a 40-minute film for IMAX theaters, and has secured close to complete funding.

Other media

Television

Putting the Godzilla films' suits and effects crew to further use were several Japanese television shows; Ultraman and some shows inspired by it used the suits occasionally for cameos but Godzilla Island primarily followed the further adventures of the kaiju featured in the films.

  • Ultraman
  • Ultra Q
  • Meteor Man Zone
  • Godzilla Island
  • Monster Planet Of Godzilla

The success of the Godzilla franchise has also spawned two U.S. Saturday morning cartoons, both featuring an investigative scientific team who call upon Godzilla as an ally. The series make several homages to the Shōwa films and several antagonist monsters have been inspired by extant Toho creations.

  • The Godzilla Power Hour
  • Godzilla: The Series

Comics

Several manga have been derived from specific Godzilla films, and both Marvel and Dark Horse have published Godzilla comic book series (1977–1979 and 1987–1999, respectively).

Video games

Godzilla and his fellow monsters have appeared in several video games, including:

  • Godzilla: Monster of Monsters
  • Super Godzilla
  • Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee
  • Godzilla: Domination
  • Godzilla: Save the Earth

References in culture

As with any pop culture icon, Godzilla has been parodied, referenced to and homaged in many movies, TV shows, comic books, internet articles, and so on. Here is a partial list of such references:

  • Featured in the Animaniacs short, "Warners and the Beanstalk" where Yakko tells the Giant, "Would you like it in Japan with Godzilla and Rodan?"(a parody of Green Eggs and Ham) The Giant ignores Yakko's offer resulting in Godzilla burning him with his Atomic breath, and Rodan blowing him away.
  • In the last scene of The Simpsons 10th season finale "Thirty Minutes Over Tokyo", Godzilla attacks a plane going from Japan to the USA that the Simpsons are on. Godzilla is distracted by Mothra, Rodan and Gamera, allowing the plane to escape.
Godzilla's cameo in Drawn Together
  • In the episode of the Comedy Central animated reality show parody Drawn Together entitled "Super Nanny", Godzilla plays a minor role as Ling-Ling's conscience (with his size probably meant as a subtle joke to Ling-Ling's cultural responsibility).
  • In The Fairly Oddparents TV movie School's Out: The Musical before the Mayor starts singing it shows Godzilla destroying the city.
  • In Austin Powers in Goldmember, Austin crashes his car into a dinosaur like parade float while in Japan, causing it to roll around the streets uncontrollably. It is identified by a civilian as Godzilla, but another civilian corrects him, stating that it only looks like Godzilla due to copyright issues.
  • Mariah Carey's video for "Boy (I Need You)", which takes place in a futuristic Japanese metropolis, features a yellow, fire-breathing Godzilla-like monster, also brought to life by suitmation.
  • In Olive the Other Reindeer, a show often shown on Cartoon Network during the Christmas season, Olive, Santa, and Santa's reindeer sing a song titled "Merry Christmas After All" while traveling the world delivering presents. However, when they visit Tokyo, Ultraman flies by them, waves, and then starts dancing and singing with Godzilla.
  • There is a Warcraft creature called Gahz'rilla who is a hydra. However, his name gives away that he is a parody of Godzilla.
  • One The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy episode is titled

" Giant Billy and Mandy: All Out Attack"

  • Godzilla has cameoed or inspired likenesses in several other (usually animated) shows:
    • Reign Storm
    • Garfield and Friends
    • Animaniacs
    • Jimmy Neutron
    • Invader Zim
    • Rugrats
    • The Fairly OddParents
  • There is a drink in Malaysia called "Milo Godzilla", consisting of a cup of Milo with ice cream and/or whipped cream on top of it.

Paleontology

At least two prehistoric creatures from the fossil record have been named after Godzilla:

  • Gojirasaurus quayi is a theropod dinosaur that lived in the Triassic Period; a partial skeleton was unearthed in Quay County, New Mexico.
  • Dakosaurus andiniensis, a crocodile from the Jurassic Period, was nicknamed "Godzilla" before being scientifically classified.

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At least two prehistoric creatures from the fossil record have been named after Godzilla:. His autobiography was published in 1934, as An Experiment in Autobiography. " Giant Billy and Mandy: All Out Attack". A partial listing of his works: (Entries marked with an * are available at the Project Gutenberg website.). Here is a partial list of such references:. Lewis' novel That Hideous Strength, the character Jules is a caricature of Wells. As with any pop culture icon, Godzilla has been parodied, referenced to and homaged in many movies, TV shows, comic books, internet articles, and so on. S.

Godzilla and his fellow monsters have appeared in several video games, including:. In C. Several manga have been derived from specific Godzilla films, and both Marvel and Dark Horse have published Godzilla comic book series (1977–1979 and 1987–1999, respectively). Sammler is a Holocaust survivor and a self-made philosopher who treasures his pre-war acquaintance with Wells. The series make several homages to the Shōwa films and several antagonist monsters have been inspired by extant Toho creations. Wells. Saturday morning cartoons, both featuring an investigative scientific team who call upon Godzilla as an ally. G.

The success of the Godzilla franchise has also spawned two U.S. Sammler's Planet is working on a biography of H. Putting the Godzilla films' suits and effects crew to further use were several Japanese television shows; Ultraman and some shows inspired by it used the suits occasionally for cameos but Godzilla Island primarily followed the further adventures of the kaiju featured in the films. Arthur Sammler, the main character of Saul Bellow's Mr. Hedorah, has acquired permission to make a 40-minute film for IMAX theaters, and has secured close to complete funding. The novel The Time Ships, by British author Stephen Baxter, was designated by the Wells estate as an authorised sequel to The Time Machine, marking the centenary of its publication, and features characters, situations and technobabble from several of Wells' stories, as well as a representation of Wells (unnamed, and referred to as 'my friend, the Author'). Yoshimitsu Banno, director of Godzilla vs. He also appears as a character in multiple episodes of Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman.

(Please note that the titles listed below are Toho's preferred English titles; for further discussion, see Toho Kingdom.). He also appears as a character in the novel and motion picture Time After Time, where he chases Jack The Ripper after the latter stole his time machine and escaped to 1979-era San Francisco. All of these, with the lone exception of the 23rd, were produced by Toho Studios in Japan. Wells appears as a character in the Doctor Who serial Timelash. Since 1954, there have been 29 official Godzilla films produced. G. It is later killed by the "true" Godzilla from a hit to the tail, and its radioactive breath. H.

In Godzilla: Final Wars (2004) a kaiju named Zilla, of identical to design to the American interpretation of Godzilla, attacks Sydney, Australia. Wells to dazzle our imaginations with hope and optimism".7. The monster that had appeared in New York was not, in fact, Godzilla, but an entirely different yet similar monster. In his book The Road to Serfdom, Friedrich Hayek, one of the twentieth century's most famous proponents of laissez-faire capitalism, held up Wells in particular as an example of the idealist intellectuals who believed in "the most comprehensive central planning" and could "at the same time, write an ardent defence of the rights of man".6 In later years, however, Wells' image has shifted and he is now thought of simply as one of the pioneers of science fiction; Newt Gingrich, former Speaker of the United States House of Representatives and staunch Republican, praised Wells in his book To Renew America, writing "Our generation is still seeking its Jules Verne or H.G. The Gotham attack was referred to in the 2001 movie Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack. In his lifetime and after his death, Wells was considered a prominent socialist thinker. In response to negative fan reaction to the 1998 American Godzilla film, Toho inserted derogatory references to the American film and creature design in two of its Millennium movies. His last words were, "I'm all right".

The exceptions: In Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack and in the VS series, he was 60 meters to 80, and in Godzilla: Final Wars and Godzilla VS Destoroyah, he was 100 meters (he was supposed to be 50 meters in Final Wars, but budgetary cutbacks in miniature sets forced this size change). One critic complained: "He sold his birthright for a pot of message".5, though The Happy Turning, a short book from 1944, contains a great deal of wit and imagination. Godzilla's most prominent size in this series is 55 meters. His later books are often thought to do more preaching than storytelling or lack the energy and invention of his earlier works. Since the films are different, the sizes are different in some cases. In his later years, he grew increasingly pessimistic about the prospects for humanity (mostly because of the Second World War) as the title of his last book, Mind at the End of its Tether (1945) suggests. The common theme to this era is that all movies use Godzilla (1954) as the jumping-off point. Wells, as president of the International PEN (Poets, Essayists, Novelists), had already angered the Nazis by overseeing the expulsion of the German PEN club from the international body in 1934 following the German PEN's refusal to admit non-Aryan writers to its membership.

The rest follow entirely different timelines. Wells” appeared high on the list for the "crime" of being a socialist. Only two of the films in this era, Godzilla Against Mechagodzilla and Godzilla: Tokyo SOS, are directly related to one another. The name “H.G. Unlike the previous two series, this era does not feature a continuous timeline. Near the end of the Second World War Allied forces discovered that the SS had compiled lists of intellectuals and politicians slated for immediate liquidation upon the invasion of England in the abandoned Operation Sea Lion. Destoroyah. In 1938, he published a collection of essays on the future organisation of knowledge and education, titled World Brain, including the essay The Idea of a Permanent World Encyclopaedia.

The Millennium Series is the official term for the series of Godzilla movies, unofficially called the "Shinsei Series" (or even the "Alternate Reality Series") by American fans, made after the VS Series ended with Godzilla vs. Despite numerous similarities in phrasing and factual errors, the court found Wells not guilty. Examples of this changed behavior include the American Godzilla running away and hiding from the military instead of fighting, a lack of radioactive fire-breath, the laying of eggs by Godzilla, and the ease with which the monster is dispatched by the military at the end of the film. In 1927, Florence Deeks sued Wells for plagiarism, claiming that he had stolen much of the content of The Outline of History from a work, The Web, she had submitted to the Canadian Macmillan Company, but who held onto the manuscript for eight months before rejecting it. Also, the behavior of the American Godzilla is viewed as running contrary to the long-established Japanese Godzilla traditions. Since Barbellion was the real author's pen-name, many reviewers believed Wells to have been the true author of the Journal; Wells always denied this, despite being full of praise for the diaries, but the rumours persisted until Barbellion's death later that year. Instead, he resembles a gigantic bipedal iguana or Komodo dragon. Barbellion's diaries, The Journal of a Disappointed Man, published in 1919.

The Godzilla in this movie is almost entirely computer-animated, and bears little resemblance in look or manner to his Japanese counterpart. P. However, the biggest change is in the Godzilla character itself. N. Another is that it is produced by a different company. Wells also wrote the preface for the first edition of W. The most obvious is that the American movie restarts the saga from the beginning, setting the main action in New York City. Nevertheless his criticism of the increasing rigidity of Stalin's rule meant Wells ultimately decided that on balance the Soviet Union had gone horribly wrong.4.

GINO is so called for multiple reasons. However he did give him some praise saying, "I have never met a man more fair, candid, and honest" and making it clear that he felt the "sinister" image of Stalin was unfair or simply false. The monster in the 1998 film has since been dubbed GINO (Godzilla In Name Only) by many Godzilla fans. He disliked what he saw as a narrow orthodoxy and obdurance to the facts in Stalin. Set in New York City and produced by Columbia Pictures, this movie is not considered to be part of any of the three eras of the Godzilla series. The leadership of Joseph Stalin led to a change in his view of the Soviet Union even though his initial impression of Stalin was mixed. In the 1998 film, Godzilla had been a reptile mutated after a French atomic test, on a French Polynesian island. This despite the fact that he was a strongly anti-Marxist socialist who would later state that it would've been better if Karl Marx was never born.

The $136 million US boxoffice fell far short of marketing expectations, thus the film is generally viewed as a failure despite turning a profit worldwide. He called his political views socialist, and with his fondness for Utopia, he was at first quite sympathetic to Lenin's attempts at reconstructing the shattered Russian economy, as his account of a visit (Russia in the Shadows; 1920) shows. Despite being one of the highest grossing films of the year when factoring in overseas profits, the film was widely panned by cult followers of the Godzilla franchise, critics on both sides of the Pacific, and movie-goers in general. The narrator, having been trapped on an island of animals vivisected (unsuccessfully) into human beings, eventually returns to England; like Gulliver on his return from the Houyhnhnms he finds himself unable to shake off the perceptions of his fellow humans as barely civilised beasts, slowly reverting back to their animal natures. The only Godzilla movie not made by Toho is the 1998 film Godzilla, directed by Roland Emmerich. The Island of Doctor Moreau is even darker. Hence, The Return of Godzilla brought the series back to form. Wells contemplates the ideas of nature vs nurture and questions humanity in books like The Island of Doctor Moreau. Not all his scientific romances ended in a happy Utopia, as the dystopian When the Sleeper Wakes (1899) (rewritten as The Sleeper Awakes, 1910) shows.

However, the further Godzilla was taken away from his roots, the less popular he became. He also portrayed social reconstruction through the rise of fascist dictators in The Autocracy of Mr Parham (1930) and The Holy Terror (1939). When it was discovered that Godzilla was popular with children, sequels were toned down in obvious screen violence, and Godzilla was made out to be a good guy instead of an indestructible, abhorrent mistake of men. This depicted, all too accurately, the impending World War, with cities being destroyed by aerial bombs. The reason for the continuity shift was based on a realization that the marketing of the movies had removed the reason it was so loved. Usually starting with the world rushing to catastrophe, until people realise a better way of living: whether by mysterious gases from a comet causing people to behave rationally (In the Days of the Comet), or a world council of scientists taking over, as in The Shape of Things to Come (1933), which he later adapted for the 1936 Alexander Korda film, Things to Come. Destoroyah after a run of seven films. From quite early in his career, he sought a better way to organise society, and wrote a number of Utopian novels.

Known as the VS Series, (unofficially known to American fans as the "Heisei Series", for the ruling emperor of the time), the continuity ended in 1995's Godzilla vs. The 'Outlines' became sufficiently common for James Thurber to parody the trend in his humorous essay An Outline of Scientists - indeed, Wells's Outline of History remains in print with a new 2005 edition while A Short History of the World has been recently reedited (2006). The timeline was revamped in 1984 with The Return of Godzilla; this movie was created as a direct sequel to the 1954 film, and ignores the continuity of the Showa series. Wells followed it in 1922 by a much shorter popular work, A Short History of the World, and two long efforts, [The Science of Life]] (1930) and The Work, Wealth and Happiness of Mankind (1931). The American release Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956) incorrectly stated Godzilla's height to be 400 feet, an inaccuracy that lingers today. Many other authors followed with 'Outlines' of their own in other subjects. In all films of this original series, Godzilla was 50 meters tall, and weighed 20,000 tons. His classic two-volume work The Outline of History (1920) set a new standard and direction for popularised scholarship.

This period featured a rough continuity, although the chronology is confused, as some of the later movies were set in an arbitrary future time, often 1999. Wells also wrote nonfiction. The Showa period saw the addition of many monsters into the Godzilla continuity, three of which (Mothra, Rodan and Varan) had their own solo movies, as well as a movie for the Toho-ized King Kong. [but] they did not see it until the atomic bombs burst in their fumbling hands." Leó Szilárd acknowledged that the book inspired him to theorise the nuclear chain reaction. The films Son of Godzilla and All Monsters Attack were aimed largely at youthful audiences, featuring the appearance of Godzilla's son, Minya. "Nothing could have been more obvious to the people of the earlier twentieth century," he wrote, "than the rapidity with which war was becoming impossible.. Starting with Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (made 10 years after the first Godzilla film), Godzilla became a semi-playful antihero, and as years went by, he evolved into an anthropomorphic superhero. Wells's novel revolves around an (unspecified) invention that accelerates the process of radioactive decay, producing bombs that explode with no more than the force of ordinary high explosive— but which "continue to explode" for days on end.

Godzilla, which had the highest ticket sales of any Godzilla movie. The rate of release is too slow to have practical utility, but the total amount released is huge. This tendency started with King Kong vs. This book contains what is surely his biggest prophetic "hit." Scientists of the day were well aware that the natural decay of radium releases energy at a slow rate for thousands of years. Godzilla, this period also featured a somewhat more lighthearted Godzilla. It plays a much larger role in The World Set Free (1914). With the exception of the serious Godzilla (1954) and the semi-serious sequels Godzilla Raids Again and Mothra vs. Though not a science-fiction novel, radioactive decay plays a small but consequential role in Tono-Bungay.

This Showa timeline spanned from 1954, with Godzilla (1954), to 1975, with Terror of Mechagodzilla. He also wrote other, non-fantastic novels which have received critical acclaim, including the satire on Edwardian advertising Tono-Bungay and Kipps. The initial series of movies is named for the Showa period in Japan (as all of these films were produced before Emperor Hirohito's death in 1989). His early novels, called "scientific romances", invented a number of themes now classic in science fiction in such works as The Time Machine, The Invisible Man, and The War of the Worlds (which have all been made into films) and are often thought of as being influenced by the works of Jules Verne. The Godzilla series is generally broken into three eras, reflecting the broader division of daikaiju eiga into the Shōwa era, Heisei era, and Millennium era. I take it they will have to go"). Godzilla would go on to inspire Gorgo, Gamera, and many others. He also visualized the elimination of all 'inefficient' people to make way for the utopian future ("And how will the New Republic treat the inferior races? ..

The Japanese version of Godzilla was greatly inspired by the commercial success of King Kong, and the 1953 success of The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms. The book is interesting both for its hits (trains and cars resulting in the dispersion of population from cities to suburbs; moral restrictions declining as men and women seek greater sexual freedom) and its misses ("my imagination refuses to see any sort of submarine doing anything but suffocate its crew and founder at sea"). Such an ability was used in Godzilla, Mothra, King Ghidorah; where Godzilla's heart beats after Godzilla explodes. Perhaps his most explicitly futuristic work, it bore the subtitle "An Experiment in Prophecy" when originally serialised in a magazine. This would make it possible for Godzilla to continue indefinitely, even though he appears to die. Wells' first bestseller was Anticipations, published in 1901. In Godzilla 2000, it is discussed that Godzilla possesses a component known as "Organizer G-1", or "Regenerator G-1" in the English version of the film, which allows him to heal from any wound, possibly even regenerate himself from mere fragments. Little Wars is recognised today as the first recreational wargame and Wells is regarded by gamers and hobbyists as "the Father of Miniature Wargaming.".

In the subsequent films, another of Godzilla's species take his place or Godzilla simply doesn't stay dead (there is some debate about this). Wells wrote Floor Games (1911) followed by Little Wars (1913). Nonetheless, Gojira - or Godzilla - returned in a series of films, all from Toho. Seeking a more structured way to play war games, H.G. Serizawa's oxygen destroyer, killed Godzilla at the end of the first movie, dissolving his flesh and bone into nothingness. "I was never a great amorist," Wells wrote in An Experiment in Autobiography (1934), "though I have loved several people very deeply.". The deoxygenation of Tokyo bay, caused by Dr. During his marriage to Amy, Wells had liaisons with a number of women, including American birth control activist Margaret Sanger.2 He had a daughter, Anna-Jane, with writer Amber Reeves in 19091 and in 1914, a son, Anthony West, by novelist and feminist Rebecca West, twenty-six years his junior.3 In spite of Amy Catherine's knowledge of some of these affairs, she remained married to Wells until her death in 1927.1.

On his 50th (Japanese) birthday, on 29 November 2004, Godzilla got a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. He had two sons by Amy: George Philip (known as 'Gip') in 1901 and Frank Richard in 1903.1. Creator and producer Tomoyuki Tanaka accepted on his behalf via satellite but was joined by "Godzilla" himself. In 1891 Wells married his cousin Isabel Mary Wells, but left her in 1894 for one of his students, Amy Catherine Robbins, whom he married in 1895. Destoroyah, Godzilla received an award for Lifetime Achievement at the MTV Movie Awards. During his stay with his aunt, he grew interested in her daughter, Isabel. In 1996, after his then-final appearance in Godzilla vs. His aunt Mary, a cousin of his father, invited him to stay with her for a while, so at least he did not face the problem of housing.

The creature also made an appearance in a Nike commercial, in which Godzilla went one-on-one with NBA star Charles Barkley. was left without a source of income for a while. The Blue Öyster Cult song "Godzilla" also contributed to the popularity of the movies. G. Sony currently holds some of those rights, as well as the rights to every Godzilla film produced from 1991 onward. H. The American company UPA contracted with Toho to distribute its monster movies of the time, and UPA continues to hold the license today for the Godzilla films of the 1960s and 1970s. Having previously successfully passed his exams in both biology and physics, his lack of interest in geology resulted in his failure to pass and the loss of his scholarship.

Much of Godzilla's popularity in the United States can be credited with TV broadcasts of the Toho Studios monster movies during the 1960s and 1970s. The school year 1886-1887 was the last year of his studies. Toho immediately followed it with 1999's Godzilla 2000: Millennium, which began the current series of films, known informally as the Mireniamu or Millennium series. He was also among the founders of The Science School Journal, a school magazine which allowed him to express his views on literature and society. All but one of the 29 films were produced by Toho: a version was made in 1998 by TriStar Pictures and set in the United States by the directors of Independence Day (ID4) and is somewhat despised by most Godzilla fans. At first approaching the subject through studying The Republic by Plato, he soon turned to his contemporary ideas of socialism as expressed by the recently formed Fabian Society and free lectures delivered at Kelmscott House, the home of William Morris. Films have been made over the last five decades, each reflecting the social and political climate in Japan. These years mark the beginning of his interest in a possible reformation of society.

Some have pointed out the parallels, conscious or unconscious, between Godzilla's relationship to Japan and that of the United States; first a terrible enemy who causes enormous destruction, but then becoming a good friend and defender in times of peril. He soon entered the Debating Society of the school. The Versus and Millennium Series have largely continued this concept. studied in his new school until 1887 with an allowance of twenty-one shillings a week thanks to his scholarship. The radioactive contamination of the Japanese fishing boat Daigo Fukuryu Maru through the United States' Castle Bravo thermonuclear device test on Bikini Atoll, on March 1, 1954 lead to much press coverage in Japan preceding the release of the first movie in 1954. G. Godzilla was originally an allegory for the effects of the hydrogen bomb, and the unintended consequences that such weapons might have on Earth. H.

As a result, the monster came to be known as "Godzilla" also in Japan (the belief that American distributors were responsible for the name "Godzilla" is a misconception, since Toho came up with the name for international markets to begin with). As an alumnus, he later helped to set up the Royal College of Science Association, of which he became the first president in 1909. In 1956, it was adapted by an American company into Godzilla, King of the Monsters (based on Toho's international title), edited and with added, principal scenes featuring Raymond Burr, and this version became an international success. Huxley. Gojira was first released in the United States in 1955 in Japanese-American communities only, under Toho's international title, Godzilla. H. But since Gojira was neither a gorilla nor a whale, the name "Gojira" was devised in a different way for the film's story; Gojira's name was "originally" spelled in katakana (呉爾羅). Later that year, he became an assistant teacher at Midhurst Grammar School, in West Sussex, until he won a scholarship to the Normal School of Science (later the Royal College of Science, now part of Imperial College, London) in London, studying biology under T.

The name was allegedly originally a nickname of a large worker at Toho Studios. The young man was reportedly not displeased with this ending to his apprenticeship. The name "Gojira" is a combination of gorira which means "gorilla" and kujira, which means "whale" in Japanese. In 1883 his employer dismissed him, claiming to be dissatisfied with him. the first Godzilla movie always appilies to all Subsequent movies, most of the time the creature is described as prehistoric, often a surviving dinosaur, and its first attacks on Japan are linked to atomic testing in the Pacific Ocean, including but not limited to using nuclear mutation as an explanation for the creature's great size and strange powers. Fortunately for Wells, Uppark had a magnificent library in which he immersed himself. . not only failed at being a draper, he also failed as a chemist's assistant and had bad experiences as a teaching assistant, and each time he would arrive at Uppark – "the bad shilling back again!" as he said – and stay there until a fresh start could be arranged for him.

Although much of Godzilla's significance as an anti-war symbol has been lost in the transition to pop culture, the nuclear breath remains as a visual vestige of the creature's early Cold War politics. G. The earliest two Godzilla films visually and thematically evoke the US bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the aftermath and human damage of Godzilla's attacks. H. Godzilla is characterized as amphibious, nearly indestructible and highly regenerative, and breathing a sort of nuclear fire or "heat-ray". Wells's mother and father had never got along with one another particularly well (she was a pious Protestant, he a hen-pecked freethinker), and when she went back to work as a ladies maid (at Uppark, a country house in Sussex) one of the conditions of work was that she would not have space for husband or children; thereafter, she and Joseph lived separate lives, though they never divorced and neither ever developed any other liaison. (For a list of these films, see below.). His experiences were later used as inspiration for his novels The Wheels of Chance and Kipps, which describe the life of a draper's apprentice as well as being a critique of the world's distribution of wealth.

A new film is slated to be produced by Advanced Audiovisual Productions. had an unhappy apprenticeship as a draper at the Southsea Drapery Emporium. In 1998 TriStar Pictures produced a nominal remake of the original set in contemporary New York city. G. To date, Toho has produced 28 Godzilla films. From 1881 to 1883 H. Godzilla (ゴジラ - Gojira) is a giant Japanese movie monster (kaiju) first seen in the 1954 Japanese tokusatsu film Gojira, produced by Toho Film Company Ltd. In time they should be able to practise their trade for themselves.

Dakosaurus andiniensis, a crocodile from the Jurassic Period, was nicknamed "Godzilla" before being scientifically classified. At the time it was a usual method for young employees to learn their trade working under a more experienced employer. Gojirasaurus quayi is a theropod dinosaur that lived in the Triassic Period; a partial skeleton was unearthed in Quay County, New Mexico. No longer able to support themselves financially, they instead sought to place their boys as apprentices to various professions. There is a drink in Malaysia called "Milo Godzilla", consisting of a cup of Milo with ice cream and/or whipped cream on top of it. The accident effectively put an end to Joseph's career as a cricketer, and his earnings as a shopkeeper were not enough to compensate for the loss. The Fairly OddParents. This time it had happened to his father, leaving Joseph Wells with a fractured thigh.

Rugrats. But in 1877 another accident had affected his life. Invader Zim. Wells continued at Morley's Academy until 1880. Jimmy Neutron. The teaching was erratic, the curriculum mostly focused, Wells said later, on producing copper-plate handwriting and doing the sort of sums useful to tradesmen. Animaniacs. Later that year he entered Thomas Morley's Commercial Academy, a private school founded in 1849 following the bankruptcy of Morley's earlier school.

Garfield and Friends. To pass the time, he started reading and soon became devoted to the other worlds and lives to which books gave him access; they also stimulated his desire to write. Reign Storm. He was dropped on a tent peg at the local sports ground and was left bedridden for a time with a broken leg. Godzilla has cameoed or inspired likenesses in several other (usually animated) shows:

    . G.'s life is said to be an accident he had in 1874 when he was seven years old. One The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy episode is titled. A defining incident of young H.

    However, his name gives away that he is a parody of Godzilla. Joseph sold cricket bats and balls and other equipment at the matches he played at, and received an unsteady amount of money from the matches, for in those days there were no professional cricketers, and payment for skilled bowlers and batters came from passing the hat afterwards, or from small honoraria from the clubs where matches were played. There is a Warcraft creature called Gahz'rilla who is a hydra. They managed to earn a meagre income, but little of it came from the shop. However, when they visit Tokyo, Ultraman flies by them, waves, and then starts dancing and singing with Godzilla. The stock was old and worn out, the location poor. In Olive the Other Reindeer, a show often shown on Cartoon Network during the Christmas season, Olive, Santa, and Santa's reindeer sing a song titled "Merry Christmas After All" while traveling the world delivering presents. An inheritance allowed them to purchase a china shop, though they quickly realised it would never be a prosperous concern.

    Mariah Carey's video for "Boy (I Need You)", which takes place in a futuristic Japanese metropolis, features a yellow, fire-breathing Godzilla-like monster, also brought to life by suitmation. The family was of the impoverished lower-middle-class. It is identified by a civilian as Godzilla, but another civilian corrects him, stating that it only looks like Godzilla due to copyright issues. He was born at 58 High Street, Bromley, Kent. In Austin Powers in Goldmember, Austin crashes his car into a dinosaur like parade float while in Japan, causing it to roll around the streets uncontrollably. Herbert George was the fourth and last child of Joseph Wells, a former domestic gardener and at the time shopkeeper and cricketer, and his wife Sarah Neal, a former domestic servant. In The Fairly Oddparents TV movie School's Out: The Musical before the Mayor starts singing it shows Godzilla destroying the city. .

    In the episode of the Comedy Central animated reality show parody Drawn Together entitled "Super Nanny", Godzilla plays a minor role as Ling-Ling's conscience (with his size probably meant as a subtle joke to Ling-Ling's cultural responsibility). Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946) was a British writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The Island of Doctor Moreau and The Time Machine. Godzilla is distracted by Mothra, Rodan and Gamera, allowing the plane to escape. Wells crater on the far side of the Moon is named for him. In the last scene of The Simpsons 10th season finale "Thirty Minutes Over Tokyo", Godzilla attacks a plane going from Japan to the USA that the Simpsons are on. G. Featured in the Animaniacs short, "Warners and the Beanstalk" where Yakko tells the Giant, "Would you like it in Japan with Godzilla and Rodan?"(a parody of Green Eggs and Ham) The Giant ignores Yakko's offer resulting in Godzilla burning him with his Atomic breath, and Rodan blowing him away. H.

    Godzilla: Save the Earth. 189. Godzilla: Domination. p. Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee. New York: HarperCollins, 1995. Super Godzilla. To Renew America.

    Godzilla: Monster of Monsters. Note 7: Gingrich, Newt. Godzilla: The Series. 94. The Godzilla Power Hour. p. Monster Planet Of Godzilla. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1944 (1994 edition).

    Godzilla Island. The Road to Serfdom. Meteor Man Zone. Note 6: Hayek, Friedrich. Ultra Q. Pierce". Ultraman. Note 5: The "pot of message" remark comes from a 1948 Theodore Sturgeon short story entitled Unite and Conquer, a character in the story was quoting a "Dr.

    He can release a powerful atomic energy beam, usually blue but in some films red, from his mouth (which is ominously signalled when his dorsal fins glow/flash in the same color as the atomic beam). 215, 687-689. He is virtually indestructible, impervious to all modern weaponry. Note 4: An Experiment in Autobiography p. His iconic design (a charcoal-colored monster-like figure with small pointed ears, rough bumpy scales, powerful tail, and bony colored dorsal fins shaped like maple leaves). H(erbert) G(eorge) Wells (1866-1946). Note 3: Pegasos - A Literature Related Resource Site.

    Wells and Margaret Sanger. G. The Passionate Friends: H. Note 2: New York University.

    Wells Biography. H.G. Note 1: ThinkQuest Library. Crux Ansata (1943).

    Star-Begotten (1937). The Shape of Things to Come (1933). The Outline of Man's Work and Wealth (1931). The Science of Life (1930).

    The Open Conspiracy (1928). Mr Blettsworthy on Rampole Island (1928). Meanwhile (1927). The World of William Clissold (1926).

    Christina Alberta's Father (1925). Men Like Gods (1923). The Secret Places of the Heart (1922)*. A Short History of the World (1922).

    The Outline of History I, II 1920, 1931, 1940 (1949, 1956, 1961, 1971). The Soul of a Bishop (1917)*. War and the Future (1917)*. God the Invisible King (1917)*.

    The Research Magnificent (1915)*. The World Set Free (1914)*. Little Wars (1913)*. Marriage (1912).

    Floor Games (1911)*. The Sleeper Awakes (1911)* - Revised edition of When the Sleeper Wakes. The Country of the Blind and Other Stories (1911)*. The New Machiavelli (1911)*.

    Polly (1910)*. The History of Mr. Tono-Bungay (1909)*. Ann Veronica (1909)*.

    First and Last Things (1908)*. The War in the Air (1908)*. In the Days of the Comet (1906)*. A Modern Utopia (1905)*.

    Kipps (1905). The Food of the Gods and How It Came to Earth (1904)*. The Scepticism of the Instrument - A portion of a paper read to the Oxford Philosophical Society, November 8, (1903). Mankind in the Making (1903)*.

    The First Men in the Moon (1901)*. Love and Mr Lewisham (1900)*. When the Sleeper Wakes (1899) (later revised as The Sleeper Awakes, 1910)*. The War of the Worlds (1898)*.

    The Star - short story, Graphic, Christmas (1897)*. The Invisible Man (1897)*. The Wheels of Chance (1896)*. The Red Room (1896)*.

    Moreau (1896)*. The Island of Dr. The Stolen Bacillus and Other Incidents (1895)*. The Time Machine (1895)*.

    The Chronic Argonauts (1888).

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