Glasses

A pair of eyeglasses

Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the human eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. Special glasses are used for viewing three-dimensional images or experiencing virtual reality.

Modern glasses are typically supported by pads on the bridge of the nose and by temples placed over the ears. Historical types include the pince nez, monocle, and lorgnette.

Glasses are more often called eyeglasses in North American English, occasionally spectacles in British English, and (rarely) frames or lenses. Spectacles is often shortened to specs. In hipster slang they are cheaters.

Glasses were originally made from glass, but many are now made from plastic (often polycarbonate or CR-39) due to the danger of breakage and the greater weight of glass lenses. Some plastics also have more advantageous optical properties than glass, such as better transmission of visible light and greater absorption of ultraviolet light. Some plastics have a greater index of refraction than most types of glass, allowing thinner lenses for a given prescription. Scratch-resistant coatings can be applied to most plastic lenses giving them similar scratch resistance to glass. Hydrophobic coatings designed to ease cleaning are also available, as are anti-reflective coatings intended to improve night vision and make the wearer's eyes more visible.

Corrective spectacles have lenses shaped to correct vision abnormalities, such as myopia.

Safety glasses are a kind of eye protection against flying debris or visible and near visible light or radiation.

Sunglasses protect against high levels of visible and ultraviolet light.

History

Detail of a portrait of Hugh de Provence, painted by Tomasso da Modena in 1352

Glasses were possibly invented in northern Italy, most likely in the late 1280s. The identity of the original inventor is unknown, although a possible source is the Arabs, who may have had magnifying lenses in the 10th century. In 1676, Franciscus Redi, a professor of medicine at the University of Pisa, wrote that he possessed a 1289 manuscript whose author complains that he would be unable to read or write were it not for the recent invention of glasses, and a record of a sermon given in 1305, in which the speaker, a Dominican monk named Fra Giordano da Rivalto, remarked that glasses had been invented less than twenty years previously, and that he had met the inventor. Based on this evidence, Redi credited another Dominican monk, Fra Alessandro da Spina of Pisa, with the re-invention of glasses after their original inventor kept them a secret, a claim contained in da Spina's obituary record. In 1738, a Florentine historian named Domenico Manni reported that a tombstone in Florence credited one Salvino d'Armato (died 1317) with the invention of glasses. Other stories, possibly legendary, credit Roger Bacon with the invention. Bacon's published writings describe the magnifying glass (which he did not invent), but make no mention of glasses.

These early spectacles had convex lenses that could correct the farsightedness (presbyopia) that commonly develops as a symptom of aging. Nicholas of Cusa is believed to have discovered the benefits of concave lens in the treatment of myopia (nearsightedness). However, it was not until 1604 that Johannes Kepler published in his treatise on optics and astronomy, the first correct explanation as to why convex and concave lenses could correct presbyopia and myopia. The American scientist Benjamin Franklin, who suffered from both myopia and presbyopia, invented bifocals in 1784 to avoid having to regularly switch between two pairs of glasses. The first lenses for correcting astigmatism were constructed by the British astronomer George Airy in 1827.

Over time, the construction of spectacle frames also evolved. Early eyepieces were designed to be either held in place by hand or by exerting pressure on the nose (pince-nez). Girolamo Savonarola suggested that eyepieces could be held in place by a ribbon passed over the wearer's head, this in turn secured by the weight of a hat. The modern style of glasses, held by temples passing over the ears, was developed in 1727 by the British optician Edward Scarlett. These designs were not immediately successful, however, and various styles with attached handles such as scissors glasses and lorgnettes remained fashionable throughout the 18th and into the early 19th century.

Despite the increasing popularity of contact lenses and laser corrective eye surgery, glasses remain very common and their technology has not stood still. For instance, it is now possible to purchase frames made of special memory metal alloys that return to their correct shape after being bent. Other frames have spring-loaded hinges. Either of these designs offers dramatically better ability to withstand the stresses of daily wear and the occasional accident.

Corrective glasses

Corrective lenses modify the focal length of the eye to alleviate the effects of shortsightedness (myopia), longsightedness (hyperopia) or astigmatism. The power of a lens is generally measured in diopters. Over-the-counter reading glasses are typically rated at +1.00 to +3.00 diopters. Glasses correcting for myopia will have negative diopter strengths. Lenses made to conform to the prescription of an ophthalmologist or optometrist are called prescription lenses and are used to make prescription glasses.

Safety glasses

Safety glasses with side shields Wraparound safety glasses

Safety glasses are usually made with shatter-resistant plastic lenses to protect the eye from flying debris. Although safety lenses may be constructed from a variety of materials that vary in impact resistance, certain standards suggest that they maintain a minimum 1mm thickness at the thinest point regardless of material. Safety glasses can vary in the level of protection they provide. For example, those used in medicine may be expected to protect against blood splatter while safety glasses in a factory might have stronger lenses and a stronger frame with additional shields at the temples. The lenses of safety glasses can also be shaped for correction. Some safety glasses are designed to fit over corrective glasses or sunglasses. They may provide less eye protection than goggles, face shields or other forms of eye protection, but their light weight increases the likelihood that they will actually be used. Recent safety glasses have tended to be given a more stylish design, in order to encourage their use. The pictured wraparound safety glasses are evidence of this style change with the close fitting nature of the wraparound dispensing with the need for side shields.

Corrective glasses with plastic lenses can often be used in the place of safety glasses in many environments; this is one advantage that they have over contact lenses.

Sunglasses

Scratch-resistant sunglasses made using a NASA developed coating

Main article: Sunglasses

Sunglasses may be made with either prescription or non-prescription (i.e. plano) lenses that are darkened to provide protection against bright visible light. Good sunglasses should also protect against ultraviolet light. Due to changes in the atmosphere, ultraviolet levels are much higher than in the past and ultraviolet protection for eyes and skin is even more important. It is possible to have lenses that look very dark and yet offer little ultraviolet protection. Sunglasses vary greatly and many offer more style than protection.

Glasses with photosensitive lenses, called photochromic lenses, become darker in the presence of UV light. Unfortunately, many car windshields protect the passengers from UV light, while not shielding from bright visible light, making photochromic lenses ineffective where they are most needed. Still, they offer the convenience of not having to carry both clear glasses and sunglasses to those who frequently go indoors and outdoors during the course of a day.

Light polarization is an added feature that can be applied to sunglass lenses. Polarization filters remove horizontal rays of light, which can cause glare. Popular among fishermen and hunters, polarized sunglasses allow wearers to see into water when normally glare or reflected light would be seen. Polarized sunglasses may present some difficulties for pilots in that reflections from water and other structures often used to gauge altitude may be removed, or instrument readings on liquid crystal displays may be blocked.

Special glasses

The illusion of three dimensions on a two dimensional surface can be created by providing each eye with different visual information. Classic 3D glasses create the illusion of three dimensions when viewing specially prepared images. The classic 3D glasses have one red lens and one blue lens. 3D glasses made of cardboard and plastic are distributed at 3D movies. Another kind of 3D glasses uses polarized filters. One kind of electronic 3D spectacles uses electronic shutters.

Virtual reality glasses and helmets have separate video screens for each eye and a method for determining the direction the head is turned.

Conditions glasses are used to correct

Glasses fitted with corrective lenses are a common means of correcting focus problems such as myopia (nearsightedness, short-sightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness, long-sightedness). Emmetropia, the condition of ideal focus is described as two parallel rays of light entering the eye and converging on or at the retina. Myopia is a condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye converge before reaching to retina. Hyperopia is a condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye do not converge prior to reaching the retina. Some would say "the rays of light converge at an imaginary point behind the retina." Astigmatism is a condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye converge at two separate locations, either before and/or after the retina. As most people age the crystalline lens of the eye loses elasticity resulting in presbyopia, which limits their ability to focus on nearby objects. None of these conditions is considered a disease.

Variation in glasses

Glasses can be very simple. Magnifying lenses for reading that are used to treat mild hypermetropia and presbyopia can be bought off the shelf, but most glasses are made to a particular prescription, based on degree of myopia or hypermetropia combined with astigmatism. Lenses can be ground to specific eyes, but in most cases standard off-the-shelf prescriptions suffice, but require custom-fitting to particular frames.

As people age, their ability to focus is lessened and many decide to use multiple-focus lenses, bifocal or even trifocal to cover all the situations in which they use their sight. Traditional multifocal lenses have two or three distinct viewing areas, each requiring a conscious effort of refocusing. These were originally separate lenses, as invented by Benjamin Franklin. Some modern multifocal lenses give a smooth transition between these lenses, unnoticeable by most wearers. Others have lenses specifically intended for use with computer monitors at a fixed distance. Many people have several pairs of glasses, one for each task or distance, with specific glasses for reading, computer use, and television watching.

Glasses as a fashion accessory

Buddy Holly's thick-rimmed glasses were part of his all-American image.

Glasses are often regarded as unattractive, and many people prefer to wear contact lenses for that reason. Contact lenses also provide much improved peripheral vision.

On the other hand, many people are attracted to people who wear glasses, and glasses are available in a wide range of styles, materials, and even designer labels.

Glasses can be a major part of personal expression, from the extravagance of Elton John and Dame Edna Everage, from Groucho Marx to John Denver to Lisa Loeb all the way to the varied professional personas of eyeglass-wearing knowledge workers.

For some celebrities, glasses form part of their identity. American Senator Barry Goldwater continued to wear lensless horn-rimmed spectacles after being fitted with contact lenses because he was not recognizable without his trademark glasses. British soap star Anne Kirkbride had the same problem: her character on Coronation Street, Deirdre Barlow, became so well-known for her big frames that she was expected to wear them at social gatherings and in international tours, even though Kirkbride has always worn contact lenses. Drew Carey continued to wear glasses for the same reason after getting corrective laser eye surgery. British comedic actor Eric Sykes, who became profoundly deaf as an adult, wears glasses that contain no lenses, but are in fact a bone-conducting hearing aid. Masaharu Morimoto wears glasses to separate his professional persona as a chef from his stage persona as Iron Chef Japanese. And of course John Lennon wore his round "granny glasses" from some of his time with the Beatles to his assassination in 1980.

In popular culture, glasses were all the disguise Superman and Wonder Woman needed to hide in plain view as alter egos Clark Kent and Diana Prince, respectively.

An example of halo effect is seen in the stereotype that those who wear glasses are intelligent or, especially in teen culture, even geeks and nerds. This conception probably comes from an era when most people were illiterate and the first people to wear glasses were those who did a lot of reading. Some people who find that wearing glasses may look nerdy turn to contact lenses instead, especially under peer pressure.

Another unpopular aspect of glasses is their inconvenience. Even though the late-20th century saw the creation of light frames, such as those made of titanium, very flexible frames, and new lens materials and optical coatings, glasses can still cause problems during rigorous sports. The lenses themselves can also become greasy or trap vapour when eating hot food or swimming or walking in rain, reducing visibility significantly. Scraping, fracturing, or breakage of the lenses require time-consuming and costly professional repair, though modern plastic lenses are almost indestructible and very scratch-resistant.

Other names for glasses

  • Pair of glasses (or just glasses) is commonly used in Britain and in North America. Compare with other meanings of the word glass.
  • Spectacles is widely used in Britain and occasionally in the US, in addition to use by professional opticians. Also in frequent use is the shortened form, specs.
  • Eye glasses or eyeglasses is a word used in North American English. In contrast, glass eye refers to a cosmetic prosthetic artificial eye that replaces a missing eye.
  • Frames is sometimes used to refer to framed eyepieces, although it is not common.
  • Lenses is also sometimes used to refer to framed eyepieces, although it is not common.
  • Cheaters is used in the hipster argot. Eyeglasses were a common part of the hipster persona, for example Dizzy Gillespie.

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Scraping, fracturing, or breakage of the lenses require time-consuming and costly professional repair, though modern plastic lenses are almost indestructible and very scratch-resistant. He suggests that the selfconscious artificiality of a subculture is a valid alternative choice in a post-modern world, compared to submitting to the invisible manipulations of popular consumerism and the mass media. The lenses themselves can also become greasy or trap vapour when eating hot food or swimming or walking in rain, reducing visibility significantly. Hodkinson shows how inside the goth subculture status can be gained via enthusiastic participation and creativity, in creating a band, DJ-ing, making clothes or writing a fanzine. Even though the late-20th century saw the creation of light frames, such as those made of titanium, very flexible frames, and new lens materials and optical coatings, glasses can still cause problems during rigorous sports. Many who are drawn to the culture have already failed to conform to the norms of existing society, and for its participants the goth subculture provides an important way of validating themselves against the outside world. Another unpopular aspect of glasses is their inconvenience. Paul Hodkinson's book explores how the Western cult of individualism, usually expressed via consumerism, is drawn on by goths and other subcultural groups.

Some people who find that wearing glasses may look nerdy turn to contact lenses instead, especially under peer pressure. The value that young people find in the movement is evidenced by its continuing existence after other subcultures of the eighties such as the New Romantics have long since died out. This conception probably comes from an era when most people were illiterate and the first people to wear glasses were those who did a lot of reading. However, it also can be risky, especially for the young, because of the negative attention it can attract. An example of halo effect is seen in the stereotype that those who wear glasses are intelligent or, especially in teen culture, even geeks and nerds. For the individual goth, joining the subculture can be extremely valuable and personally fulfilling, especially in creative terms. In popular culture, glasses were all the disguise Superman and Wonder Woman needed to hide in plain view as alter egos Clark Kent and Diana Prince, respectively. While people love going to see people dressed like goths in movies, there is little sign that many people, besides teenagers, wish to join them.

And of course John Lennon wore his round "granny glasses" from some of his time with the Beatles to his assassination in 1980. It is notable that the occasional attempts of cultural appropriation by the mainstream of elements from gothic fashion have left the subculture largely intact. Masaharu Morimoto wears glasses to separate his professional persona as a chef from his stage persona as Iron Chef Japanese. It could be argued many goths' use of literary and film imagery represents an example of the growing blurring between fiction and fact which is part of the postmodern condition. British comedic actor Eric Sykes, who became profoundly deaf as an adult, wears glasses that contain no lenses, but are in fact a bone-conducting hearing aid. However, this is hardly surprising as the original goths were punks who had seen that a subculture no matter how radical could not shake the foundations of Western world. Drew Carey continued to wear glasses for the same reason after getting corrective laser eye surgery. Unlike the hippy or punk movement there is no wider political message predominant within the subculture, except for individualism, tolerance for sexual diversity, a dislike of social conservatism and a strong tendency towards cynicism, and even these ideas are not common to all goths.

British soap star Anne Kirkbride had the same problem: her character on Coronation Street, Deirdre Barlow, became so well-known for her big frames that she was expected to wear them at social gatherings and in international tours, even though Kirkbride has always worn contact lenses. Thus the significance of goth's subcultural rebellion is strictly limited, and is tied into drawing on imagery at the heart of Western commercial culture. American Senator Barry Goldwater continued to wear lensless horn-rimmed spectacles after being fitted with contact lenses because he was not recognizable without his trademark glasses. While in the nineteenth century individual defiance of social norms was a very risky business today it is far less radical in social terms. For some celebrities, glasses form part of their identity. It should be noted the rise of the gothic novel saw such feelings of horror being exploited for a form of mass entertainment for commercial purposes, a process now continued in the modern horror film so important in defining goth. Glasses can be a major part of personal expression, from the extravagance of Elton John and Dame Edna Everage, from Groucho Marx to John Denver to Lisa Loeb all the way to the varied professional personas of eyeglass-wearing knowledge workers. Balancing this the other central element is a self-conscious sense of camp theatricality.

On the other hand, many people are attracted to people who wear glasses, and glasses are available in a wide range of styles, materials, and even designer labels. Defining a philosophy of goth subculture is difficult because of the overwhelming importance of mood for those involved. Contact lenses also provide much improved peripheral vision. The allure of dark and morbid imagery and moods for goths clearly lies in this tradition. Glasses are often regarded as unattractive, and many people prefer to wear contact lenses for that reason. The goth subculture is best seen as a late offshoot of romanticism and neoromanticism, with its fascination with the importance of the individual defining themselves through experiencing extreme emotions. Many people have several pairs of glasses, one for each task or distance, with specific glasses for reading, computer use, and television watching. The Columbine massacre caused a widespread public backlash against the goth scene in America, however investigators of the incident later denied that any such link between the students and the goth scene, in fact, existed.[1].

Others have lenses specifically intended for use with computer monitors at a fixed distance. Such conceptions are often reinforced by popular media, as exemplified in the Columbine High School Massacre, which was carried out by two troubled students inaccurately linked to the goth subculture. Some modern multifocal lenses give a smooth transition between these lenses, unnoticeable by most wearers. A preoccupation with themes of death, romance, and the generally macabre have occasionally raised public concerns regarding the overall mental well-being of, mainly, young goths and general fears of cultic indoctrination. These were originally separate lenses, as invented by Benjamin Franklin. Social intolerance ranges from looks of indignation and verbal taunts to physical violence. Traditional multifocal lenses have two or three distinct viewing areas, each requiring a conscious effort of refocusing. Like many other music based subcultures, goths have faced differing levels of social intolerance due mostly to outward stylistic appearances.

As people age, their ability to focus is lessened and many decide to use multiple-focus lenses, bifocal or even trifocal to cover all the situations in which they use their sight. Many goths also follow traditional religions such as Christianity or Judaism, creating a demand for religious goth arts and literature, as illustrated by such websites as GothicChristianity.com. Lenses can be ground to specific eyes, but in most cases standard off-the-shelf prescriptions suffice, but require custom-fitting to particular frames. An interest in neo-paganism and the occult amongst goths appears to be higher than amongst the general population. Magnifying lenses for reading that are used to treat mild hypermetropia and presbyopia can be bought off the shelf, but most glasses are made to a particular prescription, based on degree of myopia or hypermetropia combined with astigmatism. A large number of goths adhere to atheism or agnosticism, not wanting to commit to organized religion or what they perceive to be irrational belief systems. Glasses can be very simple. One widespread misconception is that the goth subculture as a whole is represents a unified cult-like religion, when in reality there is a wide diversity of religious beliefs throughout the subculture.

None of these conditions is considered a disease. However, many goths aspire to free themselves from the perceived limitations of traditional belief systems, and express a belief in open-mindedness and diversity. As most people age the crystalline lens of the eye loses elasticity resulting in presbyopia, which limits their ability to focus on nearby objects. Religious imagery has frequently played an important part in gothic fashion and also in song lyrics. Some would say "the rays of light converge at an imaginary point behind the retina." Astigmatism is a condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye converge at two separate locations, either before and/or after the retina. Today, the scene is most active in Western Europe, especially Germany, with large festivals such as Wave-Gotik-Treffen, Zillo, and others drawing tens of thousands of fans from all over the world. Hyperopia is a condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye do not converge prior to reaching the retina. Nights like Ghoul School and Release The Bats promote death rock heavily, and the Drop Dead Festival brings in death rock fans from all over the world.

Myopia is a condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye converge before reaching to retina. Bands with a more early goth sound like Cinema Strange, Black Ice, and Antiworld are becoming very popular. Emmetropia, the condition of ideal focus is described as two parallel rays of light entering the eye and converging on or at the retina. Recent years have seen resurgence in the Batcave and death rock sound, in reaction to the EBM, futurepop, and trance, which has taken over many goth clubs. Glasses fitted with corrective lenses are a common means of correcting focus problems such as myopia (nearsightedness, short-sightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness, long-sightedness). Bands with a darkwave sound or those such as The Cruxshadows which combine an electronic and gothic rock sound can appeal to both sides to some extent. Virtual reality glasses and helmets have separate video screens for each eye and a method for determining the direction the head is turned. The rise of what has been called cybergoth music and style which has much in common with techno/synthpop, caused bitter divisions between those firmly attached to the guitar based sound of gothic rock and newcomers or other goths, whose musical and even fashion tastes changed.

One kind of electronic 3D spectacles uses electronic shutters. The other significant development of the nineties was the popularity of electronic dance bands like VNV Nation and Covenant in the goth scene. Another kind of 3D glasses uses polarized filters. The article gothic music explores this thorny question further. 3D glasses made of cardboard and plastic are distributed at 3D movies. Arguments about what music is and is not goth became an ever more significant part of how the subculture tried to define itself. The classic 3D glasses have one red lens and one blue lens. Band t-shirts were now the only sure way of identifying someone's musical tastes from their fashion.

Classic 3D glasses create the illusion of three dimensions when viewing specially prepared images. Even more confusion was added with the rise of gothic metal, with such bands consciously using gothic imagery from the dark ages in their own music and appearance and started even following fashion trends indistinguishable from older goth ones. The illusion of three dimensions on a two dimensional surface can be created by providing each eye with different visual information. Older goths responded by affecting increasing disdain for the popularity of Marilyn Manson and the likes. Polarized sunglasses may present some difficulties for pilots in that reflections from water and other structures often used to gauge altitude may be removed, or instrument readings on liquid crystal displays may be blocked. Thus while industrial or heavy metal bands such as Marilyn Manson, Nine Inch Nails, Type O Negative, Lacuna Coil, Dimmu Borgir, Cradle of Filth, and Mortiis were often labeled as "goth" by the media, this categorization was strongly resisted by goths and indeed also by fans of the bands. Popular among fishermen and hunters, polarized sunglasses allow wearers to see into water when normally glare or reflected light would be seen. Gothic rock was originally clearly differentiated from industrial and heavy metal by older participants in the alternative scene, but newcomers and media misconceptions blurred the boundaries in the nineties as gothic rock became significantly less popular in the US and UK.

Polarization filters remove horizontal rays of light, which can cause glare. This variety was a result of a need to maximize attendance from everyone across the alternative music scene, particularly in smaller towns, but it also signaled new developments. Light polarization is an added feature that can be applied to sunglass lenses. By the mid-1990s, styles of music that was heard in venues which goths attend ranged from gothic rock, death rock, darkwave, industrial, EBM, synthpop, punk, metal, techno, to 1980s dance music. Still, they offer the convenience of not having to carry both clear glasses and sunglasses to those who frequently go indoors and outdoors during the course of a day. The popularity of bands such as Dead Can Dance resulted in the creation of a label called Projekt that produces what is colloquially termed Ethereal as well as the more electronic Darkwave, both forms of music popular with Goths. Unfortunately, many car windshields protect the passengers from UV light, while not shielding from bright visible light, making photochromic lenses ineffective where they are most needed. In the US, the subculture grew especially in New York and Los Angeles, with many nightclubs featuring gothic/industrial nights.

Glasses with photosensitive lenses, called photochromic lenses, become darker in the presence of UV light. The nineties saw the further growth of eighties bands and emergence of many new bands, most of the North American examples being released by the Cleopatra label. Sunglasses vary greatly and many offer more style than protection. By the mid-eighties, the number of bands began proliferating and became increasing popular, including Sisters of Mercy, The Mission UK, and Fields of the Nephilim. It is possible to have lenses that look very dark and yet offer little ultraviolet protection. The bands which began the gothic rock and death rock scene were limited in number, and included bands such as Bauhaus, Siouxsie & the Banshees, Southern Death Cult, and Christian Death. Due to changes in the atmosphere, ultraviolet levels are much higher than in the past and ultraviolet protection for eyes and skin is even more important. [See Music].

Good sunglasses should also protect against ultraviolet light. Even within the original subculture, changing trends in music have made defining what is and is not goth more complex. plano) lenses that are darkened to provide protection against bright visible light. Still others have simply ignored its existence, and decided to appropriate the term goth themselves, and redefine it in their own image. Sunglasses may be made with either prescription or non-prescription (i.e. Some being secure in a separate subcultural identity feel deeply insulted at being called "goths" in the first place, while others choose to join the existing subculture on its own terms. Main article: Sunglasses. The response of these younger groups to the older subculture varies.

Corrective glasses with plastic lenses can often be used in the place of safety glasses in many environments; this is one advantage that they have over contact lenses. More positive terms, such as mini-goths or baby bats, are also used by some older goths to refer to youths they see as exhibiting potential for growth into "true" goths later on. The pictured wraparound safety glasses are evidence of this style change with the close fitting nature of the wraparound dispensing with the need for side shields. Melbourne playwright Sai Ho is particularly vicious in his hatred of what he terms baby goths. Recent safety glasses have tended to be given a more stylish design, in order to encourage their use. These include mallgoths in the US, gogans in Australia, and spooky kids or moshers in the UK. They may provide less eye protection than goggles, face shields or other forms of eye protection, but their light weight increases the likelihood that they will actually be used. This has led to the introduction of terms which some Goths use to distinguish members of the other subcultures from Goths.

Some safety glasses are designed to fit over corrective glasses or sunglasses. As time went on, the term was bastardized even further in popular usage, being sometimes applied to groups that had neither musical nor fashion similarities to the original goth subculture, such as Emo fans. The lenses of safety glasses can also be shaped for correction. This was based primarily on appearance, and the fashions of the subcultures, rather than the musical genres of the bands associated with them. For example, those used in medicine may be expected to protect against blood splatter while safety glasses in a factory might have stronger lenses and a stronger frame with additional shields at the temples. New youth subcultures either evolved or became more popular, which ordinary people and the popular media tended to term "goth". Safety glasses can vary in the level of protection they provide. By the 1990s, the term "goth" started to become once again contentious in the English speaking world.

Although safety lenses may be constructed from a variety of materials that vary in impact resistance, certain standards suggest that they maintain a minimum 1mm thickness at the thinest point regardless of material. Influences from anime as well as cyberpunk fiction such as The Matrix have also crept into the goth scene, which helped give rise to cybergoth. Safety glasses are usually made with shatter-resistant plastic lenses to protect the eye from flying debris. The popular roleplaying game Vampire The Masquerade also referred directly to goth music and culture and encouraged an interest in the scene. Lenses made to conform to the prescription of an ophthalmologist or optometrist are called prescription lenses and are used to make prescription glasses. In turn they drew new people into the goth scene. Glasses correcting for myopia will have negative diopter strengths. Movies such as The Crow drew directly on goth music and style, and the movies of Tim Burton especially Beetlejuice featuring a goth teen, Edward Scissorhands, The Nightmare Before Christmas, and Corpse Bride are all significant.

Over-the-counter reading glasses are typically rated at +1.00 to +3.00 diopters. As the subculture became well-established the connection between goth and horror fiction became almost a cliche with goths quite likely to appear as characters in horror novels and film. The power of a lens is generally measured in diopters. Over time, gothic culture has developed its own "goth slang", with regional variations. Corrective lenses modify the focal length of the eye to alleviate the effects of shortsightedness (myopia), longsightedness (hyperopia) or astigmatism. The 2003 Victoria and Albert Museum Gothic exhibition in London furthered a tenuous connection between modern goth and the medieval gothic period. Either of these designs offers dramatically better ability to withstand the stresses of daily wear and the occasional accident. By the 1990s, Victorian fashion saw a renewed popularity in the goth scene, drawing on the mid-19th century gothic revival and the morbid outlook of the Victorians (partly owing to the state of national mourning which developed in response to Prince Albert's death, and partly to the Victorians' general obsession with Christian funeral practices).

Other frames have spring-loaded hinges. Local scenes also contribute to this variation. For instance, it is now possible to purchase frames made of special memory metal alloys that return to their correct shape after being bent. This caused variations in style ("types" of goth). Despite the increasing popularity of contact lenses and laser corrective eye surgery, glasses remain very common and their technology has not stood still. After the demise of post punk, goth continued to evolve, both musically and visually. These designs were not immediately successful, however, and various styles with attached handles such as scissors glasses and lorgnettes remained fashionable throughout the 18th and into the early 19th century. Works that vastly differ from one another in these and many more ways still share the category of gothic literature, such as Serling's 'Night Gallery, Macey Baggett Wuesthoff's Sacrifice, Washington Irving's "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and Joseph Armstead's Darkness Fears and Moon-Chosen series.

The modern style of glasses, held by temples passing over the ears, was developed in 1727 by the British optician Edward Scarlett. For example, as aforementioned, some gothic writers like Brite and Rice utilize erotic themes while other writers, such as Rod Serling, do not use an erotic undercurrent at all. Girolamo Savonarola suggested that eyepieces could be held in place by a ribbon passed over the wearer's head, this in turn secured by the weight of a hat. One reason "gothic" is such a broad term is because its content and themes can vary greatly. Early eyepieces were designed to be either held in place by hand or by exerting pressure on the nose (pince-nez). Both Brite and Rice are connected to New Orleans, often seen as a gothic mecca. Over time, the construction of spectacle frames also evolved. Brite, who is familiar with the goth scene, distinctively refers to it in her novels as the location of where her vampires hunt.

The first lenses for correcting astigmatism were constructed by the British astronomer George Airy in 1827. Brite's vampire novels. The American scientist Benjamin Franklin, who suffered from both myopia and presbyopia, invented bifocals in 1784 to avoid having to regularly switch between two pairs of glasses. Rice's novels influenced Poppy Z. However, it was not until 1604 that Johannes Kepler published in his treatise on optics and astronomy, the first correct explanation as to why convex and concave lenses could correct presbyopia and myopia. The first film, in particular, helped encourage the spread of Victorian style fashions in the subculture. Nicholas of Cusa is believed to have discovered the benefits of concave lens in the treatment of myopia (nearsightedness). Movies based on her books have been filmed in recent years - notably Interview with the Vampire, which starred Brad Pitt, and the more recent Queen of the Damned, in which goths appear directly and indirectly.

These early spectacles had convex lenses that could correct the farsightedness (presbyopia) that commonly develops as a symptom of aging. Rice's characters were depicted as struggling with eternity and loneliness, while their ambivalent sexuality had deep attractions for many goth readers, making her works very fashionable in the eighties. Bacon's published writings describe the magnifying glass (which he did not invent), but make no mention of glasses. A significant literary influence on the contemporary goth scene was not only the older gothic writers, but also Anne Rice's re-imagining of the idea of the vampire. Other stories, possibly legendary, credit Roger Bacon with the invention. Dropping "Poe," "Lovecraft," and the other heralding names became just as symbolic and popular as dressing all in black leather, wearing the hair long and dyed black, adorning oneself with dark jewelry and body art, and carrying around a Tim Burton lunchbox. In 1738, a Florentine historian named Domenico Manni reported that a tombstone in Florence credited one Salvino d'Armato (died 1317) with the invention of glasses. Lovecraft wasn't generally seen as frightening, particularly by today's gothic standards, though there were major authors who showed gothic sensibilities, such as Charles Dickens with his ghost story "A Christmas Carol." As the gothic scene evolved, familiarity with gothic literature became a significant part of the subculture for some goths.

Based on this evidence, Redi credited another Dominican monk, Fra Alessandro da Spina of Pisa, with the re-invention of glasses after their original inventor kept them a secret, a claim contained in da Spina's obituary record. P. In 1676, Franciscus Redi, a professor of medicine at the University of Pisa, wrote that he possessed a 1289 manuscript whose author complains that he would be unable to read or write were it not for the recent invention of glasses, and a record of a sermon given in 1305, in which the speaker, a Dominican monk named Fra Giordano da Rivalto, remarked that glasses had been invented less than twenty years previously, and that he had met the inventor. Gothic fiction before Edgar Allan Poe, Algernon Blackwood, and H. The identity of the original inventor is unknown, although a possible source is the Arabs, who may have had magnifying lenses in the 10th century. It is hard to predict which direction gothic literature will take in the twenty-first century, but there is interest in many to adapt the old gothic influences and renew them. Glasses were possibly invented in northern Italy, most likely in the late 1280s. The word "gothic" in the literary sense is a broad term.

. In 1993, Whitby became the location for what became the UK's biggest goth festival as a direct result of being featured in Bram Stoker's Dracula. Sunglasses protect against high levels of visible and ultraviolet light. The interconnection between horror and goth was highlighted in its early days by The Hunger, a 1983 vampire film, starring David Bowie, which featured gothic rock group Bauhaus performing "Bela Lugosi's Dead" in a nightclub. Safety glasses are a kind of eye protection against flying debris or visible and near visible light or radiation. As a result, morbid, supernatural, and occult themes became a more noticeably serious element in the subculture. Corrective spectacles have lenses shaped to correct vision abnormalities, such as myopia. Such references in their music and image were originally tongue-in-cheek, but as time went on, bands and members of the subculture took the connection more seriously.

Hydrophobic coatings designed to ease cleaning are also available, as are anti-reflective coatings intended to improve night vision and make the wearer's eyes more visible. Use of standard horror film props like swirling smoke, rubber bats, and cobwebs were used as goth club d├ęcor from the beginning in The Batcave. Scratch-resistant coatings can be applied to most plastic lenses giving them similar scratch resistance to glass. Their audiences responded in kind by further adopting appropriate dress and props. Some plastics have a greater index of refraction than most types of glass, allowing thinner lenses for a given prescription. Some of the early gothic rock and death rock artists adopted traditional horror movie images, and also drew on horror movie soundtracks for inspiration. Some plastics also have more advantageous optical properties than glass, such as better transmission of visible light and greater absorption of ultraviolet light. By the 1960s, TV series, such as The Addams Family and The Munsters, used these stereotypes for camp comedy.

Glasses were originally made from glass, but many are now made from plastic (often polycarbonate or CR-39) due to the danger of breakage and the greater weight of glass lenses. The powerful imagery of horror movies began in German expressionist cinema in the twenties then passed onto the Universal films of the thirties, then to camp horror B films such as Plan 9 From Outer Space and then to Hammer Horror films. In hipster slang they are cheaters. In cinema the femme fatale style adopted by silent movie actress Theda Bara (whose first name is an anagram for "death"), nicknamed the vamp, established the look for pale predatory women in later films, and was eventually adopted by Siouxsie Sioux. Spectacles is often shortened to specs. The concept of the femme fatale, which appeared in romantic literature as well as in the gothic novel, went on to become a vital image for female goths. Glasses are more often called eyeglasses in North American English, occasionally spectacles in British English, and (rarely) frames or lenses. Some people even credit Bauhaus' first single "Bela Lugosi's Dead", with the start of the Gothic movement, though there are other contenders.

Historical types include the pince nez, monocle, and lorgnette. The most famous gothic villain is the vampire, Dracula, but it was the iconic portrayal of Bela Lugosi, rather than Bram Stoker's original novel, which appealed to early goths, who were attracted by Lugosi's aura of camp menace. Modern glasses are typically supported by pads on the bridge of the nose and by temples placed over the ears. A notable element in the gothic novel was the brooding figure of the gothic villain, which developed into the Byronic hero, a key precursor to the male goth image. Special glasses are used for viewing three-dimensional images or experiencing virtual reality. In particular, the imagery surrounding male and female vampires had a significant influence on the evolution of gothic fashion and death rock fashion. Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the human eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. The influence of the gothic novel on the goth subculture originally came second hand, through the popular imagery of horror films and television.

Eyeglasses were a common part of the hipster persona, for example Dizzy Gillespie. It was the use of "gothic" as an adjective in describing the music and its followers, which led to the term "goth" being given to the subculture. Cheaters is used in the hipster argot. Certain elements in the dark, atmospheric music and dress of the post punk scene were clearly "gothic" in this sense, even seen in gothic rock band names like "UK Decay" or Southern Death Cult. Lenses is also sometimes used to refer to framed eyepieces, although it is not common. These stories established what became horror stereotypes by featuring graveyards, ruined castles or churches, ghosts, vampires, nightmares, cursed families, being buried alive and melodramatic plots. Frames is sometimes used to refer to framed eyepieces, although it is not common. It was the gothic novel of the early nineteenth century, a genre founded by Walpole, that was responsible above all else for the term gothic being associated with a mood of horror, morbidity, darkness and the supernatural.

In contrast, glass eye refers to a cosmetic prosthetic artificial eye that replaces a missing eye. Enthusiasts for gothic revival architecture in Britain were led by Horace Walpole, and were sometimes nicknamed goths, the first positive use of the term in the modern period. Eye glasses or eyeglasses is a word used in North American English. This was often combined with an interest in medieval romances, Roman Catholic religion and the supernatural. Also in frequent use is the shortened form, specs. In Britain by the late 1700s, however nostalgia for the medieval period destroyed by the Reformation led people to become fascinated with medieval gothic ruins (even building fake ruins). Spectacles is widely used in Britain and occasionally in the US, in addition to use by professional opticians. During the Renaissance period in Europe, medieval architecture was retrospectively labeled gothic architecture, and was considered ugly and barbaric in contrast to the pure lines of classical architecture.

Compare with other meanings of the word glass. Like another similar tribe, the Vandals, the name "goth" later became pejorative synonymous with "barbarian" and being uncultured. Pair of glasses (or just glasses) is commonly used in Britain and in North America. Goth was originally the name of a Germanic tribe, the Goths, who played an important role in the fall of the western Roman Empire. With similar themes and dress, goths and death rockers were sufficiently compatible to more or less merge. Independent of the British scene, the late 1970s and early 1980s saw death rock branch off from American punk.

As one of the most famous meeting points for early goths, it lent its name to the term "Batcaver," used to describe old-school goths. The opening of the Batcave in London's Soho in July 1982 might be seen as marking the emergence of this scene (which had briefly been labeled positive punk by the New Musical Express). By the late 1970s, there were a small number of post punk bands in Britain labeled "gothic." However, it was not until the early 1980s that gothic rock became its own subgenre within post-punk and that followers of these bands started to come together as a distinctly recognisable group or movement. For example gothic-doom bands draw on the same dark and horror imagery as gothic rock bands, but have a very different musical style.

It is important to remember that "gothic", when used as an adjective, can refer to anything dark or horrifying, or something influenced by medieval gothic art. To refer correctly to the entire group of people, one would need to say "the goth subculture", or possibly "the gothic subculture". "A member of goth", for example, does not work because "goth" is not the name of an organized group or gang. "Goth" cannot be used as a singular name for the group of people.

Typical examples are "She was wearing a gothic necklace" or "He is goth." The word "gothic" is sometimes used as a noun in non-English speaking countries, as in "I saw a gothic," this is comparatively rare and grammatically incorrect. "At the club there were many goths." "Gothic" and "goth" can also be used as adjectives interchangeably to describe someone (or in some cases, some thing). e.g. "My best friend is a goth." Plurally, an S is added.

e.g. The word "goth" can be used as a noun. . Styles of dress range from death rock, punk, Victorian, androgyny, some Renaissance style clothes, a combination of the above, and/or lots of black attire, and makeup.

It is associated with characteristically "gothic" tastes in music and clothing. Goth is a modern subculture that first became popular during the early 1980s within the gothic rock scene, an offshoot of post-punk. Zinn: The Truth Behind The Eyes (IUniverse, US, 2005; ISBN 0-595-37103-5) - Dark Poetry. Andrew C.

Voltaire: What is Goth? (WeiserBooks, US, 2004; ISBN 1578633222) - a humorous and easy-to-read view of the Goth subculture. ISBN 0312306962. Martin's Griffin. 2004: St.

Kilpatrick, Nancy: The goth Bible : A Compendium for the Darkly Inclined. ISBN 1859736009 (hardcover); ISBN 185973605X (softcover). Hodkinson, Paul: Goth: Identity, Style and Subculture (Dress, Body, Culture Series) 2002: Berg. ISBN 0865475903 (trade paperback) - A voluminous, if somewhat patchy, chronological/aesthetic history of the Gothic covering the spectrum from Gothic architecture to The Cure.

Davenport-Hines, Richard: Gothic: Four Hundred Years of Excess, Horror, Evil and Ruin (1999: North Port Press. Baddeley, Gavin: Goth Chic: A Connoisseur's Guide to Dark Culture (Plexus, US, August 2002, ISBN 0859653080).

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