Glasses

A pair of eyeglasses

Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the human eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. Special glasses are used for viewing three-dimensional images or experiencing virtual reality.

Modern glasses are typically supported by pads on the bridge of the nose and by temples placed over the ears. Historical types include the pince nez, monocle, and lorgnette.

Glasses are more often called eyeglasses in North American English, occasionally spectacles in British English, and (rarely) frames or lenses. Spectacles is often shortened to specs. In hipster slang they are cheaters.

Glasses were originally made from glass, but many are now made from plastic (often polycarbonate or CR-39) due to the danger of breakage and the greater weight of glass lenses. Some plastics also have more advantageous optical properties than glass, such as better transmission of visible light and greater absorption of ultraviolet light. Some plastics have a greater index of refraction than most types of glass, allowing thinner lenses for a given prescription. Scratch-resistant coatings can be applied to most plastic lenses giving them similar scratch resistance to glass. Hydrophobic coatings designed to ease cleaning are also available, as are anti-reflective coatings intended to improve night vision and make the wearer's eyes more visible.

Corrective spectacles have lenses shaped to correct vision abnormalities, such as myopia.

Safety glasses are a kind of eye protection against flying debris or visible and near visible light or radiation.

Sunglasses protect against high levels of visible and ultraviolet light.

History

Detail of a portrait of Hugh de Provence, painted by Tomasso da Modena in 1352

Glasses were possibly invented in northern Italy, most likely in the late 1280s. The identity of the original inventor is unknown, although a possible source is the Arabs, who may have had magnifying lenses in the 10th century. In 1676, Franciscus Redi, a professor of medicine at the University of Pisa, wrote that he possessed a 1289 manuscript whose author complains that he would be unable to read or write were it not for the recent invention of glasses, and a record of a sermon given in 1305, in which the speaker, a Dominican monk named Fra Giordano da Rivalto, remarked that glasses had been invented less than twenty years previously, and that he had met the inventor. Based on this evidence, Redi credited another Dominican monk, Fra Alessandro da Spina of Pisa, with the re-invention of glasses after their original inventor kept them a secret, a claim contained in da Spina's obituary record. In 1738, a Florentine historian named Domenico Manni reported that a tombstone in Florence credited one Salvino d'Armato (died 1317) with the invention of glasses. Other stories, possibly legendary, credit Roger Bacon with the invention. Bacon's published writings describe the magnifying glass (which he did not invent), but make no mention of glasses.

These early spectacles had convex lenses that could correct the farsightedness (presbyopia) that commonly develops as a symptom of aging. Nicholas of Cusa is believed to have discovered the benefits of concave lens in the treatment of myopia (nearsightedness). However, it was not until 1604 that Johannes Kepler published in his treatise on optics and astronomy, the first correct explanation as to why convex and concave lenses could correct presbyopia and myopia. The American scientist Benjamin Franklin, who suffered from both myopia and presbyopia, invented bifocals in 1784 to avoid having to regularly switch between two pairs of glasses. The first lenses for correcting astigmatism were constructed by the British astronomer George Airy in 1827.

Over time, the construction of spectacle frames also evolved. Early eyepieces were designed to be either held in place by hand or by exerting pressure on the nose (pince-nez). Girolamo Savonarola suggested that eyepieces could be held in place by a ribbon passed over the wearer's head, this in turn secured by the weight of a hat. The modern style of glasses, held by temples passing over the ears, was developed in 1727 by the British optician Edward Scarlett. These designs were not immediately successful, however, and various styles with attached handles such as scissors glasses and lorgnettes remained fashionable throughout the 18th and into the early 19th century.

Despite the increasing popularity of contact lenses and laser corrective eye surgery, glasses remain very common and their technology has not stood still. For instance, it is now possible to purchase frames made of special memory metal alloys that return to their correct shape after being bent. Other frames have spring-loaded hinges. Either of these designs offers dramatically better ability to withstand the stresses of daily wear and the occasional accident.

Corrective glasses

Corrective lenses modify the focal length of the eye to alleviate the effects of shortsightedness (myopia), longsightedness (hyperopia) or astigmatism. The power of a lens is generally measured in diopters. Over-the-counter reading glasses are typically rated at +1.00 to +3.00 diopters. Glasses correcting for myopia will have negative diopter strengths. Lenses made to conform to the prescription of an ophthalmologist or optometrist are called prescription lenses and are used to make prescription glasses.

Safety glasses

Safety glasses with side shields Wraparound safety glasses

Safety glasses are usually made with shatter-resistant plastic lenses to protect the eye from flying debris. Although safety lenses may be constructed from a variety of materials that vary in impact resistance, certain standards suggest that they maintain a minimum 1mm thickness at the thinest point regardless of material. Safety glasses can vary in the level of protection they provide. For example, those used in medicine may be expected to protect against blood splatter while safety glasses in a factory might have stronger lenses and a stronger frame with additional shields at the temples. The lenses of safety glasses can also be shaped for correction. Some safety glasses are designed to fit over corrective glasses or sunglasses. They may provide less eye protection than goggles, face shields or other forms of eye protection, but their light weight increases the likelihood that they will actually be used. Recent safety glasses have tended to be given a more stylish design, in order to encourage their use. The pictured wraparound safety glasses are evidence of this style change with the close fitting nature of the wraparound dispensing with the need for side shields.

Corrective glasses with plastic lenses can often be used in the place of safety glasses in many environments; this is one advantage that they have over contact lenses.

Sunglasses

Scratch-resistant sunglasses made using a NASA developed coating

Main article: Sunglasses

Sunglasses may be made with either prescription or non-prescription (i.e. plano) lenses that are darkened to provide protection against bright visible light. Good sunglasses should also protect against ultraviolet light. Due to changes in the atmosphere, ultraviolet levels are much higher than in the past and ultraviolet protection for eyes and skin is even more important. It is possible to have lenses that look very dark and yet offer little ultraviolet protection. Sunglasses vary greatly and many offer more style than protection.

Glasses with photosensitive lenses, called photochromic lenses, become darker in the presence of UV light. Unfortunately, many car windshields protect the passengers from UV light, while not shielding from bright visible light, making photochromic lenses ineffective where they are most needed. Still, they offer the convenience of not having to carry both clear glasses and sunglasses to those who frequently go indoors and outdoors during the course of a day.

Light polarization is an added feature that can be applied to sunglass lenses. Polarization filters remove horizontal rays of light, which can cause glare. Popular among fishermen and hunters, polarized sunglasses allow wearers to see into water when normally glare or reflected light would be seen. Polarized sunglasses may present some difficulties for pilots in that reflections from water and other structures often used to gauge altitude may be removed, or instrument readings on liquid crystal displays may be blocked.

Special glasses

The illusion of three dimensions on a two dimensional surface can be created by providing each eye with different visual information. Classic 3D glasses create the illusion of three dimensions when viewing specially prepared images. The classic 3D glasses have one red lens and one blue lens. 3D glasses made of cardboard and plastic are distributed at 3D movies. Another kind of 3D glasses uses polarized filters. One kind of electronic 3D spectacles uses electronic shutters.

Virtual reality glasses and helmets have separate video screens for each eye and a method for determining the direction the head is turned.

Conditions glasses are used to correct

Glasses fitted with corrective lenses are a common means of correcting focus problems such as myopia (nearsightedness, short-sightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness, long-sightedness). Emmetropia, the condition of ideal focus is described as two parallel rays of light entering the eye and converging on or at the retina. Myopia is a condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye converge before reaching to retina. Hyperopia is a condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye do not converge prior to reaching the retina. Some would say "the rays of light converge at an imaginary point behind the retina." Astigmatism is a condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye converge at two separate locations, either before and/or after the retina. As most people age the crystalline lens of the eye loses elasticity resulting in presbyopia, which limits their ability to focus on nearby objects. None of these conditions is considered a disease.

Variation in glasses

Glasses can be very simple. Magnifying lenses for reading that are used to treat mild hypermetropia and presbyopia can be bought off the shelf, but most glasses are made to a particular prescription, based on degree of myopia or hypermetropia combined with astigmatism. Lenses can be ground to specific eyes, but in most cases standard off-the-shelf prescriptions suffice, but require custom-fitting to particular frames.

As people age, their ability to focus is lessened and many decide to use multiple-focus lenses, bifocal or even trifocal to cover all the situations in which they use their sight. Traditional multifocal lenses have two or three distinct viewing areas, each requiring a conscious effort of refocusing. These were originally separate lenses, as invented by Benjamin Franklin. Some modern multifocal lenses give a smooth transition between these lenses, unnoticeable by most wearers. Others have lenses specifically intended for use with computer monitors at a fixed distance. Many people have several pairs of glasses, one for each task or distance, with specific glasses for reading, computer use, and television watching.

Glasses as a fashion accessory

Buddy Holly's thick-rimmed glasses were part of his all-American image.

Glasses are often regarded as unattractive, and many people prefer to wear contact lenses for that reason. Contact lenses also provide much improved peripheral vision.

On the other hand, many people are attracted to people who wear glasses, and glasses are available in a wide range of styles, materials, and even designer labels.

Glasses can be a major part of personal expression, from the extravagance of Elton John and Dame Edna Everage, from Groucho Marx to John Denver to Lisa Loeb all the way to the varied professional personas of eyeglass-wearing knowledge workers.

For some celebrities, glasses form part of their identity. American Senator Barry Goldwater continued to wear lensless horn-rimmed spectacles after being fitted with contact lenses because he was not recognizable without his trademark glasses. British soap star Anne Kirkbride had the same problem: her character on Coronation Street, Deirdre Barlow, became so well-known for her big frames that she was expected to wear them at social gatherings and in international tours, even though Kirkbride has always worn contact lenses. Drew Carey continued to wear glasses for the same reason after getting corrective laser eye surgery. British comedic actor Eric Sykes, who became profoundly deaf as an adult, wears glasses that contain no lenses, but are in fact a bone-conducting hearing aid. Masaharu Morimoto wears glasses to separate his professional persona as a chef from his stage persona as Iron Chef Japanese. And of course John Lennon wore his round "granny glasses" from some of his time with the Beatles to his assassination in 1980.

In popular culture, glasses were all the disguise Superman and Wonder Woman needed to hide in plain view as alter egos Clark Kent and Diana Prince, respectively.

An example of halo effect is seen in the stereotype that those who wear glasses are intelligent or, especially in teen culture, even geeks and nerds. This conception probably comes from an era when most people were illiterate and the first people to wear glasses were those who did a lot of reading. Some people who find that wearing glasses may look nerdy turn to contact lenses instead, especially under peer pressure.

Another unpopular aspect of glasses is their inconvenience. Even though the late-20th century saw the creation of light frames, such as those made of titanium, very flexible frames, and new lens materials and optical coatings, glasses can still cause problems during rigorous sports. The lenses themselves can also become greasy or trap vapour when eating hot food or swimming or walking in rain, reducing visibility significantly. Scraping, fracturing, or breakage of the lenses require time-consuming and costly professional repair, though modern plastic lenses are almost indestructible and very scratch-resistant.

Other names for glasses

  • Pair of glasses (or just glasses) is commonly used in Britain and in North America. Compare with other meanings of the word glass.
  • Spectacles is widely used in Britain and occasionally in the US, in addition to use by professional opticians. Also in frequent use is the shortened form, specs.
  • Eye glasses or eyeglasses is a word used in North American English. In contrast, glass eye refers to a cosmetic prosthetic artificial eye that replaces a missing eye.
  • Frames is sometimes used to refer to framed eyepieces, although it is not common.
  • Lenses is also sometimes used to refer to framed eyepieces, although it is not common.
  • Cheaters is used in the hipster argot. Eyeglasses were a common part of the hipster persona, for example Dizzy Gillespie.

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Scraping, fracturing, or breakage of the lenses require time-consuming and costly professional repair, though modern plastic lenses are almost indestructible and very scratch-resistant. "A faceless prophet," writes the Islamicist Piere Lory "Hermes possesses no concrete or salient characteristics, differing in this regard from most of the major figures of the Bible and the Quran." (Faivre 1995 pp.19-20). The lenses themselves can also become greasy or trap vapour when eating hot food or swimming or walking in rain, reducing visibility significantly. The third Hermes was the first teacher of Alchemy. Even though the late-20th century saw the creation of light frames, such as those made of titanium, very flexible frames, and new lens materials and optical coatings, glasses can still cause problems during rigorous sports. The second Hermes, in Babylon, was the initiator of Pythagoras. Another unpopular aspect of glasses is their inconvenience. Indris/Hermes is called "Thrice Wise,"( Hermes Trismegistus) because he was threefold: the first of the name, comparable to Thoth, was a "civilizing hero," an initiator into the mysteries of the divine science and wisdom that animate the world; he carved the principles of this sacred science in hieroglyphs.

Some people who find that wearing glasses may look nerdy turn to contact lenses instead, especially under peer pressure. Genesis 5.18-24). This conception probably comes from an era when most people were illiterate and the first people to wear glasses were those who did a lot of reading. Hagiographers and chroniclers of the first centuries of the Islamic Hegira quickly identified Hermes with Idris, the nabi of surahs 19.57; 21.85, whom the Arabs also identify with Enoch (cf. An example of halo effect is seen in the stereotype that those who wear glasses are intelligent or, especially in teen culture, even geeks and nerds. Antoine Faivre, in The Eternal Hermes has pointed out that Hermes has a place in the Islamic tradition, though his name does not appear in the Qur'an. In popular culture, glasses were all the disguise Superman and Wonder Woman needed to hide in plain view as alter egos Clark Kent and Diana Prince, respectively. Consorts/Children.

And of course John Lennon wore his round "granny glasses" from some of his time with the Beatles to his assassination in 1980.
. Masaharu Morimoto wears glasses to separate his professional persona as a chef from his stage persona as Iron Chef Japanese. Atreus retook the throne and banished Thyestes. British comedic actor Eric Sykes, who became profoundly deaf as an adult, wears glasses that contain no lenses, but are in fact a bone-conducting hearing aid. Thyestes agreed to give the kingdom back when the sun moved backwards in the sky, a feat that Zeus accomplished. Drew Carey continued to wear glasses for the same reason after getting corrective laser eye surgery. King Atreus of Mycenae retook the throne from his brother, Thyestes using advice he received from the wise trickster Hermes.

British soap star Anne Kirkbride had the same problem: her character on Coronation Street, Deirdre Barlow, became so well-known for her big frames that she was expected to wear them at social gatherings and in international tours, even though Kirkbride has always worn contact lenses. Artemis helped him as well by lending him her polished shield. American Senator Barry Goldwater continued to wear lensless horn-rimmed spectacles after being fitted with contact lenses because he was not recognizable without his trademark glasses. He borrowed Hades' helmet of invisbility and told him to use it so that her immortal sisters cannot see him when he gets away. For some celebrities, glasses form part of their identity. Hermes aided Persus in killing the gorgon Medusa by giving him Zeus' sickle and winged boots. Glasses can be a major part of personal expression, from the extravagance of Elton John and Dame Edna Everage, from Groucho Marx to John Denver to Lisa Loeb all the way to the varied professional personas of eyeglass-wearing knowledge workers. He taught the Thriae the arts of fortune-telling and divination.

On the other hand, many people are attracted to people who wear glasses, and glasses are available in a wide range of styles, materials, and even designer labels. He also changed the Minyades into bats. Contact lenses also provide much improved peripheral vision. In addition, Hermés brought Eurydice back to Hades after Orpheus looked back towards his wife for a second time. Glasses are often regarded as unattractive, and many people prefer to wear contact lenses for that reason. Hermés saved Odysseus from both Calypso and Circe, by convincing the first to let Odysseus go and then protecting him from the latter by bestowing upon him an herb that would protect him from Circe's spell. Many people have several pairs of glasses, one for each task or distance, with specific glasses for reading, computer use, and television watching. Zeus eventually changed her back to human form, and she became—through Epaphus, her son with Zeus—the ancestress of Heracles.

Others have lenses specifically intended for use with computer monitors at a fixed distance. Hermés, at the request of Zeus, lulled Argus to sleep and rescued Io but Hera sent a gadfly to sting her as she wandered the earth in cow form. Some modern multifocal lenses give a smooth transition between these lenses, unnoticeable by most wearers. Zeus was unable to refuse and she placed the watchman Argus to guard the cow. These were originally separate lenses, as invented by Benjamin Franklin. Hera suspected his deception and asked for the cow as a present. Traditional multifocal lenses have two or three distinct viewing areas, each requiring a conscious effort of refocusing. Zeus loved the Argive princess Io and changed her into a cow to protect her from Hera.

As people age, their ability to focus is lessened and many decide to use multiple-focus lenses, bifocal or even trifocal to cover all the situations in which they use their sight. With Aglaulus, Hermés was the father of Eumolpus. Lenses can be ground to specific eyes, but in most cases standard off-the-shelf prescriptions suffice, but require custom-fitting to particular frames. Hermés also had a son, Ceryx, with Herse's other sister, Pandrosus. Magnifying lenses for reading that are used to treat mild hypermetropia and presbyopia can be bought off the shelf, but most glasses are made to a particular prescription, based on degree of myopia or hypermetropia combined with astigmatism. Cephalus was the son of Hermes and Herse. Glasses can be very simple. Hermés changed her to stone.

None of these conditions is considered a disease. When Hermés loved Herse, a jealous Aglaulus stood between them and refused to move. As most people age the crystalline lens of the eye loses elasticity resulting in presbyopia, which limits their ability to focus on nearby objects. In Priapus, Hermes' phallic origins survived. Some would say "the rays of light converge at an imaginary point behind the retina." Astigmatism is a condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye converge at two separate locations, either before and/or after the retina. He was changed into a hermaphrodite by the gods, responding to the pleas of Salmacis, whose love Hermaphroditus spurned. Hyperopia is a condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye do not converge prior to reaching the retina. Hermaphroditus was the third son of Hermēs, with Aphrodite.

Myopia is a condition in which parallel rays of light entering the eye converge before reaching to retina. Autolycus, the Prince of Thieves, was a son of Hermes and grandfather of Odysseus. Emmetropia, the condition of ideal focus is described as two parallel rays of light entering the eye and converging on or at the retina. He had gone to the Mares with his friend, Heracles. Glasses fitted with corrective lenses are a common means of correcting focus problems such as myopia (nearsightedness, short-sightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness, long-sightedness). Abderus was a son of Hermes who was devoured by the Mares of Diomedes. Virtual reality glasses and helmets have separate video screens for each eye and a method for determining the direction the head is turned. From then on, travelers put large piles of rocks at crossroads as a small shrine to Hermes.

One kind of electronic 3D spectacles uses electronic shutters. At the end of the trial, Hermes had stones up to his head. Another kind of 3D glasses uses polarized filters. If they found Hermes innocent, they cast their stone at Hermes's feet. 3D glasses made of cardboard and plastic are distributed at 3D movies. If the god/goddess found Hermes guilty, they cast their stone at Hera's feet. The classic 3D glasses have one red lens and one blue lens. Each god or goddess was given a stone with their name on it.

Classic 3D glasses create the illusion of three dimensions when viewing specially prepared images. When Hera found out Hermes had killed her servant, Argus, she called an Olympian trial. The illusion of three dimensions on a two dimensional surface can be created by providing each eye with different visual information. Argus's eyes were then put on the peacock. Polarized sunglasses may present some difficulties for pilots in that reflections from water and other structures often used to gauge altitude may be removed, or instrument readings on liquid crystal displays may be blocked. Putting Argos to sleep, Hermes used a spell to permanently close all of Argus's eyes. Popular among fishermen and hunters, polarized sunglasses allow wearers to see into water when normally glare or reflected light would be seen. His epithet Argeiphontes, or Argus-slayer, recalls his slaying of the many-eyed giant Argus who was watching over the heifer-nymph Io in the sanctuary of Lady Hera herself in Argos.

Polarization filters remove horizontal rays of light, which can cause glare. For the first Olympian sacrifice, the taboos surrounding the sacred kine of Apollo had to be transgressed, and the trickster god of boundaries was the one to do it. Light polarization is an added feature that can be applied to sunglass lenses. The god was precocious: on the day of his birth, by midday he had invented the lyre, using the shell of a tortoise, and by nightfall he had rustled the immortal cattle of Apollo. Still, they offer the convenience of not having to carry both clear glasses and sunglasses to those who frequently go indoors and outdoors during the course of a day. As the story is told in the Homeric Hymn, the Hymn to Hermes, Maia was a nymph, but Greeks generally applied the name to a midwife or a wise and gentle old woman, so the nymph appears to have been an ancient one, one of the Pleiades taking refuge in a cave of Arcadia. Unfortunately, many car windshields protect the passengers from UV light, while not shielding from bright visible light, making photochromic lenses ineffective where they are most needed. Hermes was born on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia to Maia.

Glasses with photosensitive lenses, called photochromic lenses, become darker in the presence of UV light. He was represented by purses, roosters (illustration, left) and tortoises. Sunglasses vary greatly and many offer more style than protection. He wore the garments of a traveler, worker or shepherd. It is possible to have lenses that look very dark and yet offer little ultraviolet protection. Hermés was usually portrayed wearing a broad-brimmed traveller's hat or a winged cap (petasos or more commonly petasus), wearing winged sandals (talaria) and carrying his Near Eastern herald's staff, entwined by copulating serpents, called the kerykeion, more familiar in its Latinized form, the caduceus. Due to changes in the atmosphere, ultraviolet levels are much higher than in the past and ultraviolet protection for eyes and skin is even more important. Socrates' pupil Alcibiades was suspected to have been involved, and Socrates indirectly paid for the impiety with his life.

Good sunglasses should also protect against ultraviolet light. The Athenians at the time believed it was the work of saboteurs, either from Syracuse or the anti-war faction within Athens itself. plano) lenses that are darkened to provide protection against bright visible light. In 415 BCE, when the Athenian fleet was about to set sail for Syracuse during the Peloponnesian War, all of the Athenian hermai were vandalized. Sunglasses may be made with either prescription or non-prescription (i.e. "That a monument of this kind could be transformed into an Olympian god is astounding," Walter Burkert remarked (Burkert 1985). Main article: Sunglasses. In Athens, they were placed outside houses for good luck.

Corrective glasses with plastic lenses can often be used in the place of safety glasses in many environments; this is one advantage that they have over contact lenses. The hermai were used to mark roads and boundaries. The pictured wraparound safety glasses are evidence of this style change with the close fitting nature of the wraparound dispensing with the need for side shields. In the more primitive "Cyllenian" herms, the standing stone or wooden pillar was simply a phallus. Recent safety glasses have tended to be given a more stylish design, in order to encourage their use. In the 6th century, Hipparchos, the son of Pisistratus replaced the cairns that marked the midway point between each village deme at the central agora of Athens with a square or rectangular pillar of stone or bronze topped by a bust of Hermés usually with a beard; an erect phallus rose from the base. They may provide less eye protection than goggles, face shields or other forms of eye protection, but their light weight increases the likelihood that they will actually be used. His name in the form herma referred to a wayside marker pile of stones; each traveller added a stone to the pile.

Some safety glasses are designed to fit over corrective glasses or sunglasses. In very ancient Greece, Hermés was a phallic god of boundaries. The lenses of safety glasses can also be shaped for correction. In the 6th century the traditional bearded phallic Hermes was reimagined as an athletic youth (illustration, top right); statues of the new type of Hermés stood at stadia and gymnasiums throughout Greece. For example, those used in medicine may be expected to protect against blood splatter while safety glasses in a factory might have stronger lenses and a stronger frame with additional shields at the temples. In addition to the syrinx and the lyre, Hermes invented many types of racing and the sport of boxing. Safety glasses can vary in the level of protection they provide. Hermes as an inventor of fire is a parallel of the Titan, Prometheus.

Although safety lenses may be constructed from a variety of materials that vary in impact resistance, certain standards suggest that they maintain a minimum 1mm thickness at the thinest point regardless of material. He also brought dreams to living mortals. Safety glasses are usually made with shatter-resistant plastic lenses to protect the eye from flying debris. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Hermes conducts the Kore safely back to Demeter. Lenses made to conform to the prescription of an ophthalmologist or optometrist are called prescription lenses and are used to make prescription glasses. As a crosser of boundaries, Hermés Psychopompos' ("conductor of the soul") was a psychopomp, meaning he brought newly-dead souls to the underworld, Hades. Glasses correcting for myopia will have negative diopter strengths. Though temples to Hermés existed throughout Greece, a center of his cult was at Pheneos in Arcadia, where festivals in his honor were called Hermoea.

Over-the-counter reading glasses are typically rated at +1.00 to +3.00 diopters. General article: Cult (religion).. The power of a lens is generally measured in diopters. Some say that is representative of killing the disapproving eyes of the community, always policing good conduct in a shame-based society through their disapproving gaze. Corrective lenses modify the focal length of the eye to alleviate the effects of shortsightedness (myopia), longsightedness (hyperopia) or astigmatism. Hermes was very loyal to his father Zeus, when Zeus fell in love with the nymph Io, Hermes saved her from the many-eyed Argus by lulling him to sleep with stories and songs, decapitating him with a crescent-shaped sword. Either of these designs offers dramatically better ability to withstand the stresses of daily wear and the occasional accident. Hermes was the herald to the gods (messenger of the gods) so he had to guide the souls of the dead to the underworld, the person who does this is called a psychopomp.

Other frames have spring-loaded hinges. The instrument enchanted Apollo and he agreed to let Hermes keep the cattle in exchange for the lyre. For instance, it is now possible to purchase frames made of special memory metal alloys that return to their correct shape after being bent. While arguing with Apollo, Hermes began to play his lyre. Despite the increasing popularity of contact lenses and laser corrective eye surgery, glasses remain very common and their technology has not stood still. When Apollo accused Hermes, Maia said that it could not be him because he was with her the whole night, however Zeus entered into the argument and said that Hermes did steal the cattle and they should be returned. These designs were not immediately successful, however, and various styles with attached handles such as scissors glasses and lorgnettes remained fashionable throughout the 18th and into the early 19th century. He drove the cattle back to Greece and hid them and covered their tracks.

The modern style of glasses, held by temples passing over the ears, was developed in 1727 by the British optician Edward Scarlett. The night Hermes was born he snuck away from his mother and ran away to steal his Brother Apollo's cattle. Girolamo Savonarola suggested that eyepieces could be held in place by a ribbon passed over the wearer's head, this in turn secured by the weight of a hat. Hermes was the god of thieves because he was very cunning and shrewd and was a thief himself from the night he was born. Early eyepieces were designed to be either held in place by hand or by exerting pressure on the nose (pince-nez). His symbols were the cock, tortoise, purse or pouch, winged sandals, winged cap, and the heralds staff. Over time, the construction of spectacle frames also evolved. He was also the god of shepherds, merchants, weights and measurements, oratory, literature, athletics, and thieves.

The first lenses for correcting astigmatism were constructed by the British astronomer George Airy in 1827. From the subsequent association of these cairns — which were used in Athens to ward off evil and also as road and boundary markers all over Greece — Hermes acquired patronage over land travel. The American scientist Benjamin Franklin, who suffered from both myopia and presbyopia, invented bifocals in 1784 to avoid having to regularly switch between two pairs of glasses. The name Hermes has been thought to be derived from the Greek word herma (ἕρμα), which denotes a square or rectangular pillar with the head of Hermes (usually with a beard) adorning the top of the pillar, and male genitals below; however, due to the god's attestation in the Mycenaean pantheon, as 'Hermes Araoia ("Ram Hermes") in Linear B inscriptions at Pylos and Mycenaean Knossos [1], the connection is more likely to have moved the opposite way, from deity to pillar representations. However, it was not until 1604 that Johannes Kepler published in his treatise on optics and astronomy, the first correct explanation as to why convex and concave lenses could correct presbyopia and myopia. In the fully-developed Olympian pantheon, Hermes is the son of Zeus and Maia. Nicholas of Cusa is believed to have discovered the benefits of concave lens in the treatment of myopia (nearsightedness). .

These early spectacles had convex lenses that could correct the farsightedness (presbyopia) that commonly develops as a symptom of aging. This explains his connection with transitions in one’s fortunes, with the interchanges of goods, words and information involved in trade, interpreting, oratory, writing, with the way in which the wind may transfer objects from one place to another, and with the transition to the afterlife. Bacon's published writings describe the magnifying glass (which he did not invent), but make no mention of glasses. Among the Hellenes, as the related word herma "a boundary stone, crossing point" would suggest, Hermes embodies the spirit of crossing-over: he was seen to be manifest in any kind of interchange, transfer, transgressions, transcendence, transition, transit or traversal, all of which activities involve some form of crossing in some sense. Other stories, possibly legendary, credit Roger Bacon with the invention. This figure should not be confused with Greek Hermes. In 1738, a Florentine historian named Domenico Manni reported that a tombstone in Florence credited one Salvino d'Armato (died 1317) with the invention of glasses. The writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus were edited and published in the Italian Renaissance.

Based on this evidence, Redi credited another Dominican monk, Fra Alessandro da Spina of Pisa, with the re-invention of glasses after their original inventor kept them a secret, a claim contained in da Spina's obituary record. In the Hellenistic and then Greco-Roman culture of Alexandria, syncretic conflation of Hermes with the Egyptian god of wisdom Thoth produced the figure of Hermes Trismegistus, to whom a body of arcane lore was attributed. In 1676, Franciscus Redi, a professor of medicine at the University of Pisa, wrote that he possessed a 1289 manuscript whose author complains that he would be unable to read or write were it not for the recent invention of glasses, and a record of a sermon given in 1305, in which the speaker, a Dominican monk named Fra Giordano da Rivalto, remarked that glasses had been invented less than twenty years previously, and that he had met the inventor. In the Roman adaptation of the Greek religion, Hermes was identified with the Roman God Mercury, who had many similar characteristics, such as both being gods of commerce. The identity of the original inventor is unknown, although a possible source is the Arabs, who may have had magnifying lenses in the 10th century. An interpreter who bridges the boundaries with strangers is a hermeneus. Hermes gives us our word "hermeneutics" for the art of interpreting hidden meaning. Glasses were possibly invented in northern Italy, most likely in the late 1280s. A lucky find was a hermaion.

. As a translator, he is the messenger from the gods to humans. Sunglasses protect against high levels of visible and ultraviolet light. Hermes (Greek ʽἙρμῆς IPA [her'me:s]), in Greek mythology, is the god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators, literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures and invention and commerce in general, of liars, and of the cunning of thieves. Safety glasses are a kind of eye protection against flying debris or visible and near visible light or radiation. Krokus. Corrective spectacles have lenses shaped to correct vision abnormalities, such as myopia. Persephone.

Hydrophobic coatings designed to ease cleaning are also available, as are anti-reflective coatings intended to improve night vision and make the wearer's eyes more visible. Daphnis. Scratch-resistant coatings can be applied to most plastic lenses giving them similar scratch resistance to glass. Unknown Sicilian nymph

    . Some plastics have a greater index of refraction than most types of glass, allowing thinner lenses for a given prescription. Myrtilus. Some plastics also have more advantageous optical properties than glass, such as better transmission of visible light and greater absorption of ultraviolet light. Echion.

    Glasses were originally made from glass, but many are now made from plastic (often polycarbonate or CR-39) due to the danger of breakage and the greater weight of glass lenses. Aethalides. In hipster slang they are cheaters. Abderus. Spectacles is often shortened to specs. Unknown mother

      . Glasses are more often called eyeglasses in North American English, occasionally spectacles in British English, and (rarely) frames or lenses. Pan.

      Historical types include the pince nez, monocle, and lorgnette. Dryope

        . Modern glasses are typically supported by pads on the bridge of the nose and by temples placed over the ears. Ceryx. Special glasses are used for viewing three-dimensional images or experiencing virtual reality. Pandrosus
          . Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the human eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. Cephalus.

          Eyeglasses were a common part of the hipster persona, for example Dizzy Gillespie. Herse

            . Cheaters is used in the hipster argot. Eumolpus. Lenses is also sometimes used to refer to framed eyepieces, although it is not common. Aglaulus
              . Frames is sometimes used to refer to framed eyepieces, although it is not common. Tyche.

              In contrast, glass eye refers to a cosmetic prosthetic artificial eye that replaces a missing eye. Rhodos. Eye glasses or eyeglasses is a word used in North American English. Peitho. Also in frequent use is the shortened form, specs. Hermaphroditus. Spectacles is widely used in Britain and occasionally in the US, in addition to use by professional opticians. Eunomia.

              Compare with other meanings of the word glass. Aphrodite

                . Pair of glasses (or just glasses) is commonly used in Britain and in North America. Acacesius, of Acacus. Cyllenius, born on Mount Cyllene. Enagonios, of the (Olympic) games.

                Criophorus, ram-bearer. Charidotes, giver of charm. Polygius. Epimelius, keeper of flocks.

                Diaktoros or Angelos, the messenger. Dolios, the schemer. Eriounios, luck bringer. Enodios, on the road.

                Psychopompos, conveyor of souls. Argeiphontes, Argus-slayer.

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