Gibson may refer to:
In the United States:
Gibson is also the surname of several notable people:
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Gibson may refer to:. This implementation led to the use of MIDI guitar as a synonym for a guitar/synthesizer or for the field of guitar synthesis in general. . In modern implementations, the converter's output is a MIDI signal. William Gibson (Catholic martyr). The pitches of the individual strings can be determined if a hexaphonic pickup is used. William Gibson (novelist), the science fiction, cyberpunk novelist, author of Neuromancer. Most commonly, a guitar/synth is a converter which analyzes the pitch of each string and sends an electronic message to a synthesizer, telling it what note to play.
William Gibson (playwright), author of 'The Miracle Worker. A guitar/synthesizer is the adaptation of a guitar to control a synthesizer. Wilfrid Wilson Gibson. Many times, the necks of bottles were used, thus creating the term "bottle-neck". Thomas Milner Gibson. A slide, (bottle or knife) used in blues and rock to create a 'gliss' or 'hawaiian' effect. Steve Gibson, of Gibson Research, makers of SpinRite. A capo (used to change key without changing fingering) is sometimes called a "cheater".
Gibson. Vibrato is a variation in pitch, whereas tremolo is a variation in volume, so the tremolo bar is actually a vibrato bar and the "Vibrolux" amps actually had a tremolo effect. Robert L. Leo Fender, who did much to revolutionize the modern electric guitar, also created much confusion over the meaning of the terms "tremolo" and "vibrato", specifically by misnaming the "tremolo" bar on his guitars and also regarding the "Vibrolux" amps. Gibson. The latter two slang terms led stompbox manufacturers to use the term 'whammy' in coming up with a pitch raising effect introduced by popular guitar brand "Digitech". Randall L. The pitch bend arm found on many electric guitars has also had slang terms applied to it, such as "tremolo bar", "sissy bar", "whammy handle", and "whammy bar".
Mel Gibson, film actor, director and producer. The guitar has come to be called many different colloquial names over time such as: box, guit-fiddle and axe. Kirk Gibson. There are also more exotic varieties, such as double-necked guitars, all manner of alternate string arrangements, fretless fingerboards (used almost exclusively on bass guitars, meant to emulate the sound of a stand-up bass), and such. Jon Gibson (minimalist musician). Hybrids of acoustic and electric guitars are also common. John Gibson (Indiana). The electric bass is similar in tuning to the traditional double bass viol.
John Gibson (media host). Broadly speaking, guitars can be divided into 2 categories:. Jill Gibson. There are also a variety of commonly used alternate tunings. Jabbar Gibson. Standard tuning has evolved to provide a good compromise between simple fingering for many chords and the ability to play common scales with minimal left hand movement. Gibson, the American psychologist influential in the field of visual perception. The most common by far, known as "standard tuning" (EADGBe), is as follows:.
J. A variety of different tunings are used. J. On electric guitars, heavier strings may also produce a thicker tone, leading to their use by rhythm guitarists in rock music. Ian Gibson (artist). Heavier strings will also produce a louder note and for this reason steel-strung acoustic guitars will normally be strung heavier than electric guitars. Hutton Gibson. Heavier strings require more tension for the same pitch and are consequently harder to hold on to the fretboard.
Hoot Gibson. The larger the diameter the heavier the string is (with thinner strings being lighter). Guy Gibson. The weight of a string is determined by its diameter and is normally measured in thousandths of an inch. Gordon Gibson. There are also more exotic models involving multiple necks and pickups. Edward Gibson. Guitars usually have six strings, although there are variations on this, the most common being a twelve-string guitar; the seven string guitar; the ukulele, which has four strings; and the bass guitar, which usually has four strings but also exists in five, six, eight, and twelve-string versions.
Edmund Gibson. The Pickguard is more often than not used in styles such as flamenco, which tends to use the guitar as a percussion instrument at times, rather than for instance, a classical guitar. Don Gibson. the Gibson Les Paul), the pickguard is elevated. Deborah Gibson, is a singer, Broadway performer and former teen idol, credited as Debbie Gibson during her Teen Idol days. On acoustic guitars and many electric guitars, the pickguard is mounted directly to the guitar top, while on guitars with carved tops (e.g. Colin Gibson. In some electric guitars, the pickups and most of the electronics are mounted on the pickguard.
Christopher Burke Gibson. This is usually a piece of plastic or other laminated material that protects the finish of the top of the guitar. Chris Gibson (game), fictional race driver. Also known as a scratchplate. Chris Gibson (Tasmania), Australian politician. Some bridges allow for alternate tunings at the touch of a button. Gibson. The whammy bar is sometimes incorrectly referred to as a "tremolo bar"; unlike the change in pitch that the whammy bar produces, a tremolo is a quick oscillation of the volume.
Charles H. Some are springloaded and feature a "whammy bar", a removable arm which allows the player to modulate the pitch moving the bridge up and down. Charles Dana Gibson is a famous American graphic artist. There may be some mechanism for raising or lowering the bridge to adjust the distance between the strings and the fretboard (action), and/or fine-tuning the intonation of the instrument. Charles Gibson. From there, the variations are astounding. Bob Gibson (musician) was an American folksinger. On both electric and acoustic guitars, the bridge holds the strings in place.
Bob Gibson was a baseball player. The main purpose of the bridge on an acoustic guitar is to transfer the vibration from the strings to the soundboard, which vibrates the air inside of the guitar, thereby amplifying the sound produced by the strings. Althea Gibson. Once the purfling is glued in place, it is an integral part of the guitar, and contributes greatly to the durability of the instrument, since plastic tends not to split as wood does upon impact. Alfred Gibson. In mass produced guitars, the binding or purfling is almost exclusively high quality plastic. Alexander Gibson. During final construction, a small section of the outside corners is carved or routed out and then filled in with the purfling or binding material.
Gibson Desert. The corners are overbuilt, using a triangular piece of scored wood (called a kerfed lining) on the interior of the instrument to allow it to follow the contours, and is glued in place. Gibson, Western Australia – a small village. So to help, the purfling is used. Gibson, Wisconsin. Trying to connect two thin pieces of wood at a 90 degree angle is an engineering challenge. Gibson County, Tennessee. There is not much wood there, as the sides have to be thin to allow for bending, and the top and back have to be thin to allow the string vibrations to resonate.
Gibson, Tennessee. Because of the construction methods, the edges of the body are typically the weakest point of the acoustic guitar. Gibson Township, Michigan. Its purpose is not merely decorative, however. Gibson, Louisiana. This is the decorative edge found around the body of an acoustic guitar. Gibson County, Indiana. In many cases the electronics have some sort of magnetic shielding to prevent pickup of external interference and noise.
Gibson Martini, see Martini cocktail. These at their simplest consist of passive components such as potentiometers and capacitors, but may also include specialized integrated circuits or other active components requiring batteries for power, for preamplification and signal processing, or even for assistance in tuning. Gibson, to Hack. On guitars that have them, these components and the wires that connect them allow the player to control some aspects of the sound like volume or tone. Gibson Amphitheatre. Guitar Synthesisers may have specialist 'cluster' pickups, effectively giving each string its own pickup. Gibson Girl. Some guitars need a battery to power their pickups and/or pre-amp; these guitars are referred to as having "active electronics", as opposed to the typical "passive" circuits.
Gibson Appliance. However, a disadvantage of single coil pickups is a 60 cycle hum. Gibson Guitar Corporation. Single coil pickups are used by guitarists seeking a brighter, twangier sound. Typically, humbuckers are used by guitarists seeking a heavier sound. The type and model of pickups used can have large effects on the tone of the guitar.
Double-coil pickups are also known as humbuckers for their noise-cancelling ability. Traditional electric pickups are either single-coil or double-coil. These pickups produce a better tone and pick up harmonic frequencies better than standard pickups, but they cost more and are more difficult to wire. However, a new type of pickup, called a Q-Tuner pickup, has been developed that measures the magnetic flux density of multiple magnets located in the pickup.
This signal is later amplified by an amplifier. Pickups work on a similar principle to a generator in that the vibration of the strings causes a small current to be created in the coils surrounding the magnets. Some acoustic guitars also have microphones or pickups built into them for stage work. This allows the pickups to measure the movement of the steel guitar string within the magnetic field above the pickup.
The most common type of pickups contain magnets that are tightly wrapped in copper wire. Pickups are usually placed right underneath the guitar strings. Pickups are electronic devices attached to a guitar that detect (or "pick up") string vibrations and allow the sound of the string to be amplified. The electric guitar is usually not very loud when it is played without an amplifier.
Many higher-end electrics have a nitro-cellulose laquer finish on the top, which promotes resonance. The body is usually carved or routed to accept the other elements, such as the bridge, pickup, neck, and other electronic components. Guitars constructed like this are often called "flame tops". Many bodies will consist of good sounding but inexpensive woods, like ash, with a "top", or thin layer of another, more attractive wood (such as maple with a natural "flame" pattern) glued to the top of the basic wood.
The most common woods used for electric guitar body construction include maple, basswood, ash, poplar, alder, and mahogany. This wood is rarely one solid piece, as laminating hardwoods in the proper way can produce a body of exceptional strength and superior tone. Most electric guitar bodies are made of wood. However, size isn't everything and a well-made 3/4 sized nylon-strung instrument, which should seem inaudible outside intimate distances unamplified, can still be a versatile studio tool.
As an instrument's maximum volume is determined by how much air it can move the Dreadnought body size is popular amongst acoustic performers. The sound hole is normally a round hole in the top of the guitar, though some may have different shapes or multiple holes. The body of an acoustic guitar is a resonating chamber which projects the vibrations of the body through a sound hole, allowing the acoustic guitar to be heard without amplification. These are also strengthened with internal bracing, decorated with inlays and purfling, and subjected to a lot of abuse.
Each one is chosen for their aesthetic effect and structural strength, and can also play a significant role in determining the instrument's timbre. The back and sides are made out of a variety of woods such as mahogany, Indian rosewood and highly regarded Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra). Different patterns of wood bracing have been used through the years by luthiers; to not only strengthen the top against collapsing under the tremendous stress exerted by the tensioned strings (Torres, Hauser, Ramirez, Fleta being among the most influential designers of their time), but also to affect the resonation of the top. The majority of the sound is caused by vibration of the guitar top as the energy of the vibrating strings is transferred to it.
This thin (often 2 or 3 mm thick) piece of wood, strengthened by different types of internal bracing, is considered to be the most prominent factor in determining the sound quality of a guitar. The guitar top, or soundboard, is a finely crafted and engineered element often made of spruce, red cedar or mahogany. The body of the instrument is a major determinant of the overall sound for acoustic guitars. Some very high-end instruments may not have a neck joint at all, having the neck and sides built as one piece and the body built around it.
Some luthiers prefer this method of construction as it is said to allow better sustain of each note. The sides (also known as wings) of the guitar are then glued to this central piece. These are designed so that everything from the machine heads down to the bridge are located on the same piece of wood. Another type of neck, only available for solid body electric guitars, is the Neck-Through-Body construction.
Bolt-on necks, though they are historically associated with cheaper instruments, do offer greater flexibility in the guitar's set-up, and allow easier access for neck joint maintenance and repairs. guitars), and Spanish Heel style neck joints (commonly found in classical guitars). Other commonly used neck joints include mortise-and-tenon joints (such as those used by CF Martin & Co. Set necks usually feature dovetail joints, which offer stability and sustain.
Almost all acoustic guitars, with the primary exception of Taylors, have glued (otherwise known as set) necks, while electric guitars are constructed using both types. This is the point at which the neck is either bolted or glued to the body of the guitar. The shape of the neck can also vary, from a gentle "C" curve to a more pronounced "V" curve. Conversely, the ability to change the pitch of the note slightly by deliberately bending the neck forcibly with the fretting arm is a technique occasionally used, particularly in the blues genre and those derived from it, such as rock and roll.
The rigidity of the neck with respect to the body of the guitar is one determinant of a good instrument versus a poor one. The bending stress on the neck is considerable, particularly when heavier gauge strings are used (see Strings and tuning), and the ability of the neck to resist bending (see Truss rod) is important to the guitar's ability to hold a constant pitch during tuning or when strings are fretted. The wood used to make the fretboard will usually differ from the wood in the rest of the neck. A guitar's frets, fretboard, tuners, headstock, and truss rod, all attached to a long wooden extension, collectively comprise its neck.
Large guitar manufacturers often issue these guitars to celebrate a significant historical milestone. Although these guitars are often constructed from the most exclusive materials, they are generally considered to be collector's items and not intended to be played. While these designs are often just very elaborate decorations, they are sometimes works of art that even depict a particular theme or a scene. These designs use a variety of different materials and are created using techniques borrowed from furniture making.
Some very limited edition high-end or custom-made guitars have artistic inlay designs that span the entire front (or even the back) of the guitar. Most acoustic guitars have an inlay that borders the sides of the fretboard, and some electrics (namely Fender Stratocasters) have a black inlay running on the back of the neck, from about the body to the middle of the neck, commonly referred to as a skunk stripe. The fretboard commonly has a large inlay running across several frets or the entire length of the fretboard, such as a long vine creeping across the fretboard. Often the edges of the guitar around the neck and body and down the middle of the back are inlaid.
Many high-end guitars have more elaborate decorative inlay schemes. The soundhole designs found on acoustic guitars vary from simple concentric circles to delicate fretwork. Sometimes a small design such as a bird or other character or an abstract shape also accompanies the logo. The manufacturer's logo is commonly inlaid into the headstock.
Beyond the fretboard inlay, the headstock and soundhole are also commonly inlaid. Such a scheme is very close to piano keys coloring (which involves black coloring for sharps that pentatonic consists of) and of some use on classic guitars. Playing these frets, for example, on E string yields notes E, G, A, B, D that fit perfectly into E minor pentatonic. A less popular fretboard inlay scheme involves inlays on 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 12th, 15th, 17th, 19th, 22nd and 24th frets.
However, playing these frets, for example, on E string would yield notes E, G, A, B, C# that barely make a complete musical mode by themselves. Pros of such scheme include its symmetry about the 12th fret and symmetry of every half (0-12 and 12-24) about the 7th and 19th frets. The most popular fretboard inlay scheme involves single inlays on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 15th, 17th, 19th, and 21st frets, and double inlays on the 12th, sometimes 7th, and (if present) 24th fret. Many classical guitars have no inlays at all; the player himself sometimes will make them with a marker pen or correction fluid.
On some low-end guitars, they are just painted. The simpler inlays are often done in plastic on guitars of recent vintage, but many older, and newer, high-end instruments have inlays made of mother of pearl, abalone, ivory, colored wood or any number of exotic materials. Some manufacturers go beyond these simple shapes and use more creative designs such as lightning bolts or letters and numbers. Dots are usually inlaid into the upper edge of the fretboard in the same positions, small enough to be visible only to the player.
Fretboard inlays are most commonly shaped like dots, diamond shapes, parallelograms, or large blocks in between the frets. The person who is most well-known for this effect is bassist Sam Rivers of Limp Bizkit. Some guitar players put LED's in the fretboard as inlays to produce a neat lighting effect onstage. Inlays range from simple plastic dots on the fretboard to fantastic works of art covering the entire exterior surface of a guitar (front and back).
The typical locations for inlay are on the fretboard, headstock, and around the soundhole (called a rosette on acoustic guitars). Inlays are visual elements set into the exterior wood on a guitar. Classical guitars do not have truss rods, as the nylon strings do not put enough tension on the neck for one to be needed. Some truss rod systems, called "double action" truss systems, will tighten both ways, allowing the neck to be pushed both forward and backward (most truss rods can only be loosened so much, beyond which the bolt will just come loose and the neck will no longer be pulled backward).
Adjusting the truss rod affects the intonation of a guitar as well as affecting the action (the height of the strings from the fingerboard). Tightening the rod will curve the neck back and loosening it will return it forward. The truss rod can be adjusted to compensate for changes in the neck wood due to changes in humidity or to compensate for changes in the tension of strings. The truss rod counteracts the immense amount of tension the strings place on the neck, bringing the neck back to a straighter position.
The truss rod is an adjustable metal rod that runs along the inside of the neck, adjusted by a hex nut or an allen-key bolt usually located either at the headstock (under a cover) or just inside the body of the guitar, underneath the fretboard (accessible through the sound hole). Every twelve frets represents one octave. The twelfth fret divides the string in two exact halves and the 24th fret (if present) divides the string in half yet again. Consequently, the ratio of the widths of two consecutive frets is the twelfth root of two , whose numeric value is about 1.059463.
Guitars have frets on the fingerboard to fix the positions of notes and scales, which gives them equal temperament. Frets are available in several different gauges, depending on the type of guitar and the player's style. This feature is important in playing harmonics. Frets also indicate fractions of the length of a string (the string midpoint is at the 12th fret; one-third the length of the string reaches from the nut to the 7th fret, the 7th fret to the 19th, and the 19th to the saddle; one-quarter reaches from nut to fifth to twelfth to twenty-fourth to saddle).
They can be re-shaped to a certain extent and can be replaced as needed. Frets are usually the first permanent part to wear out on a heavily played electric guitar. For more on fret spacing, see the Strings and Tuning section below. When strings are pressed down behind them, frets shorten the strings' vibrating lengths to produce different pitches- each one spaced a half-step apart on the 12 tone scale.
Frets are metal strips (usually nickel alloy) embedded along the fretboard which are placed in points along the length of string that divide it mathematically. Fretboards are most commonly made of rosewood, ebony, maple, and sometimes graphite. Pinching a string against the fretboard effectively shortens the vibrating length of the string, producing a higher tone (a string, unfingered, will vibrate from the saddle to the nut; once fingered, it will vibrate only along the distance between the saddle and the fret directly before the finger). The smaller the fretboard radius, the more noticeably curved the fretboard is.
The curvature of the fretboard is measured by the fretboard radius, which is the radius of a hypothetical circle of which the fretboard's surface constitutes a segment. It is flat on classical guitars and slightly curved crosswise on acoustic and electric guitars. Also called the fingerboard, the fretboard is a long plank of wood embedded with metal frets that comprises the top of the neck. The material used also affects the sound of the guitar.
It is grooved to hold the strings in place, and it is one of the endpoints of the strings' tension. The nut is a small strip of ivory, bone, plastic, brass, graphite, or other medium-hard material that braces the strings at the joint where the headstock meets the fretboard. Some electric guitars feature 6 in-line tuners or even 4+2. Traditional layout of tuners is "3+3" which means 3 top tuners and 3 bottom ones.
It is fitted with the machine head for pitch adjusting. The headstock is located at the end of the guitar neck. Refer to appropriate article for description of a part:. Guitar consists of several parts.
Danelectro also pioneered tube amp technology. However, it was Danelectro that first produced electric guitars for the wider public. Rickenbacher was the inventor of the horseshoe-magnet pickup. The electric guitar was invented by Anthony Vick of Winton, North Carolina, with the help of George Beauchamp and Paul Berth, in 1931.
The tar is thousands of years old, and could be found in 2, 3, 5, 6 string variations. (See the article on the lute for further history.) The Ancient Iranian lute, called tar in farsi also is found in the word guitar. In favor of the latter view, the reshaping of the vihuela into a guitar-like form can be seen as a strategy of differentiating the European lute visually from the Moorish oud. It is not clear whether this represents a transitional form or simply a design that combined features from the two families of instruments.
The Spanish vihuela appears to be an intermediate form between the ancestral guitar and the modern guitar, with lute-style tuning and a small, but guitar-like body. (See related article). The name guitar was introduced into Spanish when guitars were brought into Iberia by the Moors after the 10th century. The word qitara is an Arabic name for various members of the lute family that preceded the Western guitar.
The word guitar may also be a Persian loanword to Iberian Arabic. The modern word, guitar, was adopted into English from Spanish, possibly from earlier Greek word kithara. Prospective sources for various names of musical instruments that guitar could be derived from all appear to be a combination of two Indo-European roots: guit-, similar to Sanskrit sangeet meaning "music", and -tar a widely attested root meaning "chord" or "string".. Instruments very similar to the guitar appear in ancient carvings and statues recovered from the old Iranian capitol of Susa. The guitar appears to be derived from earlier instruments known in ancient central Asia.
Instruments similar to what we know as the guitar have been popular for at least 5,000 years.
Guitars are used in a variety of musical styles. Guitars are made and repaired by luthiers. Typically, a headstock extends from the neck for tuning. Guitars have a body acting mostly as a resonator, which can be hollow in acoustic guitars or solid in most electric guitars, and a neck.
Classical guitars are also present in the guitar family. with electrical amplification) or both. Guitars may be acoustic, electric (i.e. The sound is produced by vibrating strings, which in turn cause the body and neck of the instrument to resonate.
For right-handed players, the right hand plucks the strings with either the fingers or a plectrum (guitar pick), while the opposite applies for left handed players (in general). A guitar is a stringed musical instrument. Meshuggah & Charlie Hunter go a step further, using an 8 string guitar with two extra low strings. They are used today by bands such as KoЯn and players such as Steve Vai.
7 string guitars were developed in the 1990s (earlier in jazz) to achieve a much darker sound through extending the lower end of the guitar's range. slurs in the traditional Classical genre), pinch harmonics, volume swells and use of a Tremolo arm or effects pedals.
The electric guitar is used extensively in blues and rock and roll, and was commercialized by Gibson together with Les Paul and independently by Leo Fender. The sound is frequently modified by other electronic devices or natural distortion of valves (vacuum tubes) in the amplifier. Electromagnetic pickups (single and double coil) convert the vibration of the steel strings into electric signals which are fed to an amplifier through a cable or radio device. This Squier Stratocaster has the features of most electric guitars: multiple single coil pickups, a whammy bar, volume and tone knobs. Electric guitars: Electric guitars can have solid, semi-hollow or hollow bodies, and produce little or very low sound without amplification.
The number of harp strings varies greatly, depending on the type of guitar and also the player's personal preference (as they have often been made to the player's specification). Some harp guitars also feature much higher pitch strings strung below the traditional guitar strings. Normally there is neither fingerboard nor frets behind the harp strings. The instrument is usually acoustic and the harp strings are usually tuned to lower notes than the guitar strings, for an added bass range.
Most consist of a regular guitar, plus additional 'harp' strings strung above the six normal strings. They are typically rare and uncommon in the popular music scene. Harp Guitars are difficult to classify as there are many variations within this type of guitar. Harp guitars.
Acoustic bass guitars also have steel strings, and match the tuning of the electric bass, which is likewise similar to the traditional double bass viol, the "big bass", a staple of string orchestras and bluegrass bands alike. Many electric archtop guitars intended for use in rock and roll even have a Tremolo Arm. The electric hollow body archtop guitar has a distinct sound among electric guitars and is consequently appropriate for many styles of rock and roll. Archtops are often louder than a typical dreadnought acoustic guitar.
Archtop guitars were immediately adopted upon their release by both jazz and country musicians and have remained particularly popular in jazz music, usually using thicker strings (higher guaged round wound and flat wound) than acoustic guitars. Some solid body electric guitars are also considered archtop guitars although usually 'Archtop guitar' refers to the hollow body form. The typical Archtop is a hollow body guitar whose form is much like that of a mandolin or violin family instrument and may be acoustic or electric. Lloyd Loar of the Gibson Guitar Corporation invented this variation of guitar after designing a style of mandolin of the same type.
Archtop guitars are steel string, instruments which feature a violin-inspired f-hole design in which the top (and often the back) of the instrument are carved in a curved rather than a flat shape. Big Joe Williams is a blues musician famous for his 12 string guitar. They are made both in acoustic and electric forms. Each pair of strings is tuned either in unison (the two highest) or an octave apart (the others).
Rather than having only six strings, the 12-string guitar has pairs, like a mandolin. 12 string guitars usually have steel strings and are widely used in folk music, blues and rock and roll. The round neck resonator guitars are normally played in the same fashion as other guitars, although slides are also often used, especially in blues. The type of resonator guitar with a neck with a square cross-section -- called "square neck" -- is usually played face up, on the lap of the seated player, and often with a metal or glass slide.
The purpose of the resonator is to amplify the sound of the guitar; this purpose has been largely superseded by electrical amplification, but the resonator is still played by those desiring its distinctive sound. Resonator, resophonic or Dobro® guitars: Similar to the flat top guitar in appearance, but with sound produced by a metal resonator mounted in the middle of the top rather than an open sound hole, so that the physical principle of the guitar is actually more similar to the banjo. The acoustic guitar is a staple in folk, Old-time music and blues music. Flat-top (steel-string) guitars: Similar to the classical guitar, however the body size is usually significantly larger than a classical guitar and it has a narrower, reinforced neck and stronger structural design, to sustain the extra tension of steel strings which produce a louder and brighter tone.
The father of the modern classical guitar was Antonio Torres Jurado. In Mexico, the popular mariachi band includes a range of guitars, from the tiny requinto to the guitarron, a guitar larger than a cello, which is tuned in the bass register. Flamenco guitars are almost equal in construction, have a sharper sound, and are used in flamenco. Classical guitars: These are typically strung with nylon strings, played in a seated position and used to play classical music.
(Gaspar Sanz' Instrucción de Música sobre la Guitarra Española of 1674 constitutes the majority of the surviving solo corpus for the era.) Renaissance and Baroque guitars are easily distinguished because the Renaissance guitar is very plain and the Baroque guitar is very ornate, with inlays all over the neck and body, and a paper-cutout inverted "wedding cake" inside the hole. They were more often used as rhythm instruments in ensembles than as solo instruments, and can often be seen in that role in early music performances. The strings are paired in courses as in a modern 12 string guitar, but they only have four or five courses of strings rather than six. They are substantially smaller and more delicate than the classical guitar, and generate a much quieter sound.
Renaissance and Baroque guitars: These are the gracile ancestors of the modern classical guitar. A recent arrival in the acoustic guitar group is the acoustic bass guitar, similar in tuning to the electric bass.
However, the unamplified guitar is not a loud instrument, that is, it cannot compete with other instruments commonly found in bands and orchestras, in terms of sheer audible volume. The shape and resonance of the guitar itself creates acoustic amplification. Acoustic guitars: Unlike the electric guitar, the traditional guitar is not dependent on any external device for amplification. first (highest tone) string: e (a major third above middle C—329.6Hz).
second string: B (a minor second below middle C—246.92Hz). third string: G (a perfect fourth below middle C—196.0Hz). fourth string: D (a minor seventh below middle C—146.8Hz). fifth string: A (a minor tenth below middle C—110Hz).
sixth (lowest tone) string: E (a minor thirteenth below middle C—82.4Hz). Pickguard. Bridge. Electronics.
Pickups. Body. Neck joint. Neck and fretboard.
Inlays. Truss rod. Frets. Machine heads.