G.I. Joe

Classic G.I. Joe Adventure Team Image, circa 1973

G.I. Joe is a cartoon soldier created by David Breger when he was asked to do a comic strip for United States military magazines during World War II. Breger came up with the title "G.I. Joe" from the military reference "Government Issue". His strip debuted June 17, 1942 in the military's YANK magazine and Stars and Stripes newspaper. In 1945, United Artists released a movie titled The Story of G.I. Joe [1], directed by William Wellman and starring Burgess Meredith as acclaimed war correspondent Ernie Pyle.

In 1964, the character G.I. Joe became a series of military-themed action figures produced by the Hasbro toy company. The toyline began with the aptly named G.I. Joe. Two years later, Hasbro began featuring members from all branches of the armed forces. The name, G.I. Joe, no longer referred to one specific character but to a toyline brand.

Incarnations

The following G.I. Joe toys came out:

  • G.I. Joe (1964-1969)
  • G.I. Joe Adventure Team (1970-1979)
  • G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero (1982-1994)
  • G.I. Joe: Hall of Fame (1991-1994)
  • Sgt. Savage and the Screaming Eagles (1995)
  • G.I. Joe: Hall of Fame limited exclusives (1995-1997)
  • G.I. Joe Extreme (1996-1997)
  • G.I. Joe: Toys R Us Exclusives (1997-1998)
  • G.I. Joe: Classic Collection (1995-2004)
  • G.I. Joe: The Real American Hero Collection (2000-2002)
  • G.I. Joe vs. Cobra (2002)
  • G.I. Joe vs. Cobra: Spytroops (2003)
  • G.I. Joe: Valor vs. Venom (2004-2005)
  • G.I. Joe: Sigma 6 (2005-Present)

G.I. Joe (1964-1969)

Hasbro toy company's first "action figure" was introduced with the name of G.I. Joe. They were 12" tall. The toyline was dedicated to one character named G.I. Joe. Later on, the line featured members from America's Armed Forces and some foreign soldiers as well.

The 12-inch G.I. Joe was licenced to several countries:

G.I. Joe Adventure Team (1970-1979)

These were the years of the Adventure Team and the Kung Fu grip. It was also the period where there is a departure from its traditional military settings and began wading in to more fantastic concepts such as the introduction of the Intruders, alien invaders who are the Adventure Team's arch nemesis. With rising oil prices in 1977, a cost-saving measure of "shrinking" G.I. Joe to 8 inches was implemented with the name of Super Joe. The Super Joe series had the characters turned into superheroes. Finally in 1978, G.I. Joe was discontinued for the same reason Super Joe was introduced, the rising cost of petroleum.

G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero (1982-1994)

After a few years of absence from the toy shelves and with the help of the Star Wars 3.75" figure successes, G.I. Joe was re-introduced in a 3.75" format. This toy series lasted through 1994, producing over 500 figures and 250 vehicles and playsets. Cobra was the main enemy force during this toy lines run. Each toy figure included a character bio, called a "file card." During the 12 year production, there were many "subsets" produced. There was also two series of cartoons, "Sunbow", and "DIC" produced with this toyline. There was also a Marvel Comic series that featured many of the toy characterizations.

G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero was renamed for the European market. The toyline and the accompanying television show and comics were renamed Action Force, presumably to make the toyline appear more international and less American-centric.

Sgt. Savage and the Screaming Eagles (1995)

Sgt. Savage and his Screaming Eagles were put on the toy shelves in a 4" size, World War II-based theme. This was the only year Sgt. Savage and his Screaming Eagles were produced. The series was not labeled G.I. Joe but it contains its themes. The enemy force was the Iron Army, cybernetically-enhanced WWII style criminals and robots. There was one cartoon featuring Sgt. Savage.

G.I. Joe Extreme (1996-1997)

G.I. Joe Extreme was introduced in a 5" tall, limited articulation format. These figures, as well as vehicles, took on a future premise storyline that had the Extreme team battling SKAR. Sgt. Savage is a part of this series. Dark Horse Comics produced the G.I. Joe Extreme comic. There was also a cartoon series that supported the toyline.

Toys R Us Exclusives (1997-1998)

Toys R Us began carrying a store-exclusive line that featured "re-produced" figures and vehicles from the G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero line.

The Return of A Real American Hero (2000-2005)

Some original 1982-1994 3.75 inch line toys were "re-produced" in "collector edition" 2-packs, along with vehicles. In 2001, the Devil's Due publishing company bought the rights to produce new comics that continued the storyline from Marvel Comics. The comic series was helpful in bringing back G.I. Joe's popularity. The basic 3.75" sized GI Joe toy sculpture style was changed in 2001 with the introduction of yearly themes. Each year's 3.75" series had a slight change in figure production construction. In 2002, the theme was "G.I. Joe vs. Cobra" and featured new style figures that had "T-crotches" with no "O-ring." New characters were introduced in that period and new molds for both old and new. 2003 was themed "Spytroops" and had many figures produced with "O-rings" again. There was a direct-to-video "Spytroops" CGI movie. 2004 featured the "Valor vs. Venom" theme up until the first half of 2005. "Valor vs. Venom" also had an OVA CGI movie.

The 3.75" sized figures were removed from toy shop shelves early in 2005, and sold exclusively through online retailers and through a new Hasbro online store, Hasbro Toy Shop. These figures were designed with the adult collector in mind, and while retaining the sculpting style of the 2002-2005 "themed years," produced toy characters from the "original 1982-1994" G.I. Joe series, as well as new toy characters.

G.I. Joe: Sigma 6 (2005-Present)

In the fall of 2005, Hasbro re-introduced G.I. Joe on the toy shelves with 8"-sized action figures, G.I. Joe: Sigma 6.

The comic is produced and published by Devil's Due Publishing and there is also a cartoon series airing on FOX and produced by GONZO.

Historical Overview

  • In 1943, a pigeon called G.I. Joe rescued over 1,000 people in Italy by delivering a crucial message.
  • In 1945, a hit movie, The Story of G.I. Joe, about war correspondent Ernie Pyle in World War II, was released.
  • Nearly 20 years later, seeing the market success of the Barbie doll, Stan Weston, toy creator and licensing agent, brought the idea of a soldier action figure to Don Levine at Hasbro. Inspired in part by the tv series " The Lieutenant", Hasbro saw the potential such an action figure for boys could have. Therefore, in 1964, they launched the G.I. Joe brand, naming it after the aforementioned movie. At that time, the G.I. Joe figures were about the size of the Barbie dolls (12 inches (305 mm) tall). In 1965, a Black Joe was introduced in selected markets.
  • In 1966, soldiers of international armed forces joined the G.I. Joe line up, and Hasbro decided that the entire toy line will be named G.I. Joe.
  • In 1967, G.I. Joe talking figures were introduced. Around this time the only full-sized female G.I. Joe action figure was produced - a nurse. It was not a success, the first real mis-step of the line.
  • By 1970, the war themes of the original G.I. Joe toys were eliminated due to the growing controversy over war toys in the wake of the Vietnam War.

The line became known as "The Adventures of G.I. Joe" for a time, and featured G.I. Joe as a Aquanaut for example.

Various G.I. Joe Action Figures, circa 1975

Now, G.I. Joe was the leader of the "Adventure Team", an adventuring/spy-like organization devised to fight evil. The look of the doll was also changed 1970, adding a flocked beard (an innovation developed in England by Palitoy's for their licensed version of Joe, 'Action Man') in most versions to further distance itself from the soldier version. A retooled black G.I. Joe was also introduced around this time.

  • By 1974, Kung Fu fever had arrived in the United States, so G.I. Joes started to be produced with a "kung fu grip." This involved redesigning the doll's hands in a softer plastic that allowed the fingers to curl and better grip objects in a more lifelike fashion. * In 1975, after a failed bid to gain the rights to the Six Million Dollar Man, Hasbro issued a bionic warrior figure named Mike Power, Atomic Man sold over one million units. Also added to the Adventure Team was a Superhero, Bulletman. Both figures were not in the mold of the rest of team, and further confused the GI Joe line. In 1976, The Intruders, a line of outer space arch rivals, was introduced.

Around the same time, G.I. Joe was given "eagle eye" vision--a movable eye mechanism to allow the toy to appear to be looking around when a lever in the back of the head was moved. This would be the last major innovation for the original toy-line

Image:Gi joe image25.jpg Atomic Man, 1976
  • In 1978, the petroleum crisis directly affected G.I. Joes. Since the toy was produced with plastic and petroleum is a major component in the manufacture of plastic, the cost of producing the toy rose substantially, and after a failed attempt to produce a smaller version called "Super Joe", Hasbro decided to discontinue it although the licensed versions outside the US continued for a while.
  • In 1982, the new figures were downsized to be produced at about the size of Star Wars action figures. The "Adventure Team" idea was modified and combined with the original military theme of the early action figures. This was the beginning of the 1980s G.I. Joe frenzy that would eventually lead to the production of posters, t-shirts, video games, board games, kites, animated movies, and even a cartoon series based on the characters. In 1983, Destro was introduced as one of the first characters at the service of the COBRA Commander.
  • In 1985, both Toy & Lamp and Hobby World magazines ranked G.I. Joe as the top-selling American toy.
  • In 1986, wrestler Robert Remus, aka Sgt. Slaughter, became the first real person to join the G.I. Joe forces. Football player William "Refrigerator" Perry followed suit in 1987. In 1988, Battle Force 2000 was introduced.
  • In 1991, the G.I. Joe Ecowarriors line was produced to raise environmental awareness. 12" figures were also re-introduced as part of an exclusive contract with Target retail stores. In 1992, G.I. Joe joined the war on drugs by introducing the Drug Elimination Force (DEF) line of figures.The line declined with sci-fi themes again, notably the Star Brigade. G.I. Joe also jumped on the Jurassic Park bandwagon and had a set of Dino-hunters.
  • In 1994 the 3 3/4 inch line was cancelled. Sgt. Savage and his Screaming Eagles figures debuted. This was also the 30th Anniversary of G.I. Joe and accordingly, Hasbro released a series of 12 inch and 3 3/4 inch figures based on the original 4 basic services represented in the first waves of the 1964 toy-line.
  • In 1995, G.I. Joe Extreme figures were introduced, along with a comic book, published by Dark Horse comics.
  • In 1997, the original G.I. Joe returned via the G.I. JOE MASTERPIECE EDITION ([2]), a unique book-and-figure product. G.I. Janes were introduced in a series called the Classic Collection, the first 12-inch female dolls in the G.I. Joe line-up since 1967; this doll was a helicopter pilot. The Classic Collection harkened back to the original all military theme of G.I. Joe with fairly realistic uniforms and gear. Soldiers from Australia, Britain, and other nations, as well as United States Forces were featured. The line also presented an all-new articulated GIJOE figure that formed the basis of many offerings to the present day.
  • In 2000, a Navajo Code Talker was introduced, one of only two 12-inch G.I. Joe talking figures (until this time) since the 1970s--The other being "Duke" from the Hall of Fame line. The figures included a toy bomb that "detonated" if handled incorrectly. The 3 3/4" G.I. Joe A Real American Hero Collection figures were also re-released.
  • In 2001, G.I. Joe honored the events of the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor by releasing a line of Pearl Harbor figures. Devil's Due Productions bought the license to publish the G.I. Joe comic book and hired Scott Wherle as editor and freelance writer, Steven Kurth as artist, and real-life fan and active-duty soldier Brian Savage Peterson as Military Consultant and freelance writer. Eventually, the entire creative team changed, with newcomer Brandon Jerwa taking over as writer and Tim Seeley as artist. Sales were unquestionably altered, causing Devil's Due to miss its chance to purchase the rights to reprint the Marvel Comics line.
  • In 2001 new 3 3/4" G.I. Joes were released under various themes including Spy Troops and Valor vs. Venom. The VvsV figures are the exact same scale as the original ARAH figures, while the Spy Troop figures are several mm's taller.
  • In 2004 The direct-to-DVD feature film G.I. Joe: Valor vs. Venom debuted, as well as a new trading card game based on the G.I. Joe vs. Cobra storyline.
  • 2005 brought a new size to the G.I. Joe team with a new line called G.I. Joe: Sigma 6, which is in no way related to the quality management program Six Sigma. These new larger figures are based out of the storyline that started in 1982, but are in a larger scale and will be accompanied by an Anime series made by Japanese animation house GONZO. The previous 12" and 3 3/4" lines were scheduled to go on hiatus near the middle of the year and replaced by Sigma 6. The 3 3/4" line resumed production after a very brief hiatus but is now sold exclusively on a direct-to-consumer basis, through Hasbro's website and select Internet retailers.

Additional Background

The basic premise of the series based on the figures is "good vs. evil". G.I. Joe is a highly capable branch of America's military whose purpose is to defend the world against enemy attack. Their main adversary is the COBRA Organization, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world.

GI Joe Image/Devils Due comic book cover from the early 21st century incarnation 'G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero'

The cast of each group is full of colorful and eccentric characters, each of whom have interesting abilities. The content of the animated show, although dealing with war and fighting, was still relatively mild as characters rarely, if ever, died even in the most dangerous circumstances. One example of this can be seen whenever an airplane was destroyed in combat; the characters inside were invariably shown parachuting out of the wreckage in the nick of time.

The show was also known for its public service announcements, where one of the Joes would give an important safety lesson to a group of children engaged in risky behavior. These PSAs always ended with the famous exchange: "Now we know!" "And knowing is half the battle".

There were several video game adaptations of G.I. Joe, some are Cobra Strike by Parker Brothers for the Atari 2600 (1983), G.I. Joe by Epyx for the Apple II and the Commodore 64 (1984), G.I. Joe by Taxan for the Nintendo Entertainment System (1991), Action Force by Virgin Games for the Commodore 64 (1987) and G.I. Joe: The Atlantis Factor by Capcom for the Nintendo Entertainment System (1992). [3]

G.I. Joe has also appeared as a comic book, with many of its characters being made into action figures. The comics, in contrast to the cartoons, were much more realistic in their portrayal of violence; some characters were even killed (but no major ones, except for one "special" issue in which more than a dozen named Joes were executed by a random Cobra soldier, an event which initially distressed Cobra Commander). Comic book writer Larry Hama is credited with developing most of the characters for the updated toy collection.

According to its 1980s animated series, "G.I. Joe is the code name for America's daring, highly-trained special mission force. Its purpose: to defend human freedom against COBRA, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world."

G.I. Joes represent characters of all branches of the United States military, both male and female, to fight against their "enemy", Cobra, also produced by Hasbro and marketed under the G.I. Joe brand.

The original G.I. Joe Action Figures (hitting the marketplace in 1964) were toys similar to Ken, Barbie's boyfriend, but with a much increased articulation range, and more rugged appearance. Joe stood 11.5 inches, with 21 points of articulation, making him the first 'Action Figure' (a title that Hasbro insisted on, to make Joe more palatable to parents reluctant to let their boys play with a 'doll')

Later, a much smaller G.I. Joe was created. These figures were almost four inches (10 cm) tall and also drove kids to beg their parents for new toys, but this time for a different reason. The main difference between the two lines was that the 12 in (30 cm) figure could change his clothes to meet any challenge, while the 3 3/4 in (10 cm) team had various figures who could each meet specific challenges. This time, instead of needing a wetsuit for G.I. Joe to wear, the G.I. Joe Team had a new member called Wetsuit whose military occupational speciality was a Navy SEAL. The smaller G.I. Joes also had a variety of additional weapons and vehicles which could be purchased to assist them on their missions.

In 1966, Palitoy Ltd. produced a British version of the 12-inch G.I. Joe line, under the Action Man name for the UK market. Initially these were the exact same designs as the American figures, and at first the same military theme which included figures from the Second World War. The line later expanded the line to include ALL men of action, like footballers and other sports figures. Later, they also adopted the Adventure Team line, calling themselves the 'Action Force'; the figures had the same appearance and codenames as the American G.I. Joes, but their identities and histories were international rather than purely American or British. In the 1980's sales in the UK fell off and by the late 80s UK production had ceased, replaced by G.I. Joe imports. Action Man under Hasbro has since made his reappearance.

The GI Joe line was also licensed to Germany under the Action Team name, including female figures - which were notably absent from the UK Action Man line.

The original 12-inch G.I. Joe line ended in America in 1977. Later that year a smaller 8 and a half inch version of G.I. Joe was produced and advertised on TV. This size was close in scale but slightly taller than the Mego 8 inch action figures popular at the time. This new version was called "Super Joe," and also known as the "Super Joe Adventure Team." Some of the costumes for the line had the name "Super G.I. Joe" sewn inside to the seam. A hybrid of superhero and space action lines, three of the Super Joe hero characters, Super Joe Commander, Super Joe (Caucasian) and Super Joe (African American), featured a "1-2 Punch" that could be activated by pressing panels on the figure's back. Two other heroic characters, The Shield and Luminos, were called "Night Fighters" and had light up battery powered features. The villains were Gor: King of the Terrons, Darkon: Half Man Half Monster and a large walking dinosaur-like alien called Terron: Beast From Beyond. Super Joe was discontinued by the end of 1978. The same basic body molds were used later by a subsidiary of Hasbro to produce a line of action figures based on the TV Series "Space Academy." Due to the poor quality of the materials used in manufacturing, very few if any of the Super Joe figures survive in intact condition.

Real life persons honored with G.I. Joe figures

The G.I. Joe brand has made promotional action figures based on real-life persons, both military and civilian (such as sports and pro wrestling stars, presidents, and a war correspondent), that the company deems Real American Heroes, as the G.I. Joe slogan says. Among these are:

  • Buzz Aldrin
  • Roy Benavidez
  • Robert Crippen
  • Francis E. Currey
  • John R. Fox
  • Bob Hope
  • Dwight Eisenhower
  • Mike Leonard
  • Douglas MacArthur
  • Audie Murphy
  • George Patton
  • William "Refrigerator" Perry
  • Francis J. Pierce
  • Colin Powell
  • Ernie Pyle
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • Emil Sitka
  • "Sgt. Slaughter" né Robert Remus
  • George Washington
  • Ted Williams

The character is such a part of the U.S. vernacular that a 1997 movie starring Demi Moore was called G.I. Jane.


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Jane. Navy usage) or "paraffin budgie" (the latter term being mostly used in the UK offshore oil industry). vernacular that a 1997 movie starring Demi Moore was called G.I. Some common nicknames for helicopters are "copter", "chopper", "whirlybird", "windmill", "helo" (common U.S. The character is such a part of the U.S. A helicopter should not be mistaken for an autogyro, which is a historical predecessor of the helicopter that gains lift from an unpowered rotor. Among these are:. Marine Corps and will be the first mass produced tilt-rotor aircraft to enter service.

Joe slogan says. Hybrid types that combine features of helicopters and fixed wing designs include the experimental Fairey Rotodyne of the 1950s and the Bell Boeing Osprey, which is on order by the U.S. Joe brand has made promotional action figures based on real-life persons, both military and civilian (such as sports and pro wrestling stars, presidents, and a war correspondent), that the company deems Real American Heroes, as the G.I. Rotomotion is currently selling a line of small (less than 50 kg) rotorcraft UAVs, including an all electric helicopter. The G.I. Some companies, notably Schweizer Aircraft Corporation in the USA, are developing remotely-controlled variants of light helicopters for use in future battlefields. The same basic body molds were used later by a subsidiary of Hasbro to produce a line of action figures based on the TV Series "Space Academy." Due to the poor quality of the materials used in manufacturing, very few if any of the Super Joe figures survive in intact condition. In identifying conventional helicopters during flight it is helpful to know that when viewed from below, the rotor of a French, Russian, or Soviet designed helicopter rotates counter-clockwise, whilst that of a helicopter built in Italy, the UK or the USA rotates clockwise.

Super Joe was discontinued by the end of 1978. For this reason, good pilotage demands operation within safe flight regimes and avoiding hazardous conditions. The villains were Gor: King of the Terrons, Darkon: Half Man Half Monster and a large walking dinosaur-like alien called Terron: Beast From Beyond. Each of these conditions is potentially fatal and recovery might not be possible. Two other heroic characters, The Shield and Luminos, were called "Night Fighters" and had light up battery powered features. The following is a list of some of the potential hazards:. A hybrid of superhero and space action lines, three of the Super Joe hero characters, Super Joe Commander, Super Joe (Caucasian) and Super Joe (African American), featured a "1-2 Punch" that could be activated by pressing panels on the figure's back. For helicopters the hazards are particularly acute since they are flying at relatively low altitude, with little time to react to a sudden event.

Joe" sewn inside to the seam. As with any moving vehicle, operation outside of safe regimes could result in loss of control, structural damage, or fatality. This new version was called "Super Joe," and also known as the "Super Joe Adventure Team." Some of the costumes for the line had the name "Super G.I. The whirling rotor blades of a helicopter can cause large charges to build up on the airframe, large enough to cause injury to shipboard personnel should they touch any part of the helicopter as it approaches the deck. This size was close in scale but slightly taller than the Mego 8 inch action figures popular at the time. A secondary purpose of the haul-down device is to equalize electrostatic potential between the helicopter and ship. Joe was produced and advertised on TV. Navy implementation of this device, based on Beartrap, is called the "RAST" system (for Recovery Assist, Secure and Traverse) and is an integral part of the LAMPS MK III (SH-60B) weapons system.

Later that year a smaller 8 and a half inch version of G.I. The U.S. Joe line ended in America in 1977. This device was pioneered by the Royal Canadian Navy and was called "Beartrap". The original 12-inch G.I. Tension is maintained on the cable as the helicopter descends, assisting the pilot with accurate positioning of the aircraft on the deck; once on deck locking beams close on the probe, locking the aircraft to the flight deck. The GI Joe line was also licensed to Germany under the Action Team name, including female figures - which were notably absent from the UK Action Man line. Shipboard landing for some helicopters is assisted though use of a haul-down device that involves attachment of a cable to a probe on the bottom of the aircraft prior to landing.

Action Man under Hasbro has since made his reappearance. In the Royal Navy, landing on is usually achieved by lining up slightly astern and on the port quarter, as the ship steams into the wind and the aircraft captain slides across and over the deck. Joe imports. Navy it is commonly and properly referred to as the flight deck. In the 1980's sales in the UK fell off and by the late 80s UK production had ceased, replaced by G.I. In the U.S. Joes, but their identities and histories were international rather than purely American or British. A helicopter deck (or helo deck) is a helicopter pad on the deck of a ship, usually located on the stern and always clear of obstacles that would prove hazardous to a helicopter landing.

Later, they also adopted the Adventure Team line, calling themselves the 'Action Force'; the figures had the same appearance and codenames as the American G.I. The traditional low-tech system is to mount coloured chalk on the rotor tips, and see how they mark a linen sheet.
. The line later expanded the line to include ALL men of action, like footballers and other sports figures. The most common adjustment measurement system is to use a stroboscopic flash lamp, and observe painted markings or coloured reflectors on the underside of the rotor blades. Initially these were the exact same designs as the American figures, and at first the same military theme which included figures from the Second World War. Adjustment is difficult in part because measurement of the vibration is hard. Joe line, under the Action Man name for the UK market. Usually the feedback system uses a mass as a "stable reference" and a linkage from the mass operates a flap to adjust the rotor's angle of attack to counter the vibration.

produced a British version of the 12-inch G.I. Some also use mechanical feedback systems to sense and counter vibration. In 1966, Palitoy Ltd. Most also have vibration dampers for height and pitch. Joes also had a variety of additional weapons and vehicles which could be purchased to assist them on their missions. To reduce vibration, all helicopters have rotor adjustments for height and pitch. The smaller G.I. An unadjusted helicopter can easily vibrate so much that it will shake itself apart.

Joe Team had a new member called Wetsuit whose military occupational speciality was a Navy SEAL. Helicopters vibrate. Joe to wear, the G.I. The redesigns followed the closure of some city heliports and government action to constrain flight paths in national parks and other places of natural beauty. This time, instead of needing a wetsuit for G.I. Urban communities have often expressed great dislike of noisy aircraft, and police and passenger helicopters can be unpopular. The main difference between the two lines was that the 12 in (30 cm) figure could change his clothes to meet any challenge, while the 3 3/4 in (10 cm) team had various figures who could each meet specific challenges. During the closing years of the 20th century designers began working on helicopter noise reduction.

These figures were almost four inches (10 cm) tall and also drove kids to beg their parents for new toys, but this time for a different reason. There are several reasons why a helicopter cannot fly as fast as a fixed wing aircraft. Joe was created. The current record is around 400 km/h set by the Westland Lynx. Later, a much smaller G.I. The single most obvious limitation of the helicopter is its slow speed. Joe stood 11.5 inches, with 21 points of articulation, making him the first 'Action Figure' (a title that Hasbro insisted on, to make Joe more palatable to parents reluctant to let their boys play with a 'doll'). While fixed-wing aircraft are generally designed so pilots sit on the left side of the aircraft, freeing up their right hand for dealing with radios, engine controls, and the like, helicopters are generally designed so pilots sit on the right side of the aircraft so they can keep their right hand (usually the strong hand) on the cyclic at all times, leaving the radios and engine controls for their left hand (usually the weaker hand).

Joe Action Figures (hitting the marketplace in 1964) were toys similar to Ken, Barbie's boyfriend, but with a much increased articulation range, and more rugged appearance. Small helicopters can be so unstable that it may be impossible for the pilot to ever let go of the cyclic while in flight. The original G.I. Changing collective will also cause a change in torque, which will require the pilot to adjust the foot pedals. Joe brand. Increasing collective will reduce rotor RPM, requiring an increase in throttle to maintain constant rotor RPM. Joes represent characters of all branches of the United States military, both male and female, to fight against their "enemy", Cobra, also produced by Hasbro and marketed under the G.I. Moving the cyclic forward causes the helicopter to move forward, but will also cause a reduction in lift, which will require extra collective for more lift.

G.I. Adjusting one flight control on a helicopter almost always has an effect that requires an adjustment of the other controls. Its purpose: to defend human freedom against COBRA, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world.". Hovering a helicopter has been compared to balancing yourself while standing on a large beach ball. Joe is the code name for America's daring, highly-trained special mission force. When a hovering helicopter is nudged in one direction by a gust of wind, it will tend to continue in that direction, and the pilot must adjust the cyclic to correct the motion. According to its 1980s animated series, "G.I. Simply hovering requires continuous, active corrections from the pilot.

Comic book writer Larry Hama is credited with developing most of the characters for the updated toy collection. In contrast, helicopters are very unstable. The comics, in contrast to the cartoons, were much more realistic in their portrayal of violence; some characters were even killed (but no major ones, except for one "special" issue in which more than a dozen named Joes were executed by a random Cobra soldier, an event which initially distressed Cobra Commander). Many small, fixed wing aircraft are stable enough that a pilot can let go of the controls while looking at a map or dealing with a radio, and the plane will generally stay on course. Joe has also appeared as a comic book, with many of its characters being made into action figures. If a gust of wind or a nudge to one of the controls causes a fixed wing aircraft to pitch, roll, or yaw, the aerodynamic design of the aircraft will tend to correct the motion, and the aircraft will return to its original attitude. G.I. Fixed wing aircraft are usually inherently stable.

[3]. It took inventors many years to recognize precession, and to learn how to arrange the cyclic's control system to overcome it. Joe: The Atlantis Factor by Capcom for the Nintendo Entertainment System (1992). The helicopter's control linkages rotate the pitching forces 90 degrees backwards against the rotor spin, to push on the sides of the rotor rather than its front and back. Joe by Taxan for the Nintendo Entertainment System (1991), Action Force by Virgin Games for the Commodore 64 (1987) and G.I. For example, forward motion requires less lift at the front of the disk and more lift at the rear of the disk, so the pilot pushes the cyclic forward. Joe by Epyx for the Apple II and the Commodore 64 (1984), G.I. So control forces on the rotor are rotated 90 degrees before the desired motion.

Joe, some are Cobra Strike by Parker Brothers for the Atari 2600 (1983), G.I. This is called "gyroscopic precession". There were several video game adaptations of G.I. This is because when one tries to tilt a spinning object (like a rotor), it moves at right angles to the direction of the force. These PSAs always ended with the famous exchange: "Now we know!" "And knowing is half the battle". A very peculiar feature of the cyclic is that the lift is made to occur 90 degrees of rotation before the direction of tilt. The show was also known for its public service announcements, where one of the Joes would give an important safety lesson to a group of children engaged in risky behavior. (see Height-velocity diagram).

One example of this can be seen whenever an airplane was destroyed in combat; the characters inside were invariably shown parachuting out of the wreckage in the nick of time. Autorotation can allow a pilot to make an emergency landing if the engine failure occurs while the helicopter is traveling high enough or fast enough. The content of the animated show, although dealing with war and fighting, was still relatively mild as characters rarely, if ever, died even in the most dangerous circumstances. A transmission connects the main rotor to the tail rotor so that all flight controls are available after engine failure. The cast of each group is full of colorful and eccentric characters, each of whom have interesting abilities. This technique is known as autorotation. Their main adversary is the COBRA Organization, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world. The main rotor acts like a "windmill" and turns.

Joe is a highly capable branch of America's military whose purpose is to defend the world against enemy attack. Helicopters are powered aircraft, but they can still fly without power by using the momentum in the rotors and using downward motion to force air through the rotors. G.I. On a helicopter, this can happen in any of three ways. evil". This condition is called aerodynamic stall. The basic premise of the series based on the figures is "good vs. If the angle of attack of any wing, including rotor blades, is too high, the airflow above the wing separates causing instant loss of lift and increase in drag.

This would be the last major innovation for the original toy-line. And the angle of attack is decreased on the advancing blade to produce less lift, compensating for the faster airspeed over the blade. Joe was given "eagle eye" vision--a movable eye mechanism to allow the toy to appear to be looking around when a lever in the back of the head was moved. The angle of attack is increased on the retreating blade to produce more lift, compensating for the slower airspeed over the blade. Around the same time, G.I. To compensate for the added lift on the advancing blade and the decreased lift on the retreating blade, the angle of attack of the blades is regulated as the blade spins around the helicopter. Joe was also introduced around this time. As the blade swings to the other side of the helicopter, it moves at rotor tip speed minus aircraft speed and is called the retreating blade.

A retooled black G.I. As a helicopter moves forward, the rotor blades on one side move at rotor tip speed plus the aircraft speed and is called the advancing blade. The look of the doll was also changed 1970, adding a flocked beard (an innovation developed in England by Palitoy's for their licensed version of Joe, 'Action Man') in most versions to further distance itself from the soldier version. If the pilot pushes the cyclic forward, then the helicopter tilts forward, and the rotor produces a thrust in the forward direction. Joe was the leader of the "Adventure Team", an adventuring/spy-like organization devised to fight evil. This causes the helicopter to tilt in the same direction as the cyclic. Now, G.I. When it is tilted, the links give a pitch-up at some azimuthal angle and a pitch-down at the opposite angle, hence creating a sinusoidal variation in blade angle of attack.

Joe as a Aquanaut for example. When the swashplate is not tilted, the blades are all at the collective angle. Joe" for a time, and featured G.I. The rotating section rotates with the rotor and is connected to blade pitch horns through pitch links, one link for each blade. The line became known as "The Adventures of G.I. The cyclic controls the angle of the stationary section of the swashplate, which in turn controls the angle of the rotating section of the swashplate. The comic is produced and published by Devil's Due Publishing and there is also a cartoon series airing on FOX and produced by GONZO. The cyclic is similar to a joystick and is usually positioned in front of the pilot.

Joe: Sigma 6. This variation in lift causes the rotor disk to tilt, and the helicopter to move during hover flight or change attitude in forward flight. Joe on the toy shelves with 8"-sized action figures, G.I. The cyclic changes the pitch of the blades cyclically, causing the lift to vary across the plane of the rotor disk. In the fall of 2005, Hasbro re-introduced G.I. Turbine engined helicopters, and some piston helicopters, use servo-feedback loop in their engine controls to maintain rotor RPM and relieves the pilot of routine responsibility for that task. Joe series, as well as new toy characters. The pilot manipulates the throttle to maintain rotor RPM and therefore regulates the effect of drag on the rotor system.

These figures were designed with the adult collector in mind, and while retaining the sculpting style of the 2002-2005 "themed years," produced toy characters from the "original 1982-1994" G.I. In many piston-powered helicopters, the pilot must manage the engine and rotor RPM. The 3.75" sized figures were removed from toy shop shelves early in 2005, and sold exclusively through online retailers and through a new Hasbro online store, Hasbro Toy Shop. In general, RPM must be maintained within a tight tolerance, usually a few percent. Venom" also had an OVA CGI movie. If the RPM is too high, damage to the main rotor hub from excessive forces could result. "Valor vs. If the RPM is too low, rapid descent with power, known as settling with power could result.

Venom" theme up until the first half of 2005. Helicopter rotors are designed to operate at a specific RPM. 2004 featured the "Valor vs. RPM control is critical to proper operation for several reasons. There was a direct-to-video "Spytroops" CGI movie. The throttle control is a twist grip on the collective control. 2003 was themed "Spytroops" and had many figures produced with "O-rings" again. The throttle controls the absolute power produced by the engine that is connected to the rotor by a transmission.

Cobra" and featured new style figures that had "T-crotches" with no "O-ring." New characters were introduced in that period and new molds for both old and new. Simultaneously increasing the collective and adding power with the throttle causes a helicopter to rise. Joe vs. The collective control is usually a lever at the pilot's left side, near his leg. In 2002, the theme was "G.I. When the angle of attack is increased, the blade produces more lift. Each year's 3.75" series had a slight change in figure production construction. The collective pitch control lever controls the collective pitch, or angle of attack, of the helicopter blades altogether, that is, equally throughout the 360 degree plane-of-rotation of the main rotor system.

The basic 3.75" sized GI Joe toy sculpture style was changed in 2001 with the introduction of yearly themes. Helicopters maneuver with three flight controls besides the pedals. Joe's popularity. More lift at the rear of the rotary wing will cause the aircraft to pitch forward, an increase on the left will cause a roll to the right and so on. The comic series was helpful in bringing back G.I. For pitch (tilting forward and back) or roll (tilting sideways) the angle of attack of the main rotor blades is altered or cycled during the rotation creating a differential of lift at different points of the rotary wing. In 2001, the Devil's Due publishing company bought the rights to produce new comics that continued the storyline from Marvel Comics. Yaw controls are usually operated with anti-torque pedals, on the floor in the same place as a fixed-wing aircraft's rudder pedals.

Some original 1982-1994 3.75 inch line toys were "re-produced" in "collector edition" 2-packs, along with vehicles. Dual-rotor helicopters have a differential between the two rotor transmissions that can be adjusted by an electric or hydraulic motor to transmit differential torque and thus turn the helicopter. Joe: A Real American Hero line. Varying the pitch of the tail rotor alters the sideways thrust produced. Toys R Us began carrying a store-exclusive line that featured "re-produced" figures and vehicles from the G.I. For rotation about the vertical axis (yaw) the anti-torque system is used. There was also a cartoon series that supported the toyline. In a helicopter, however, there often isn't enough airspeed for this method to be practical.

Joe Extreme comic. In a fixed-wing aircraft, this is easy: small movable surfaces are adjusted to change the aircraft's shape so that the air rushing past pushes it in the desired direction. Dark Horse Comics produced the G.I. Useful flight requires that an aircraft be controlled in all three dimensions (see flight dynamics). Savage is a part of this series. Although this method is simple and eliminates precession, development of such helicopters ceased soon, because their extreme noise levels preclude both military and civilian use. Sgt. The most unusual design is the roto-rocket principle, where the single main rotor draws power not from the shaft, but from its own wingtip jet nozzles, which are either pressurized from a fuselage-mounted gas turbine or have their own pulsejet combustion chambers.

These figures, as well as vehicles, took on a future premise storyline that had the Extreme team battling SKAR. The NOTAR system was developed in the United States and is used exclusively by McDonnel Douglas Helicopters, or MD Helicopters. Joe Extreme was introduced in a 5" tall, limited articulation format. The NOTAR eliminates the tail rotor by conducting high-velocity air through the tail boom. G.I. A recent development in helicopter technology is the NOTAR system, which stands for NO TAil Rotor. Savage. V-22 Osprey tilting rotorcraft is similar, although its nacelles can be rotated, and shares some of the inherent technical problems of a cross system.

There was one cartoon featuring Sgt. The U.S. The enemy force was the Iron Army, cybernetically-enhanced WWII style criminals and robots. The world's largest ever helicopter, the Soviet Mil-V-12 prototype, was a cross of two Mil Mi-6 turbine-rotor units built onto a modified Antonov cargo plane. Joe but it contains its themes. The 1930s German FW-61 helicopter was built to such design. The series was not labeled G.I. Such helicopters are rare, because structural integrity of the wings is difficult to maintain against the amplified resonance of far off-board rotor-turbine units.

Savage and his Screaming Eagles were produced. In the cross system, the rotary wing aircraft resembles a traditional fixed-wing airplane, with the two main rotors mounted at the extremities of its wings. This was the only year Sgt. These were placed at the corners of an equilateral triangle and all turned the same direction. Savage and his Screaming Eagles were put on the toy shelves in a 4" size, World War II-based theme. A helicopter built by Juan de la Cierva had three main rotors. Sgt. The main drawback of a waggon is limited agility in air and the need for a highly trained crew, as the large main rotors have long outreach beyond the fuselage and may easily hit nearby obstacles (in 2001, a South Korean army CH-47 Chinook crashed onto a bridge for that reason while being shown live on TV).

The toyline and the accompanying television show and comics were renamed Action Force, presumably to make the toyline appear more international and less American-centric. The rotors and turbines are located very high on top of the fuselage, making them less sensitive to damage and dirt. Joe: A Real American Hero was renamed for the European market. Waggon helicopters are practical for military logistical purposes, because entry and unloading is easily facilitated via the unobstructed front and rear ramps. G.I. A prime example is the Boeing CH-47 Chinook, that can carry 14 tons of payload. There was also a Marvel Comic series that featured many of the toy characterizations. examples), the two main rotors are located at the front and rear extremity of a long, boxy fuselage that resembles a railway wagon.

There was also two series of cartoons, "Sunbow", and "DIC" produced with this toyline. In the flying-waggon or tandem rotor system (sometimes called "flying banana" for the peculiar shape of early U.S. Each toy figure included a character bio, called a "file card." During the 12 year production, there were many "subsets" produced. Kamans have high stability and powerful lifting capability, thus the latest Kaman V-Max model is a dedicated sky crane design, used for construction works. Cobra was the main enemy force during this toy lines run. During the Cold War the American Kaman company started to produce similar helicopters for USAF firefighting purposes. This toy series lasted through 1994, producing over 500 figures and 250 vehicles and playsets. The contra-rotating rotors are located on top of the fuselage, close to each other.

Joe was re-introduced in a 3.75" format. The Kaman system of intermeshing rotors, which was developed in Nazi Germany for a small anti-submarine warfare helicopter, features two main rotors on separate, obliquely mounted axles. After a few years of absence from the toy shelves and with the help of the Star Wars 3.75" figure successes, G.I. Another example is the Kamov Ka-26, a successful crop duster aircraft. Joe was discontinued for the same reason Super Joe was introduced, the rising cost of petroleum. Co-axial helicopters in flight are highly resistant to side-winds, which makes them suitable for shipboard use, even without a rope-pulley landing system. Finally in 1978, G.I. The co-axial design, where rotors are mounted on top of each other at the top of the fuselage and share a common main axle complex, was first built by Theodore von Karman and Asbóth Oszkár in 1918 and later became the hallmark of soviet Kamov design bureau (see for example the Kamov Ka-50 "Hokum").

The Super Joe series had the characters turned into superheroes. These methods introduce even more mechanical complexity to the design and are usually relegated to specialized helicopter types. Joe to 8 inches was implemented with the name of Super Joe. All of these systems are designed for the same purpose: the torques from each rotor have opposite signs, so the net effect on the vehicle is negligable. With rising oil prices in 1977, a cost-saving measure of "shrinking" G.I. Such designs use two rotors which turn in opposite directions, or contra-rotate. It was also the period where there is a departure from its traditional military settings and began wading in to more fantastic concepts such as the introduction of the Intruders, alien invaders who are the Adventure Team's arch nemesis. There are alternatives to Sikorsky's layout, which save the weight of a tail boom and rotor.

These were the years of the Adventure Team and the Kung Fu grip. In extreme cases, such as that of the Mil Mi-24, the wings are large enough to obstruct airflow down from the rotors, making the helicopter all but unable to hover. Joe was licenced to several countries:. They are also used as external mounts for weapons. The 12-inch G.I. Many military helicopters, especially attack types, have short wings called stub wings to add lift during forward motion. Later on, the line featured members from America's Armed Forces and some foreign soldiers as well. Another reason for the angled vertical stabilizer is to make it possible to stage a successful high-speed, run-on landing, in case of the tail rotor failure or damage.

Joe. This is commonly known as slip-streaming and can make hovering turns difficult on windy days. The toyline was dedicated to one character named G.I. At high speeds, it is possible for the vertical stabilizer to counteract the entire torque, leaving more power available for forward flight. They were 12" tall. To reduce this waste during cruise, the vertical stabilizer is often angled to produce a force which helps counter the main rotor torque. Joe. A tail rotor typically uses about 5 to 6% of the engine's power, and this power does not help the helicopter produce lift or forward motion.

Hasbro toy company's first "action figure" was introduced with the name of G.I. The amount of power required to prevent a helicopter from spinning is significant. Joe toys came out:. Notars adjust thrust by opening and closing a sliding circular cover near the end of the tail boom. The following G.I. Other helicopters use a NOTAR (an acronym meaning no tail rotor) design: they blow air through a long slot along the tail boom, utilizing the Coanda effect to produce forces to counter the torque. . It is less efficient but the advantages are that less noise is generated, it's safer for people that may walk near it and there is less chance of the blades being damaged by objects because it's shrouded, unlike the traditional tail rotor.

Joe, no longer referred to one specific character but to a toyline brand. The fenestron rotor system on the model EC120 helicopter uses a shaft driven system and gearbox to turn the fan. The name, G.I. If the tail rotor is shrouded (i.e., a fan embedded in the vertical tail) it is called a fenestron. Two years later, Hasbro began featuring members from all branches of the armed forces. AH-64 Apache). Joe.
Sometimes the blades of a tail rotor are not separated by the same angle, but laid out in an X-shape, which is supposed to reduce the noise levels for military use (e.g.

The toyline began with the aptly named G.I. The world's fastest helicopter, the Westland Lynx can perform aerobatic loops and rolls with this conventional rotor system. Joe became a series of military-themed action figures produced by the Hasbro toy company. Almost all civilian helicopters have the main rotor and tail rotor system. In 1964, the character G.I. The Mil Mi-26 can lift 27 metric tons, the Robinson R22 has a crew of two and a gross weight of 1300 lbs (590 kg). Joe [1], directed by William Wellman and starring Burgess Meredith as acclaimed war correspondent Ernie Pyle. The world's largest and smallest series-produced helicopters follow this principle.

In 1945, United Artists released a movie titled The Story of G.I. When the thrust from the tail rotor is sufficient to cancel out the torque from the main rotor, the helicopter will not rotate around the main rotor shaft. His strip debuted June 17, 1942 in the military's YANK magazine and Stars and Stripes newspaper. This rotor creates thrust which is in the opposite direction from the torque generated by the main rotor. Joe" from the military reference "Government Issue". At low speeds, the most common way to counteract this torque is to have a smaller vertical propeller mounted at the rear of the aircraft called a tail rotor. Breger came up with the title "G.I. It is as follows: turning the rotor generates lift but it also applies a reverse torque to the vehicle, which would spin the helicopter fuselage in the opposite direction to the rotor.

Joe is a cartoon soldier created by David Breger when he was asked to do a comic strip for United States military magazines during World War II. The most common design is the Sikorsky-layout, which is used by approximately 95% of all helicopters manufactured to date. G.I. There are several possible design layouts for arranging a helicopter's rotors. Ted Williams. The helicopter's rotor can simply be regarded as rotating wings, from where the military appellation of "rotary wing aircraft" originates. George Washington. A helicopter makes use of the same principle, except that instead of moving the entire aircraft, only the wings themselves are moved in a circular motion.

Slaughter" né Robert Remus. However, the more the lift of the airfoil, the more drag that is caused. "Sgt. This pressure difference integrated over the airfoil area causes a net lift. Emil Sitka. Thus, by causing the air to flow faster over the top surface than the bottom, the airfoil causes a pressure difference directed upward. Theodore Roosevelt. The higher the speed of a fluid, the lower the dynamic pressure (as opposed to static pressure) on the surface.

Ernie Pyle. The longer path that the fluid (in this case air) must travel across the top surface equates to a higher speed. Colin Powell. In conventional aircraft, the wing profile (called airfoil) is designed to have a shape where the bottom surface has a shorter path than the top surface. Pierce. Turboshaft engines are the preferred powerplant for all but the smallest and least expensive helicopters today. Francis J. The availability of lightweight turboshaft engines in the second half of the 20th century led to the development of larger, faster, and higher performance helicopters.

William "Refrigerator" Perry. Improvements in fuels and engines during the first half of the 20th century were a critical factor in helicopter development. George Patton. Igor Sikorsky is reported to have delayed his own helicopter research until suitable engines were commercially available. Audie Murphy. This is largely due to higher engine power density requirements when compared with fixed wing aircraft. Douglas MacArthur.
Reliable helicopters capable of stable hover flight were developed decades after fixed wing aircraft.

Mike Leonard. The Bell 47 designed by Arthur Young became the first helicopter to be licensed (in March 1946) for certified civilian use in the United States and two decades later the Bell 206 became the most succesful commercial helicopter ever built with more hours and set (and broken) more industry records than any other aircraft in the world. Dwight Eisenhower. Mass production of the military version of the Sikorsky XR-4 began in May 1942 for the United States Army. Bob Hope. Models such the Flettner FL 282 Kolibri were use in the Mediterranean Sea. Fox. Nazi Germany used the helicopter in combat during WWII in little numbers.

John R. The German Focke-Wulf Fw 61 first flew with limited control achieving vertical and forward flight in 1934. Currey. A flight of the first fully controllable helicopter was demonstrated by Raúl Pateras de Pescara 1916 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Francis E. Developers such as Jan Bahyl, Oszkár Asbóth, Louis Breguet, Paul Cornu, Emile Berliner, Ogneslav Kostovic Stepanovic and Igor Sikorsky pioneered this type of aircraft, with Juan de la Cierva introducing the first practical autogiro in 1923 that was to be the basis for the modern helicopter. Robert Crippen. The first somewhat practical idea of a human carrying helicopter was first conceived by Leonardo da Vinci around 1490, but it was not until after the invention of the powered aeroplane in the 20th century that actual models were produced.

Roy Benavidez. "Pao Phu Tau" was a 4th century book in China that described some of the ideas in a rotary wing aircraft. Buzz Aldrin. This toy eventually made its way to Europe via trade and has been depicted in a 1463 European painting. The 3 3/4" line resumed production after a very brief hiatus but is now sold exclusively on a direct-to-consumer basis, through Hasbro's website and select Internet retailers. Since around 400 BC the Chinese had a flying top that was used as a children's toy. The previous 12" and 3 3/4" lines were scheduled to go on hiatus near the middle of the year and replaced by Sigma 6. Speed and range limitations also constrain commercial applications.

These new larger figures are based out of the storyline that started in 1982, but are in a larger scale and will be accompanied by an Anime series made by Japanese animation house GONZO. For these reasons, helicopters are not economically viable for commercial transportation. Joe: Sigma 6, which is in no way related to the quality management program Six Sigma. The costs are due to inherent mechanical complexity and greater power requirements for a given gross weight. Joe team with a new line called G.I. Helicopters suffer from significantly higher operating and maintenance costs compared with fixed wing aircraft. 2005 brought a new size to the G.I. Unmanned helicopters are used in industrial and military applications in areas deemed dangerous for manned flight.

Cobra storyline. Helicopters have many uses, both military and civil, including troop transportation, infantry support, firefighting, shipboard operations, business transportation, casualty evacuation (including MEDEVAC, and air/sea/mountain rescue), police and civilian surveillance, carrying goods (some helicopters can carry slung loads, accommodating awkwardly shaped items), or as a mount for still, film or television cameras. Joe vs. . Venom debuted, as well as a new trading card game based on the G.I. However these other configurations have considerably more cruise speed than a helicopter (270 km/h for a helicopter, 460 km/h for a tiltrotor, 900+ km/h for a vectored thrust airplane), giving each their place in the operational spectrum. Joe: Valor vs. Compared to other vertical lift aircraft like Tiltrotors (V-22 Osprey for example) and Vectored Thrust airplanes (AV-8 Harrier for example), helicopters are very efficient, carrying more than twice the payload, consuming less fuel in hover and costing considerably less to buy and operate.

In 2004 The direct-to-DVD feature film G.I. Subject only to refuelling facilities and load/altitude limitations, a helicopter can travel to any location, and land anywhere with enough space (a diameter of length 1.5 times the rotor disk). The VvsV figures are the exact same scale as the original ARAH figures, while the Spy Troop figures are several mm's taller. The compensating advantage is maneuverability: helicopters can hover in place, reverse, and above all take off and land vertically. Venom. Compared to conventional fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters are much more complex, more expensive to buy and operate, relatively slow, have shorter range and restricted payload. Joes were released under various themes including Spy Troops and Valor vs. The first stable, single-rotor, fully-controllable helicopter to enter large full-scale production was made by Igor Sikorsky in 1942.

In 2001 new 3 3/4" G.I. The engine-driven helicopter was invented by the Slovak inventor Jan Bahyl. Sales were unquestionably altered, causing Devil's Due to miss its chance to purchase the rights to reprint the Marvel Comics line. The word helicopter is derived from the Greek words helix (spiral) and pteron (wing). Eventually, the entire creative team changed, with newcomer Brandon Jerwa taking over as writer and Tim Seeley as artist. Helicopters are classified as rotary-wing aircraft to distinguish them from conventional fixed-wing aircraft. Joe comic book and hired Scott Wherle as editor and freelance writer, Steven Kurth as artist, and real-life fan and active-duty soldier Brian Savage Peterson as Military Consultant and freelance writer. A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors (propellers).

Devil's Due Productions bought the license to publish the G.I. Vortex ring state, a problem the V-22 Osprey was associated with. Joe honored the events of the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor by releasing a line of Pearl Harbor figures. Operating within the shaded area of the height-velocity diagram. In 2001, G.I. Low-G condition. Joe A Real American Hero Collection figures were also re-released. Ground resonance.

The 3 3/4" G.I. Settling with power. The figures included a toy bomb that "detonated" if handled incorrectly. Retreating blade stall. Joe talking figures (until this time) since the 1970s--The other being "Duke" from the Hall of Fame line. If this ring is augmented by terrain, wind, rain, or sea spray, the helicopter can lose enough lift to experience settling with power and hit the ground. In 2000, a Navajo Code Talker was introduced, one of only two 12-inch G.I. In these, the downward wind from the rotor causes a circular vortex to form around the rotor.

The line also presented an all-new articulated GIJOE figure that formed the basis of many offerings to the present day. Helicopters are susceptible to potentially disastrous vortex ring effects. Soldiers from Australia, Britain, and other nations, as well as United States Forces were featured. Low or negative-G situations encountered in a semi-rigid system will result in blade flapping down until it hits the tail boom or other airframe structure, followed by rotor separation, causing a crash. Joe with fairly realistic uniforms and gear. Rotorhead design is a limiting factor on many helicopters. The Classic Collection harkened back to the original all military theme of G.I. The adjustment is either by adjusting the angle of attack of the blades, or by engine-powered vacuum devices that suck air into the blades, adjusting the lift.

Joe line-up since 1967; this doll was a helicopter pilot. In most such designs, the lift is varied cyclically and according to the speed of the helicopter. Janes were introduced in a series called the Classic Collection, the first 12-inch female dolls in the G.I. Fully rigid rotors exist and create very responsive helicopters. G.I. The blades are made from composites which can bend without breaking. JOE MASTERPIECE EDITION ([2]), a unique book-and-figure product. In some designs the hub is rigid.

Joe returned via the G.I. At high speeds, the force on the rotors is such that they "flap" excessively and the retreating blade can reach too high an angle and stall. In 1997, the original G.I. Conversely, the retreating blade flaps down, develops a higher angle of attack, and generates more lift. Joe Extreme figures were introduced, along with a comic book, published by Dark Horse comics. In consequence, rotor blades are designed to "flap" - lift and twist in such a way that the advancing blade flaps up and develops a smaller angle of attack, thus producing less lift than a rigid blade would. In 1995, G.I. Because the advancing blade has higher airspeed than the retreating blade, a perfectly rigid blade would generate more lift on that side and tip the aircraft over.

Joe and accordingly, Hasbro released a series of 12 inch and 3 3/4 inch figures based on the original 4 basic services represented in the first waves of the 1964 toy-line. Most rotors are not rigid. This was also the 30th Anniversary of G.I. It is theoretically possible to have spiralling rotors, similar in principle to variable-pitch swept wings, which could exceed the speed of sound, but no presently known materials are light enough, strong enough, and flexible enough to construct them. Savage and his Screaming Eagles figures debuted. It is possible for this blade to exceed the speed of sound, and thus produce vastly increased drag and vibration. Sgt. The airspeed of the forward-going rotor blade is much higher than that of the helicopter itself.

In 1994 the 3 3/4 inch line was cancelled. In a moving helicopter, however, the speed of the blades relative to the air depends on the speed of the helicopter as well as on their rotational velocity. Joe also jumped on the Jurassic Park bandwagon and had a set of Dino-hunters. When the helicopter is at rest, the outer tips of the rotor travel at a speed determined by the length of the blade and the RPM. G.I. Unique to helicopters is vertical ring vortex which is when a helicopter in a hover or decent comes into contact with its own down wash causing imense turbulence and complete loss of lift. Joe joined the war on drugs by introducing the Drug Elimination Force (DEF) line of figures.The line declined with sci-fi themes again, notably the Star Brigade. Any low rotor RPM flight condition accompanied by increasing collective pitch application will cause aerodynamic stall.

In 1992, G.I. This is called retreating blade stall. 12" figures were also re-introduced as part of an exclusive contract with Target retail stores. With a low enough relative airspeed and a high enough angle of attack, aerodynamic stall is inevitable. Joe Ecowarriors line was produced to raise environmental awareness. As helicopter speeds increase, the retreating blade experiences lower relative airspeeds and the controls compensate with higher angle of attack. In 1991, the G.I. As helicopter speed increases, the advancing blades approach the speed of sound and generate shock waves that disrupt the airflow over the blade causing loss of lift.

In 1988, Battle Force 2000 was introduced. Football player William "Refrigerator" Perry followed suit in 1987. Joe forces. Slaughter, became the first real person to join the G.I.

In 1986, wrestler Robert Remus, aka Sgt. Joe as the top-selling American toy. In 1985, both Toy & Lamp and Hobby World magazines ranked G.I. In 1983, Destro was introduced as one of the first characters at the service of the COBRA Commander.

Joe frenzy that would eventually lead to the production of posters, t-shirts, video games, board games, kites, animated movies, and even a cartoon series based on the characters. This was the beginning of the 1980s G.I. The "Adventure Team" idea was modified and combined with the original military theme of the early action figures. In 1982, the new figures were downsized to be produced at about the size of Star Wars action figures.

Since the toy was produced with plastic and petroleum is a major component in the manufacture of plastic, the cost of producing the toy rose substantially, and after a failed attempt to produce a smaller version called "Super Joe", Hasbro decided to discontinue it although the licensed versions outside the US continued for a while. Joes. In 1978, the petroleum crisis directly affected G.I. In 1976, The Intruders, a line of outer space arch rivals, was introduced.

Both figures were not in the mold of the rest of team, and further confused the GI Joe line. Also added to the Adventure Team was a Superhero, Bulletman. * In 1975, after a failed bid to gain the rights to the Six Million Dollar Man, Hasbro issued a bionic warrior figure named Mike Power, Atomic Man sold over one million units. Joes started to be produced with a "kung fu grip." This involved redesigning the doll's hands in a softer plastic that allowed the fingers to curl and better grip objects in a more lifelike fashion.

By 1974, Kung Fu fever had arrived in the United States, so G.I. Joe toys were eliminated due to the growing controversy over war toys in the wake of the Vietnam War. By 1970, the war themes of the original G.I. It was not a success, the first real mis-step of the line.

Joe action figure was produced - a nurse. Around this time the only full-sized female G.I. Joe talking figures were introduced. In 1967, G.I.

Joe. Joe line up, and Hasbro decided that the entire toy line will be named G.I. In 1966, soldiers of international armed forces joined the G.I. In 1965, a Black Joe was introduced in selected markets.

Joe figures were about the size of the Barbie dolls (12 inches (305 mm) tall). At that time, the G.I. Joe brand, naming it after the aforementioned movie. Therefore, in 1964, they launched the G.I.

Inspired in part by the tv series " The Lieutenant", Hasbro saw the potential such an action figure for boys could have. Nearly 20 years later, seeing the market success of the Barbie doll, Stan Weston, toy creator and licensing agent, brought the idea of a soldier action figure to Don Levine at Hasbro. Joe, about war correspondent Ernie Pyle in World War II, was released. In 1945, a hit movie, The Story of G.I.

Joe rescued over 1,000 people in Italy by delivering a crucial message. In 1943, a pigeon called G.I. Joe: Sigma 6 (2005-Present). G.I.

Venom (2004-2005). Joe: Valor vs. G.I. Cobra: Spytroops (2003).

Joe vs. G.I. Cobra (2002). Joe vs.

G.I. Joe: The Real American Hero Collection (2000-2002). G.I. Joe: Classic Collection (1995-2004).

G.I. Joe: Toys R Us Exclusives (1997-1998). G.I. Joe Extreme (1996-1997).

G.I. Joe: Hall of Fame limited exclusives (1995-1997). G.I. Savage and the Screaming Eagles (1995).

Sgt. Joe: Hall of Fame (1991-1994). G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero (1982-1994).

G.I. Joe Adventure Team (1970-1979). G.I. Joe (1964-1969).

G.I.

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