G.I. Joe

Classic G.I. Joe Adventure Team Image, circa 1973

G.I. Joe is a cartoon soldier created by David Breger when he was asked to do a comic strip for United States military magazines during World War II. Breger came up with the title "G.I. Joe" from the military reference "Government Issue". His strip debuted June 17, 1942 in the military's YANK magazine and Stars and Stripes newspaper. In 1945, United Artists released a movie titled The Story of G.I. Joe [1], directed by William Wellman and starring Burgess Meredith as acclaimed war correspondent Ernie Pyle.

In 1964, the character G.I. Joe became a series of military-themed action figures produced by the Hasbro toy company. The toyline began with the aptly named G.I. Joe. Two years later, Hasbro began featuring members from all branches of the armed forces. The name, G.I. Joe, no longer referred to one specific character but to a toyline brand.

Incarnations

The following G.I. Joe toys came out:

  • G.I. Joe (1964-1969)
  • G.I. Joe Adventure Team (1970-1979)
  • G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero (1982-1994)
  • G.I. Joe: Hall of Fame (1991-1994)
  • Sgt. Savage and the Screaming Eagles (1995)
  • G.I. Joe: Hall of Fame limited exclusives (1995-1997)
  • G.I. Joe Extreme (1996-1997)
  • G.I. Joe: Toys R Us Exclusives (1997-1998)
  • G.I. Joe: Classic Collection (1995-2004)
  • G.I. Joe: The Real American Hero Collection (2000-2002)
  • G.I. Joe vs. Cobra (2002)
  • G.I. Joe vs. Cobra: Spytroops (2003)
  • G.I. Joe: Valor vs. Venom (2004-2005)
  • G.I. Joe: Sigma 6 (2005-Present)

G.I. Joe (1964-1969)

Hasbro toy company's first "action figure" was introduced with the name of G.I. Joe. They were 12" tall. The toyline was dedicated to one character named G.I. Joe. Later on, the line featured members from America's Armed Forces and some foreign soldiers as well.

The 12-inch G.I. Joe was licenced to several countries:

G.I. Joe Adventure Team (1970-1979)

These were the years of the Adventure Team and the Kung Fu grip. It was also the period where there is a departure from its traditional military settings and began wading in to more fantastic concepts such as the introduction of the Intruders, alien invaders who are the Adventure Team's arch nemesis. With rising oil prices in 1977, a cost-saving measure of "shrinking" G.I. Joe to 8 inches was implemented with the name of Super Joe. The Super Joe series had the characters turned into superheroes. Finally in 1978, G.I. Joe was discontinued for the same reason Super Joe was introduced, the rising cost of petroleum.

G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero (1982-1994)

After a few years of absence from the toy shelves and with the help of the Star Wars 3.75" figure successes, G.I. Joe was re-introduced in a 3.75" format. This toy series lasted through 1994, producing over 500 figures and 250 vehicles and playsets. Cobra was the main enemy force during this toy lines run. Each toy figure included a character bio, called a "file card." During the 12 year production, there were many "subsets" produced. There was also two series of cartoons, "Sunbow", and "DIC" produced with this toyline. There was also a Marvel Comic series that featured many of the toy characterizations.

G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero was renamed for the European market. The toyline and the accompanying television show and comics were renamed Action Force, presumably to make the toyline appear more international and less American-centric.

Sgt. Savage and the Screaming Eagles (1995)

Sgt. Savage and his Screaming Eagles were put on the toy shelves in a 4" size, World War II-based theme. This was the only year Sgt. Savage and his Screaming Eagles were produced. The series was not labeled G.I. Joe but it contains its themes. The enemy force was the Iron Army, cybernetically-enhanced WWII style criminals and robots. There was one cartoon featuring Sgt. Savage.

G.I. Joe Extreme (1996-1997)

G.I. Joe Extreme was introduced in a 5" tall, limited articulation format. These figures, as well as vehicles, took on a future premise storyline that had the Extreme team battling SKAR. Sgt. Savage is a part of this series. Dark Horse Comics produced the G.I. Joe Extreme comic. There was also a cartoon series that supported the toyline.

Toys R Us Exclusives (1997-1998)

Toys R Us began carrying a store-exclusive line that featured "re-produced" figures and vehicles from the G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero line.

The Return of A Real American Hero (2000-2005)

Some original 1982-1994 3.75 inch line toys were "re-produced" in "collector edition" 2-packs, along with vehicles. In 2001, the Devil's Due publishing company bought the rights to produce new comics that continued the storyline from Marvel Comics. The comic series was helpful in bringing back G.I. Joe's popularity. The basic 3.75" sized GI Joe toy sculpture style was changed in 2001 with the introduction of yearly themes. Each year's 3.75" series had a slight change in figure production construction. In 2002, the theme was "G.I. Joe vs. Cobra" and featured new style figures that had "T-crotches" with no "O-ring." New characters were introduced in that period and new molds for both old and new. 2003 was themed "Spytroops" and had many figures produced with "O-rings" again. There was a direct-to-video "Spytroops" CGI movie. 2004 featured the "Valor vs. Venom" theme up until the first half of 2005. "Valor vs. Venom" also had an OVA CGI movie.

The 3.75" sized figures were removed from toy shop shelves early in 2005, and sold exclusively through online retailers and through a new Hasbro online store, Hasbro Toy Shop. These figures were designed with the adult collector in mind, and while retaining the sculpting style of the 2002-2005 "themed years," produced toy characters from the "original 1982-1994" G.I. Joe series, as well as new toy characters.

G.I. Joe: Sigma 6 (2005-Present)

In the fall of 2005, Hasbro re-introduced G.I. Joe on the toy shelves with 8"-sized action figures, G.I. Joe: Sigma 6.

The comic is produced and published by Devil's Due Publishing and there is also a cartoon series airing on FOX and produced by GONZO.

Historical Overview

  • In 1943, a pigeon called G.I. Joe rescued over 1,000 people in Italy by delivering a crucial message.
  • In 1945, a hit movie, The Story of G.I. Joe, about war correspondent Ernie Pyle in World War II, was released.
  • Nearly 20 years later, seeing the market success of the Barbie doll, Stan Weston, toy creator and licensing agent, brought the idea of a soldier action figure to Don Levine at Hasbro. Inspired in part by the tv series " The Lieutenant", Hasbro saw the potential such an action figure for boys could have. Therefore, in 1964, they launched the G.I. Joe brand, naming it after the aforementioned movie. At that time, the G.I. Joe figures were about the size of the Barbie dolls (12 inches (305 mm) tall). In 1965, a Black Joe was introduced in selected markets.
  • In 1966, soldiers of international armed forces joined the G.I. Joe line up, and Hasbro decided that the entire toy line will be named G.I. Joe.
  • In 1967, G.I. Joe talking figures were introduced. Around this time the only full-sized female G.I. Joe action figure was produced - a nurse. It was not a success, the first real mis-step of the line.
  • By 1970, the war themes of the original G.I. Joe toys were eliminated due to the growing controversy over war toys in the wake of the Vietnam War.

The line became known as "The Adventures of G.I. Joe" for a time, and featured G.I. Joe as a Aquanaut for example.

Various G.I. Joe Action Figures, circa 1975

Now, G.I. Joe was the leader of the "Adventure Team", an adventuring/spy-like organization devised to fight evil. The look of the doll was also changed 1970, adding a flocked beard (an innovation developed in England by Palitoy's for their licensed version of Joe, 'Action Man') in most versions to further distance itself from the soldier version. A retooled black G.I. Joe was also introduced around this time.

  • By 1974, Kung Fu fever had arrived in the United States, so G.I. Joes started to be produced with a "kung fu grip." This involved redesigning the doll's hands in a softer plastic that allowed the fingers to curl and better grip objects in a more lifelike fashion. * In 1975, after a failed bid to gain the rights to the Six Million Dollar Man, Hasbro issued a bionic warrior figure named Mike Power, Atomic Man sold over one million units. Also added to the Adventure Team was a Superhero, Bulletman. Both figures were not in the mold of the rest of team, and further confused the GI Joe line. In 1976, The Intruders, a line of outer space arch rivals, was introduced.

Around the same time, G.I. Joe was given "eagle eye" vision--a movable eye mechanism to allow the toy to appear to be looking around when a lever in the back of the head was moved. This would be the last major innovation for the original toy-line

Image:Gi joe image25.jpg Atomic Man, 1976
  • In 1978, the petroleum crisis directly affected G.I. Joes. Since the toy was produced with plastic and petroleum is a major component in the manufacture of plastic, the cost of producing the toy rose substantially, and after a failed attempt to produce a smaller version called "Super Joe", Hasbro decided to discontinue it although the licensed versions outside the US continued for a while.
  • In 1982, the new figures were downsized to be produced at about the size of Star Wars action figures. The "Adventure Team" idea was modified and combined with the original military theme of the early action figures. This was the beginning of the 1980s G.I. Joe frenzy that would eventually lead to the production of posters, t-shirts, video games, board games, kites, animated movies, and even a cartoon series based on the characters. In 1983, Destro was introduced as one of the first characters at the service of the COBRA Commander.
  • In 1985, both Toy & Lamp and Hobby World magazines ranked G.I. Joe as the top-selling American toy.
  • In 1986, wrestler Robert Remus, aka Sgt. Slaughter, became the first real person to join the G.I. Joe forces. Football player William "Refrigerator" Perry followed suit in 1987. In 1988, Battle Force 2000 was introduced.
  • In 1991, the G.I. Joe Ecowarriors line was produced to raise environmental awareness. 12" figures were also re-introduced as part of an exclusive contract with Target retail stores. In 1992, G.I. Joe joined the war on drugs by introducing the Drug Elimination Force (DEF) line of figures.The line declined with sci-fi themes again, notably the Star Brigade. G.I. Joe also jumped on the Jurassic Park bandwagon and had a set of Dino-hunters.
  • In 1994 the 3 3/4 inch line was cancelled. Sgt. Savage and his Screaming Eagles figures debuted. This was also the 30th Anniversary of G.I. Joe and accordingly, Hasbro released a series of 12 inch and 3 3/4 inch figures based on the original 4 basic services represented in the first waves of the 1964 toy-line.
  • In 1995, G.I. Joe Extreme figures were introduced, along with a comic book, published by Dark Horse comics.
  • In 1997, the original G.I. Joe returned via the G.I. JOE MASTERPIECE EDITION ([2]), a unique book-and-figure product. G.I. Janes were introduced in a series called the Classic Collection, the first 12-inch female dolls in the G.I. Joe line-up since 1967; this doll was a helicopter pilot. The Classic Collection harkened back to the original all military theme of G.I. Joe with fairly realistic uniforms and gear. Soldiers from Australia, Britain, and other nations, as well as United States Forces were featured. The line also presented an all-new articulated GIJOE figure that formed the basis of many offerings to the present day.
  • In 2000, a Navajo Code Talker was introduced, one of only two 12-inch G.I. Joe talking figures (until this time) since the 1970s--The other being "Duke" from the Hall of Fame line. The figures included a toy bomb that "detonated" if handled incorrectly. The 3 3/4" G.I. Joe A Real American Hero Collection figures were also re-released.
  • In 2001, G.I. Joe honored the events of the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor by releasing a line of Pearl Harbor figures. Devil's Due Productions bought the license to publish the G.I. Joe comic book and hired Scott Wherle as editor and freelance writer, Steven Kurth as artist, and real-life fan and active-duty soldier Brian Savage Peterson as Military Consultant and freelance writer. Eventually, the entire creative team changed, with newcomer Brandon Jerwa taking over as writer and Tim Seeley as artist. Sales were unquestionably altered, causing Devil's Due to miss its chance to purchase the rights to reprint the Marvel Comics line.
  • In 2001 new 3 3/4" G.I. Joes were released under various themes including Spy Troops and Valor vs. Venom. The VvsV figures are the exact same scale as the original ARAH figures, while the Spy Troop figures are several mm's taller.
  • In 2004 The direct-to-DVD feature film G.I. Joe: Valor vs. Venom debuted, as well as a new trading card game based on the G.I. Joe vs. Cobra storyline.
  • 2005 brought a new size to the G.I. Joe team with a new line called G.I. Joe: Sigma 6, which is in no way related to the quality management program Six Sigma. These new larger figures are based out of the storyline that started in 1982, but are in a larger scale and will be accompanied by an Anime series made by Japanese animation house GONZO. The previous 12" and 3 3/4" lines were scheduled to go on hiatus near the middle of the year and replaced by Sigma 6. The 3 3/4" line resumed production after a very brief hiatus but is now sold exclusively on a direct-to-consumer basis, through Hasbro's website and select Internet retailers.

Additional Background

The basic premise of the series based on the figures is "good vs. evil". G.I. Joe is a highly capable branch of America's military whose purpose is to defend the world against enemy attack. Their main adversary is the COBRA Organization, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world.

GI Joe Image/Devils Due comic book cover from the early 21st century incarnation 'G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero'

The cast of each group is full of colorful and eccentric characters, each of whom have interesting abilities. The content of the animated show, although dealing with war and fighting, was still relatively mild as characters rarely, if ever, died even in the most dangerous circumstances. One example of this can be seen whenever an airplane was destroyed in combat; the characters inside were invariably shown parachuting out of the wreckage in the nick of time.

The show was also known for its public service announcements, where one of the Joes would give an important safety lesson to a group of children engaged in risky behavior. These PSAs always ended with the famous exchange: "Now we know!" "And knowing is half the battle".

There were several video game adaptations of G.I. Joe, some are Cobra Strike by Parker Brothers for the Atari 2600 (1983), G.I. Joe by Epyx for the Apple II and the Commodore 64 (1984), G.I. Joe by Taxan for the Nintendo Entertainment System (1991), Action Force by Virgin Games for the Commodore 64 (1987) and G.I. Joe: The Atlantis Factor by Capcom for the Nintendo Entertainment System (1992). [3]

G.I. Joe has also appeared as a comic book, with many of its characters being made into action figures. The comics, in contrast to the cartoons, were much more realistic in their portrayal of violence; some characters were even killed (but no major ones, except for one "special" issue in which more than a dozen named Joes were executed by a random Cobra soldier, an event which initially distressed Cobra Commander). Comic book writer Larry Hama is credited with developing most of the characters for the updated toy collection.

According to its 1980s animated series, "G.I. Joe is the code name for America's daring, highly-trained special mission force. Its purpose: to defend human freedom against COBRA, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world."

G.I. Joes represent characters of all branches of the United States military, both male and female, to fight against their "enemy", Cobra, also produced by Hasbro and marketed under the G.I. Joe brand.

The original G.I. Joe Action Figures (hitting the marketplace in 1964) were toys similar to Ken, Barbie's boyfriend, but with a much increased articulation range, and more rugged appearance. Joe stood 11.5 inches, with 21 points of articulation, making him the first 'Action Figure' (a title that Hasbro insisted on, to make Joe more palatable to parents reluctant to let their boys play with a 'doll')

Later, a much smaller G.I. Joe was created. These figures were almost four inches (10 cm) tall and also drove kids to beg their parents for new toys, but this time for a different reason. The main difference between the two lines was that the 12 in (30 cm) figure could change his clothes to meet any challenge, while the 3 3/4 in (10 cm) team had various figures who could each meet specific challenges. This time, instead of needing a wetsuit for G.I. Joe to wear, the G.I. Joe Team had a new member called Wetsuit whose military occupational speciality was a Navy SEAL. The smaller G.I. Joes also had a variety of additional weapons and vehicles which could be purchased to assist them on their missions.

In 1966, Palitoy Ltd. produced a British version of the 12-inch G.I. Joe line, under the Action Man name for the UK market. Initially these were the exact same designs as the American figures, and at first the same military theme which included figures from the Second World War. The line later expanded the line to include ALL men of action, like footballers and other sports figures. Later, they also adopted the Adventure Team line, calling themselves the 'Action Force'; the figures had the same appearance and codenames as the American G.I. Joes, but their identities and histories were international rather than purely American or British. In the 1980's sales in the UK fell off and by the late 80s UK production had ceased, replaced by G.I. Joe imports. Action Man under Hasbro has since made his reappearance.

The GI Joe line was also licensed to Germany under the Action Team name, including female figures - which were notably absent from the UK Action Man line.

The original 12-inch G.I. Joe line ended in America in 1977. Later that year a smaller 8 and a half inch version of G.I. Joe was produced and advertised on TV. This size was close in scale but slightly taller than the Mego 8 inch action figures popular at the time. This new version was called "Super Joe," and also known as the "Super Joe Adventure Team." Some of the costumes for the line had the name "Super G.I. Joe" sewn inside to the seam. A hybrid of superhero and space action lines, three of the Super Joe hero characters, Super Joe Commander, Super Joe (Caucasian) and Super Joe (African American), featured a "1-2 Punch" that could be activated by pressing panels on the figure's back. Two other heroic characters, The Shield and Luminos, were called "Night Fighters" and had light up battery powered features. The villains were Gor: King of the Terrons, Darkon: Half Man Half Monster and a large walking dinosaur-like alien called Terron: Beast From Beyond. Super Joe was discontinued by the end of 1978. The same basic body molds were used later by a subsidiary of Hasbro to produce a line of action figures based on the TV Series "Space Academy." Due to the poor quality of the materials used in manufacturing, very few if any of the Super Joe figures survive in intact condition.

Real life persons honored with G.I. Joe figures

The G.I. Joe brand has made promotional action figures based on real-life persons, both military and civilian (such as sports and pro wrestling stars, presidents, and a war correspondent), that the company deems Real American Heroes, as the G.I. Joe slogan says. Among these are:

  • Buzz Aldrin
  • Roy Benavidez
  • Robert Crippen
  • Francis E. Currey
  • John R. Fox
  • Bob Hope
  • Dwight Eisenhower
  • Mike Leonard
  • Douglas MacArthur
  • Audie Murphy
  • George Patton
  • William "Refrigerator" Perry
  • Francis J. Pierce
  • Colin Powell
  • Ernie Pyle
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • Emil Sitka
  • "Sgt. Slaughter" né Robert Remus
  • George Washington
  • Ted Williams

The character is such a part of the U.S. vernacular that a 1997 movie starring Demi Moore was called G.I. Jane.


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Jane. Recent examples include the use of tough rubber non-skid soles and heel-tips, gel inserts for cushioned comfort, leather toe boxes and uppers, synthetic fabric linings and padding to keep moisture away from the foot, stretch synthetic leather insteps to keep the foot firm against the footbed, and plastic zippers. vernacular that a 1997 movie starring Demi Moore was called G.I. This trend uses the best textile for any given area, capitalizing on that textile's strength, and minimizing it's weakness. The character is such a part of the U.S. Cuts including both smooth and suede leathers, as well as natural and synthetic leathers, even fabric in some areas, is becoming more common. Among these are:. Third is the use of mixed materials.

Joe slogan says. Some of the more recent shoes and boots have been designed with built-in gel inserts to support the ball of the foot and the heel. Joe brand has made promotional action figures based on real-life persons, both military and civilian (such as sports and pro wrestling stars, presidents, and a war correspondent), that the company deems Real American Heroes, as the G.I. Combined with the fact that consumers are more discriminating with respect to good fit in the store, it's easy to see why ergonomics is playing an increasing role. The G.I. Heels that combine good looks with proper construction and support are comfortable to wear all day, which to designers, is free advertising. The same basic body molds were used later by a subsidiary of Hasbro to produce a line of action figures based on the TV Series "Space Academy." Due to the poor quality of the materials used in manufacturing, very few if any of the Super Joe figures survive in intact condition. Heels that hurt aren't given much word of mouth, a fact which isn't lost among designers.

Super Joe was discontinued by the end of 1978. Second is an increased emphasis on ergonomics. The villains were Gor: King of the Terrons, Darkon: Half Man Half Monster and a large walking dinosaur-like alien called Terron: Beast From Beyond. Furthermore, in addition to providing comfortable, but not excessive levels of warmth, leather breaths fairly well, unlike synthetic coverings. Two other heroic characters, The Shield and Luminos, were called "Night Fighters" and had light up battery powered features. First is a return to leather, which for heels makes a lot of sense, since leather excels at providing support while gently remolding and conforming itself to the wearer's foot to provide better distributed support, thereby eliminating hot spots. A hybrid of superhero and space action lines, three of the Super Joe hero characters, Super Joe Commander, Super Joe (Caucasian) and Super Joe (African American), featured a "1-2 Punch" that could be activated by pressing panels on the figure's back. While it is impossible to predict the future of fashion, there are several interesting trends.

Joe" sewn inside to the seam. Recent changes by shoe manufacturers, including marketing more masculine styles and heels with significantly larger sizes to accommodate men, appears to underscore this trend, and many of the more masculine high-heeled shoe and boot designs that were only available in sizes up to 11 just two years ago are now available in sizes up to 13. This new version was called "Super Joe," and also known as the "Super Joe Adventure Team." Some of the costumes for the line had the name "Super G.I. This trend has not been lost on fashion designers, who have occasionally featured men wearing heels on the runways since the mid 1990s. This size was close in scale but slightly taller than the Mego 8 inch action figures popular at the time. The practice of men wearing heels continues to grow throughout Westernized countries including the US and Europe, and to a lesser extent in various pockets of Asia. Joe was produced and advertised on TV. While the wearing of heels by men in public is still rare, it's a continually growing phenomenon, one that appears to be accelerating.

Later that year a smaller 8 and a half inch version of G.I. In fact, more than a third of all men worldwide still wear skirts on a regular basis, but this is largely lost on the somewhat insulated Western fashion culture. Joe line ended in America in 1977. Over the last decade, the Internet has brought together many men who consider the wearing of heels, and even skirts, as merely the continuation of what men have been doing for hundreds of years in the case of heels, and tens of thousands of years in the case of wearing skirts. The original 12-inch G.I. Many men have worn high-heels in secret over the last century, but a surprising number have worn heels in public, as well, usually in the form of high-heeled boots. The GI Joe line was also licensed to Germany under the Action Team name, including female figures - which were notably absent from the UK Action Man line. As an example, the last four decades of rock and roll have seen many performers wearing heels, both on and off the stage.

Action Man under Hasbro has since made his reappearance. Surprisingly, however, many men who report wearing masculine-styled heels in public not only encounter very little resistance, but are met with a surprising amount of appreciation and encouragement for their choice of fashion. Joe imports. Whether it meets DSM-IV criteria for deviancy or not, however, depends entirely on one's reason behind wearing heels, and many people, including psychologists, don't consider it deviant at all, regardless of the reason, simply due to the fact that gender-specific clothing styles are rapidly disappearing anyway, as well as the fact that men invented heels, and wore them for more than 200 years before fashions changed, as they invariably do. In the 1980's sales in the UK fell off and by the late 80s UK production had ceased, replaced by G.I. Although the idea of men wearing heels certainly isn't new, it is unusual in modern times, and as a result, some pockets of society consider it deviant. Joes, but their identities and histories were international rather than purely American or British. While high-heels are marketed almost exclusively to women, a small percentage of men have worn, and continue to wear heels for various reasons, including personal preference, medical reasons, gender identity issues, and fetish roles.

Later, they also adopted the Adventure Team line, calling themselves the 'Action Force'; the figures had the same appearance and codenames as the American G.I. Except for cowboy boots, which continued to be used as a riding heel, men's shoes sported only low heels until a brief resurgence in the 1970s. The line later expanded the line to include ALL men of action, like footballers and other sports figures. The angle for high-arched feet, however, is already exaggerated, and the wear of heels by those with high arches can be particularly problematic for the metatarsal phalangeal joint. Initially these were the exact same designs as the American figures, and at first the same military theme which included figures from the Second World War. It appears the moderate heel improves the angle of contact between the metatarsals and the horizontal plane, thereby more closely approximating the angle and resulting weight distribution of a normally-arched foot. Joe line, under the Action Man name for the UK market. Interestingly enough, despite the medical issues surrounding high-heel wear, a few podiatrists recommend a well-constructed low heel of no more than two inches for their patients with flat feet.

produced a British version of the 12-inch G.I. Naturally, this rules out most pumps, but boots, particularly lace-ups with a round toe box and forward heel, are surprisingly supportive. In 1966, Palitoy Ltd. Thus, the best design for a high-heel is one with a narrower width, where the heel is closer to the front, more solidly under the ankle, where the toe box provides room enough for the toes, and where forward movement of the foot in the shoe is kept in check by material snug across the instep, rather than by toes jamming together in the toe box. Joes also had a variety of additional weapons and vehicles which could be purchased to assist them on their missions. Heels which strike the ground too far after of the ankle over-torque the ankle forward, producing extreme stress on the ankle, and creating additional impact on the ball of the foot, both of which are highly undesirable. The smaller G.I. Block heels do not necessarily offer more stability, and any raised heel with too large a width, such as blade and block heels, induces unhealthy side-to-side torques to the ankle every step.

Joe Team had a new member called Wetsuit whose military occupational speciality was a Navy SEAL. Unfortunately, the most common design trend today is towards the extremely pointed toe. Joe to wear, the G.I. Ensuring room exists for the toes to assume a normal position and spending sufficient time out of high-heels allows the body to repair any damage caused by high-heels, thereby recovering to a sufficiently healthy point where high-heel wear remains an option, rather than a debilitating practice. This time, instead of needing a wetsuit for G.I. Several celebrities, such as Victoria Beckham, have come to the point where surgery is needed to recover from the damages caused by wearing high-heels too often. The main difference between the two lines was that the 12 in (30 cm) figure could change his clothes to meet any challenge, while the 3 3/4 in (10 cm) team had various figures who could each meet specific challenges. Narrow toe boxes force the toes together.

These figures were almost four inches (10 cm) tall and also drove kids to beg their parents for new toys, but this time for a different reason. Improper construction here wreaks the most damage and long-term pain on the foot. Joe was created. One of the most critical problems with high-heels with the design and construction of the toebox. Later, a much smaller G.I. This regimen will prevent most foot problems associated with high-heels. Joe stood 11.5 inches, with 21 points of articulation, making him the first 'Action Figure' (a title that Hasbro insisted on, to make Joe more palatable to parents reluctant to let their boys play with a 'doll'). If that's not acceptable, then the wearer should ensure they're wearing high-heels no more than half the time, and that they're spending at least a third of the time on their feet either barefoot, in flats, or in a good running/walking/cross-training shoe.

Joe Action Figures (hitting the marketplace in 1964) were toys similar to Ken, Barbie's boyfriend, but with a much increased articulation range, and more rugged appearance. The best solution to avoid these problems is to avoid heels altogether. The original G.I. In many shoes, style dictates function, either compressing the toes, or forcing them together, which results in blisters, corns, hammer-toes, bunions, and many other medical conditions, most of which are permanent, and will require surgery to alleviate the pain. Joe brand. When the foot cants forward, a disproportinately greater amount of the wearer's weight is transferred to the ball of the foot, increasing liklihood of damage to the underlying soft tissue which supports the foot. Joes represent characters of all branches of the United States military, both male and female, to fight against their "enemy", Cobra, also produced by Hasbro and marketed under the G.I. This unnatural position, if continued without variation, will cause the Achilles tendon to shorten, causing problems when the wearer chooses lower heels, flats, or walking barefoot.

G.I. High-heeled shoes cant the foot forward and down while bending the toes up. Its purpose: to defend human freedom against COBRA, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world.". While today's fashions favor pointed toes, most styles that have appeared over the last century remain available in one form or another, along with a plethora of newer styles. Joe is the code name for America's daring, highly-trained special mission force. Since the early 1900s, high-heel design has run the gamut of styles. According to its 1980s animated series, "G.I. Throughout most of the 1800s, flats and sandals were the normative style for both sexes, but the heel resurfaced in fashion during the late 1800's, almost exclusively among women.

Comic book writer Larry Hama is credited with developing most of the characters for the updated toy collection. When the French Revolution drew near, in the late 1700s, the practice of wearing heels drew to a close, as the term "well-heeled" became synonymous with opulent wealth, and could incur the ire of the public at large. The comics, in contrast to the cartoons, were much more realistic in their portrayal of violence; some characters were even killed (but no major ones, except for one "special" issue in which more than a dozen named Joes were executed by a random Cobra soldier, an event which initially distressed Cobra Commander). Both men and women continued wearing heels as a matter of noble fashion throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Joe has also appeared as a comic book, with many of its characters being made into action figures. High-heeled fashion quickly caught on with the fashion-conscious men and women of the French court, and spread to other pockets of nobility in other countries. G.I. It's been said by some that Leonardo Da Vinci was the inventor of the high-heel.[citation needed] While he may have designed a heel or two in his day, the truth is that it really was invented due to military necessity.

[3]. This was the first written record of the high-heeled shoe. Joe: The Atlantis Factor by Capcom for the Nintendo Entertainment System (1992). In 1533, more than three decades after the male French nobility began wearing heels, the diminuitive wife of the Duke of Orleans, Catherine de Medici, commissioned a cobbler to fashion her a pair of heels, both for fashion, and to increase her stature. Joe by Taxan for the Nintendo Entertainment System (1991), Action Force by Virgin Games for the Commodore 64 (1987) and G.I. Beginning with the French, heel heights among men crept up, often becoming higher and thinner, until they were no longer useful while riding, but were relegated to "court-only" wear. Joe by Epyx for the Apple II and the Commodore 64 (1984), G.I. The simple riding heel gave way to a more stylized heel over its first three decades, during which time military uniforms became more stylized, particularly among the nobility, for whom style equated with social status.

Joe, some are Cobra Strike by Parker Brothers for the Atari 2600 (1983), G.I. These design features are still in use today in riding boots. There were several video game adaptations of G.I. The leading edge was canted forward to help grip the stirrup, while the trailing edge was canted forward to prevent the elongated heel from catching on underbrush or rock while backing up, such as in on-foot combat. These PSAs always ended with the famous exchange: "Now we know!" "And knowing is half the battle". Riders and cobblers worked together to develop the "rider's heel," with a height of approximately 1-1/2" down, which appeared around 1500. The show was also known for its public service announcements, where one of the Joes would give an important safety lesson to a group of children engaged in risky behavior. Cobblers had been adding thin, flat heels to shoes by this time, as a pair of leather shoes was very expensive, and both soles and heels were developed to protect the owner's comfort and investment by increasing the long-term durability of the shoe and distributing uneven pressures from rough terrain more evenly over the owners' feet.

One example of this can be seen whenever an airplane was destroyed in combat; the characters inside were invariably shown parachuting out of the wreckage in the nick of time. However this failed to solve the problem of the rider's feet slipping forward in the stirrups, often with comical, if not tragic results. The content of the animated show, although dealing with war and fighting, was still relatively mild as characters rarely, if ever, died even in the most dangerous circumstances. The obvious solution was to design a leather shoe with a thicker sole that supported the rider's weight, distributing the pressure from the stirrups over more of the bottom of the rider's feet. The cast of each group is full of colorful and eccentric characters, each of whom have interesting abilities. As the soft stirrup gave way to the hard stirrup, for reasons of quicker mounting and dismounting during battle, an additional problem was encountered in that the hard stirrup was much more tiring and damaging to the rider's feet during longer rides. Their main adversary is the COBRA Organization, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world. As early as the the late fifteenth century, horsemen grew tired of their feet slipping out of their stirrups, which were little more than loops of leather hung from the saddle.

Joe is a highly capable branch of America's military whose purpose is to defend the world against enemy attack. The shape of the heel has vacillated back and forth between block (70s), tapered (90s), and stiletto (50s and post-2000). G.I. Lower heels were preferred during the late 60s and early 70s, as well, but higher heels returned in the late 80s and early 90s. evil". Throughout the last sixty years, high-heels have fallen in and out of favor several times, most notably in the late 90s, when lower heels and even flats predominated. The basic premise of the series based on the figures is "good vs. Some feminists consider high-heeled shoes a tool of female oppression, constraining their movements and behavior as much as possible.

This would be the last major innovation for the original toy-line. Imelda Marcos, for example, was famous for her vast collection. Joe was given "eagle eye" vision--a movable eye mechanism to allow the toy to appear to be looking around when a lever in the back of the head was moved. A small proportion of women seem to be obsessed with high-heels, owning many pairs. Around the same time, G.I. This does not prevent the majority of women from owning several pair of high-heels. Joe was also introduced around this time. As a result of these conflicting factors, many women have a love/hate relationship with high-heeled shoes.

A retooled black G.I. However, some women shun these shoes because:. The look of the doll was also changed 1970, adding a flocked beard (an innovation developed in England by Palitoy's for their licensed version of Joe, 'Action Man') in most versions to further distance itself from the soldier version. There are many reasons why women desire to wear heels, including:. Joe was the leader of the "Adventure Team", an adventuring/spy-like organization devised to fight evil. Extremely high-heeled shoes, such as those higher than 5", are effectively worn only for display, and typically for the enjoyment of shoe fetishists and/or the wearer. Now, G.I. Shoes with higher heels, such as those above 4", are worn only by a minority.

Joe as a Aquanaut for example. Most women comfortably wear heels between 2" and 3". Joe" for a time, and featured G.I. What height constitutes a "high-heel" has long been a point of contention between those who wear very high-heels and those who wear lower heels. The line became known as "The Adventures of G.I. Some men's footwear, such as cowboy boots and shoes with a cuban heel are considered by some to be a high-heel, even though neither tops 3" in the heel. The comic is produced and published by Devil's Due Publishing and there is also a cartoon series airing on FOX and produced by GONZO. Today's high-heels, regardless of heel's shape, are generally limited to women's footwear.

Joe: Sigma 6. High-heels have seen significant controversy in the medical field lately, with many podiatrists fed up with seeing patients whose severe foot problems were caused almost exclusively by high-heel wear. Joe on the toy shelves with 8"-sized action figures, G.I. Today, high-heels are typically worn in public only by women,who are often expected to wear high-heels at work and on formal occasions. In the fall of 2005, Hasbro re-introduced G.I. . Joe series, as well as new toy characters. When both the heel and the toes are raised, as in a platform shoe, it is generally not considered to be a "high-heel." High-heels come in a wide variety of styles, and the heels are found in many different shapes, including stiletto, block, tapered, blade, and wedge.

These figures were designed with the adult collector in mind, and while retaining the sculpting style of the 2002-2005 "themed years," produced toy characters from the "original 1982-1994" G.I. High-heeled shoes are shoes which raise the heel of the wearer's foot significantly higher than the toes. The 3.75" sized figures were removed from toy shop shelves early in 2005, and sold exclusively through online retailers and through a new Hasbro online store, Hasbro Toy Shop. progressively higher heels are progressively riskier and more difficult to walk in; tripping is much more likely, and the risk of damaging the wearer's ankles, toes, and feet, both short-term and long-term, is similarly increased. Venom" also had an OVA CGI movie. they can damage the wearer's feet and tendons when worn over long periods (see below). "Valor vs. they make the wearer less able to run, and hence more vulnerable.

Venom" theme up until the first half of 2005. they shorten the stride of the wearer. 2004 featured the "Valor vs. high-heels can be painful to wear, particularly for long periods. There was a direct-to-video "Spytroops" CGI movie. stiletto heels appear to some as a phallic symbol. 2003 was themed "Spytroops" and had many figures produced with "O-rings" again. many heels, particularly sandals, make the sole of the foot visible, also a strong sexual sign (see shoe dangling).

Cobra" and featured new style figures that had "T-crotches" with no "O-ring." New characters were introduced in that period and new molds for both old and new. the change in gait and posture thrusts the buttocks backwards, and causes the hips to sway more - both strong sexual signs. Joe vs. one's legs look longer, and therefore more sensuous. In 2002, the theme was "G.I. they make the woman appear taller (this can be either an advantage or a disadvantage, depending on whether the woman desires to appear taller or shorter). Each year's 3.75" series had a slight change in figure production construction. the change in angle of the foot with respect to the lower leg shortens and accentuates the calves.

The basic 3.75" sized GI Joe toy sculpture style was changed in 2001 with the introduction of yearly themes. Joe's popularity. The comic series was helpful in bringing back G.I. In 2001, the Devil's Due publishing company bought the rights to produce new comics that continued the storyline from Marvel Comics.

Some original 1982-1994 3.75 inch line toys were "re-produced" in "collector edition" 2-packs, along with vehicles. Joe: A Real American Hero line. Toys R Us began carrying a store-exclusive line that featured "re-produced" figures and vehicles from the G.I. There was also a cartoon series that supported the toyline.

Joe Extreme comic. Dark Horse Comics produced the G.I. Savage is a part of this series. Sgt.

These figures, as well as vehicles, took on a future premise storyline that had the Extreme team battling SKAR. Joe Extreme was introduced in a 5" tall, limited articulation format. G.I. Savage.

There was one cartoon featuring Sgt. The enemy force was the Iron Army, cybernetically-enhanced WWII style criminals and robots. Joe but it contains its themes. The series was not labeled G.I.

Savage and his Screaming Eagles were produced. This was the only year Sgt. Savage and his Screaming Eagles were put on the toy shelves in a 4" size, World War II-based theme. Sgt.

The toyline and the accompanying television show and comics were renamed Action Force, presumably to make the toyline appear more international and less American-centric. Joe: A Real American Hero was renamed for the European market. G.I. There was also a Marvel Comic series that featured many of the toy characterizations.

There was also two series of cartoons, "Sunbow", and "DIC" produced with this toyline. Each toy figure included a character bio, called a "file card." During the 12 year production, there were many "subsets" produced. Cobra was the main enemy force during this toy lines run. This toy series lasted through 1994, producing over 500 figures and 250 vehicles and playsets.

Joe was re-introduced in a 3.75" format. After a few years of absence from the toy shelves and with the help of the Star Wars 3.75" figure successes, G.I. Joe was discontinued for the same reason Super Joe was introduced, the rising cost of petroleum. Finally in 1978, G.I.

The Super Joe series had the characters turned into superheroes. Joe to 8 inches was implemented with the name of Super Joe. With rising oil prices in 1977, a cost-saving measure of "shrinking" G.I. It was also the period where there is a departure from its traditional military settings and began wading in to more fantastic concepts such as the introduction of the Intruders, alien invaders who are the Adventure Team's arch nemesis.

These were the years of the Adventure Team and the Kung Fu grip. Joe was licenced to several countries:. The 12-inch G.I. Later on, the line featured members from America's Armed Forces and some foreign soldiers as well.

Joe. The toyline was dedicated to one character named G.I. They were 12" tall. Joe.

Hasbro toy company's first "action figure" was introduced with the name of G.I. Joe toys came out:. The following G.I. .

Joe, no longer referred to one specific character but to a toyline brand. The name, G.I. Two years later, Hasbro began featuring members from all branches of the armed forces. Joe.

The toyline began with the aptly named G.I. Joe became a series of military-themed action figures produced by the Hasbro toy company. In 1964, the character G.I. Joe [1], directed by William Wellman and starring Burgess Meredith as acclaimed war correspondent Ernie Pyle.

In 1945, United Artists released a movie titled The Story of G.I. His strip debuted June 17, 1942 in the military's YANK magazine and Stars and Stripes newspaper. Joe" from the military reference "Government Issue". Breger came up with the title "G.I.

Joe is a cartoon soldier created by David Breger when he was asked to do a comic strip for United States military magazines during World War II. G.I. Ted Williams. George Washington.

Slaughter" né Robert Remus. "Sgt. Emil Sitka. Theodore Roosevelt.

Ernie Pyle. Colin Powell. Pierce. Francis J.

William "Refrigerator" Perry. George Patton. Audie Murphy. Douglas MacArthur.

Mike Leonard. Dwight Eisenhower. Bob Hope. Fox.

John R. Currey. Francis E. Robert Crippen.

Roy Benavidez. Buzz Aldrin. The 3 3/4" line resumed production after a very brief hiatus but is now sold exclusively on a direct-to-consumer basis, through Hasbro's website and select Internet retailers. The previous 12" and 3 3/4" lines were scheduled to go on hiatus near the middle of the year and replaced by Sigma 6.

These new larger figures are based out of the storyline that started in 1982, but are in a larger scale and will be accompanied by an Anime series made by Japanese animation house GONZO. Joe: Sigma 6, which is in no way related to the quality management program Six Sigma. Joe team with a new line called G.I. 2005 brought a new size to the G.I.

Cobra storyline. Joe vs. Venom debuted, as well as a new trading card game based on the G.I. Joe: Valor vs.

In 2004 The direct-to-DVD feature film G.I. The VvsV figures are the exact same scale as the original ARAH figures, while the Spy Troop figures are several mm's taller. Venom. Joes were released under various themes including Spy Troops and Valor vs.

In 2001 new 3 3/4" G.I. Sales were unquestionably altered, causing Devil's Due to miss its chance to purchase the rights to reprint the Marvel Comics line. Eventually, the entire creative team changed, with newcomer Brandon Jerwa taking over as writer and Tim Seeley as artist. Joe comic book and hired Scott Wherle as editor and freelance writer, Steven Kurth as artist, and real-life fan and active-duty soldier Brian Savage Peterson as Military Consultant and freelance writer.

Devil's Due Productions bought the license to publish the G.I. Joe honored the events of the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor by releasing a line of Pearl Harbor figures. In 2001, G.I. Joe A Real American Hero Collection figures were also re-released.

The 3 3/4" G.I. The figures included a toy bomb that "detonated" if handled incorrectly. Joe talking figures (until this time) since the 1970s--The other being "Duke" from the Hall of Fame line. In 2000, a Navajo Code Talker was introduced, one of only two 12-inch G.I.

The line also presented an all-new articulated GIJOE figure that formed the basis of many offerings to the present day. Soldiers from Australia, Britain, and other nations, as well as United States Forces were featured. Joe with fairly realistic uniforms and gear. The Classic Collection harkened back to the original all military theme of G.I.

Joe line-up since 1967; this doll was a helicopter pilot. Janes were introduced in a series called the Classic Collection, the first 12-inch female dolls in the G.I. G.I. JOE MASTERPIECE EDITION ([2]), a unique book-and-figure product.

Joe returned via the G.I. In 1997, the original G.I. Joe Extreme figures were introduced, along with a comic book, published by Dark Horse comics. In 1995, G.I.

Joe and accordingly, Hasbro released a series of 12 inch and 3 3/4 inch figures based on the original 4 basic services represented in the first waves of the 1964 toy-line. This was also the 30th Anniversary of G.I. Savage and his Screaming Eagles figures debuted. Sgt.

In 1994 the 3 3/4 inch line was cancelled. Joe also jumped on the Jurassic Park bandwagon and had a set of Dino-hunters. G.I. Joe joined the war on drugs by introducing the Drug Elimination Force (DEF) line of figures.The line declined with sci-fi themes again, notably the Star Brigade.

In 1992, G.I. 12" figures were also re-introduced as part of an exclusive contract with Target retail stores. Joe Ecowarriors line was produced to raise environmental awareness. In 1991, the G.I.

In 1988, Battle Force 2000 was introduced. Football player William "Refrigerator" Perry followed suit in 1987. Joe forces. Slaughter, became the first real person to join the G.I.

In 1986, wrestler Robert Remus, aka Sgt. Joe as the top-selling American toy. In 1985, both Toy & Lamp and Hobby World magazines ranked G.I. In 1983, Destro was introduced as one of the first characters at the service of the COBRA Commander.

Joe frenzy that would eventually lead to the production of posters, t-shirts, video games, board games, kites, animated movies, and even a cartoon series based on the characters. This was the beginning of the 1980s G.I. The "Adventure Team" idea was modified and combined with the original military theme of the early action figures. In 1982, the new figures were downsized to be produced at about the size of Star Wars action figures.

Since the toy was produced with plastic and petroleum is a major component in the manufacture of plastic, the cost of producing the toy rose substantially, and after a failed attempt to produce a smaller version called "Super Joe", Hasbro decided to discontinue it although the licensed versions outside the US continued for a while. Joes. In 1978, the petroleum crisis directly affected G.I. In 1976, The Intruders, a line of outer space arch rivals, was introduced.

Both figures were not in the mold of the rest of team, and further confused the GI Joe line. Also added to the Adventure Team was a Superhero, Bulletman. * In 1975, after a failed bid to gain the rights to the Six Million Dollar Man, Hasbro issued a bionic warrior figure named Mike Power, Atomic Man sold over one million units. Joes started to be produced with a "kung fu grip." This involved redesigning the doll's hands in a softer plastic that allowed the fingers to curl and better grip objects in a more lifelike fashion.

By 1974, Kung Fu fever had arrived in the United States, so G.I. Joe toys were eliminated due to the growing controversy over war toys in the wake of the Vietnam War. By 1970, the war themes of the original G.I. It was not a success, the first real mis-step of the line.

Joe action figure was produced - a nurse. Around this time the only full-sized female G.I. Joe talking figures were introduced. In 1967, G.I.

Joe. Joe line up, and Hasbro decided that the entire toy line will be named G.I. In 1966, soldiers of international armed forces joined the G.I. In 1965, a Black Joe was introduced in selected markets.

Joe figures were about the size of the Barbie dolls (12 inches (305 mm) tall). At that time, the G.I. Joe brand, naming it after the aforementioned movie. Therefore, in 1964, they launched the G.I.

Inspired in part by the tv series " The Lieutenant", Hasbro saw the potential such an action figure for boys could have. Nearly 20 years later, seeing the market success of the Barbie doll, Stan Weston, toy creator and licensing agent, brought the idea of a soldier action figure to Don Levine at Hasbro. Joe, about war correspondent Ernie Pyle in World War II, was released. In 1945, a hit movie, The Story of G.I.

Joe rescued over 1,000 people in Italy by delivering a crucial message. In 1943, a pigeon called G.I. Joe: Sigma 6 (2005-Present). G.I.

Venom (2004-2005). Joe: Valor vs. G.I. Cobra: Spytroops (2003).

Joe vs. G.I. Cobra (2002). Joe vs.

G.I. Joe: The Real American Hero Collection (2000-2002). G.I. Joe: Classic Collection (1995-2004).

G.I. Joe: Toys R Us Exclusives (1997-1998). G.I. Joe Extreme (1996-1997).

G.I. Joe: Hall of Fame limited exclusives (1995-1997). G.I. Savage and the Screaming Eagles (1995).

Sgt. Joe: Hall of Fame (1991-1994). G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero (1982-1994).

G.I. Joe Adventure Team (1970-1979). G.I. Joe (1964-1969).

G.I.

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