G.I. Joe

Classic G.I. Joe Adventure Team Image, circa 1973

G.I. Joe is a cartoon soldier created by David Breger when he was asked to do a comic strip for United States military magazines during World War II. Breger came up with the title "G.I. Joe" from the military reference "Government Issue". His strip debuted June 17, 1942 in the military's YANK magazine and Stars and Stripes newspaper. In 1945, United Artists released a movie titled The Story of G.I. Joe [1], directed by William Wellman and starring Burgess Meredith as acclaimed war correspondent Ernie Pyle.

In 1964, the character G.I. Joe became a series of military-themed action figures produced by the Hasbro toy company. The toyline began with the aptly named G.I. Joe. Two years later, Hasbro began featuring members from all branches of the armed forces. The name, G.I. Joe, no longer referred to one specific character but to a toyline brand.

Incarnations

The following G.I. Joe toys came out:

  • G.I. Joe (1964-1969)
  • G.I. Joe Adventure Team (1970-1979)
  • G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero (1982-1994)
  • G.I. Joe: Hall of Fame (1991-1994)
  • Sgt. Savage and the Screaming Eagles (1995)
  • G.I. Joe: Hall of Fame limited exclusives (1995-1997)
  • G.I. Joe Extreme (1996-1997)
  • G.I. Joe: Toys R Us Exclusives (1997-1998)
  • G.I. Joe: Classic Collection (1995-2004)
  • G.I. Joe: The Real American Hero Collection (2000-2002)
  • G.I. Joe vs. Cobra (2002)
  • G.I. Joe vs. Cobra: Spytroops (2003)
  • G.I. Joe: Valor vs. Venom (2004-2005)
  • G.I. Joe: Sigma 6 (2005-Present)

G.I. Joe (1964-1969)

Hasbro toy company's first "action figure" was introduced with the name of G.I. Joe. They were 12" tall. The toyline was dedicated to one character named G.I. Joe. Later on, the line featured members from America's Armed Forces and some foreign soldiers as well.

The 12-inch G.I. Joe was licenced to several countries:

G.I. Joe Adventure Team (1970-1979)

These were the years of the Adventure Team and the Kung Fu grip. It was also the period where there is a departure from its traditional military settings and began wading in to more fantastic concepts such as the introduction of the Intruders, alien invaders who are the Adventure Team's arch nemesis. With rising oil prices in 1977, a cost-saving measure of "shrinking" G.I. Joe to 8 inches was implemented with the name of Super Joe. The Super Joe series had the characters turned into superheroes. Finally in 1978, G.I. Joe was discontinued for the same reason Super Joe was introduced, the rising cost of petroleum.

G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero (1982-1994)

After a few years of absence from the toy shelves and with the help of the Star Wars 3.75" figure successes, G.I. Joe was re-introduced in a 3.75" format. This toy series lasted through 1994, producing over 500 figures and 250 vehicles and playsets. Cobra was the main enemy force during this toy lines run. Each toy figure included a character bio, called a "file card." During the 12 year production, there were many "subsets" produced. There was also two series of cartoons, "Sunbow", and "DIC" produced with this toyline. There was also a Marvel Comic series that featured many of the toy characterizations.

G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero was renamed for the European market. The toyline and the accompanying television show and comics were renamed Action Force, presumably to make the toyline appear more international and less American-centric.

Sgt. Savage and the Screaming Eagles (1995)

Sgt. Savage and his Screaming Eagles were put on the toy shelves in a 4" size, World War II-based theme. This was the only year Sgt. Savage and his Screaming Eagles were produced. The series was not labeled G.I. Joe but it contains its themes. The enemy force was the Iron Army, cybernetically-enhanced WWII style criminals and robots. There was one cartoon featuring Sgt. Savage.

G.I. Joe Extreme (1996-1997)

G.I. Joe Extreme was introduced in a 5" tall, limited articulation format. These figures, as well as vehicles, took on a future premise storyline that had the Extreme team battling SKAR. Sgt. Savage is a part of this series. Dark Horse Comics produced the G.I. Joe Extreme comic. There was also a cartoon series that supported the toyline.

Toys R Us Exclusives (1997-1998)

Toys R Us began carrying a store-exclusive line that featured "re-produced" figures and vehicles from the G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero line.

The Return of A Real American Hero (2000-2005)

Some original 1982-1994 3.75 inch line toys were "re-produced" in "collector edition" 2-packs, along with vehicles. In 2001, the Devil's Due publishing company bought the rights to produce new comics that continued the storyline from Marvel Comics. The comic series was helpful in bringing back G.I. Joe's popularity. The basic 3.75" sized GI Joe toy sculpture style was changed in 2001 with the introduction of yearly themes. Each year's 3.75" series had a slight change in figure production construction. In 2002, the theme was "G.I. Joe vs. Cobra" and featured new style figures that had "T-crotches" with no "O-ring." New characters were introduced in that period and new molds for both old and new. 2003 was themed "Spytroops" and had many figures produced with "O-rings" again. There was a direct-to-video "Spytroops" CGI movie. 2004 featured the "Valor vs. Venom" theme up until the first half of 2005. "Valor vs. Venom" also had an OVA CGI movie.

The 3.75" sized figures were removed from toy shop shelves early in 2005, and sold exclusively through online retailers and through a new Hasbro online store, Hasbro Toy Shop. These figures were designed with the adult collector in mind, and while retaining the sculpting style of the 2002-2005 "themed years," produced toy characters from the "original 1982-1994" G.I. Joe series, as well as new toy characters.

G.I. Joe: Sigma 6 (2005-Present)

In the fall of 2005, Hasbro re-introduced G.I. Joe on the toy shelves with 8"-sized action figures, G.I. Joe: Sigma 6.

The comic is produced and published by Devil's Due Publishing and there is also a cartoon series airing on FOX and produced by GONZO.

Historical Overview

  • In 1943, a pigeon called G.I. Joe rescued over 1,000 people in Italy by delivering a crucial message.
  • In 1945, a hit movie, The Story of G.I. Joe, about war correspondent Ernie Pyle in World War II, was released.
  • Nearly 20 years later, seeing the market success of the Barbie doll, Stan Weston, toy creator and licensing agent, brought the idea of a soldier action figure to Don Levine at Hasbro. Inspired in part by the tv series " The Lieutenant", Hasbro saw the potential such an action figure for boys could have. Therefore, in 1964, they launched the G.I. Joe brand, naming it after the aforementioned movie. At that time, the G.I. Joe figures were about the size of the Barbie dolls (12 inches (305 mm) tall). In 1965, a Black Joe was introduced in selected markets.
  • In 1966, soldiers of international armed forces joined the G.I. Joe line up, and Hasbro decided that the entire toy line will be named G.I. Joe.
  • In 1967, G.I. Joe talking figures were introduced. Around this time the only full-sized female G.I. Joe action figure was produced - a nurse. It was not a success, the first real mis-step of the line.
  • By 1970, the war themes of the original G.I. Joe toys were eliminated due to the growing controversy over war toys in the wake of the Vietnam War.

The line became known as "The Adventures of G.I. Joe" for a time, and featured G.I. Joe as a Aquanaut for example.

Various G.I. Joe Action Figures, circa 1975

Now, G.I. Joe was the leader of the "Adventure Team", an adventuring/spy-like organization devised to fight evil. The look of the doll was also changed 1970, adding a flocked beard (an innovation developed in England by Palitoy's for their licensed version of Joe, 'Action Man') in most versions to further distance itself from the soldier version. A retooled black G.I. Joe was also introduced around this time.

  • By 1974, Kung Fu fever had arrived in the United States, so G.I. Joes started to be produced with a "kung fu grip." This involved redesigning the doll's hands in a softer plastic that allowed the fingers to curl and better grip objects in a more lifelike fashion. * In 1975, after a failed bid to gain the rights to the Six Million Dollar Man, Hasbro issued a bionic warrior figure named Mike Power, Atomic Man sold over one million units. Also added to the Adventure Team was a Superhero, Bulletman. Both figures were not in the mold of the rest of team, and further confused the GI Joe line. In 1976, The Intruders, a line of outer space arch rivals, was introduced.

Around the same time, G.I. Joe was given "eagle eye" vision--a movable eye mechanism to allow the toy to appear to be looking around when a lever in the back of the head was moved. This would be the last major innovation for the original toy-line

Image:Gi joe image25.jpg Atomic Man, 1976
  • In 1978, the petroleum crisis directly affected G.I. Joes. Since the toy was produced with plastic and petroleum is a major component in the manufacture of plastic, the cost of producing the toy rose substantially, and after a failed attempt to produce a smaller version called "Super Joe", Hasbro decided to discontinue it although the licensed versions outside the US continued for a while.
  • In 1982, the new figures were downsized to be produced at about the size of Star Wars action figures. The "Adventure Team" idea was modified and combined with the original military theme of the early action figures. This was the beginning of the 1980s G.I. Joe frenzy that would eventually lead to the production of posters, t-shirts, video games, board games, kites, animated movies, and even a cartoon series based on the characters. In 1983, Destro was introduced as one of the first characters at the service of the COBRA Commander.
  • In 1985, both Toy & Lamp and Hobby World magazines ranked G.I. Joe as the top-selling American toy.
  • In 1986, wrestler Robert Remus, aka Sgt. Slaughter, became the first real person to join the G.I. Joe forces. Football player William "Refrigerator" Perry followed suit in 1987. In 1988, Battle Force 2000 was introduced.
  • In 1991, the G.I. Joe Ecowarriors line was produced to raise environmental awareness. 12" figures were also re-introduced as part of an exclusive contract with Target retail stores. In 1992, G.I. Joe joined the war on drugs by introducing the Drug Elimination Force (DEF) line of figures.The line declined with sci-fi themes again, notably the Star Brigade. G.I. Joe also jumped on the Jurassic Park bandwagon and had a set of Dino-hunters.
  • In 1994 the 3 3/4 inch line was cancelled. Sgt. Savage and his Screaming Eagles figures debuted. This was also the 30th Anniversary of G.I. Joe and accordingly, Hasbro released a series of 12 inch and 3 3/4 inch figures based on the original 4 basic services represented in the first waves of the 1964 toy-line.
  • In 1995, G.I. Joe Extreme figures were introduced, along with a comic book, published by Dark Horse comics.
  • In 1997, the original G.I. Joe returned via the G.I. JOE MASTERPIECE EDITION ([2]), a unique book-and-figure product. G.I. Janes were introduced in a series called the Classic Collection, the first 12-inch female dolls in the G.I. Joe line-up since 1967; this doll was a helicopter pilot. The Classic Collection harkened back to the original all military theme of G.I. Joe with fairly realistic uniforms and gear. Soldiers from Australia, Britain, and other nations, as well as United States Forces were featured. The line also presented an all-new articulated GIJOE figure that formed the basis of many offerings to the present day.
  • In 2000, a Navajo Code Talker was introduced, one of only two 12-inch G.I. Joe talking figures (until this time) since the 1970s--The other being "Duke" from the Hall of Fame line. The figures included a toy bomb that "detonated" if handled incorrectly. The 3 3/4" G.I. Joe A Real American Hero Collection figures were also re-released.
  • In 2001, G.I. Joe honored the events of the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor by releasing a line of Pearl Harbor figures. Devil's Due Productions bought the license to publish the G.I. Joe comic book and hired Scott Wherle as editor and freelance writer, Steven Kurth as artist, and real-life fan and active-duty soldier Brian Savage Peterson as Military Consultant and freelance writer. Eventually, the entire creative team changed, with newcomer Brandon Jerwa taking over as writer and Tim Seeley as artist. Sales were unquestionably altered, causing Devil's Due to miss its chance to purchase the rights to reprint the Marvel Comics line.
  • In 2001 new 3 3/4" G.I. Joes were released under various themes including Spy Troops and Valor vs. Venom. The VvsV figures are the exact same scale as the original ARAH figures, while the Spy Troop figures are several mm's taller.
  • In 2004 The direct-to-DVD feature film G.I. Joe: Valor vs. Venom debuted, as well as a new trading card game based on the G.I. Joe vs. Cobra storyline.
  • 2005 brought a new size to the G.I. Joe team with a new line called G.I. Joe: Sigma 6, which is in no way related to the quality management program Six Sigma. These new larger figures are based out of the storyline that started in 1982, but are in a larger scale and will be accompanied by an Anime series made by Japanese animation house GONZO. The previous 12" and 3 3/4" lines were scheduled to go on hiatus near the middle of the year and replaced by Sigma 6. The 3 3/4" line resumed production after a very brief hiatus but is now sold exclusively on a direct-to-consumer basis, through Hasbro's website and select Internet retailers.

Additional Background

The basic premise of the series based on the figures is "good vs. evil". G.I. Joe is a highly capable branch of America's military whose purpose is to defend the world against enemy attack. Their main adversary is the COBRA Organization, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world.

GI Joe Image/Devils Due comic book cover from the early 21st century incarnation 'G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero'

The cast of each group is full of colorful and eccentric characters, each of whom have interesting abilities. The content of the animated show, although dealing with war and fighting, was still relatively mild as characters rarely, if ever, died even in the most dangerous circumstances. One example of this can be seen whenever an airplane was destroyed in combat; the characters inside were invariably shown parachuting out of the wreckage in the nick of time.

The show was also known for its public service announcements, where one of the Joes would give an important safety lesson to a group of children engaged in risky behavior. These PSAs always ended with the famous exchange: "Now we know!" "And knowing is half the battle".

There were several video game adaptations of G.I. Joe, some are Cobra Strike by Parker Brothers for the Atari 2600 (1983), G.I. Joe by Epyx for the Apple II and the Commodore 64 (1984), G.I. Joe by Taxan for the Nintendo Entertainment System (1991), Action Force by Virgin Games for the Commodore 64 (1987) and G.I. Joe: The Atlantis Factor by Capcom for the Nintendo Entertainment System (1992). [3]

G.I. Joe has also appeared as a comic book, with many of its characters being made into action figures. The comics, in contrast to the cartoons, were much more realistic in their portrayal of violence; some characters were even killed (but no major ones, except for one "special" issue in which more than a dozen named Joes were executed by a random Cobra soldier, an event which initially distressed Cobra Commander). Comic book writer Larry Hama is credited with developing most of the characters for the updated toy collection.

According to its 1980s animated series, "G.I. Joe is the code name for America's daring, highly-trained special mission force. Its purpose: to defend human freedom against COBRA, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world."

G.I. Joes represent characters of all branches of the United States military, both male and female, to fight against their "enemy", Cobra, also produced by Hasbro and marketed under the G.I. Joe brand.

The original G.I. Joe Action Figures (hitting the marketplace in 1964) were toys similar to Ken, Barbie's boyfriend, but with a much increased articulation range, and more rugged appearance. Joe stood 11.5 inches, with 21 points of articulation, making him the first 'Action Figure' (a title that Hasbro insisted on, to make Joe more palatable to parents reluctant to let their boys play with a 'doll')

Later, a much smaller G.I. Joe was created. These figures were almost four inches (10 cm) tall and also drove kids to beg their parents for new toys, but this time for a different reason. The main difference between the two lines was that the 12 in (30 cm) figure could change his clothes to meet any challenge, while the 3 3/4 in (10 cm) team had various figures who could each meet specific challenges. This time, instead of needing a wetsuit for G.I. Joe to wear, the G.I. Joe Team had a new member called Wetsuit whose military occupational speciality was a Navy SEAL. The smaller G.I. Joes also had a variety of additional weapons and vehicles which could be purchased to assist them on their missions.

In 1966, Palitoy Ltd. produced a British version of the 12-inch G.I. Joe line, under the Action Man name for the UK market. Initially these were the exact same designs as the American figures, and at first the same military theme which included figures from the Second World War. The line later expanded the line to include ALL men of action, like footballers and other sports figures. Later, they also adopted the Adventure Team line, calling themselves the 'Action Force'; the figures had the same appearance and codenames as the American G.I. Joes, but their identities and histories were international rather than purely American or British. In the 1980's sales in the UK fell off and by the late 80s UK production had ceased, replaced by G.I. Joe imports. Action Man under Hasbro has since made his reappearance.

The GI Joe line was also licensed to Germany under the Action Team name, including female figures - which were notably absent from the UK Action Man line.

The original 12-inch G.I. Joe line ended in America in 1977. Later that year a smaller 8 and a half inch version of G.I. Joe was produced and advertised on TV. This size was close in scale but slightly taller than the Mego 8 inch action figures popular at the time. This new version was called "Super Joe," and also known as the "Super Joe Adventure Team." Some of the costumes for the line had the name "Super G.I. Joe" sewn inside to the seam. A hybrid of superhero and space action lines, three of the Super Joe hero characters, Super Joe Commander, Super Joe (Caucasian) and Super Joe (African American), featured a "1-2 Punch" that could be activated by pressing panels on the figure's back. Two other heroic characters, The Shield and Luminos, were called "Night Fighters" and had light up battery powered features. The villains were Gor: King of the Terrons, Darkon: Half Man Half Monster and a large walking dinosaur-like alien called Terron: Beast From Beyond. Super Joe was discontinued by the end of 1978. The same basic body molds were used later by a subsidiary of Hasbro to produce a line of action figures based on the TV Series "Space Academy." Due to the poor quality of the materials used in manufacturing, very few if any of the Super Joe figures survive in intact condition.

Real life persons honored with G.I. Joe figures

The G.I. Joe brand has made promotional action figures based on real-life persons, both military and civilian (such as sports and pro wrestling stars, presidents, and a war correspondent), that the company deems Real American Heroes, as the G.I. Joe slogan says. Among these are:

  • Buzz Aldrin
  • Roy Benavidez
  • Robert Crippen
  • Francis E. Currey
  • John R. Fox
  • Bob Hope
  • Dwight Eisenhower
  • Mike Leonard
  • Douglas MacArthur
  • Audie Murphy
  • George Patton
  • William "Refrigerator" Perry
  • Francis J. Pierce
  • Colin Powell
  • Ernie Pyle
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • Emil Sitka
  • "Sgt. Slaughter" né Robert Remus
  • George Washington
  • Ted Williams

The character is such a part of the U.S. vernacular that a 1997 movie starring Demi Moore was called G.I. Jane.


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Jane. Generally, each series listed above will have its own set of products, although the MSiA and Gundam Models lines, such as High Grade Universal Century may extend across series. vernacular that a 1997 movie starring Demi Moore was called G.I. Categories of products include the Mobile Suit In Action or MSiA action figures, and Gundam Model Kits in several scales and complexity levels. The character is such a part of the U.S. Other companies produce unofficial toys, models, t-shirts, etc. Among these are:. Bandai, the primary licensee of the Gundam trademark, makes a variety of products for the Gundam fan.

Joe slogan says. Although not directly related to Gundam, these series incorporate Gundam models as part of the stories:. Joe brand has made promotional action figures based on real-life persons, both military and civilian (such as sports and pro wrestling stars, presidents, and a war correspondent), that the company deems Real American Heroes, as the G.I. There have been so many Mobile Suit units that its impossible to tell a distinct style, however generally Mobile Suits are extremely agile and have an enormous variety of different weapons. The G.I. The games units are often separated by being "Super Robots" (powerful mecha that often have near-limitless powers and technology, but have a shorter range of movement), and "Real Robots" (mecha that are physically weak, but have a wide range of movement for the most part). The same basic body molds were used later by a subsidiary of Hasbro to produce a line of action figures based on the TV Series "Space Academy." Due to the poor quality of the materials used in manufacturing, very few if any of the Super Joe figures survive in intact condition. The Mobile Suit units are considered the representing unit in the "Real Robot" type of mecha.

Super Joe was discontinued by the end of 1978. So far, almost every single major Gundam series and then some has made at least one appearance in the series. The villains were Gor: King of the Terrons, Darkon: Half Man Half Monster and a large walking dinosaur-like alien called Terron: Beast From Beyond. This title was the first in the series history to not have many of the standard characters that have appeared in every game to date such as Amuro. Two other heroic characters, The Shield and Luminos, were called "Night Fighters" and had light up battery powered features. This changed in Super Robot Wars J for the Game Boy Advance. A hybrid of superhero and space action lines, three of the Super Joe hero characters, Super Joe Commander, Super Joe (Caucasian) and Super Joe (African American), featured a "1-2 Punch" that could be activated by pressing panels on the figure's back. Some series come and go however, but Amuro Ray, often in the RX-93 Nu Gundam, is a regular character and has actually never missed a single game.

Joe" sewn inside to the seam. In fact, there hasn't been a single game which hasn't featured at least one Gundam series and characters. This new version was called "Super Joe," and also known as the "Super Joe Adventure Team." Some of the costumes for the line had the name "Super G.I. The Gundam meta verse makes regular appearances in the Super Robot Wars series by Banpresto. This size was close in scale but slightly taller than the Mego 8 inch action figures popular at the time. There is also a Half-Life 2 mod called Mech Assault Genesis( http://www.mechag.com ), based on Gundams. Joe was produced and advertised on TV. Some video games have been converted into comics or novels.

Later that year a smaller 8 and a half inch version of G.I. Following the popularity of Gundam, various video games feature original characters previously not found in other media. Joe line ended in America in 1977. Gundam manga is also published in English in Singapore by Chuang Yi. The original 12-inch G.I. The manga narration of the original series is published in English in North America by a variety of companies, such as Viz Communications, Del Rey Manga, and TOKYOPOP, among others. The GI Joe line was also licensed to Germany under the Action Team name, including female figures - which were notably absent from the UK Action Man line. See main article Gundam Manga and Novels.

Action Man under Hasbro has since made his reappearance. These series are drawings and precise specifications for additional Mobile suit units not found in the original animated material. Joe imports. Due to the sheer popularity of the Gundam franchise, especially the Mobile Suit design, several Original Design series were published. In the 1980's sales in the UK fell off and by the late 80s UK production had ceased, replaced by G.I. For the listing of the series on chronological order of the depicted events, see the individual timelines' pages. Joes, but their identities and histories were international rather than purely American or British. The following characteristics are distinctive (but not unique) to many Gundams:.

Later, they also adopted the Adventure Team line, calling themselves the 'Action Force'; the figures had the same appearance and codenames as the American G.I. The different series have had different ways of maintaining the tradition, and the only unique feature that all Gundams have in common is the name. The line later expanded the line to include ALL men of action, like footballers and other sports figures. In both Gundam F91 and Victory Gundam there are hints of this as people referred to the F91 and the Victory Gundams as 'the super-machines from history', and dubbed them Gundams. Initially these were the exact same designs as the American figures, and at first the same military theme which included figures from the Second World War. Since the story takes place after the biggest time-gap in between continuities in the Universal Century, people probably forgot about the Gundams entirely. Joe line, under the Action Man name for the UK market. In the G-Saviour movie there is no allusions to "Gundam" whatsoever, not even mentioning the word.

produced a British version of the 12-inch G.I. The name is used widely outside the animation in the merchandising of Cosmic Era toys and models. In 1966, Palitoy Ltd. Most characters simply refer to these units by their names, such as Duel, Buster, Blitz, Strike, or Aegis, but a select few characters refer to them as Gundams, a trend which started with Kira Yamato and spread to a few close friends, as well as the subordinates of Neo Lorrnoke, who subconsciously remembers the term despite a form of amnesia. Joes also had a variety of additional weapons and vehicles which could be purchased to assist them on their missions. In an informal homage to other Gundam series, all of these unique mobilesuits use operating systems with complicated acronyms, and these acronyms always simplify to the word Gundam. The smaller G.I. However, there are numerous mobile suits which share the properties of Gundams from other series.

Joe Team had a new member called Wetsuit whose military occupational speciality was a Navy SEAL. In the Cosmic Era works, the word Gundam is never used in an official sense, apart from in the Chinese language translations of the manga. Joe to wear, the G.I. Corin Nander was an ace pilot who was placed under suspended animation as punishment and the color scheme of the Turn A mobile suit reminds him of the Gundam mobile suits from previous eras. This time, instead of needing a wetsuit for G.I. In the CC (Seireki) timeline, the name Gundam is given to the White Doll/Turn A mobile suit by Corin Nander. The main difference between the two lines was that the 12 in (30 cm) figure could change his clothes to meet any challenge, while the 3 3/4 in (10 cm) team had various figures who could each meet specific challenges. Every Gundam has a unique name that befits the nature of the suit and/or its origins, such as Wing Gundam, Gundam Heavyarms, Sandrock Gundam, Gundam Deathscythe, or Shenlong Gundam.

These figures were almost four inches (10 cm) tall and also drove kids to beg their parents for new toys, but this time for a different reason. This alloy gives the Gundams near invincibility. Joe was created. In the After Colony timeline, the word Gundam refers to most mobile suit constructed out of a special alloy, called Gundanium, which can only be mined and produced in space. Later, a much smaller G.I. For example, the Earth Federation in the Universal Century universe used "R" (Renpou, said to be the English equivalent of Federation) to designate their mobile suits, with "X" for experimental units, "GM" (Gundam Mass-producedGeneral Machine) or "GC" for production mobile suits derived from the original V-Project suits and "MS" for mass-produced mobile suits derived from One Year War-era Zeon mobile suits. Joe stood 11.5 inches, with 21 points of articulation, making him the first 'Action Figure' (a title that Hasbro insisted on, to make Joe more palatable to parents reluctant to let their boys play with a 'doll'). All Mobile Weapons have serial numbers, usually additions to previous Mobile Weapons in its lineage.

Joe Action Figures (hitting the marketplace in 1964) were toys similar to Ken, Barbie's boyfriend, but with a much increased articulation range, and more rugged appearance. II, Zeta Gundam, Victory Gundam, etc. The original G.I. Afterwards, many powerful mobile suits based on the Gundam's design also carry the name, such as the Gundam Mk. Joe brand. In the Universal Century timeline, Gundam is the name of the Earth Federation's first experimental general-purpose mobile suit, which is incredibly powerful compared to most of the mass-produced models eventually used by either side. Joes represent characters of all branches of the United States military, both male and female, to fight against their "enemy", Cobra, also produced by Hasbro and marketed under the G.I. Gundam is the name or nickname of several mobile suits or mobile fighters, although some works such as G-Saviour and Mobile Suit Gundam: MS IGLOO do not have units named Gundams.

G.I. English-speaking fans have used "Alternate Universe" or "AU" as a nickname for the stories that do not take place within the Universal Century timeline, but this unofficial nickname is not used in Japan. Its purpose: to defend human freedom against COBRA, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world.". On the survey for the game that would become Gundam True Odyssey, the Cosmic Era series (including Astray) were collectively referred to as "21st Century First Gundam" (a reference to Mobile Suit Gundam, also known as First Gundam). Joe is the code name for America's daring, highly-trained special mission force. Bandai and Japanese-speaking fans unofficially refer to projects not directly related to the first Gundam series or its staffers (such as Gundam Sentinel and G Gundam) as "Another Gundam" stories, and to projects made after 1989 as "Heisei Gundam" stories. According to its 1980s animated series, "G.I. Western calendar) to mean "Correct Century" or "Correct Calendar," but Sunrise itself has not established an English translation for "Seireki" or the English abbreviation expansion for "CC".

Comic book writer Larry Hama is credited with developing most of the characters for the updated toy collection. English-speaking fans have interpreted "Seireki" (a wordplay homonym of the Japanese term for the A.D. The comics, in contrast to the cartoons, were much more realistic in their portrayal of violence; some characters were even killed (but no major ones, except for one "special" issue in which more than a dozen named Joes were executed by a random Cobra soldier, an event which initially distressed Cobra Commander). Later series take place in alternate calendars or timelines, which are mostly completely unrelated to the original Universal Century calendar system. Joe has also appeared as a comic book, with many of its characters being made into action figures. Most early Gundam works take place in the Universal Century calendar system, which is considered the most developed. G.I. This makes the plot more real: while in early Super Robot series, the hero and cast usually act in the same predictable manner in most episodes, in the various Gundam series the characters' personalities and actions are transformed/developed by the turn of events surrounding them (the best example of this is how the personalities of longtime rivals Amuro Ray and Char Aznable are influenced by their experiences in the Gundam saga).

[3]. Finally, most of the stories are basically structured as coming-of-age dramas, where the main protagonist (and sometimes his main antagonist) and most of the cast personalities, points of view, and actions may (or may not) change dramatically as the events on the series unfold. Joe: The Atlantis Factor by Capcom for the Nintendo Entertainment System (1992). Gundam also features true to life issues and clear political ideas. Joe by Taxan for the Nintendo Entertainment System (1991), Action Force by Virgin Games for the Commodore 64 (1987) and G.I. Politics of war are always lurking in the background, as it is in real wars. Joe by Epyx for the Apple II and the Commodore 64 (1984), G.I. With few exceptions, there are no absolute good guys and bad guys; all have their motives.

Joe, some are Cobra Strike by Parker Brothers for the Atari 2600 (1983), G.I. The narration is always revolving around the emotions of the characters, usually thrown into conflict without much choice and faced with death, destruction and dehumanization. There were several video game adaptations of G.I. The technology, at least that of the Universal Century, is practical and derived from true science, including Lagrange points in space, the O'Neill cylinder as a living environment, and energy production from helium-3 (Minovsky Physics). These PSAs always ended with the famous exchange: "Now we know!" "And knowing is half the battle". they run out of energy and ammunition, they break and malfunction like all machines eventually do. The show was also known for its public service announcements, where one of the Joes would give an important safety lesson to a group of children engaged in risky behavior. All the machines, including the Gundams, are always depicted realistically i.e.

One example of this can be seen whenever an airplane was destroyed in combat; the characters inside were invariably shown parachuting out of the wreckage in the nick of time. The main theme of all the various Gundam series is always the harsh depiction of the atrocities of war. The content of the animated show, although dealing with war and fighting, was still relatively mild as characters rarely, if ever, died even in the most dangerous circumstances. Zambot 3 was an earlier program by Tomino which helped develop these ideas. The cast of each group is full of colorful and eccentric characters, each of whom have interesting abilities. Real Robots (popularly known in English as mech, a re-borrowing of the Japanese abbreviation for the English word "mechanical") differ from their Super Robot forebearers on a few stylistic and thematic points such as attempts at realism in robot design and weaponry, as well as their thematic and ethical roles. Their main adversary is the COBRA Organization, a ruthless terrorist organization determined to rule the world. Gundam is a turning point in the history of anime and manga, as it is credited for inspiring the Real Robot genre.

Joe is a highly capable branch of America's military whose purpose is to defend the world against enemy attack. Like many of the "mobile suits" appearing in the series, a Gundam is usually piloted from the torso area. G.I. However, Gundams are not robots but more extensions of their pilots. evil". Tomino then changed the name to the current title Gundam, suggesting that the name Gundam signifies a power wielding a gun that is strong enough to hold back enemies like a dam holds back floods. The basic premise of the series based on the figures is "good vs. The collective Yatate team combined the English word Gun with last syllable of the word Freedom, Dom, to form the word Gundom.

This would be the last major innovation for the original toy-line. In the early stages of production, there were numerous references to the word freedom, such as the White Base being originally named Freedom's Fortress, the Core Fighter as the Freedom Wing, and the Gunperry named the Freedom Cruiser. Joe was given "eagle eye" vision--a movable eye mechanism to allow the toy to appear to be looking around when a lever in the back of the head was moved. The celebrated series was originally titled Freedom Fighter Gunboy or simply Gunboy, because the title robot was armed with a gun and the target demographic was young boys. Around the same time, G.I. Mobile Suit Gundam was developed principally by Yoshiyuki Tomino, along with a changing group of Sunrise creators who went under the collective pseudonym "Hajime Yatate". Joe was also introduced around this time. .

A retooled black G.I. The name "Gundam" itself stems from a variety of theoretical sources, most commonly attributed to a need to conform with common giant robot naming conventions during the 1970s. The look of the doll was also changed 1970, adding a flocked beard (an innovation developed in England by Palitoy's for their licensed version of Joe, 'Action Man') in most versions to further distance itself from the soldier version. Gundam is the collective term for the Universal Century (UC) series like Mobile Suit Gundam and series in alternative timelines, such as Gundam Wing, made by Sunrise Inc. Joe was the leader of the "Adventure Team", an adventuring/spy-like organization devised to fight evil. Gundam is one of the longest running meta-series of anime featuring giant robots. Now, G.I. Frog.

Joe as a Aquanaut for example. Sgt. Joe" for a time, and featured G.I. Plamo-Wars. The line became known as "The Adventures of G.I. Plamo-kyo Shiro. The comic is produced and published by Devil's Due Publishing and there is also a cartoon series airing on FOX and produced by GONZO. Genshiken.

Joe: Sigma 6. SEED Destiny MSV - variations from the SEED Destiny series. Joe on the toy shelves with 8"-sized action figures, G.I. SEED-MSV - variations from the SEED series. In the fall of 2005, Hasbro re-introduced G.I. V-MSV - variations from the Victory series. Joe series, as well as new toy characters. F91-MSV - variations from the F-91 movie.

These figures were designed with the adult collector in mind, and while retaining the sculpting style of the 2002-2005 "themed years," produced toy characters from the "original 1982-1994" G.I. Kunio Okawara's MS Collection (M-MSV) - Kunio Okawara's personal reinterpretations. The 3.75" sized figures were removed from toy shop shelves early in 2005, and sold exclusively through online retailers and through a new Hasbro online store, Hasbro Toy Shop. CCA-MSV - variations from the Char's Counterattack movie. Venom" also had an OVA CGI movie. ZZ-MSV - variations from the Double Zeta Gundam series. "Valor vs. Z-MSV - variations from the Zeta Gundam series.

Venom" theme up until the first half of 2005. MSX, new models for a proposed but never produced new animation series, considered to be official and canonical. 2004 featured the "Valor vs. Mobile Suit X (1984) - a.ka. There was a direct-to-video "Spytroops" CGI movie. MSV, the variations from the One-Year War, considered to be official and canonical. 2003 was themed "Spytroops" and had many figures produced with "O-rings" again. Mobile Suit Variations (1983) - a.k.a.

Cobra" and featured new style figures that had "T-crotches" with no "O-ring." New characters were introduced in that period and new molds for both old and new. Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Destiny (TV: 2004). Joe vs. Mobile Suit Gundam MS IGLOO (movies: 2004; OVAs: 2006). In 2002, the theme was "G.I. Superior Defender Gundam Force (TV: 2003-2004). Each year's 3.75" series had a slight change in figure production construction. Mobile Suit Gundam SEED (TV: 2002, compilation specials: 2004).

The basic 3.75" sized GI Joe toy sculpture style was changed in 2001 with the introduction of yearly themes. Gundam Evolve (short clips: 2001-2005). Joe's popularity. G-Saviour (live action TV movie: 2000). The comic series was helpful in bringing back G.I. Turn A Gundam (TV: 1999, compilation movies: 2002). In 2001, the Devil's Due publishing company bought the rights to produce new comics that continued the storyline from Marvel Comics. New Mobile Report Gundam Wing: Endless Waltz (OVAs: 1997, compilation movie: 1998).

Some original 1982-1994 3.75 inch line toys were "re-produced" in "collector edition" 2-packs, along with vehicles. After War Gundam X (TV: 1996). Joe: A Real American Hero line. Mobile Suit Gundam: The 08th MS Team (OVAs: 1996). Toys R Us began carrying a store-exclusive line that featured "re-produced" figures and vehicles from the G.I. New Mobile Report Gundam Wing (TV: 1995, compilation OVAs: 1996). There was also a cartoon series that supported the toyline. Mobile Fighter G Gundam (TV: 1994).

Joe Extreme comic. Mobile Suit Victory Gundam (TV: 1993). Dark Horse Comics produced the G.I. Mobile Suit Gundam 0083: Stardust Memory (OVAs: 1991; compilation movie: 1992). Savage is a part of this series. Mobile Suit Gundam F91 (movie: 1991). Sgt. Mobile Suit Gundam 0080: War in the Pocket (OVAs: 1989).

These figures, as well as vehicles, took on a future premise storyline that had the Extreme team battling SKAR. Mobile Suit Gundam: Char's Counterattack (movie: 1988). Joe Extreme was introduced in a 5" tall, limited articulation format. Mobile Suit Gundam ZZ (TV: 1986). G.I. Mobile Suit Zeta Gundam (TV: 1985; compilation movies: 2005). Savage. "Gundam 0079" (a nickname derived from spinoff games and manga and primarily used by English-speaking fans) (TV: 1979; compilation movies: 1981–1982).

There was one cartoon featuring Sgt. "First Gundam" (the nickname applied by Japanese fans once sequels appeared which used the whole phrase in their titles) a.k.a. The enemy force was the Iron Army, cybernetically-enhanced WWII style criminals and robots. Mobile Suit Gundam - a.k.a. Joe but it contains its themes. Superior performance, in comparison to other mobile suits/fighters. The series was not labeled G.I. Yellow and/or red highlights are often added.

Savage and his Screaming Eagles were produced. In any given series, at least one Gundam, usually the one piloted by the hero of the story, will have a blue torso and white limbs and head. This was the only year Sgt. A prominent red "chin" or goatee, initally thought to be a mere stylistic touch, but is now believed to be a heat vent. Savage and his Screaming Eagles were put on the toy shelves in a 4" size, World War II-based theme. Ornament on head resembling a V-shape, sometimes units possess two V-shapes. Sgt. Face with two human-like eyes, which flash when the unit is activated.

The toyline and the accompanying television show and comics were renamed Action Force, presumably to make the toyline appear more international and less American-centric. Humanoid form. Joe: A Real American Hero was renamed for the European market. Each story is not necessarily consistent with other stories within the Super Deformed series or stories outside them. G.I. Super Deformed Gundam is a series of super deformed parodies of the Gundam metaseries. There was also a Marvel Comic series that featured many of the toy characterizations. has acted as an acronym for a variety of things, see the Mobile Suit Operation System page for details.

There was also two series of cartoons, "Sunbow", and "DIC" produced with this toyline. In this timeline, G.U.N.D.A.M. Each toy figure included a character bio, called a "file card." During the 12 year production, there were many "subsets" produced. "Cosmic Era" refers to the years after the foundation of the first space colonies. Cobra was the main enemy force during this toy lines run. Mobile Suit Gundam SEED and Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Destiny take place in the Cosmic Era calendar system. This toy series lasted through 1994, producing over 500 figures and 250 vehicles and playsets. Director Yoshiyuki Tomino intended this as the distant future of all previous calendar systems.

Joe was re-introduced in a 3.75" format. ∀ Gundam takes place in the CC (正歴 Seireki) calendar system. After a few years of absence from the toy shelves and with the help of the Star Wars 3.75" figure successes, G.I. After War Gundam X takes place in the After War calendar system; "After War" refers to the years after the conclusion of the 7th Space War, in which the Earth was devastated by massive colony drops. Joe was discontinued for the same reason Super Joe was introduced, the rising cost of petroleum. "After Colony" refers to the years after the foundation of the first space colony. Finally in 1978, G.I. New Mobile Report Gundam Wing takes place in the After Colony calendar system.

The Super Joe series had the characters turned into superheroes. Mobile Fighter G Gundam takes place in the Future Century calendar system. Joe to 8 inches was implemented with the name of Super Joe. With rising oil prices in 1977, a cost-saving measure of "shrinking" G.I. It was also the period where there is a departure from its traditional military settings and began wading in to more fantastic concepts such as the introduction of the Intruders, alien invaders who are the Adventure Team's arch nemesis.

These were the years of the Adventure Team and the Kung Fu grip. Joe was licenced to several countries:. The 12-inch G.I. Later on, the line featured members from America's Armed Forces and some foreign soldiers as well.

Joe. The toyline was dedicated to one character named G.I. They were 12" tall. Joe.

Hasbro toy company's first "action figure" was introduced with the name of G.I. Joe toys came out:. The following G.I. .

Joe, no longer referred to one specific character but to a toyline brand. The name, G.I. Two years later, Hasbro began featuring members from all branches of the armed forces. Joe.

The toyline began with the aptly named G.I. Joe became a series of military-themed action figures produced by the Hasbro toy company. In 1964, the character G.I. Joe [1], directed by William Wellman and starring Burgess Meredith as acclaimed war correspondent Ernie Pyle.

In 1945, United Artists released a movie titled The Story of G.I. His strip debuted June 17, 1942 in the military's YANK magazine and Stars and Stripes newspaper. Joe" from the military reference "Government Issue". Breger came up with the title "G.I.

Joe is a cartoon soldier created by David Breger when he was asked to do a comic strip for United States military magazines during World War II. G.I. Ted Williams. George Washington.

Slaughter" né Robert Remus. "Sgt. Emil Sitka. Theodore Roosevelt.

Ernie Pyle. Colin Powell. Pierce. Francis J.

William "Refrigerator" Perry. George Patton. Audie Murphy. Douglas MacArthur.

Mike Leonard. Dwight Eisenhower. Bob Hope. Fox.

John R. Currey. Francis E. Robert Crippen.

Roy Benavidez. Buzz Aldrin. The 3 3/4" line resumed production after a very brief hiatus but is now sold exclusively on a direct-to-consumer basis, through Hasbro's website and select Internet retailers. The previous 12" and 3 3/4" lines were scheduled to go on hiatus near the middle of the year and replaced by Sigma 6.

These new larger figures are based out of the storyline that started in 1982, but are in a larger scale and will be accompanied by an Anime series made by Japanese animation house GONZO. Joe: Sigma 6, which is in no way related to the quality management program Six Sigma. Joe team with a new line called G.I. 2005 brought a new size to the G.I.

Cobra storyline. Joe vs. Venom debuted, as well as a new trading card game based on the G.I. Joe: Valor vs.

In 2004 The direct-to-DVD feature film G.I. The VvsV figures are the exact same scale as the original ARAH figures, while the Spy Troop figures are several mm's taller. Venom. Joes were released under various themes including Spy Troops and Valor vs.

In 2001 new 3 3/4" G.I. Sales were unquestionably altered, causing Devil's Due to miss its chance to purchase the rights to reprint the Marvel Comics line. Eventually, the entire creative team changed, with newcomer Brandon Jerwa taking over as writer and Tim Seeley as artist. Joe comic book and hired Scott Wherle as editor and freelance writer, Steven Kurth as artist, and real-life fan and active-duty soldier Brian Savage Peterson as Military Consultant and freelance writer.

Devil's Due Productions bought the license to publish the G.I. Joe honored the events of the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor by releasing a line of Pearl Harbor figures. In 2001, G.I. Joe A Real American Hero Collection figures were also re-released.

The 3 3/4" G.I. The figures included a toy bomb that "detonated" if handled incorrectly. Joe talking figures (until this time) since the 1970s--The other being "Duke" from the Hall of Fame line. In 2000, a Navajo Code Talker was introduced, one of only two 12-inch G.I.

The line also presented an all-new articulated GIJOE figure that formed the basis of many offerings to the present day. Soldiers from Australia, Britain, and other nations, as well as United States Forces were featured. Joe with fairly realistic uniforms and gear. The Classic Collection harkened back to the original all military theme of G.I.

Joe line-up since 1967; this doll was a helicopter pilot. Janes were introduced in a series called the Classic Collection, the first 12-inch female dolls in the G.I. G.I. JOE MASTERPIECE EDITION ([2]), a unique book-and-figure product.

Joe returned via the G.I. In 1997, the original G.I. Joe Extreme figures were introduced, along with a comic book, published by Dark Horse comics. In 1995, G.I.

Joe and accordingly, Hasbro released a series of 12 inch and 3 3/4 inch figures based on the original 4 basic services represented in the first waves of the 1964 toy-line. This was also the 30th Anniversary of G.I. Savage and his Screaming Eagles figures debuted. Sgt.

In 1994 the 3 3/4 inch line was cancelled. Joe also jumped on the Jurassic Park bandwagon and had a set of Dino-hunters. G.I. Joe joined the war on drugs by introducing the Drug Elimination Force (DEF) line of figures.The line declined with sci-fi themes again, notably the Star Brigade.

In 1992, G.I. 12" figures were also re-introduced as part of an exclusive contract with Target retail stores. Joe Ecowarriors line was produced to raise environmental awareness. In 1991, the G.I.

In 1988, Battle Force 2000 was introduced. Football player William "Refrigerator" Perry followed suit in 1987. Joe forces. Slaughter, became the first real person to join the G.I.

In 1986, wrestler Robert Remus, aka Sgt. Joe as the top-selling American toy. In 1985, both Toy & Lamp and Hobby World magazines ranked G.I. In 1983, Destro was introduced as one of the first characters at the service of the COBRA Commander.

Joe frenzy that would eventually lead to the production of posters, t-shirts, video games, board games, kites, animated movies, and even a cartoon series based on the characters. This was the beginning of the 1980s G.I. The "Adventure Team" idea was modified and combined with the original military theme of the early action figures. In 1982, the new figures were downsized to be produced at about the size of Star Wars action figures.

Since the toy was produced with plastic and petroleum is a major component in the manufacture of plastic, the cost of producing the toy rose substantially, and after a failed attempt to produce a smaller version called "Super Joe", Hasbro decided to discontinue it although the licensed versions outside the US continued for a while. Joes. In 1978, the petroleum crisis directly affected G.I. In 1976, The Intruders, a line of outer space arch rivals, was introduced.

Both figures were not in the mold of the rest of team, and further confused the GI Joe line. Also added to the Adventure Team was a Superhero, Bulletman. * In 1975, after a failed bid to gain the rights to the Six Million Dollar Man, Hasbro issued a bionic warrior figure named Mike Power, Atomic Man sold over one million units. Joes started to be produced with a "kung fu grip." This involved redesigning the doll's hands in a softer plastic that allowed the fingers to curl and better grip objects in a more lifelike fashion.

By 1974, Kung Fu fever had arrived in the United States, so G.I. Joe toys were eliminated due to the growing controversy over war toys in the wake of the Vietnam War. By 1970, the war themes of the original G.I. It was not a success, the first real mis-step of the line.

Joe action figure was produced - a nurse. Around this time the only full-sized female G.I. Joe talking figures were introduced. In 1967, G.I.

Joe. Joe line up, and Hasbro decided that the entire toy line will be named G.I. In 1966, soldiers of international armed forces joined the G.I. In 1965, a Black Joe was introduced in selected markets.

Joe figures were about the size of the Barbie dolls (12 inches (305 mm) tall). At that time, the G.I. Joe brand, naming it after the aforementioned movie. Therefore, in 1964, they launched the G.I.

Inspired in part by the tv series " The Lieutenant", Hasbro saw the potential such an action figure for boys could have. Nearly 20 years later, seeing the market success of the Barbie doll, Stan Weston, toy creator and licensing agent, brought the idea of a soldier action figure to Don Levine at Hasbro. Joe, about war correspondent Ernie Pyle in World War II, was released. In 1945, a hit movie, The Story of G.I.

Joe rescued over 1,000 people in Italy by delivering a crucial message. In 1943, a pigeon called G.I. Joe: Sigma 6 (2005-Present). G.I.

Venom (2004-2005). Joe: Valor vs. G.I. Cobra: Spytroops (2003).

Joe vs. G.I. Cobra (2002). Joe vs.

G.I. Joe: The Real American Hero Collection (2000-2002). G.I. Joe: Classic Collection (1995-2004).

G.I. Joe: Toys R Us Exclusives (1997-1998). G.I. Joe Extreme (1996-1997).

G.I. Joe: Hall of Fame limited exclusives (1995-1997). G.I. Savage and the Screaming Eagles (1995).

Sgt. Joe: Hall of Fame (1991-1994). G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero (1982-1994).

G.I. Joe Adventure Team (1970-1979). G.I. Joe (1964-1969).

G.I.

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