A frame or framework is a structural system or a skeleton that supports other components of the object. It is used in this basic sense in art, construction, and mechanical engineering, and the expression 'frame' for eyeglasses.
The word also has many extended, metaphorical meanings in various fields:
The Frames is also the name of an Irish rock band, fronted by Glen Hansard.
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A frame or framework is a structural system or a skeleton that supports other components of the object. WWE features two wrestlers, who portray men that have died and come back from the dead several times. one complete game of snooker; a match usually comprises at least three frames. The recent Japanese movie The Ring and the Hong Kong movie The Eye are both inspired by old wives' tales about haunting spirits. in psychology, Framing (psychology). In Asia horror cinema, the ghost stories often include adaptations of old oriental folklore set in a present day city. in law, to frame someone is to make it look as if they committed a crime when they in fact did not commit said crime, as in the title of the movie Who Framed Roger Rabbit; see frameup. One way to make the phantom appear on stage is Pepper's ghost technique.
See frame (dance). Theatre productions sometimes feature ghosts. the connection between lead and follow in partner dancing. Benson. each player's turn in bowling games. F. also in mathematics, a frame can refer to a complete Heyting algebra. Wakefield, and E.
Also projective frame. R. See vierbein for an orthonormal frame. Sheridan Le Fanu, H. in mathematics, a frame is an abstract concept on a manifold, generalising frame of reference to a basis for the tangent bundle varying from point to point. James, J. a frame of reference in physics. R.
a narrative frame in literature, film, or storytelling. Other authors in the field include Oscar Wilde (The Canterville Ghost, 1887), M. a frame tale in literature. Algernon Blackwood was a British writer who is well known for writing ghost stories. Semantic frames in cognitive science, linguistics, or communication theory. Boag-Munroe is the fictional ghosthunter from A Haunted Man by horror writer Stuart Neild. the frame problem in artificial intelligence, a data structure for representing a stereotyped situation. Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn visit a haunted house in Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.
in video compression different frames –- called I-frames, P-frames, B-frames, and D-frames –- are used for motion compensation. by a millionaire, see plot summary. a complete image, or the set of all picture elements representing it, in video display. In the film The Ghost Goes West (1935), actor Robert Donat plays a ghost in a Scottish castle which is bought, dismantled and shipped to the U.S. one of the film frames or video frames composing a film or video
an A-frame, often used as a caning -, whipping - or flogging frame, used for securing the victim of physical punishment (either standing with his hands tied where the side bars meet above him, or to bend over the shorter cross-bar). Despite his ghostliness, the good-natured Casper tries to befriend people rather than scare them. frames are often called after a shape they resemble, e.g. Casper the Friendly Ghost is a cartoon character from Harvey Comics. in mechanical engineering, a bicycle frame, for instance. Finally, in the play Richard III, the title character is visited by the angry ghosts of those he has killed, foretelling his doom and blessing his opponent, Richmond, later to become Henry VII. a beehive frame. In Shakespeare's Macbeth, the title character believes he sees the "blood-bolter'd" ghost of his former friend Banquo sitting in his chair during a feast.
a space frame in construction. Julius Caesar's ghost appears to Brutus in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar to warn Brutus of his impending defeat. in art, a picture frame is a solid border around a picture or painting. When Hamlet sees the ghost, he is not sure if it is in fact his father's spirit or a demon whose aim is to deceive him. The ghost exhorts Hamlet to take revenge on Claudius. The ghost says that he was in fact murdered by his brother Claudius, who now (by virtue of having married Hamlet's mother Gertrude) occupies the throne.
In Shakespeare's play Hamlet, a ghost taking the form of Hamlet's recently deceased father appears to Prince Hamlet one night. Ghosts in the novel are also keen on having a Deathday Party on the anniversaries of their deaths. In the fictional Harry Potter, there are a number of ghosts including Nearly Headless Nick, The Bloody Baron, The Fat Friar and the Grey Lady, who might be based on Lady Jane Grey. In many stories, ghosts are often depicted as haunting the living until a certain desire is met or some grievance was settled by the haunted.
(See Horror fiction for more on the haunted/ghost-driven fiction.). After Edgar Allan Poe, the "ghost story" began an independent generic history, and today the genre of Horror continues the use of ghosts as villains in fiction. Horace Walpole's 1764 The Castle of Otranto was among the first to set up the rational but malign actions of a ghost to create an atmosphere of foreboding, mystery, and fear. However, the haunting and mystery/adversarial acts of the ghost appears later in the "ghost story." Hauntings feature in Eyrbyggja Saga for a section of the work, but the "Gothic novel" and later "Gothic fiction" introduced the use of ghosts for fear to literature.
In the Elizabethan and Jacobean stage, the vengeful ghost is a commonplace who sets plots in motion. The malign ghost whose intent is either to set right an injustice or to be avenged upon the living, either in general or on a specific person, features in many fictions. Such gnomic or oracular statements reward the reader with knowledge greater than the fiction's participants. Such a ghost in disguise usually, in fiction, offers statements or visions that are relevant to the plot, but not in a way comprehensible to the characters.
Additionally, some urban legends, such as the "Hitchhiking ghost," turn upon an anonymous stranger (or Elvis Presley in a common variant) who is revealed to be a ghost in the clinch of the story. In folk music, there are songs featuring lovers and objects of affection who must leave before dawn (a variant on the Cupid and Psyche story) because they are ghosts. A character otherwise regarded as living turns out, in the fiction's denouement, to be a supernatural agent. Finally, the ghost messenger features in fiction as a ghost in disguise.
Such ghosts can either act as a deus ex machina by resolving plot points with supernatural power or as a mentor who offers sagacity to the characters with a limited point of view. In some fictions, a departed relative (usually) or friend guides the living to either a moral or material benefit. However, the ghost messenger can also act as a way reminiscent of the guardian angel in fiction. In each of these cases, the fictional ghost offers counsel to the living and thus acts as a messenger from the implicitly greater world beyond.
Further, he finds that the ancestors of many great lords and ladies of his day were stable boys, servants, etc. Jonathan Swift satirized the genre in the third book of Gulliver's Travels by having Gulliver summon the ghosts of former kings and great conquerors and finding, instead of nobility, petty, childish, and stupid people who possessed no wisdom and who accomplished their great deeds for mean and selfish reasons. The genre was most popular in the 18th century, and examples were written by many. These "ghosts" were under control of a great sorcerer or otherwise compelled to speak.
In the Dialogues of the Dead genre, authors would somehow contrive a device for summoning the dead to a character who would then speak with them and ask them questions about philosophy or current events. In Odyssey, Odysseus travels to Hades and sees the shades of his former colleagues, including some he did not know were dead, and pours out fresh blood, which the dead hunger for, until he can find Tiresias and get guidance on his voyages. These were based upon the Witch of Endor story and the visions of Hades found in both Homer's Odyssey and Virgil's Aeneid. A popular genre of literature from the early Renaissance to the early twentieth century was the Dialogues of the Dead.
New Orleans' ghosts include pirates from the 18th century, through 20th century spectres. The city of New Orleans is sometimes called 'America's most haunted city' with numerous ghost reports, especially in the French Quarter which remained largely undamaged by Hurricane Katrina. The former prison island of Alcatraz off the coast of San Francisco is said to be home to a number of ghosts of prisoners that died there. The prophet's spirit gives the king no assistance, but rebukes him and foretells his doom instead.
In the Biblical account of the Witch of Endor, King Saul of Israel has the witch conjure up the ghost of the prophet Samuel to consult him on his precarious situation. The ghost of the Roman Emperor Caligula was said to haunt the Lamian Gardens of Rome, where his body had been hastily and unceremoniously buried after his assassination. The White House in Washington, D.C., is said to be haunted by the ghost of Abraham Lincoln and by several lesser spectres. Indeed, the presence of many centuries-old buildings has given England the reputation of the most haunted country in the world.
The cities of York and Derby in England are also reputed to be a center of ghostly manifestations; consequently, they both thrive on hugely successful ghost tour industries. Several other ghosts are said to make the Tower their home; phantom troops of soldiers reportedly appear there, as well as a lady in mourning with no face. It seems likely that the building with the most distinguished ghosts as rumored tenants is the Tower of London, which is reported to be haunted by:. The earliest literature to rationally discuss the issue comes from the Chinese philosopher, Mo Tzu (470-391 BC).
Certain images such as paintings and movies might "program" a person to automatically associate a certain structure or area as haunted because of what he has seen in the movies. Many people exaggerate their interpretation of their own perceptions, either when visiting a place they believe to be haunted, or when visiting a site which they know has seen unpleasant historical events. Psychological factors may also relate to ghost sightings. Often, videos of paranormal investigators will show them using E-field or B-field detectors and finding "ghostly" results near wall outlets and electrical appliances.
Sometimes ghosts are associated with electromagnetic disturbances, which suggests that they might be attributable to the electromagnetic field and not to a presently dead person. Also, sound waves with frequencies lower than 20 hertz are called infrasound; they are formally inaudible, but British scientists Richard Lord and Richard Wiseman have concluded that infrasound can cause humans to feel a "presence" in the room, or unexplained feelings of anxiety or dread.. Any random motion outside the focused view can create a strong illusion of an eerie figure. Also, the peripheral vision is very sensitive to motion, but does not contain much color or focused shapes.
Ghosts are often associated with a chilling sensation, but a natural animal response to fear is hair raising, which can be mistaken for chill. Human physiology may make us more susceptible to ghost sightings. A society could have elaborate setups with members of that community playing ghosts. It can also discourage new tenants from living in an apparently abandoned house.
For example, the telling of ghost stories might be a way for secluded communities to scare off intruders. Again, the reasons could be popularity and income; but fear might also factor into the motive. A hoax or con might also be getting played on the reporting person themselves. Also, a person might claim a haunting for personal popularity and income.
Ascribing such motives and powers to dead people could be interpreted as a scare tactic. For example, lingering of ghosts is typically associated with seeking justice or revenge. They might make up a haunting for a personal reason. Occasionally, the sincerity and motive of the claimant will be questioned.
They are also keen to note that most ghost sightings happen when our senses are impaired, and that the evidence is unreliable because it doesn't occur when we have full use of our faculties. They may suggest that, since few to none of us have ever had an interpersonal relationship with a ghost, but most or all of us have had an experience of self-delusion or have attributed a false cause to an event, that these options should be preferred in the absence of a great abundance of evidence. Skeptics often explain ghost sightings with the principle of Occam's razor, which argues that explanations should maximize parsimony with the rest of our knowledge. For example, the vast majority of the scientific community believes that ghosts, as well as other supernatural and paranormal entities, do not exist.
While some accept ghosts as a reality, many others are skeptical of the existence of ghosts. Asuras are also referred to as "fighting ghosts". Sentient beings in that realm are referred to as hungry ghosts because of their attachment to this world. Buddhist Samsara includes the concept of the hungry ghost realm.
They often wear the sort of clothing in which they would have been seen when alive. Such places are known as "haunted"; the rounds they go on are known as "hauntings". They may wander around places they frequented when alive or where they died. Both the West and the East share some fundamental beliefs about ghosts.
How ghosts fit into this worldview is shown here. Very detailed information about ghosts is given in Garuda Purana, a scripture from Vedic (Hindu) tradition. During the time of feast, those relatives amongst the living are not allowed to leave their bedrooms regardless of how much noise the ghost makes. An older ritual is for the living family to prepare a grand feast for their dead relatives "returning" home.
The ritual consists of burning Hell Bank Notes and other luxury items made of paper mache as well as pouring wine three times on their grave and leaving food. Also in China, particularly in the Guangzhou area, the Chinese people usually hold a Chinese version of Day of the dead ritual for their ancestors in autumn. The victims of such paranormal "murders" are called tìsíguǐ (替死鬼), literally "substitute death ghost" or "substitute devil" which in Chinese is a synonym for scapegoat. The Chinese also believe that some ghosts, especially those who died of drowning, kill people in order to rob them of their rights to reincarnation.
In Chinese tradition, apart from being reincarnated, a ghost can also become immortal and become a demigod, or it can go to hell and suffer for eternity, or it can die again and become "ghost of ghost". Exorcists can either help a ghost to be driven away or reincarnated. Ghosts are those souls that refused to be "recycled" because they have unfinished business, similar to those in the West. In Asian cultures (such as China), many people believe in reincarnation.
However, it may be possible that enough of a dead person's psyche might be imprinted on an environment so as to give the likeness of thought or autonomy. Theories from this approach often encounter difficulties in explaining ghosts that appear to be sentient, such as those which answer questions or react to specific actions from people present. This way of thinking classifies ghosts in the same category of preternatural unexplained phenomena as poltergeists/telekinesis, ESP, and telepathy. They assert that traumatic events (such as a murder or suicide) cause mental energy to be released into the world, where it may be experienced by other people who are sensitive to its presence.
Those who follow this approach most often believe that ghosts are not actual disembodied souls or spirits, but rather they are impressions of psychic energy left behind by a deceased (or in some rare cases, still living) person. Some ghost researchers approach the possibility of ghosts from a more scientific standpoint, seeking to find correlations and causal relationships between recordable phenomena and the supposed presence of ghosts. It is worth noting that while mainstream Protestants and Evangelical Christians believe in the existence of principalities, they do not believe in ghosts (as spiritual manifestations of the dead) and would generally attribute more violent ghosts, such as poltergeists, to the actions of demons. It is sometimes held that ghosts reside in Limbo, a place, according to nonorthodox Catholic doctrine, between Heaven and Hell where the souls of unbaptized infants go.
Criminals sometimes supposedly linger to avoid Purgatory or Hell. The inability to find rest is often explained by unfinished business, such as a victim seeking justice or revenge after death. In the West, those who believe in ghosts sometimes hold them to be souls that could not find rest after death, and so linger on Earth. Sometimes they do not manifest themselves visually but in terms of other phenomena, such as the movements of an object, spontaneous throwing of a light switch, noises, etc., which supposedly have no natural explanation.
Ghosts do not have a physical body like human beings, but only a subtle astral body. Ghosts are often depicted of a human size and shape (although some accounts also mention animal ghosts), but typically described as "silvery", "shadowy", "semitransparent", "misty" or "fog-like." Parapsychologists refer to the "substance" of which ghosts and other spirits are made of as "ectoplasm". . Every culture in the world carries stories about ghosts, but they vary across time and place, with disagreements both as to what ghosts are and whether they are just figments of imagination or a part of reality.
According to some beliefs, a ghost may be the personality of a person after his or her death, and not tied directly to the soul or spirit. It is often thought to be a manifestation of the spirit or soul of a person which has remained on Earth after death. A ghost is an alleged non-corporeal manifestation of a dead person (or, rarely, an animal). Norman Leslie, a fallen World War 1 soldier who appeared when his great niece was looking for a missing document that proved that Castle Leslie belonged to her family.
Barquest, a giant spectral dog believed by the French to haunt graveyards. A troupe of ghosts who allegedly reenact the execution of Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury;. The ghost of Sir Walter Raleigh;. The ghost of Lady Jane Grey;.
The ghosts of King Edward V of England and Richard, Duke of York, the "Princes in the Tower";. The ghost of Thomas Becket, which allegedly appeared during the construction of the Traitor's Gate;. The headless ghost of Anne Boleyn;.