Frame

A frame or framework is a structural system or a skeleton that supports other components of the object. It is used in this basic sense in art, construction, and mechanical engineering, and the expression 'frame' for eyeglasses.

  • in art, a picture frame is a solid border around a picture or painting
  • a space frame in construction
  • a beehive frame
  • in mechanical engineering, a bicycle frame, for instance
  • frames are often called after a shape they resemble, e.g. an A-frame, often used as a caning -, whipping - or flogging frame, used for securing the victim of physical punishment (either standing with his hands tied where the side bars meet above him, or to bend over the shorter cross-bar)

The word also has many extended, metaphorical meanings in various fields:

  • in spinning, a frame is a mechanical device with many spindles for spinning multiple threads simultaneously, as in spinning frame, dressing frame, or water frame
  • one of the film frames or video frames composing a film or video
    • a complete image, or the set of all picture elements representing it, in video display
    • in video compression different frames –- called I-frames, P-frames, B-frames, and D-frames –- are used for motion compensation
  • reframing in film and programming
  • in telecommunications, a data frame is a transmitted packet
  • in computer science, a stack frame
  • the frame element in HTML; see HTML element#Frames
  • the frame problem in artificial intelligence, a data structure for representing a stereotyped situation
  • Semantic frames in cognitive science, linguistics, or communication theory
  • a frame tale in literature
  • a narrative frame in literature, film, or storytelling
  • a frame of reference in physics
  • in mathematics, a frame is an abstract concept on a manifold, generalising frame of reference to a basis for the tangent bundle varying from point to point. See vierbein for an orthonormal frame. Also projective frame.
  • also in mathematics, a frame can refer to a complete Heyting algebra
  • each player's turn in bowling games
  • the connection between lead and follow in partner dancing. See frame (dance)
  • in law, to frame someone is to make it look as if they committed a crime when they in fact did not commit said crime, as in the title of the movie Who Framed Roger Rabbit; see frameup.
  • in psychology, Framing (psychology)
  • one complete game of snooker; a match usually comprises at least three frames.

The Frames is also the name of an Irish rock band, fronted by Glen Hansard.


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. A common legend holds that if the rope used to hang a person breaks three times, it is a sign of divine intervention and the condemned should be released. The Frames is also the name of an Irish rock band, fronted by Glen Hansard. (Professor Higgins is a linguist, so there may also be an element of intentional irony in his phrasing.). The word also has many extended, metaphorical meanings in various fields:. the choice often appears to have been made to suit the rhyme and meter. It is used in this basic sense in art, construction, and mechanical engineering, and the expression 'frame' for eyeglasses. The distinction is not always followed; but in cases where it is not, such as when, in the song "Why Can't the English?" from the musical My Fair Lady, Professor Higgins sings.

A frame or framework is a structural system or a skeleton that supports other components of the object. A useful way of remembering this is the old school saying, "Meat is hung, men are hanged.'. one complete game of snooker; a match usually comprises at least three frames. Traditionally, the past tense and past participle of the verb "to hang" are "hung" when referring to the abstract idea of hanging things, but "hanged" when referring to an execution or death by hanging.[9][10]. in psychology, Framing (psychology). The term "hanging" is the focus of a famous bit of grammatical trivia. in law, to frame someone is to make it look as if they committed a crime when they in fact did not commit said crime, as in the title of the movie Who Framed Roger Rabbit; see frameup. The main method now is lethal injection.

See frame (dance). At the time, Washington's only manner of execution was hanging. the connection between lead and follow in partner dancing. Rupe argued that would be cruel and unusual punishment. each player's turn in bowling games. In 1994, a federal judge upheld his conviction but agreed with Rupe's contention that at 400 pounds, he was too heavy to hang because of the risk of decapitation. also in mathematics, a frame can refer to a complete Heyting algebra. Juries twice sentenced him to death, but higher courts overturned the sentences.

Also projective frame. He was 51. See vierbein for an orthonormal frame. In USA Mitchell Rupe a former death row inmate once found too heavy to hang, died at the Washington State Penitentiary in Walla Walla following a long illness. in mathematics, a frame is an abstract concept on a manifold, generalising frame of reference to a basis for the tangent bundle varying from point to point. Others, in both Singapore and Australia, have accepted the hanging as law. a frame of reference in physics. Many Australian people have said that they will boycott Singapore in a backlash from this hanging.

a narrative frame in literature, film, or storytelling. Opinion in Australia is divided, with people both opposed to and in support of the death penalty for Nguyen. a frame tale in literature. Numerous efforts from both the Australian government, numerous QCs (Queens Counsels) and countless petitions from organisations such as Amnesty International failed. Semantic frames in cognitive science, linguistics, or communication theory. In Singapore, a 25-year old Australian, Nguyen Tuong Van, was hanged on December 2, 2005 after being convicted of drug trafficking in 2002. the frame problem in artificial intelligence, a data structure for representing a stereotyped situation. According to the ISNA report as translated by OutRage "They admitted having gay sex but claimed in their defense that most young boys had sex with each other and that they were not aware that homosexuality was punishable by death." Subsequent to their execution the government broadcast the allegation that they had raped a 13-year-old boy, a story rejected by MAHA, the voice of the Iranian gay community.[7][8].

the frame element in HTML; see HTML element#Frames. They were imprisoned for fourteen months and subjected to 228 lashes each, then executed. in computer science, a stack frame. At the ages of 15 and 17, respectively, they were discovered having sexual relations. in telecommunications, a data frame is a transmitted packet. The punishment has been met with international outrage. reframing in film and programming. On July 19, 2005, two Iranian boys, Mahmoud Asgari and Ayaz Marhoni, were publicly hanged at Edalat (Justice) Square in Mashhad, northeast Iran, on charges of homosexuality and rape.

in video compression different frames –- called I-frames, P-frames, B-frames, and D-frames –- are used for motion compensation. Hanging is the common method of execution in capital punishment cases in Japan, although the punishment is rarely executed. a complete image, or the set of all picture elements representing it, in video display. On February 27, 2004 the mastermind of the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway, Shoko Asahara, was found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging. one of the film frames or video frames composing a film or video

    . Although the Supreme Court of India has suggested that capital punishment be given in the rarest of rare cases, Chatterjee was executed on August 14, 2004 in the first execution in West Bengal for eleven years. in spinning, a frame is a mechanical device with many spindles for spinning multiple threads simultaneously, as in spinning frame, dressing frame, or water frame. A recent case of capital punishment by hanging is that of Dhananjoy Chatterjee, who was convicted of the 1990 murder and rape of a 14 year old girl in Kolkata(Calcutta) in India.

    an A-frame, often used as a caning -, whipping - or flogging frame, used for securing the victim of physical punishment (either standing with his hands tied where the side bars meet above him, or to bend over the shorter cross-bar). Hanging is commonly the method of executing penalties of death in Commonwealth countries that still have it, such as in the cases of Malaysia and Singapore. frames are often called after a shape they resemble, e.g. [6]. in mechanical engineering, a bicycle frame, for instance. There is little evidence for a change in policy such as the adoption of lethal injection, with the Singapore Home Affairs Minister Wong Kan Seng informing the Parliament of Singapore that the government "had previously studied the different methods of execution and found no reason to change from the current method used, that is, by hanging". a beehive frame. The only execution method currently employed is via hanging using the long-drop method.

    a space frame in construction. Singapore currently employs mandatory execution as punishment for various crimes (for example, drug trafficking over certain quantities). in art, a picture frame is a solid border around a picture or painting. The last person hanged in the United States was Billy Bailey, on January 25, 1996 in Delaware, and later the same state abolished this practice. (See the book Driven to Kill.) Charles Campbell was another person hanged in the same State on 27 May 1994. Serial killer and child molester Westley Allan Dodd chose it over injection in 1992.

    to be impractical to carry out the punishment of death ..." by lethal injection, then the condemned will be hanged.[4] In Washington, the default method is lethal injection, though the condemned can choose hanging.[5]. In New Hampshire if it found ".. Laws changed in 1996 that penalties of death must be executed by injection unless the convict chooses hanging, but none has taken place ever since. At present, only Washington and New Hampshire still retain hanging as an option.

    In the United States, other forms of capital punishment, such as the electric chair and more recently lethal injection, have largely replaced hanging. The conduct of her case and her actual execution were very controversial internationally. A recent hanging carried out by this method in Iran was that of a 16 year old girl, Ateqeh Rajabi, who was hanged in August 2004 for sexual misdemeanours. This method may have been adapted from yardarm hangings carried out by the Royal Navy.

    One of the hanging execution procedures currently used in Iran does not use a drop, but involves using an automotive telescoping crane to hoist the condemned aloft. In the Soviet Union, the last persons to be sentenced to death by hanging were Andrey Vlasov and 11 other officers of his army on August 1, 1946. And with the introduction of the Human Rights Act in 1998, the death penalty was officially abolished for all crimes in both civilian and military cases. In 1965 Parliament passed the 'Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act' abolishing capital punishment for murder.

    Britain ended public hangings in 1868 and formally abolished the hanging, beheading and quartering of traitors in 1870. In 1861 The Parliament reduced the number of capital crimes to four:. Between 1832 and 1834 Parliament abolished the death penalty for:. Only about half the death sentences pronounced at common law in the 18th century were carried out, and by the beginning of the 19th century, growing doubt over the appropriateness of capital punishment led to nearly 90% of British capital sentences being commuted to lesser punishments.

    First-time offenders could escape a capital sentence for some crimes through the benefit of clergy, and of those criminals actually sentenced to death, many were later pardoned. A variety of loopholes in British criminal law, together with judicial leniency, tempered the law's tendency to prescribe hanging for what many would today consider minor offences. Until 1808 the law in Britain offered the death penalty for some 200 offenses, including:. Also, there have been cases of autoerotic asphyxiation leading to death; recently, children have accidentally died playing the choking game.

    If the hyoid bone is broken, it usually means the person has been murdered. Forensic experts can tell if hanging is suicide or homicide, as each leaves a distinctive ligature mark. Death is caused by severing the spinal cord between C1 and C2, which stops breathing by effectively stopping the diaphragm from working. Extra-legal primitive forms of hanging persisted well into the 20th Century in the United States in the form of lynchings, where torture and/or mutilation of the corpse often accompanied the hanging.

    By the mid-20th century the average time between taking a victim from the cell and death was around fifteen seconds – although on May 8, 1951 Albert Pierrepoint conducted the fastest hanging on record when James Inglis, whom a court had only three weeks earlier convicted and sentenced for the murder of a prostitute, fell through the trap only seven seconds after leaving his cell. As time went by, hanging became more of a science than an art. Prison governors and staff who were required, following the abolition of public executions in 1868, to witness executions at close quarters, welcomed the development of swift and "clean" methods of hanging. Marwood also experimented with the positioning of the knot, and discovered that placing it under the left ear or under the angle of the left jaw would jerk the head backwards at the end of the drop and instantly sever the spinal cord and dislocate the cervical vertebrae.

    Over time, Marwood refined this basic formula to take account of the prisoner's age, stature, and physical condition, especially after some early mistakes when too great a drop resulted in decapitation. A process of sometimes grisly experimentation led to the discovery that an energy of 1260 foot pounds (1710 joules) would have the desired effect, so one could calculate the required drop by dividing 1260 by the weight of the victim: a person weighing 112 pounds (50.8 kg) required a drop of 11'4" (3.43 m). Marwood realised that each person required a different drop, based on the prisoner's weight, which would dislocate the cervical vertebrae resulting in "instantaneous" death. The first well-known practitioner of "the drop" was William Calcraft, but his successor William Marwood (who was often quoted as saying "Calcraft hanged them, I execute them"), introduced the "long drop".

    Although hangmen had introduced the "drop" by the late 1700s, it was initially only a substitute for the ladder or the cart. Soon virtually every major town and city in Britain had its own gallows. As the number of executions increased, purpose-built gallows, which usually consisted of two posts joined by a crossbeam, replaced trees. An early refinement had the victim climb a ladder or stand in a cart that the hangman then removed.

    Early methods of hanging simply involved a hangman's noose on a rope placed around the victim's neck, with the loose end thrown over or tied to a tree branch; the hangman then drew up the criminal, who slowly strangled. Records of the names of British hangmen begin with Thomas de Warblynton in the 1360s; complete records extend from the 1500s to the last hangmen, Robert Leslie Stewart and Harry Allen, who conducted the last British executions in 1964. As a form of judicial execution in England, hanging is thought to date from the Saxon period, circa AD 400. Since as a result hanging has become associated with dishonorable execution, the courts in the post-World War II war crimes trials in Germany (the Nuremberg trials) and Japan mandated its use for war criminals rather than execution by firing squad.

    Hanging has historically been the method of execution used for common criminals; in feudal England, for example, peasants were usually hanged for crimes, while the nobility were usually beheaded. A more elaborate sentence, once used for particularly heinous crimes (e.g., high treason in Britain), was for the person to be "hanged, drawn and quartered" – here the victim was saved from asphyxiation in order to endure the further ordeals. The typical sentence involving hanging is that the condemned person "be hanged by the neck until dead". Hanging has been used as punishment throughout history; it is known to have been invented and used by the Persian Empire.

    . The short drop could be a protracted affair and was primarily for the entertainment of the watching public, the struggling of the victim giving rise to such terms as "the hangman's hornpipe". In England the short-drop method was used until the 19th century, when the long drop was introduced. A long-drop, short-drop, standard-drop or suspension hanging may do one or more of the following:.

    A long-drop hanging may break the neck (cervical fracture) causing traumatic spinal cord injury and consequent asphyxia and brain hypoxia.[3]. There are four methods of hanging:. It has been used throughout history as a form of capital punishment. Hanging is a form of execution or a method for suicide.

    Piracy with violence. Arson in Royal Dockyards. Treason. Murder.

    Sacrilege. Letter-stealing. Returning from Transportation. Shoplifting goods worth five shillings (£0.25) or less.

    "Strong evidence of malice" in children aged 7–14 years old. Vagrancy for soldiers and sailors. Being in the company of gypsies for one month. Attempting suicide.

    Induce carotid reflex, which reduces heartbeat when the pressure in the carotid arteries is high, causing cardiac arrest. Close the jugular veins. Close the carotid arteries. Close the airway causing asphyxia or anesthesiologination.

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