Frame

A frame or framework is a structural system or a skeleton that supports other components of the object. It is used in this basic sense in art, construction, and mechanical engineering, and the expression 'frame' for eyeglasses.

  • in art, a picture frame is a solid border around a picture or painting
  • a space frame in construction
  • a beehive frame
  • in mechanical engineering, a bicycle frame, for instance
  • frames are often called after a shape they resemble, e.g. an A-frame, often used as a caning -, whipping - or flogging frame, used for securing the victim of physical punishment (either standing with his hands tied where the side bars meet above him, or to bend over the shorter cross-bar)

The word also has many extended, metaphorical meanings in various fields:

  • in spinning, a frame is a mechanical device with many spindles for spinning multiple threads simultaneously, as in spinning frame, dressing frame, or water frame
  • one of the film frames or video frames composing a film or video
    • a complete image, or the set of all picture elements representing it, in video display
    • in video compression different frames –- called I-frames, P-frames, B-frames, and D-frames –- are used for motion compensation
  • reframing in film and programming
  • in telecommunications, a data frame is a transmitted packet
  • in computer science, a stack frame
  • the frame element in HTML; see HTML element#Frames
  • the frame problem in artificial intelligence, a data structure for representing a stereotyped situation
  • Semantic frames in cognitive science, linguistics, or communication theory
  • a frame tale in literature
  • a narrative frame in literature, film, or storytelling
  • a frame of reference in physics
  • in mathematics, a frame is an abstract concept on a manifold, generalising frame of reference to a basis for the tangent bundle varying from point to point. See vierbein for an orthonormal frame. Also projective frame.
  • also in mathematics, a frame can refer to a complete Heyting algebra
  • each player's turn in bowling games
  • the connection between lead and follow in partner dancing. See frame (dance)
  • in law, to frame someone is to make it look as if they committed a crime when they in fact did not commit said crime, as in the title of the movie Who Framed Roger Rabbit; see frameup.
  • in psychology, Framing (psychology)
  • one complete game of snooker; a match usually comprises at least three frames.

The Frames is also the name of an Irish rock band, fronted by Glen Hansard.


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. He suggests that the selfconscious artificiality of a subculture is a valid alternative choice in a post-modern world, compared to submitting to the invisible manipulations of popular consumerism and the mass media. The Frames is also the name of an Irish rock band, fronted by Glen Hansard. Hodkinson shows how inside the goth subculture status can be gained via enthusiastic participation and creativity, in creating a band, DJ-ing, making clothes or writing a fanzine. The word also has many extended, metaphorical meanings in various fields:. Many who are drawn to the culture have already failed to conform to the norms of existing society, and for its participants the goth subculture provides an important way of validating themselves against the outside world. It is used in this basic sense in art, construction, and mechanical engineering, and the expression 'frame' for eyeglasses. Paul Hodkinson's book explores how the Western cult of individualism, usually expressed via consumerism, is drawn on by goths and other subcultural groups.

A frame or framework is a structural system or a skeleton that supports other components of the object. The value that young people find in the movement is evidenced by its continuing existence after other subcultures of the eighties such as the New Romantics have long since died out. one complete game of snooker; a match usually comprises at least three frames. However, it also can be risky, especially for the young, because of the negative attention it can attract. in psychology, Framing (psychology). For the individual goth, joining the subculture can be extremely valuable and personally fulfilling, especially in creative terms. in law, to frame someone is to make it look as if they committed a crime when they in fact did not commit said crime, as in the title of the movie Who Framed Roger Rabbit; see frameup. While people love going to see people dressed like goths in movies, there is little sign that many people, besides teenagers, wish to join them.

See frame (dance). It is notable that the occasional attempts of cultural appropriation by the mainstream of elements from gothic fashion have left the subculture largely intact. the connection between lead and follow in partner dancing. It could be argued many goths' use of literary and film imagery represents an example of the growing blurring between fiction and fact which is part of the postmodern condition. each player's turn in bowling games. However, this is hardly surprising as the original goths were punks who had seen that a subculture no matter how radical could not shake the foundations of Western world. also in mathematics, a frame can refer to a complete Heyting algebra. Unlike the hippy or punk movement there is no wider political message predominant within the subculture, except for individualism, tolerance for sexual diversity, a dislike of social conservatism and a strong tendency towards cynicism, and even these ideas are not common to all goths.

Also projective frame. Thus the significance of goth's subcultural rebellion is strictly limited, and is tied into drawing on imagery at the heart of Western commercial culture. See vierbein for an orthonormal frame. While in the nineteenth century individual defiance of social norms was a very risky business today it is far less radical in social terms. in mathematics, a frame is an abstract concept on a manifold, generalising frame of reference to a basis for the tangent bundle varying from point to point. It should be noted the rise of the gothic novel saw such feelings of horror being exploited for a form of mass entertainment for commercial purposes, a process now continued in the modern horror film so important in defining goth. a frame of reference in physics. Balancing this the other central element is a self-conscious sense of camp theatricality.

a narrative frame in literature, film, or storytelling. Defining a philosophy of goth subculture is difficult because of the overwhelming importance of mood for those involved. a frame tale in literature. The allure of dark and morbid imagery and moods for goths clearly lies in this tradition. Semantic frames in cognitive science, linguistics, or communication theory. The goth subculture is best seen as a late offshoot of romanticism and neoromanticism, with its fascination with the importance of the individual defining themselves through experiencing extreme emotions. the frame problem in artificial intelligence, a data structure for representing a stereotyped situation. The Columbine massacre caused a widespread public backlash against the goth scene in America, however investigators of the incident later denied that any such link between the students and the goth scene, in fact, existed.[1].

the frame element in HTML; see HTML element#Frames. Such conceptions are often reinforced by popular media, as exemplified in the Columbine High School Massacre, which was carried out by two troubled students inaccurately linked to the goth subculture. in computer science, a stack frame. A preoccupation with themes of death, romance, and the generally macabre have occasionally raised public concerns regarding the overall mental well-being of, mainly, young goths and general fears of cultic indoctrination. in telecommunications, a data frame is a transmitted packet. Social intolerance ranges from looks of indignation and verbal taunts to physical violence. reframing in film and programming. Like many other music based subcultures, goths have faced differing levels of social intolerance due mostly to outward stylistic appearances.

in video compression different frames –- called I-frames, P-frames, B-frames, and D-frames –- are used for motion compensation. Many goths also follow traditional religions such as Christianity or Judaism, creating a demand for religious goth arts and literature, as illustrated by such websites as GothicChristianity.com. a complete image, or the set of all picture elements representing it, in video display. An interest in neo-paganism and the occult amongst goths appears to be higher than amongst the general population. one of the film frames or video frames composing a film or video

    . A large number of goths adhere to atheism or agnosticism, not wanting to commit to organized religion or what they perceive to be irrational belief systems. in spinning, a frame is a mechanical device with many spindles for spinning multiple threads simultaneously, as in spinning frame, dressing frame, or water frame. One widespread misconception is that the goth subculture as a whole is represents a unified cult-like religion, when in reality there is a wide diversity of religious beliefs throughout the subculture.

    an A-frame, often used as a caning -, whipping - or flogging frame, used for securing the victim of physical punishment (either standing with his hands tied where the side bars meet above him, or to bend over the shorter cross-bar). However, many goths aspire to free themselves from the perceived limitations of traditional belief systems, and express a belief in open-mindedness and diversity. frames are often called after a shape they resemble, e.g. Religious imagery has frequently played an important part in gothic fashion and also in song lyrics. in mechanical engineering, a bicycle frame, for instance. Today, the scene is most active in Western Europe, especially Germany, with large festivals such as Wave-Gotik-Treffen, Zillo, and others drawing tens of thousands of fans from all over the world. a beehive frame. Nights like Ghoul School and Release The Bats promote death rock heavily, and the Drop Dead Festival brings in death rock fans from all over the world.

    a space frame in construction. Bands with a more early goth sound like Cinema Strange, Black Ice, and Antiworld are becoming very popular. in art, a picture frame is a solid border around a picture or painting. Recent years have seen resurgence in the Batcave and death rock sound, in reaction to the EBM, futurepop, and trance, which has taken over many goth clubs. Bands with a darkwave sound or those such as The Cruxshadows which combine an electronic and gothic rock sound can appeal to both sides to some extent. The rise of what has been called cybergoth music and style which has much in common with techno/synthpop, caused bitter divisions between those firmly attached to the guitar based sound of gothic rock and newcomers or other goths, whose musical and even fashion tastes changed.

    The other significant development of the nineties was the popularity of electronic dance bands like VNV Nation and Covenant in the goth scene. The article gothic music explores this thorny question further. Arguments about what music is and is not goth became an ever more significant part of how the subculture tried to define itself. Band t-shirts were now the only sure way of identifying someone's musical tastes from their fashion.

    Even more confusion was added with the rise of gothic metal, with such bands consciously using gothic imagery from the dark ages in their own music and appearance and started even following fashion trends indistinguishable from older goth ones. Older goths responded by affecting increasing disdain for the popularity of Marilyn Manson and the likes. Thus while industrial or heavy metal bands such as Marilyn Manson, Nine Inch Nails, Type O Negative, Lacuna Coil, Dimmu Borgir, Cradle of Filth, and Mortiis were often labeled as "goth" by the media, this categorization was strongly resisted by goths and indeed also by fans of the bands. Gothic rock was originally clearly differentiated from industrial and heavy metal by older participants in the alternative scene, but newcomers and media misconceptions blurred the boundaries in the nineties as gothic rock became significantly less popular in the US and UK.

    This variety was a result of a need to maximize attendance from everyone across the alternative music scene, particularly in smaller towns, but it also signaled new developments. By the mid-1990s, styles of music that was heard in venues which goths attend ranged from gothic rock, death rock, darkwave, industrial, EBM, synthpop, punk, metal, techno, to 1980s dance music. The popularity of bands such as Dead Can Dance resulted in the creation of a label called Projekt that produces what is colloquially termed Ethereal as well as the more electronic Darkwave, both forms of music popular with Goths. In the US, the subculture grew especially in New York and Los Angeles, with many nightclubs featuring gothic/industrial nights.

    The nineties saw the further growth of eighties bands and emergence of many new bands, most of the North American examples being released by the Cleopatra label. By the mid-eighties, the number of bands began proliferating and became increasing popular, including Sisters of Mercy, The Mission UK, and Fields of the Nephilim. The bands which began the gothic rock and death rock scene were limited in number, and included bands such as Bauhaus, Siouxsie & the Banshees, Southern Death Cult, and Christian Death. [See Music].

    Even within the original subculture, changing trends in music have made defining what is and is not goth more complex. Still others have simply ignored its existence, and decided to appropriate the term goth themselves, and redefine it in their own image. Some being secure in a separate subcultural identity feel deeply insulted at being called "goths" in the first place, while others choose to join the existing subculture on its own terms. The response of these younger groups to the older subculture varies.

    More positive terms, such as mini-goths or baby bats, are also used by some older goths to refer to youths they see as exhibiting potential for growth into "true" goths later on. Melbourne playwright Sai Ho is particularly vicious in his hatred of what he terms baby goths. These include mallgoths in the US, gogans in Australia, and spooky kids or moshers in the UK. This has led to the introduction of terms which some Goths use to distinguish members of the other subcultures from Goths.

    As time went on, the term was bastardized even further in popular usage, being sometimes applied to groups that had neither musical nor fashion similarities to the original goth subculture, such as Emo fans. This was based primarily on appearance, and the fashions of the subcultures, rather than the musical genres of the bands associated with them. New youth subcultures either evolved or became more popular, which ordinary people and the popular media tended to term "goth". By the 1990s, the term "goth" started to become once again contentious in the English speaking world.

    Influences from anime as well as cyberpunk fiction such as The Matrix have also crept into the goth scene, which helped give rise to cybergoth. The popular roleplaying game Vampire The Masquerade also referred directly to goth music and culture and encouraged an interest in the scene. In turn they drew new people into the goth scene. Movies such as The Crow drew directly on goth music and style, and the movies of Tim Burton especially Beetlejuice featuring a goth teen, Edward Scissorhands, The Nightmare Before Christmas, and Corpse Bride are all significant.

    As the subculture became well-established the connection between goth and horror fiction became almost a cliche with goths quite likely to appear as characters in horror novels and film. Over time, gothic culture has developed its own "goth slang", with regional variations. The 2003 Victoria and Albert Museum Gothic exhibition in London furthered a tenuous connection between modern goth and the medieval gothic period. By the 1990s, Victorian fashion saw a renewed popularity in the goth scene, drawing on the mid-19th century gothic revival and the morbid outlook of the Victorians (partly owing to the state of national mourning which developed in response to Prince Albert's death, and partly to the Victorians' general obsession with Christian funeral practices).

    Local scenes also contribute to this variation. This caused variations in style ("types" of goth). After the demise of post punk, goth continued to evolve, both musically and visually. Works that vastly differ from one another in these and many more ways still share the category of gothic literature, such as Serling's 'Night Gallery, Macey Baggett Wuesthoff's Sacrifice, Washington Irving's "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and Joseph Armstead's Darkness Fears and Moon-Chosen series.

    For example, as aforementioned, some gothic writers like Brite and Rice utilize erotic themes while other writers, such as Rod Serling, do not use an erotic undercurrent at all. One reason "gothic" is such a broad term is because its content and themes can vary greatly. Both Brite and Rice are connected to New Orleans, often seen as a gothic mecca. Brite, who is familiar with the goth scene, distinctively refers to it in her novels as the location of where her vampires hunt.

    Brite's vampire novels. Rice's novels influenced Poppy Z. The first film, in particular, helped encourage the spread of Victorian style fashions in the subculture. Movies based on her books have been filmed in recent years - notably Interview with the Vampire, which starred Brad Pitt, and the more recent Queen of the Damned, in which goths appear directly and indirectly.

    Rice's characters were depicted as struggling with eternity and loneliness, while their ambivalent sexuality had deep attractions for many goth readers, making her works very fashionable in the eighties. A significant literary influence on the contemporary goth scene was not only the older gothic writers, but also Anne Rice's re-imagining of the idea of the vampire. Dropping "Poe," "Lovecraft," and the other heralding names became just as symbolic and popular as dressing all in black leather, wearing the hair long and dyed black, adorning oneself with dark jewelry and body art, and carrying around a Tim Burton lunchbox. Lovecraft wasn't generally seen as frightening, particularly by today's gothic standards, though there were major authors who showed gothic sensibilities, such as Charles Dickens with his ghost story "A Christmas Carol." As the gothic scene evolved, familiarity with gothic literature became a significant part of the subculture for some goths.

    P. Gothic fiction before Edgar Allan Poe, Algernon Blackwood, and H. It is hard to predict which direction gothic literature will take in the twenty-first century, but there is interest in many to adapt the old gothic influences and renew them. The word "gothic" in the literary sense is a broad term.

    In 1993, Whitby became the location for what became the UK's biggest goth festival as a direct result of being featured in Bram Stoker's Dracula. The interconnection between horror and goth was highlighted in its early days by The Hunger, a 1983 vampire film, starring David Bowie, which featured gothic rock group Bauhaus performing "Bela Lugosi's Dead" in a nightclub. As a result, morbid, supernatural, and occult themes became a more noticeably serious element in the subculture. Such references in their music and image were originally tongue-in-cheek, but as time went on, bands and members of the subculture took the connection more seriously.

    Use of standard horror film props like swirling smoke, rubber bats, and cobwebs were used as goth club décor from the beginning in The Batcave. Their audiences responded in kind by further adopting appropriate dress and props. Some of the early gothic rock and death rock artists adopted traditional horror movie images, and also drew on horror movie soundtracks for inspiration. By the 1960s, TV series, such as The Addams Family and The Munsters, used these stereotypes for camp comedy.

    The powerful imagery of horror movies began in German expressionist cinema in the twenties then passed onto the Universal films of the thirties, then to camp horror B films such as Plan 9 From Outer Space and then to Hammer Horror films. In cinema the femme fatale style adopted by silent movie actress Theda Bara (whose first name is an anagram for "death"), nicknamed the vamp, established the look for pale predatory women in later films, and was eventually adopted by Siouxsie Sioux. The concept of the femme fatale, which appeared in romantic literature as well as in the gothic novel, went on to become a vital image for female goths. Some people even credit Bauhaus' first single "Bela Lugosi's Dead", with the start of the Gothic movement, though there are other contenders.

    The most famous gothic villain is the vampire, Dracula, but it was the iconic portrayal of Bela Lugosi, rather than Bram Stoker's original novel, which appealed to early goths, who were attracted by Lugosi's aura of camp menace. A notable element in the gothic novel was the brooding figure of the gothic villain, which developed into the Byronic hero, a key precursor to the male goth image. In particular, the imagery surrounding male and female vampires had a significant influence on the evolution of gothic fashion and death rock fashion. The influence of the gothic novel on the goth subculture originally came second hand, through the popular imagery of horror films and television.

    It was the use of "gothic" as an adjective in describing the music and its followers, which led to the term "goth" being given to the subculture. Certain elements in the dark, atmospheric music and dress of the post punk scene were clearly "gothic" in this sense, even seen in gothic rock band names like "UK Decay" or Southern Death Cult. These stories established what became horror stereotypes by featuring graveyards, ruined castles or churches, ghosts, vampires, nightmares, cursed families, being buried alive and melodramatic plots. It was the gothic novel of the early nineteenth century, a genre founded by Walpole, that was responsible above all else for the term gothic being associated with a mood of horror, morbidity, darkness and the supernatural.

    Enthusiasts for gothic revival architecture in Britain were led by Horace Walpole, and were sometimes nicknamed goths, the first positive use of the term in the modern period. This was often combined with an interest in medieval romances, Roman Catholic religion and the supernatural. In Britain by the late 1700s, however nostalgia for the medieval period destroyed by the Reformation led people to become fascinated with medieval gothic ruins (even building fake ruins). During the Renaissance period in Europe, medieval architecture was retrospectively labeled gothic architecture, and was considered ugly and barbaric in contrast to the pure lines of classical architecture.

    Like another similar tribe, the Vandals, the name "goth" later became pejorative synonymous with "barbarian" and being uncultured. Goth was originally the name of a Germanic tribe, the Goths, who played an important role in the fall of the western Roman Empire. With similar themes and dress, goths and death rockers were sufficiently compatible to more or less merge. Independent of the British scene, the late 1970s and early 1980s saw death rock branch off from American punk.

    As one of the most famous meeting points for early goths, it lent its name to the term "Batcaver," used to describe old-school goths. The opening of the Batcave in London's Soho in July 1982 might be seen as marking the emergence of this scene (which had briefly been labeled positive punk by the New Musical Express). By the late 1970s, there were a small number of post punk bands in Britain labeled "gothic." However, it was not until the early 1980s that gothic rock became its own subgenre within post-punk and that followers of these bands started to come together as a distinctly recognisable group or movement. For example gothic-doom bands draw on the same dark and horror imagery as gothic rock bands, but have a very different musical style.

    It is important to remember that "gothic", when used as an adjective, can refer to anything dark or horrifying, or something influenced by medieval gothic art. To refer correctly to the entire group of people, one would need to say "the goth subculture", or possibly "the gothic subculture". "A member of goth", for example, does not work because "goth" is not the name of an organized group or gang. "Goth" cannot be used as a singular name for the group of people.

    Typical examples are "She was wearing a gothic necklace" or "He is goth." The word "gothic" is sometimes used as a noun in non-English speaking countries, as in "I saw a gothic," this is comparatively rare and grammatically incorrect. "At the club there were many goths." "Gothic" and "goth" can also be used as adjectives interchangeably to describe someone (or in some cases, some thing). e.g. "My best friend is a goth." Plurally, an S is added.

    e.g. The word "goth" can be used as a noun. . Styles of dress range from death rock, punk, Victorian, androgyny, some Renaissance style clothes, a combination of the above, and/or lots of black attire, and makeup.

    It is associated with characteristically "gothic" tastes in music and clothing. Goth is a modern subculture that first became popular during the early 1980s within the gothic rock scene, an offshoot of post-punk. Zinn: The Truth Behind The Eyes (IUniverse, US, 2005; ISBN 0-595-37103-5) - Dark Poetry. Andrew C.

    Voltaire: What is Goth? (WeiserBooks, US, 2004; ISBN 1578633222) - a humorous and easy-to-read view of the Goth subculture. ISBN 0312306962. Martin's Griffin. 2004: St.

    Kilpatrick, Nancy: The goth Bible : A Compendium for the Darkly Inclined. ISBN 1859736009 (hardcover); ISBN 185973605X (softcover). Hodkinson, Paul: Goth: Identity, Style and Subculture (Dress, Body, Culture Series) 2002: Berg. ISBN 0865475903 (trade paperback) - A voluminous, if somewhat patchy, chronological/aesthetic history of the Gothic covering the spectrum from Gothic architecture to The Cure.

    Davenport-Hines, Richard: Gothic: Four Hundred Years of Excess, Horror, Evil and Ruin (1999: North Port Press. Baddeley, Gavin: Goth Chic: A Connoisseur's Guide to Dark Culture (Plexus, US, August 2002, ISBN 0859653080).

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