Ford Focus

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(Tagged January 2006)

The Ford Focus is an automobile made by the Ford Motor Company and sold in most Ford markets worldwide. It was launched in 1998 in Europe, and in 2000 in North America. Since then, it has become the most popular car in the United Kingdom, following in the success of the Escort, its predecessor. A new version of the Focus was launched in Europe in January 2005, while the United States received an updated version of the old model.

Unlike previous Fords in the North American market, the Pinto and the Escort, no luxury Mercury version is available.

In Australia, New Zealand, Japan and other countries in the region, it replaced the Laser, based on the Mazda 323 (called the Mazda Protege in some markets).

Focus Mk I

Codenamed CW170 during its development, and briefly known to some Ford contractors as the Ford Fusion, the original Focus took its eventual name from a Ghia concept car which was shown in 1991. Certain elements of the design had been seen even earlier in prototypes used by Ford to demonstrate forthcoming safety features such as the eye-level rear lighting clusters. Initial spy photographs of the car seen in 1995 took the world by storm at the design's apparent boldness - further developing Ford's "New Edge" styling philosophy first seen in the Ka and Cougar. The daring styling made it largely unchanged when it entered production three years later.

Mechanically, it drew heavily from other European Ford models, using a sophisticated fully independent multi-link rear suspension (dubbed "Control Blade") derived from the Short-Long Arm system used in the Mondeo station wagon (estate), giving the Focus class-leading handling and ride. The engines used are the well-proven Zetec and Zetec-SE units, with the Endura diesel (a development of the old Deutz-designed motor which Ford had been using since the 1980s), although the Duratorq unit replaced this in 2002.

The Focus, like the Mondeo Mk I, was a "world car", which saw Ford coordinate and pool its resources from all over the globe. Like the Mondeo, most of the design and engineering work took place in Europe. The Focus is arguably the biggest indication of the change in Ford's design and engineering philosophy. After the Escort Mk IV was criticised by the motoring press as being designed by the "bean counters" and for its mediocre ride, handling and quality, Ford decided to take more risks in its replacement. As a result, the Focus had bold styling, increased quality and critically-acclaimed handling and refinement.

It is produced by factories in: Saarlouis, Germany; Valencia, Spain; Pacheco, Argentina; and Wayne, Michigan in which the US Knocked down kits are supplied for assembly to Vsevolzhsk near Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Engines

  • 1.4 L Zetec-SE: 74BHP; 42.8MPG; 106MPH top speed; 14.1s 0-60. (Europe)
  • 1.6 L Zetec-SE: 99BHP; 40.9MPG; 115MPH top speed; 10.9s 0-60. (Europe)
  • 1.6 L Zetec: (Other Markets)
  • 1.8 L Zetec: 113BHP; 37.2MPG; 123MPH top speed; 10.2s 0-60. (All Markets)
  • 1.8 L Endura-D diesel: 75 PS (56 kW) and 90 PS (67 kW) non-common-rail (Europe) (TDi/TDdi)
  • 1.8 L Duratorq diesel: 100 PS (75 kW) and 115 PS (86 kW) common rail (Europe) (TDci)
  • 2.0 L CVH: Sedan (Saloon) style only. (America)
  • 2.0 L SPI: Sedan (Saloon) style only. (America)
  • 2.0 L Zetec: 128BHP; 33.1MPG; 125MPH top speed; 9.0s 0-60. (All Markets)
  • 2.0 L Duratec: From 2004 onwards. (Latin America)
  • 2.0 L Duratec: ST170 Only; 170BHP; 25MPG; 133MPH top speed; 8.2s 0-60. (Europe)
  • 2.0 L Duratec: RS Only; 212BHP; 19.9MPG; 144MPH top speed; 6.4s 0-60. (Europe)
  • 2.3 L Duratec From 2004 onwards. (America)

Body styles (Offerings vary by market)

  • 3-door Hatchback
  • 5-door Hatchback (Part of the original line in Europe, added for North America starting in 2002)
  • 4-door Sedan (Saloon) (Not available in Japan or New Zealand)
  • 4-door Wagon (Estate) (Only available in Europe, Japan and North America)

In the US, the four body styles are coded with a ZXx designation.

Transmissions

  • 5-speed manual
  • 6-speed manual (Euro ST, US SVT)
  • 4-speed automatic

Trim levels

United Kingdom

Standard

  • CL (1.4 petrol, 1.6 petrol, 1.8 turbodiesel), 3/5-door hatchback, 5-door estate (only available in UK with 1.4)
  • LX (1.6 petrol, 1.8 petrol, 1.8 turbodiesel), 5-door hatchback, 4-door saloon, 5-door estate
  • Zetec (1.4 petrol, 1.6 petrol, 1.8 petrol, 2.0 petrol, 1.8 turbodiesel), 3/5-door hatchback, 5-door estate
  • Ghia (1.6 petrol, 1.8 petrol, 2.0 petrol, 1.8 turbodiesel), 5-door hatchback, 4-door saloon.
  • ST170 (2.0 petrol), 3/5-door hatchback only

Special Editions

  • Millennium (1.8 petrol), 5-door hatchback.
    • Special features included: Millennium Yellow paint, heated leather seats and ABS
  • MP3 (1.8 petrol), 3-door hatchback.
    • Special features included: 17" 7 spoke alloy wheels, limited paint colour choice (Metropolis Blue or Moondust Silver), Harlequin Blue seat trim and MP3 compatible radio
  • Black (1.6 petrol), 3-door hatchback.
    • Special features included: Panther Black paint, 15" 3x2 spoke alloy wheels, mesh Upper Grill (commonly known as the Collection Mk1 Grill), chrome tailpipe, Midnight Black leather heated seats, air conditioning, heated fron windscreen and scuff plates
  • Chic (1.6 petrol), 3-door hatchback.
    • Special features included: Magnum Grey paint, chrome tailpipe, 15" 3x2 spoke alloy wheels, Midnight Black heated leather seats, air conditioning, heated front windscreen and ABS
  • Ebony (1.6 petrol), 3-door hatchback.
    • Special features included: Panther Black paint, 15" 3x2 spoke alloy wheels, mesh Upper Grill (commonly known as the Collection Mk1.5 Grill), chrome tailpipe, Midnight Black heated leather seats, 6 disc cd autochanger radio, air conditioning, heated front windscreen, titanium finish scuff plates, ABS, traction control, parking sensors and side airbags
  • Edge (1.6 petrol, 115PS diesel), 3/5-door hatchback.
    • Special features included: Spoiler (commonly known as the Collection spoiler), 16" 5 spoke alloy wheels, Midnight Black heated leather seats, air conditioning, titanium effect radio surround and side airbags
  • Elle (1.6 petrol), 3-door hatchback.
    • Special features included: Moondust Silver paint, chrome tailpipe, 15" 3x2 spoke alloy wheels, Midnight Black heated leather seats, air conditioning, side airbags and ABS
  • Flight (1.6 petrol), 3/5-door hatchback.
    • Special features included: 15" steel wheels with wheeltrims, Midnight Black heated leather seats, air conditioning, titanium effect radio surround and side airbags
  • Ink (1.6 petrol), 3/5-door hatchback.
    • Special features included: Ink Blue paint, 15" 3x2 spoke alloy wheels, chrome tailpipe, mesh Upper Grill (commonly known as the Collection Mk1.5 Grill), Midnight Black heated leather seats, titanium effect scuff plates and ABS
  • Silver (1.6 petrol), 3-door hatchback.
    • Special features included: 15" 3x2 spoke alloy wheels, Machine Silver paint, chrome tailpipe, heated front windscreen, Midnight Black heated leather seats, air conditioning, rear disc brakes and ABS
  • Collection (1.8 petrol), 3-door hatchback.
    • Special features included: Official ford body kit comprising side skirts, front bumper with mesh lower grill and round fog lights and rear bumper with mesh lower grill and cut out for exhaust. Also, Amadine blue pattern seats, leather gear nob and blue collection floormats
  • RS (2.0 turbo petrol), 3-door hatchback.
    • Special features included: Rally-derived suspension, wide track, Thatcham Cat 1 alarm, leather sparco seats, metal pedals, alloy gear nob, air conditioning, 6CD multichanger radio, start button, blue backlit dials, turbo boost guage and change up warning light

Motorsport

In 1999, Ford revealed its first version for the World Rally Championship: the Focus WRC. Subsequent variants followed, piloted by such men as Colin McRae, Carlos Sainz, Markko Martin and Francois Duval. The next version of the Focus WRC hit the special stages on the 2005 Rally Australia with Toni Gardemeister and Roman Kresta, notching victory on its 'full' championship debut on the 2006 Monte Carlo Rally in the hands of Marcus Gronholm.

Competition

Europe

  • Citroën Xsara (recently, Citroën C4)
  • Fiat Stilo
  • Honda Civic
  • Hyundai Elantra
  • Opel Astra/Vauxhall Astra
  • Mazda 3
  • Mitsubishi Lancer
  • Peugeot 307
  • Renault Megane
  • Toyota Corolla
  • Volkswagen Golf

North America

  • Chevrolet Cavalier(Until 2006)
  • Chevrolet Cobalt
  • Dodge Neon
  • Honda Civic
  • Hyundai Elantra
  • Mazda3
  • Mitsubishi Lancer
  • Nissan Sentra
  • Pontiac Vibe
  • Saturn Ion
  • Toyota Corolla
  • Volkswagen Golf

Sales and history

In Europe, the hatchback is the biggest selling bodystyle. Ford attempted to market the sedan in Europe as a mini-executive car by only offering it in the Ghia trim level, something that it had tried before with the Orion of the 1980s. It has since given up on this strategy, and has started selling lower specified versions of the sedan.

Despite its radical styling (the hatchback version in particular), and some controversial safety recalls in North America, the car has been a runaway success across the globe, even in the United States, where Ford has traditionally failed to successfully sell its European models.

This was the best-selling car in the world in 2000 and 2001. It was elected Car of the Year in 1999. The Focus won the North American Car of the Year award for 2000. In Europe, the original had a very subtle facelift in 2001.

The Focus, unlike the Escort, was never offered in a panel van body style. Ford was therefore left without a light-duty commercial vehicle when the Escort finally went out of production in 2000. The purpose-designed Transit Connect, introduced in 2002, largely served as its replacement. A convertible version was another notable omission, although there is talk of producing a drop-top version of the Mk II for Europe.

Reliability

In the US spec models, despite a series of major recalls early in the car's life [1], reliability has steadily been improving. In fact, there have been no Focus recalls in the United States since 2002 [2]. The Focus now at Ford dealerships has Consumer Reports Best in Class rating for small cars [3]. The car has also received a Consumers Digest Best Buy Rating, [4] an award that takes numerous factors into consideration, including reliability and recall history.

The European Focus would also suffer from some recall issues, but in 2002, according to German reports and surveys, the Focus was claimed to be the most reliable car between 1 to 3 years old on the German car market [5]. This was a remarkable feat as the Focus was competing against German prestige manufacturers as well as Japanese manufacturers, all of which have strong reputations for quality and reliability.

USA Focus Mk II

In North America, a major facelift occurred for the 2005 model year, but on the old CW170 platform. Ford apparently decided that a completely new car would not be profitable in this heavily price and incentive-driven market.

The American Ford Focus fits smallest into a line of sedans (smallest to largest) by Ford:

  • Ford Focus
  • Ford Fusion
  • Ford Taurus
  • Ford Five Hundred
  • Ford Crown Victoria

Saleen S121

Two 2006 Saleen S121s

Tuner Saleen modified the Mark II USA Focus into the S121 performance car. It includes a 150 hp (112 kW) engine and updated brakes, suspension, and body kit. The S121 is sold as new at many Ford dealers.

European Focus Mk II

The Focus Mk II, codenamed C307, uses a new platform called C1 shared with the Volvo S40, Mazda3 and Focus C-Max. It was launched at the Paris Motor Show on September 23, 2004 as a three and five-door hatchback and a station wagon. The four-door sedan version was previewed as a concept developed by Ford Australia at the Beijing Motor Show in mid-2004 and joined the range after the hatchbacks.

The European Ford Focus is in the middle of a line of saloon/hatchback cars (smallest to largest) by Ford:

  • Ford Ka
  • Ford Fiesta
  • Ford Focus
  • Ford Mondeo

This new Focus is also built in South Africa for export to Australia and New Zealand.

Engines and Chassis

The engine lineup for the Mk II is a mixture of old and new, with the Zetec petrol (gasoline) engines of the original having been superseded by the newer Duratec range. The 1.4 L and 1.6 L (100 bhp and Ti-VCT 115 bhp) units, although named "Duratec", are in fact revised versions of the old Zetec-SE units, while the 2.0 L versions are the Mazda-derived Duratec-HE units. The PSA-developed Duratorq diesel engine in 1.6 L 100 bhp and 110 bhp editions, Ford's own 'Lynx' Duratorq 1.8L 115 hp diesel carried over from the previous model and the PSA DW10 diesel in 2.0 L form rounds off the range in standard Focus guise (this is a different unit to the 'Puma' diesel in the Mondeo). The new Focus ST, however, has a 2.5L 220bhp 5 cylinder straight engine, derived from Volvo as used in the S40 T5. The Focus ST's engine uses a turbo and offers a healthy 236 lb ft torque peaking as low as 1,600rpm.

Petrol

  • 1.4 L Duratec
  • 1.6 L Duratec
  • 1.6 L Duratec Ti-VCT
  • 2.0 L Duratec-HE
  • 2.5 L Duratec-HE 5-cylinder

Diesel

  • 1.6L (100bhp and 110bhp) Duratorq (PSA type)
  • 1.8 L Duratorq (Ford "Lynx" type)
  • 2.0 L Duratorq (PSA DW10)

The basic suspension design has been carried over largely unchanged from the Mk I, although Ford claims that the stiffer bodyshell further improves the Focus' handling.

Changes

The Focus Mk II is larger than its Mk I predecessor with a 25 mm (1 in) increase in wheelbase, 168 mm (6.6 in) longer, 8 mm (0.3 in) taller and 138 mm (5.4 in) wider. As a result the interior and boot space has increased. The car has a more Italianate feel in its exterior styling. New technologies include a KeyFree system, a solar-reflect windshield, adaptive front lighting, Bluetooth hands-free phones and voice control for audio, telephone and climate control systems. The interior and dashboard are made from far higher quality plastics than before, and the overall feeling of solidity of the car has been increased markedly in a deliberate attempt to emulate the standards set by the Volkswagen Golf. It also features either a Durashift 6-speed manual, Durashift 4-speed automatic transmission or the all-new Durashift advanced manual transmission or just the standard manual.

Stylistically, the Mk II's styling has been criticised by the motoring press for what some perceive as a lack of flair, originality and boldness of its predecessor. The new car uses styling features from the abandoned B-Proposal for the original Focus which were never signed off for production. The interior design has not faced such harsh criticism with many journalists believing it represents a significant improvement through more sober styling and better quality plastics than the ageing first generation design.

The new car has gained the best ever Euro NCAP ratings for its class, beating such contenders as the Renault Mégane and Volkswagen Golf.

Dynamically, the Focus is still held in high regard by the motoring press. Although the latest generation Opel/Vauxhall Astra and Volkswagen Golf have much improved handling (over their respective predecessors), the Focus is still regarded as the class-leader in ride and handling, even over its mechanically similar Mazda3 cousin.

There is much talk about a cabriolet (convertible) version, named the Vignale, designed with Pininfarina and due to be lauched in 2006. The vehicle will have a metal folding roof. Another new model is the Focus ST. It uses the same powerplant from the Volvo S40 T5, a turbocharged 2.5 L 5-cylinder engine capable of achieving 220 hp DIN (166 kW).

Awards

Since its launch in 1998 the Focus Mk I has won over 60 awards including 13 Car of the Year awards in both Europe and North America, and more recently, the best family car ever (Autocar UK 2003). The Focus was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for five consecutive years (2000 through 2004). In 2005, in a poll by the Men & Motors TV channel in the UK, it was placed 19th in the nation's favourite 100 cars of all time.

The North American version has been a favorite of Car and Driver magazine, which has elected it to its Ten Best list every year since its introduction in 2000 [6]. Motor Trend magazine has also given the Focus favorable reviews, writing comments like "As entry-level sedans go, few can touch Ford's Focus on the fun-to-drive front" [7].

In 2001 and 2002, Focus was the world’s best selling car.

Auto Express in 2005 hailed the European Focus Mk II "Supreme Champion" in its New Car of the Year awards. The Focus also won the subcategory of Best Compact Family Car in the same awards.


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The Focus also won the subcategory of Best Compact Family Car in the same awards.
. Auto Express in 2005 hailed the European Focus Mk II "Supreme Champion" in its New Car of the Year awards. This is gin." And it was gin. In 2001 and 2002, Focus was the world’s best selling car. On a Tiffany card in a corner was the note: "This is not New York's precious water. Motor Trend magazine has also given the Focus favorable reviews, writing comments like "As entry-level sedans go, few can touch Ford's Focus on the fun-to-drive front" [7]. During New York City's first drought emergency in modern times, Gene Moore, window designer for Tiffany's, created sparkling fountains hung with diamonds.

The North American version has been a favorite of Car and Driver magazine, which has elected it to its Ten Best list every year since its introduction in 2000 [6]. (Today it is enclosed behind glass.). In 2005, in a poll by the Men & Motors TV channel in the UK, it was placed 19th in the nation's favourite 100 cars of all time. For the Barcelona exhibition of 1937 Alexander Calder created in remembrance the miners who were killed at the mercury mines at Almadén a memorial fountain, which uses mercury instead of water. The Focus was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for five consecutive years (2000 through 2004). If the water is unsafe, fences must be designed to keep people far enough away, so that they cannot touch the water, otherwise children get water on their hands, and put their fingers into their mouths, and end up getting sick, thus subjecting owners and operators to legal liability. Since its launch in 1998 the Focus Mk I has won over 60 awards including 13 Car of the Year awards in both Europe and North America, and more recently, the best family car ever (Autocar UK 2003). In the United States fountain operators and owners are legally liable for failure to either fence-in fountains, or to properly filter, chlorinate or otherwise treat the water, if the fountains are not fenced in.

It uses the same powerplant from the Volvo S40 T5, a turbocharged 2.5 L 5-cylinder engine capable of achieving 220 hp DIN (166 kW). It was therefore necessary to put a fence around the fountain to keep people away. Another new model is the Focus ST. Children played in fountains and swallowed water, and spurted the water out of their mouths to mimic the way nozzles in the fountain spurted the water. The vehicle will have a metal folding roof. In July 1997, an outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis was connected to an ornamental fountain at the Minnesota Zoo, which did not have proper filtration and water treatment. There is much talk about a cabriolet (convertible) version, named the Vignale, designed with Pininfarina and due to be lauched in 2006. (Pool and Spa News Online).

Although the latest generation Opel/Vauxhall Astra and Volkswagen Golf have much improved handling (over their respective predecessors), the Focus is still regarded as the class-leader in ride and handling, even over its mechanically similar Mazda3 cousin. In Disneyland, for example, people have been reported to change their babies' diapers and then wash their hands in the water fountain (thus adding unexpected bacteria and organics into the water). Dynamically, the Focus is still held in high regard by the motoring press. In reality, however, people will interact with ornamental water fountains in the most surprising ways. The new car has gained the best ever Euro NCAP ratings for its class, beating such contenders as the Renault Mégane and Volkswagen Golf. In theory, a free-standing water feature shouldn't have a bather load, and subsequently, many builders would not choose to install filters or sanitation devices. The interior design has not faced such harsh criticism with many journalists believing it represents a significant improvement through more sober styling and better quality plastics than the ageing first generation design. Guidelines have been developed for control of legionella in ornamental fountains (Legionella Risk Management-Guidelines).

The new car uses styling features from the abandoned B-Proposal for the original Focus which were never signed off for production. Therefore, minimum water quality standards are necessary, regardless of intended use. Stylistically, the Mk II's styling has been criticised by the motoring press for what some perceive as a lack of flair, originality and boldness of its predecessor. Additionally, fountain spray can contain legionella bacteria and has been linked to legionnaires' disease outbreaks. It also features either a Durashift 6-speed manual, Durashift 4-speed automatic transmission or the all-new Durashift advanced manual transmission or just the standard manual. Regardless of the fact that some fountains are designed and built not as bathing fountains, but are rather used simply as architectural decor, people will often drink from, bathe or wash their hands in any fountain. The interior and dashboard are made from far higher quality plastics than before, and the overall feeling of solidity of the car has been increased markedly in a deliberate attempt to emulate the standards set by the Volkswagen Golf. There is a need for good water quality in contemporary fountains, regardless of their avowed intended use.

New technologies include a KeyFree system, a solar-reflect windshield, adaptive front lighting, Bluetooth hands-free phones and voice control for audio, telephone and climate control systems. However, the fountain is central to the University community, and Fountain Day celebrates that centrality. The car has a more Italianate feel in its exterior styling. As a response the University moved the event to a weekend, incresed security, and limited admittance to the fountain area itself to only UAlbany students. As a result the interior and boot space has increased. In 2004 Fountain Day was a media nightmare with drunk students and multiple injuries. The Focus Mk II is larger than its Mk I predecessor with a 25 mm (1 in) increase in wheelbase, 168 mm (6.6 in) longer, 8 mm (0.3 in) taller and 138 mm (5.4 in) wider. Fountain day is a school sponsored event, initiated by the Human Awareness Program (HAP), in 1979, so students and faculty could break down the barriers that separate them.

The basic suspension design has been carried over largely unchanged from the Mk I, although Ford claims that the stiffer bodyshell further improves the Focus' handling. This brings huge crowds celebrating together in the fountains, and creates something close in spirit to an urban beach. Diesel. University of Albany has a "Fountain Day" every year which is a day in which the university can come together to celebrate the coming of spring, and the near-end of the semester. Petrol. The pumps, filter, electrical switch box and plumbing controls are often housed in a "plant room". The Focus ST's engine uses a turbo and offers a healthy 236 lb ft torque peaking as low as 1,600rpm. Lighting is often submerged and must be suitably designed.

The new Focus ST, however, has a 2.5L 220bhp 5 cylinder straight engine, derived from Volvo as used in the S40 T5. Low voltage lighting, typically 12 volt Direct Current, is used to minimise electrical hazards. The PSA-developed Duratorq diesel engine in 1.6 L 100 bhp and 110 bhp editions, Ford's own 'Lynx' Duratorq 1.8L 115 hp diesel carried over from the previous model and the PSA DW10 diesel in 2.0 L form rounds off the range in standard Focus guise (this is a different unit to the 'Puma' diesel in the Mondeo). The water may need chlorination or anti-algal treatment; however, it may also utilise biological methods to filter and clean water. The 1.4 L and 1.6 L (100 bhp and Ti-VCT 115 bhp) units, although named "Duratec", are in fact revised versions of the old Zetec-SE units, while the 2.0 L versions are the Mazda-derived Duratec-HE units. A water filter, typically a media filter, removes particles from the water -- this filter requires its own pump to force water through it and plumbing to remove the water from the pool to the filter and then back to the pool. The engine lineup for the Mk II is a mixture of old and new, with the Zetec petrol (gasoline) engines of the original having been superseded by the newer Duratec range. "Static head" is useful to quantify this pressure, see Head_(hydraulic).

This new Focus is also built in South Africa for export to Australia and New Zealand. The pressure that causes water to move through the fountain may be produced instead by a motor-driven (often electric) pump. The European Ford Focus is in the middle of a line of saloon/hatchback cars (smallest to largest) by Ford:. Allowance must also be made to handle overflow in the case of heavy rain. The four-door sedan version was previewed as a concept developed by Ford Australia at the Beijing Motor Show in mid-2004 and joined the range after the hatchbacks. This closed, recirculating system must still be filled at the start from the local water supply system and also topped up through its life to offset the effects of evaporation. It was launched at the Paris Motor Show on September 23, 2004 as a three and five-door hatchback and a station wagon. In many circumstances fountains obtain their water from an internally recycling system.

The Focus Mk II, codenamed C307, uses a new platform called C1 shared with the Volvo S40, Mazda3 and Focus C-Max. In modern fountains the traditional gravitational pressure from an unseen reservoir at a higher level is not always practical. The S121 is sold as new at many Ford dealers. Changerooms are located in level P1 of the public parking. It includes a 150 hp (112 kW) engine and updated brakes, suspension, and body kit. The special texture on the slabs ensures that they are not slippery when wet. Tuner Saleen modified the Mark II USA Focus into the S121 performance car. The entire surface of Dundas Square is made of special nonslip square granite slabs that match the size of the metal grilles.

The American Ford Focus fits smallest into a line of sedans (smallest to largest) by Ford:. Both the architects and the designers have confirmed that these were intended for waterplay, and the facility operators have confirmed that the water is treated to pool water quality standards, and that the water quality is tested, by the health department, at least once a day. Ford apparently decided that a completely new car would not be profitable in this heavily price and incentive-driven market. Twenty such grilles are arranged in two rows of 10, right in the middle of the main walkway through Dundas Square. In North America, a major facelift occurred for the 2005 model year, but on the old CW170 platform. Each group of 30 nozzles is located beneath a stainless steel grille. This was a remarkable feat as the Focus was competing against German prestige manufacturers as well as Japanese manufacturers, all of which have strong reputations for quality and reliability. It consists of 600 ground nozzles arranged in groups of 30 (3 rows of 10 nozzles).

The European Focus would also suffer from some recall issues, but in 2002, according to German reports and surveys, the Focus was claimed to be the most reliable car between 1 to 3 years old on the German car market [5]. A recent example of a public splash fountain, intended for waterplay, is the one located in Toronto's Dundas Square. The car has also received a Consumers Digest Best Buy Rating, [4] an award that takes numerous factors into consideration, including reliability and recall history. These splash pads are often located in public pools, public parks, or public playgrounds (known as spraygrounds). The Focus now at Ford dealerships has Consumer Reports Best in Class rating for small cars [3]. These have zero standing water, to eliminate possible drowning hazards, so that no lifeguards or supervision is required. In fact, there have been no Focus recalls in the United States since 2002 [2]. More recently, splash fountains have begun to appear.

In the US spec models, despite a series of major recalls early in the car's life [1], reliability has steadily been improving. In other situations, fountains are designed to allow easy access, and feature nonslip surfaces, so that people can safely use them to cool off in on hot summer days. A convertible version was another notable omission, although there is talk of producing a drop-top version of the Mk II for Europe. Some fountains are fenced in, or have raised edges as a barricade to keep people out. The purpose-designed Transit Connect, introduced in 2002, largely served as its replacement. Although many fountains were not designed as bathing fountains, children of all ages often use them for that purpose. Ford was therefore left without a light-duty commercial vehicle when the Escort finally went out of production in 2000. A splash fountain or bathing fountain is a fountain intended for people to cool off in.

The Focus, unlike the Escort, was never offered in a panel van body style. Modern indoor drinking fountains may incorporate filters to remove impurities from the water and chillers to reduce its temperature. In Europe, the original had a very subtle facelift in 2001. A water fountain is designed to provide drinking water and has a basin arrangement with either continuously running water or a tap. The Focus won the North American Car of the Year award for 2000. In Islam a fountain is the name of the place in the Mosque where worshippers can wash before Prayer. It was elected Car of the Year in 1999. A musical fountain is a type of fountain that uses laser and harmonics principles to create three-dimensional images that look like holograms.

This was the best-selling car in the world in 2000 and 2001. For example, the such fountains can spit up one ball of water which then explodes, showering people with a fine mist. Despite its radical styling (the hatchback version in particular), and some controversial safety recalls in North America, the car has been a runaway success across the globe, even in the United States, where Ford has traditionally failed to successfully sell its European models. Animated fountains often use laminar jets that provide water that moves like ping pong balls in animation, so that it breaks up, as the height varies, and the behaviour of each jet operates independently with up to 5Hz modulation frequency 1/5sec, so that the water packets collide with themselves. It has since given up on this strategy, and has started selling lower specified versions of the sedan. The practical Romans marked the delivery end of aqueducts with a public fountain, a practice that was revived in Rome in the 15th century, when the restored Aqua Felice once more delivered a symbolic presentation of its waters to Rome in the original Trevi Fountain, since replaced by the familiar Baroque fusion of water, architecture and sculpture. Ford attempted to market the sedan in Europe as a mini-executive car by only offering it in the Ghia trim level, something that it had tried before with the Orion of the 1980s. From the Fountain of Youth one can drink to gain immortality, or to regain ones youth.

In Europe, the hatchback is the biggest selling bodystyle. An offshoot of the Fountain of Life was the legend of the Fountain of Youth, which Juan Ponce de León sought in Florida. North America. The Fountain of Life appears in Christian illuminated manuscripts of Late Antiquity, and elaborate Gothic fountains formed centerpieces for exclosed gardens. Europe. Christian allegory made much use of the concept of the fountain, specifically the Fountain of Life, associated with the rebirth that was intended to be experienced at the Baptismal font. The next version of the Focus WRC hit the special stages on the 2005 Rally Australia with Toni Gardemeister and Roman Kresta, notching victory on its 'full' championship debut on the 2006 Monte Carlo Rally in the hands of Marcus Gronholm.
.

Subsequent variants followed, piloted by such men as Colin McRae, Carlos Sainz, Markko Martin and Francois Duval. Early Modern English employed fountain to refer to a natural spring water or source, which the 16th century garden fountain might consciously imitate in a grotto. In 1999, Ford revealed its first version for the World Rally Championship: the Focus WRC. In the 16th century elaborate fountain displays were garden features of Mannerist gardens of Central Italy and the Mughal gardens of India. Special Editions. Other early fountains were geometrically regularized springs, developed in the classic Persian garden. Standard. Hellenistic hydraulic engineers employed great originality in designing fountains, where the water pressure might be employed to animate automata and water organs.

United Kingdom. Early fountains depended on the natural gravity flow of water, from a spring or from an aqueduct supplied from a distant and higher source of water, which provided hydraulic head. In the US, the four body styles are coded with a ZXx designation. . It is produced by factories in: Saarlouis, Germany; Valencia, Spain; Pacheco, Argentina; and Wayne, Michigan in which the US Knocked down kits are supplied for assembly to Vsevolzhsk near Saint Petersburg, Russia. A famous example of such a modern fountain rises from the surface of Lake Geneva (below, left). As a result, the Focus had bold styling, increased quality and critically-acclaimed handling and refinement. One of the most common features of a fountain, if there is enough pressure, is a jet or multiple jets, where water is forced into the air under pressure to some height.

After the Escort Mk IV was criticised by the motoring press as being designed by the "bean counters" and for its mediocre ride, handling and quality, Ford decided to take more risks in its replacement. Many fountains are located in small, artificial ornamental ponds, basins and formal garden pools, and often they include sculpture. The Focus is arguably the biggest indication of the change in Ford's design and engineering philosophy. Basins may overflow from one into another, or the overflow may imitate a natural cascade. Like the Mondeo, most of the design and engineering work took place in Europe. In fountains sheets of water may flow over varied surfaces of stone, concrete or metal. The Focus, like the Mondeo Mk I, was a "world car", which saw Ford coordinate and pool its resources from all over the globe. Fountains may be wall fountains or free-standing.

The engines used are the well-proven Zetec and Zetec-SE units, with the Endura diesel (a development of the old Deutz-designed motor which Ford had been using since the 1980s), although the Duratorq unit replaced this in 2002. A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons), fills a basin of some kind, and is drained away. Mechanically, it drew heavily from other European Ford models, using a sophisticated fully independent multi-link rear suspension (dubbed "Control Blade") derived from the Short-Long Arm system used in the Mondeo station wagon (estate), giving the Focus class-leading handling and ride. The Fountain Of Wealth is the world's largest fountain found at Suntec City, Singapore. The daring styling made it largely unchanged when it entered production three years later. The fountain at Point State Park in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Initial spy photographs of the car seen in 1995 took the world by storm at the design's apparent boldness - further developing Ford's "New Edge" styling philosophy first seen in the Ka and Cougar. Tubes and nozzles radiating from a hollow sphere.

Certain elements of the design had been seen even earlier in prototypes used by Ford to demonstrate forthcoming safety features such as the eye-level rear lighting clusters. The El Alamein Memorial Fountain in Fitzroy Gardens, Kings Cross, Sydney, Australia. Codenamed CW170 during its development, and briefly known to some Ford contractors as the Ford Fusion, the original Focus took its eventual name from a Ghia concept car which was shown in 1991. The waterfall cascade at Paley Park, New York City. . Tyler Davidson Fountain at Fountain Square in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio. In Australia, New Zealand, Japan and other countries in the region, it replaced the Laser, based on the Mazda 323 (called the Mazda Protege in some markets). The world's tallest fountain, located in the town of Fountain Hills, Arizona.

Unlike previous Fords in the North American market, the Pinto and the Escort, no luxury Mercury version is available. Fountain of Wealth (largest fountain in the world since 1998) In Singapore. A new version of the Focus was launched in Europe in January 2005, while the United States received an updated version of the old model. Vancouver's Harbour Green urban park with pavement waterworks fountains that kids can frolic in. Since then, it has become the most popular car in the United Kingdom, following in the success of the Escort, its predecessor. Urban Oases. It was launched in 1998 in Europe, and in 2000 in North America. Centennial Olympic Park (computer animated frolicking fountain with 251 ground nozzles that shoot 12 to 35 feet in the air).

The Ford Focus is an automobile made by the Ford Motor Company and sold in most Ford markets worldwide. Dundas Square fountains designed by artist Dan Euser as both an architectural landmark as well as for frolicking (waterplay). 2.0 L Duratorq (PSA DW10). Splash Fountains at Christian Science Plaza, Boston, MA. 1.8 L Duratorq (Ford "Lynx" type). Fountains in front of Brooklyn Museum (frequent frolicking, no standing water; less chance of drowning). 1.6L (100bhp and 110bhp) Duratorq (PSA type). Along the far side there is zero-depth entry (no barrier, and the plane of the water matches the plane of the floor).

2.5 L Duratec-HE 5-cylinder. to clearstream product) which fill a giant bowl that sprays 20 nozzles up, one central nozzle shoots up approximately 10 meters, 3 times in succession, then the process repeats. 2.0 L Duratec-HE. equiv. 1.6 L Duratec Ti-VCT. There are 44 outer nozzles (each 3/8in dia. 1.6 L Duratec. Toronto Eaton Centre in Toronto, Canada.

1.4 L Duratec. Triton Fountain in Italy. Ford Mondeo. Swann Memorial Fountain in Philadelphia. Ford Focus. Various fountains, including the "Fountain of Lions" at the Alhambra, Granada, Spain. Ford Fiesta. The Wallace fountains of Paris.

Ford Ka. Fontana di Trevi in Rome. Ford Crown Victoria. The "Fountains of Bellagio" at the Bellagio casino in Las Vegas. Ford Five Hundred. The staircase and Atlas fountains at Peterhoff, the summer palace of Peter the Great. Ford Taurus. Buckingham Fountain in Chicago.

Ford Fusion. The garden fountains of the Palace of Versailles near Paris. Ford Focus. The Trafalgar Square fountains in London. Volkswagen Golf. The Jet d'Eau in Lake Geneva. Toyota Corolla. My Time at Tiffany's.

Saturn Ion. Gene Moore, with Jay Hyams, 1990. Pontiac Vibe. http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/spain/barcelona/fundmiro/calder.html. Nissan Sentra. [1]. Mitsubishi Lancer.

Mazda3. Hyundai Elantra. Honda Civic. Dodge Neon.

Chevrolet Cobalt. Chevrolet Cavalier(Until 2006). Volkswagen Golf. Toyota Corolla.

Renault Megane. Peugeot 307. Mitsubishi Lancer. Mazda 3.

Opel Astra/Vauxhall Astra. Hyundai Elantra. Honda Civic. Fiat Stilo.

Citroën Xsara (recently, Citroën C4). Special features included: Rally-derived suspension, wide track, Thatcham Cat 1 alarm, leather sparco seats, metal pedals, alloy gear nob, air conditioning, 6CD multichanger radio, start button, blue backlit dials, turbo boost guage and change up warning light. RS (2.0 turbo petrol), 3-door hatchback.

    . Also, Amadine blue pattern seats, leather gear nob and blue collection floormats.

    Special features included: Official ford body kit comprising side skirts, front bumper with mesh lower grill and round fog lights and rear bumper with mesh lower grill and cut out for exhaust. Collection (1.8 petrol), 3-door hatchback.

      . Special features included: 15" 3x2 spoke alloy wheels, Machine Silver paint, chrome tailpipe, heated front windscreen, Midnight Black heated leather seats, air conditioning, rear disc brakes and ABS. Silver (1.6 petrol), 3-door hatchback.
        .

        Special features included: Ink Blue paint, 15" 3x2 spoke alloy wheels, chrome tailpipe, mesh Upper Grill (commonly known as the Collection Mk1.5 Grill), Midnight Black heated leather seats, titanium effect scuff plates and ABS. Ink (1.6 petrol), 3/5-door hatchback.

          . Special features included: 15" steel wheels with wheeltrims, Midnight Black heated leather seats, air conditioning, titanium effect radio surround and side airbags. Flight (1.6 petrol), 3/5-door hatchback.
            .

            Special features included: Moondust Silver paint, chrome tailpipe, 15" 3x2 spoke alloy wheels, Midnight Black heated leather seats, air conditioning, side airbags and ABS. Elle (1.6 petrol), 3-door hatchback.

              . Special features included: Spoiler (commonly known as the Collection spoiler), 16" 5 spoke alloy wheels, Midnight Black heated leather seats, air conditioning, titanium effect radio surround and side airbags. Edge (1.6 petrol, 115PS diesel), 3/5-door hatchback.
                .

                Special features included: Panther Black paint, 15" 3x2 spoke alloy wheels, mesh Upper Grill (commonly known as the Collection Mk1.5 Grill), chrome tailpipe, Midnight Black heated leather seats, 6 disc cd autochanger radio, air conditioning, heated front windscreen, titanium finish scuff plates, ABS, traction control, parking sensors and side airbags. Ebony (1.6 petrol), 3-door hatchback.

                  . Special features included: Magnum Grey paint, chrome tailpipe, 15" 3x2 spoke alloy wheels, Midnight Black heated leather seats, air conditioning, heated front windscreen and ABS. Chic (1.6 petrol), 3-door hatchback.
                    .

                    Special features included: Panther Black paint, 15" 3x2 spoke alloy wheels, mesh Upper Grill (commonly known as the Collection Mk1 Grill), chrome tailpipe, Midnight Black leather heated seats, air conditioning, heated fron windscreen and scuff plates. Black (1.6 petrol), 3-door hatchback.

                      . Special features included: 17" 7 spoke alloy wheels, limited paint colour choice (Metropolis Blue or Moondust Silver), Harlequin Blue seat trim and MP3 compatible radio. MP3 (1.8 petrol), 3-door hatchback.
                        .

                        Special features included: Millennium Yellow paint, heated leather seats and ABS. Millennium (1.8 petrol), 5-door hatchback.

                          . ST170 (2.0 petrol), 3/5-door hatchback only. Ghia (1.6 petrol, 1.8 petrol, 2.0 petrol, 1.8 turbodiesel), 5-door hatchback, 4-door saloon.

                          Zetec (1.4 petrol, 1.6 petrol, 1.8 petrol, 2.0 petrol, 1.8 turbodiesel), 3/5-door hatchback, 5-door estate. LX (1.6 petrol, 1.8 petrol, 1.8 turbodiesel), 5-door hatchback, 4-door saloon, 5-door estate. CL (1.4 petrol, 1.6 petrol, 1.8 turbodiesel), 3/5-door hatchback, 5-door estate (only available in UK with 1.4). 4-speed automatic.

                          6-speed manual (Euro ST, US SVT). 5-speed manual. 4-door Wagon (Estate) (Only available in Europe, Japan and North America). 4-door Sedan (Saloon) (Not available in Japan or New Zealand).

                          5-door Hatchback (Part of the original line in Europe, added for North America starting in 2002). 3-door Hatchback. (America). 2.3 L Duratec From 2004 onwards.

                          (Europe). 2.0 L Duratec: RS Only; 212BHP; 19.9MPG; 144MPH top speed; 6.4s 0-60. (Europe). 2.0 L Duratec: ST170 Only; 170BHP; 25MPG; 133MPH top speed; 8.2s 0-60.

                          (Latin America). 2.0 L Duratec: From 2004 onwards. (All Markets). 2.0 L Zetec: 128BHP; 33.1MPG; 125MPH top speed; 9.0s 0-60.

                          (America). 2.0 L SPI: Sedan (Saloon) style only. (America). 2.0 L CVH: Sedan (Saloon) style only.

                          1.8 L Duratorq diesel: 100 PS (75 kW) and 115 PS (86 kW) common rail (Europe) (TDci). 1.8 L Endura-D diesel: 75 PS (56 kW) and 90 PS (67 kW) non-common-rail (Europe) (TDi/TDdi). (All Markets). 1.8 L Zetec: 113BHP; 37.2MPG; 123MPH top speed; 10.2s 0-60.

                          1.6 L Zetec: (Other Markets). (Europe). 1.6 L Zetec-SE: 99BHP; 40.9MPG; 115MPH top speed; 10.9s 0-60. (Europe).

                          1.4 L Zetec-SE: 74BHP; 42.8MPG; 106MPH top speed; 14.1s 0-60.

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