Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.

Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).

This page about Earthquakes includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. The new Mustang was also nominated for the North American Car of the Year award for 2005 and won the Canadian Car of the Year award that year. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. The Mustang made Car and Driver's Ten-Best list five times: 1983, 1987, 1988, 2005 and 2006. Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. On hand for the closing ceremonies was the aforementioned first production Mustang, also built at Dearborn. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. The last car off the Dearborn line was a bright red 2004 Mustang GT convertible.

Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. With the conversion of the River Rouge Plant to F-150 trucks in Dearborn, Michigan on May 10, 2004, a plant that built Mustangs from the very beginning, production has been moved to the AutoAlliance International plant in Flat Rock, Michigan. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Number one is currently on display at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan and a photo of the car can be viewed at their website. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. John's, Newfoundland, Ford offered him Mustang number one million in exchange in 1966; he chose a new, made-to-order Mustang instead. Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Originally purchased new by Stanley Tucker, an airline pilot from St.

at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Even the very first production Mustang is still around. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. Mechanical parts are as close as the corner auto parts store, Ford dealer or wrecking yard with most out-of-production parts available as highly accurate reproductions. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. Thanks to continued interest in the marque, restoring Mustangs is a popular hobby. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Many view the 1964-1973 models as American automotive icons the equal of the 1955 to 1957 full-size Chevrolets and the Corvette.

Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Ford continues to sell about 150,000 Mustangs annually. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. See also Motor Trend, May 2005 [1]. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. More details have been leaked from Ford over the past couple of months. Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. Introduced at the 2005 New York International Auto Show, the GT500 will make use of a 5.4 L Modular supercharged V8 first developed for the Ford GT supercar.

For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. Shelby and Ford will return with a Shelby-branded Mustang, the Shelby GT500, for 2007. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. The 2006 model year offered a new "Pony Package" for the popular V6 models, which included upgraded suspension, Bullitt-style wheels, wider tires, unique grille treatment with road lamps, rear deck spoiler, special door striping and special Pony emblems. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. Half of all sports cars now sold in the United States are Mustangs. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. The new Mustang has been selling very well for Ford and as a result was exempt from the 2005 Employee Discount Pricing Program.

The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. Ford engineers designed a z-fold top that gives it a finished appearance with the top down. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The 2005 Mustang convertible was designed from the ground up to deliver a more rigid body structure without additional weight. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Shortly after its launch at the North American International Auto Show in January, Ford started production of the Mustang convertible, available with either the V6 or V8 engine. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. One particularly interesting feature is the optional color-changing gauges.

Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. Modern production facilities and computer aided design have allowed the new Mustang to have 100% more structural rigidity over its predecessor, and have greatly increased build quality as well as fit and finish. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). It retains the traditional but controversial live rear axle, and offers improved handling and ride. It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. The GT has a 300 hp (224 kW) 4.6 L 3-valve Modular V8 with variable valve timing. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). The base Mustang uses a 210 hp (156 kW) Ford Cologne V6 engine.

Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. The car featured an aesthetic that Senior Vice President of Design J Mays referred to as "retro-futurism.". In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Exterior styling was designed by Sid Ramnarace, drawing inspiration from 1960s Mustangs. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). At the 2004 North American International Auto Show, Ford introduced a completely redesigned Mustang (code named "S-197") on an all-new D2C platform for the 2005 model year. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. It also marked the end of this design of the Mustang, as 2005 ushered in an all-new model.

For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. Available in both Standard and GT editions, it consisted of 40th Anniversary badging, special metallic red paint with gold stripes, enhanced interior, and some "special" collectable items for the owner. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. In 2004, Ford produced a special 40th Anniversary Edition of the Mustang. No structural damage. Power was a huge 390 horses (290 kW). Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. It used a iron block 4.6 engine.

Trees and bushes shake. It received a T56 transmission coupled with a supercharged DOHC V8. Plaster in walls might crack. After an absence of a year, the Cobra returned, this time with vastly increased power and handling. Furniture moves. With the end of production of the Camaro and Firebird lines in 2002, only the Mustang remains as the sole survivor of the ponycar era. Pictures fall off walls. The lone remaining 1960s muscle car marques, Mustang, Camaro and Firebird, grew in power and handling better than the cars that preceded them.

Objects fall from shelves. As electronic engine management and emissions technology developed, so too did performance. People have trouble walking. Furthermore, smoked headlights from the Cobra R and a new deck style wing replaced the old chrome look headlights and the sweeping wing. Everyone feels movement. In 2001, a hood scoop, similar in design to the 35th anniversary scoops, and side scoops (nonfunctional) were added to GT models and made optional on the V6 as part of a "pony package". The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. 17 inch American Torque Thrust wheels reminiscent of the originals were also used on this car and made optional on GTs wrapped in 245/45ZR performance rubber by Goodyear.

These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. More telling is the torque curve, which was vastly improved over the base GT models, 90% of its 302 lbft avaliable from 2000 RPM. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. Moreover, a new intake design and mufflers added put the horsepower at 265, which was later revised to 270. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. Many lauded the improvements and called it the best handling production Mustang ever. Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. The car was slightly lowered and had name brand shocks with the addition of short length subframe conncetors which improved the handling.

Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. It was reminiscent of the 1968 390 fastback model driven by Steve McQueen in the movie of the same name. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. In 2001, Ford offered a Special version of its GT with the "Bullitt" nameplate. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The Cobra also had side exhaust outlets and "smoked" headlights, the latter making its way onto all Mustangs the following year. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. Minor exterior enhancements such as the addition of a front splitter and rear wing added downforce and stability at speed.

Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. It received a 6-speed transmission from Tremec, the T56, the same transmission used in the Chevrolet Corvette and Camaro and the Dodge Viper. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. The Cobra R utilized an iron block, claiming 385 hp (287 kW) and 385 ft·lbf (522 N·m) torque. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. In 1995 and 2000 the Cobra Rs had increased displacement engines (5.8 L and 5.4 L, respectively) that made these cars extremely potent track machines. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. The suspensions were finely tuned.

While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. Unlike the early Rs, one did not need a racing license to buy one of these race Cobras. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. Race cars, they were stripped of air conditioning, radios, and back seats. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. Special Cobra R versions were available in limited editions in 1993, 1995, and 2000. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. The Cobra also received an independent rear suspension, which was also modular.

In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. Redline was set at 7000 rpm for the DOHC Cobra. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. A switch was made from "B" style heads as used in the early 32 valve DOHC Modulars to "C" heads, which added to the low end torque of the engine. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. The Cobras received similar improvements. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. As a "modular" family, earlier 4.6 L SOHCs can swap out their heads with "Power Improved" heads as offered through the Ford Parts Catalog.

At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Power came from redesigned heads and cams. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. These changes were incorporated into the 2001 model year Cobra. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. As a result, the Cobra was not produced in 2000, and the company developed new parts to replace the missing power. Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage . There were recalls for the 1999 model year Cobras, which were given intake and exhaust improvements, putting power at 320 hp to match the original claim.

. While the Cobra claimed 320 hp (239 kW), dyno runs by Car and Driver magazine and numerous buyers contradicted this claim and Ford was later proved to have misstated the power gains. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. In 1999, Mustang GT's power increased to 260 hp (194 kW) at 5250 rpm and a healthy 302 ft·lbf (409 N·m) of torque at 400 rpm; redline was at 6000 rpm. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Although it was still humbled by the Corvette-engined Camaro in performance, it was more practical and sold well. Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Moreover, bite was added to the Mustang's bark.

Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Gone were many of the soft lines of the early SN-95s. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. A model refresh dubbed "New Edge" came in 1999. Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. This was also the last year of the "Round Body Mustang". The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). In 1998 the SOHC 4.6L V8 power was increased to 225 hp (168 kW) with a more aggressive computer and larger exhaust tail pipes.

The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Cobra version was updated that year with a 305 hp (227 kW) dual over head cam configuration of the 4.6 L V8. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The engine has 2 valves per cylinder—one for intake and one for exhaust—and true dual exhaust. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. This engine had been introduced in Lincoln models and was part of Ford's plan to "modernize" its engine lineup. An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. In 1996, the 5.0 engine was replaced by a 215 hp (160 kW) 4.6 L SOHC "Modular" V8 engine.

Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). The Mustang was named Motor Trend magazine's Car of the Year for the third time in 1994. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. A high-performance 240 hp (179 kW) 5.0 L engine, larger brakes, and suspension modification were available on the Cobra models. Killed over 79,000 people. The base model came with a 3.8 L V6 engine while the GT featured the "5.0" 4.9 L V8. Kashmir earthquake (2005). It greatly revived the popularity of the brand.

Fukuoka earthquake (2005). The car remained rear-wheel drive. Sumatran Earthquake (2005). The new design, code named "SN-95" by Ford, was still based on the "Fox" platform but featured dramatically new styling that incorporated some stylistic throwbacks to earlier Mustangs. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. For 1994, the Mustang underwent its first major redesign in 14 years. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. The "5.0" Mustangs, cars that gave birth to an entire aftermarket performance industry, continue to remain extremely popular today.

One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Although this would be the last major redesign for years, popularity of the Mustang remained high due to its low cost and high performance. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). In 1987, the Mustang received its first stylistic redesign in eight years, incorporating both interior and exterior changes. Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). The high performance Mustang buyer wanted a powerful V8 under the hood and this new attitude would be reflected when the SVT team brought out the Cobra in 1993. Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures. (For the price of one SVO you could almost get two Mustang GTs powered by the equally powerful 5.0 liter engine.) However, SVT would learn its lesson.

Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Many people believe that it came down to cost. Bam Earthquake (2003). But for all of its handling improvements and performance goodies it never really caught on with the Mustang crowd and was dropped after 1986. Dudley Earthquake (2002). Powered by a 2.3 L turbocharged four making 175 hp (130 kW), the SVO was targeted at the European and Japanese performance cars of the day and its base price of $15,596 reflected it as well. Gujarat Earthquake (2001). In 1984, Ford's in house performance team, SVT—or Special Vehicle Team, unveiled the Mustang SVO.

Nisqually Earthquake (2001). Virtually all of the SSP Mustangs were of the coupe or "notchback" style cars; 5 examples made for the CHP in 1982 were of the Hatchback model. Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). The small rear seat and manual transmission were generally considered ill-suited for a law enforcement vehicle. Düzce earthquake (1999). Depending on which agency bought them, extras like rollcages (requested by Oregon State Police) and power windows (requested by New York State Police) made each SSP unique to their respective departments. İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey. Some of the options that came with the car included:.

Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. Nearly 15,000 of these special units were made until their discontinuation in 1993. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Taking the Fox 5.0 Mustangs in production at the time, Ford produced the Ford Mustang SSP (Special Service Package) and modified them to suit the needs of the police and law enforcement departments. Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. Also in 1982, the California Highway Patrol asked Ford to produce a capable and lightweight police car due to the bulkiness of current police cars like the Ford Fairmont and LTD/Crown Victoria and the problems incurred with Camaros with their camshafts at pursuit speeds. Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Wringing a then-respectable 157 hp (134 kW) from its "5.0" (actually 4.94 L, 302 in³) Windsor V8 and backed by a four-speed transmission, aggressive tires and stiff suspension, magazine ads of the period shouted, "The Boss Is Back." Over the years, power and torque gradually increased, peaking in 1987 at 225 hp (168 kW).

Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. In 1982, Ford reintroduced a high-performance Mustang GT which opened the door for an entirely new era of the muscle car. Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Mustang IIs were seen in the Charlie's Angels TV series — two of the angels drove a Cobra II and Mustang Ghia coupe. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). This "third generation" 1979 model (based on the Fox platform) gave much to its successors for nearly the next 25 years, along with thousands of upgrades, improvements and restyling over that time. Killed over 25,000. However, on the momentum of the Mustang II's understated success and under the direction of Ford's new styling chief, Jack Telnack, a totally new Mustang hit the streets in 1979.

Armenian earthquake (1988). Chrysler ended production of the Barracuda and its stablemate, the Dodge Challenger in 1974 and GM nearly discontinued the Camaro and Firebird. Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). The Arab oil embargo, skyrocketing insurance rates and aforementioned US emissions and safety standards that destroyed the straight-line performance of virtually every car of the period certainly didn't help. 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). Despite innovations such as rack-and-pinion steering and a separate engine subframe that greatly decreased noise, vibration, and harshness, the Mustang II never caught the public's fancy like the original had ten years prior. Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). It is also worth noting that four of the five years of the Mustang II are on the top-ten list of most-sold Mustangs.

The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. The car sold well, with sales of more than 400,000 units its first year. The most destructive earthquake of modern times. Like the car that preceded it, the Mustang II had its roots in another compact, the Ford Pinto, though less so than the original car was based on the Falcon. Tangshan earthquake (1976). Since the car was never meant to have a V8 in the first place, it became a mad scramble to reengineer the car in order to reinstate the 302 in³ (4.9 L) V8 option in time for the 1975 model year. Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989. A 2.8 L V6 was the sole optional engine, meaning the popular V8 option would disappear for the first and only time in 1974, and Ford was swamped by buyer mail and criticized in the automotive press for it.

Sylmar earthquake (1971). for installation in an American car. Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. Available as a hardtop or three-door hatchback, the new car's base engine was a 2.3 L SOHC I4, the first fully metric engine built in the U.S. Ancash earthquake (1970). Though Iacocca insisted that the Mustang II be finished to quality standards unheard of in the American auto industry, the Mustang II suffered from being not only smaller than the original car, but heavier and slower as well. Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake. The 1974 introduction of the short-lived Mustang II earned Ford Motor Trend magazine's Car of the Year honors again and actually returned the car to more than a semblance of its 1964 predecessor in size, shape, and overall styling.

Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. This was more radically different a car than anyone could have imagined in 1964, and Ford was deluged with mail from fans of the original car who demanded that the Mustang be returned to the way it was. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Car companies switched from "gross" to "net" horsepower and torque ratings in 1972, making it difficult to compare horsepower and torque ratings. Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). Both cars were excellent performers, but at nowhere near the level of the Boss cars and original Cobra Jet. On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs. Two more high-performance engines were introduced in 1972, the 351 "HO" and 351 Cobra Jet.

Great Kanto earthquake (1923). emission control regulations. San Francisco Earthquake (1906). Ironically, that very same body style that was designed for the sole purpose of big-block installation versions were limited to a maximum of 351 in³ (5.8 L) in 1972 and 1973, due almost entirely to extremely strict U.S. Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. Knudsen's turn at the helm would see the last high-performance big-block Mustang, 1971's 375 horsepower (280 kW) 429 Super Cobra Jet. Charleston earthquake (1886). Now based on the mid-sized Ford Fairlane/Mercury Comet instead of the compact Falcon, the Mustang grew larger and heavier with each passing year, culminating with the 1971-73 models designed under the supervision of Ford's new product design manager, Semon "Bunkie" Knudsen, originally of General Motors.

Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). Ford originally intended to call the car Trans Am, but Pontiac had beaten them to it, applying the name to a special version of the Firebird. New Madrid Earthquake (1811). This combination meant that the Boss 302 was good for a conservatively rated 290 horsepower (216 kW) through its four-speed manual transmission. Lisbon earthquake (1755). The automotive press gushed over the result, deeming it the car "the GT-350 should have been." Boasting a graphic scheme penned by Ford designer Larry Shinoda, the "Baby Boss" was powered by an engine that was essentially a combination of the new-for-1968 302 in³ (4.9 L) V8 and topped with cylinder heads from the yet to be released new-for-1970 351 in³ (5.8 L) "Cleveland". Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952). The Boss 302 was Ford's attempt to mix the power of a musclecar with the handling prowess of a sports car.

Cascadia Earthquake (1700). Also available during that two-year period was another homologation special for the up-and-coming sport of Trans-American sedan racing. Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. In the case of the latter, there simply wasn't enough room under the hood. Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). While power steering was a "mandatory option" on the Boss 429, neither an automatic transmission nor air conditioning were available. San Andreas Fault. Intentionally underrated for advantages both in racing as well as insurability at 375 hp (280 kW) and 450 ft·lbf (610 N·m) of torque even with racing touches straight from the factory such as aluminum heads with hemispherical combustion chambers and a combination of O-rings and seals in place of head gaskets, it was believed that yet another 75 to 100 hp (50 to 75 kW) was on tap once the single four-barrel carburetor and intake, restrictive factory exhaust system and engine speed governor were replaced or removed.

New Madrid Fault Zone. Only a hood scoop, 15 in (380 mm) "Magnum 500" wheels with Goodyear "Polyglas" tires and a small "BOSS 429" decal on each front fender hinted that the largest and, in racing trim, most powerful Ford V8 of all time was fitted under the hood. North Anatolian Fault Zone. Available in 1969 and 1970 only, and looking like a standard Mustang SportsRoof (the new corporate name for the fastback) with the new Mach 1 musclecar version's deluxe interior, the Boss 429 sported none of the garish decals and paint schemes of the day. Hayward Fault Zone. 1969 saw the introduction of both the car's third body style and a hand-built muscle car intended solely to satisfy the homologation rules of NASCAR, the Boss 429. Calaveras Fault. A drag racer for the street bowed during the middle of the 1968 model year as the 428 Cobra Jet (7.0 L), underrated at 335 hp (250 kW) but produced 410 hp (305 kW).

Alpine Fault. The high-performance 289 option now took a supporting role on the option sheet behind a massive 320 hp (239 kW), 390 in³ (6.4 L) engine direct from the Thunderbird, which was equipped with a four-barrel carburetor. Earthquake prediction. The 1967 model year would see the first of the Mustang's many major redesigns with the installation of big-block V8 engines in mind. Seismic retrofit. The 1966 Mustang debuted with only moderate trim changes, and a few new options such as an automatic transmission for the "Hi-Po," new interior and exterior colors, an AM/eight-track "Stereosonic" sound system and one of the first AM/FM monaural radios available in any car. Household seismic safety. The Mustang was pitted against the Dodge Charger in the film's famous car chase through the streets of San Francisco.

Emergency preparedness. The 1968 Mustang fastback gained pop culture status when it was used to great effect as Steve McQueen's car of choice in the crime thriller Bullitt. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. This genre of small, sporty and often powerful automobiles was unofficially dubbed the "pony car" as a tribute to the car that started it all. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. In 1968 American Motors (AMC) would introduce the Javelin and later, the 2-seater, high-performance AMX. an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year. Even Lincoln-Mercury joined the fray in 1967 with the introduction of an "upmarket Mustang" (and subsequent Motor Trend Car of the Year), the Mercury Cougar, using the name originally given to the Mustang during the development phase.

It took GM until the 1967 model year to counter with the Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird. The Monza was a fine performer, but was only a six-cylinder compared to the Mustang's available eight-cylinder. As for GM, they were certain that they had a Mustang fighter in their rear-engined Corvair Monza, but sales figures didn't even come close. Though the "'Cuda" would grow into one of the most revered muscle cars of all time, it started out at first, just Plymouth Valiant with a hastily grafted fastback rear window.

Chrysler had just introduced a car only a few weeks before that would be a competitor, the Plymouth Barracuda. It was a success that left General Motors utterly flat-footed and the Chrysler Corporation only slightly less so. In its first two years of production, three Ford Motor Company plants in San Jose, Dearborn and Metuchen, New Jersey produced nearly 1.5 million Mustangs, a sales record unequalled before or since. Though Shelby's influence on the car diminished as Ford's grew, the 1965 to 1970 GT-350 and its "big-block" brother, the 1967 to 1970 GT-500 are among the most sought-after automobiles in the world; so too are the high-performance models offered over the years by other automotive tuners following in Shelby's footsteps.

Even the car's basic body structure was stiffened up front with an angled brace intended for the export models and so-called "Monte Carlo" bar triangulating the under-hood shock absorber towers. Modifications to both the street and racing versions included a side-exiting exhaust, Shelby 15 in (380 mm) magnesium wheels (though some early cars were fitted with the factory steel wheels), fiberglass hood with functional scoop, relocated front control arms to reduce understeer and neutralize handling, quicker steering, Koni shock absorbers, a Detroit Locker rear end with Ford Galaxie drum brakes, metallic brake linings at all four corners, rear-mounted battery, rear anti-sway bar with beefed-up front anti-sway bar, dash-mounted gauges, a fiberglass parcel shelf and spare tire holder where the rear seat was intended to be, and considerable engine work, boosting output to 306 hp (228 kW). These few cars were converted to street, road racing and drag trim in Shelby's plant at Los Angeles International Airport. Designated simply "GT-350", these purpose-built performance cars started as "Wimbledon White" fastbacks with black interiors shipped from the San Jose, California assembly plant and fitted with the hi-po 289, four-speed manual transmission, front disc brakes, less hood and rear seat, and identifying trim.

This was the body style that car builder and former race driver Carroll Shelby would convert, with Ford Motor Company's blessing, into a special model designed with only two things in mind, namely winning races and beating Chevrolet's Corvette. When the 1965 model year production began in September 1964, the Mustang 2+2 fastback, with its swept-back rear glass and distinctive ventilation louvers made its debut. During the car's early design phases, however, a fastback model was strongly considered. Originally, the Mustang was available as either a hardtop or convertible.

Additionally, reverse lights were added to the car in 1965. The DC generator was replaced by a new AC alternator on all Fords and the now-famous Mustang GT was introduced, available with either four-barrel engine and any body style. A 225 hp (168 kW) four-barrel 289 in³ (4.7 L) was next in line, followed by the unchanged "Hi-Po" 289. Production of the 260 in³ (4.2 L) engine ended with the close of the 1964 model year with a new, two-barrel carbureted 200 hp (149 kW) 289 in³ (4.7 L) taking its place as the base V8.

The 170 in³ (2.8 L) I6 engine made way for a new 200 in³ (3.3 L) version which had 120 hp (89 kW) at 4400 rpm and 190 ft·lbf (258 N·m) at 2400 rpm. First was an almost complete change to the engine lineup. Some major changes to the Mustang occurred at the start of 1965 model year production, a mere five months after its introduction. And though most of the mechanical parts were directly taken from the Falcon, the Mustang's body shell was completely different from the Falcon's, sporting a longer wheelbase, wider track, lower seating position and overall height and an industry first: The "torque box." This was an innovative structural system that greatly stiffened the Mustang's unitized body construction and helped contribute to its excellent handling, at least compared to other cars of the time.

Curved side glass was used as well, but at a price since the technology to produce distortion-free curved safety glass was still fairly young. As far as the design itself was concerned, Ford stylists basically threw out the company handbook on design limitations, pushing the stamping technology of the time to its limit in such design areas as the sweep of the rear lower valence and the remarkably complicated front end stampings and castings. Not only did the project wrap up in under eighteen months, it wrapped up under budget as well thanks to the decision to use as many existing mechanical parts as possible. Still, Iacocca persevered and was given the green light to produce the Mustang in mid-1962, which gave the design team only eighteen months to design and develop the car.

Because the company was still smarting financially after the demise of the Edsel Division in late 1959, upper management at Ford under Robert McNamara (later United States Secretary of Defense under Lyndon Johnson) wasn't willing to take such a major risk. Despite his repeated attempts to receive the go-ahead to produce such a car, his proposals fell on mostly deaf ears. Incredibly, no domestic manufacturer up until that time had anything remotely resembling an affordable yet youthful and sophisticated automobile aimed at this burgeoning market, and Iacocca knew it. The timing of the car's introduction coincided perfectly with the first wave of the postwar "baby boom" which was heading off to work in a strong economy.

The list would continue to grow through much of the Mustang's history, adding trim packages like the Interior Decor Group (or "pony interior") and GT package (which included disc brakes, handling package, and other items), as well as additional engine choices and convenience items. Disc brakes for the front wheels became optional later in 1965. Other options included limited-slip differential, styled wheels and wheelcovers, power steering, power brakes, air conditioning, center console, a vinyl top, various radios, a bench seat, and various other accessories. At $442.60 (not counting the mandatory four-speed transmission) it was the single most expensive Mustang option, and only 7,273 of the 680,992 Mustangs sold in 1965 were so equipped.

The HiPo engine included a handling package (stiffer springs and shock absorbers, stiffer front anti-roll bar, fast-ratio steering, and wider tires) optional on other Mustangs. Starting in June 1964, the new 271 hp (202 kW "K-code" High Performance engine became available. With the latter and four-speed manual, Road & Track recorded a 0-60 mph (0-96 km/h) time of 8.9 seconds, with the standing quarter mile in 17 seconds at 85 mph. The standard six-cylinder engine could be replaced with a 164 hp (122 kW) 260 in³ (4.2 L) for $116.00 or a 210 hp (157 kW) 289 in³ (4.7 L) V8.

The buyer could choose a four-speed manual transmission ($115.90 or $188.00 with six-cylinder or eight-cylinder engines, respectively) or three-speed Cruise-O-Matic automatic transmission ($179.80 or $189.60). The option list included several powertrain combinations. It also resulted in typical transaction prices hundreds of dollars above the base price, making the Mustang a profitable car for both dealer and manufacturer. Although Ford was not the first to offer an extensive array of options for buyers to choose from, (Pontiac being arguably the industry leader in that regard), the Mustang's optional equipment list enabled buyers to customize their cars to their tastes and budget.

Much of the appeal—and the profit—in such a low-priced car came from the options list. Manual steering, with a 27.0:1 overall ratio (five turns lock-to-lock), was light but slow; optional power steering improved that ratio to 21.7:1 (3.7 turns lock-to-lock.) Fast-ratio manual steering offered the power steering ratio without assistance, improving steering response at the cost of great steering effort. The brakes were considered a weak link, improved when front disc brakes became available. Standard brakes were 9 in (229 mm) Falcon drums with six-cylinder engines, 10 in (254 mm) with V8s.

Rear suspension was Hotchkiss drive, with a live axle on leaf springs. Like the Falcon and Fairlane, the Mustang had independent suspension in front, using a short-long-arm (SLA) arrangement with coil springs mounted above the upper arm. Shipping weight, about 2570 lb (1170 kg) with six-cylinder engine, was also similar; a full-equipped, V8 model weighed about 3000 lb (1360 kg). With an overall width of 68.2 in (1732 mm), it was 3.4 in (86 mm) narrower, although wheel track was nearly identical.

Overall length of the Mustang and Falcon was identical, at 181.6 in (4613 mm), although the Mustang's wheelbase at 108 in (2743 mm) was slightly shorter. Although the majority of Mustangs were hardtop coupes, durability problems with the new frame led to the unusual step of engineering the (necessarily less rigid) convertible first, to ensure adequate stiffness. The car had a unitized platform-type frame derived from that of the 1964 Falcon, with box-section side rails and five welded crossmembers. Much of the chassis, suspension, and drivetrain was derived from the Ford Falcon and intermediate Ford Fairlane.

For all its style and well-marketed sportiness, the Mustang was based heavily on familiar components. Looking like it cost hundreds of dollars more, with its "long hood/short deck" styling reminiscent of designs such as the Lincoln Continental and two-seat Ford Thunderbird with an intentional touch of Ferrari at the grille, the Mustang earned a number of prestigious auto industry awards and accolades its first year including Motor Trend Car of the Year, pace car duties for the 1964 Indianapolis 500 and the Tiffany Design Award for "excellence in design," the first automobile so honored. Frey and championed by Ford Division general manager Lee Iacocca, first as a two-seat mid-engined roadster then later as a four-place car, and penned by David Ash and Joseph Oros in Ford's Lincoln-Mercury Division design studios (theirs was the winning design in an intramural design contest called by Iacocca), the base, yet well-equipped Mustang hardtop with its 105 hp (78 kW), 156 ft·lbf (212 N·m) 170 in³ (2.8 L) inline six-cylinder engine and three-speed manual transmission listed for US$2,368. First conceived by Ford product manager Donald N.

. In the early years, a Mustang was a good value with a good balance of sportiness, price, and performance. The original Mustang inspired the term pony car and prompted many imitators. It was the most successful product launch in automotive history, setting off near-pandemonium at Ford dealers across the continent.

Ford introduced it to the public at the New York World's Fair on April 17, 1964, and via all three American television networks on April 19. Originally based on the Falcon, the first production Mustang, a white convertible with black interior, rolled off the assembly line in Dearborn, Michigan on March 9, 1964. The Ford Mustang is a popular American automobile. FR500C.

Team Shinoda. Steeda. Saleen. Roush Performance.

MACH 1 Special Edition — 2003–2004. Cobra R — 1993, 1995, 2000. Cobra — 1993–2004, except 2002 (Australia only) and 2000. Bullitt Mustang — 2001.

7-Up Mustang — 1990. SVO — 1984–1986. GT Enduro — 1982. M81 Mclaren.

Boss 351. Boss 429. Boss 302. Mach 1.

Shelby Mustang (GT-350 and GT-500). 2005+. 1999-2004. 1994-1998.

1987-1993. 1979-1986. 1974-1978. 1971-1973.

1969-1970. 1967-1968. 1964.5-1966. 2.3 Turbo.

2.3 OHC. Ford Essex V6 3.8/232. Modular 4.6. Straight-6.

Boss 429. 428 Super Cobra Jet. 428 Cobra Jet. 390 FE.

Boss 351. 351 Cleveland. 5.0. 351 Windsor.

BOSS 302. 302 Windsor. 289 Windsor. 15" X 7" cast aluminum wheels.

Full size spare tire. Reinforced floor pans. Single key locking doors/trunk. Relocated rear deck release.

Steering wheel, leather wrapped. Non operational courtesy lights (safety feature). Certified calibrated Police speedometer 0-160 mph. 2 Piece VASCAR speedometer cable.

130 ampere heavy duty alternator. Full instrumentation with in-dash tachometer. Heavy duty stabilizer bars, front and rear. gallons (58 L).

Fuel tank capacity - 15.4 U.S. Dual exhaust system w/stainless tips. Stainless steel factory headers. Brakes, power disc front/drum rear with rotor shields.

Auto transmission fluid cooler. 5 speed manual or 4 speed AOD transmission. Aircraft-type silicone radiator hoses and clamps. Engine oil cooler.

Forged pistons, roller cam (Hypereutectic pistons 1993). Engine, 5.0 L HO V8 with Sequential Multi-Port Injection.

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