Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.

Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).

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A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. He is then reborn (albeit in a currently unknown fashion). These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. In the same vein, Jordan Collier (note his initials JC), whose intentions and methods are also grey, is killed by a sniper, and after his funeral, his body miraculously disappears. Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. While Isabelle might sometimes seem like a Christ-like figure, she is certainly not. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. The baby Isabelle, believed by some to be the future savior of mankind, has no qualms about violently killing people who get in her way.

Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. The show's content has subtle Christian undertones, although not in a way that one would take it to be proselytizing. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. The 4400 people who disappear do so in a rapture like fashion. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. The name of the show itself might be an allusion to the belief held by Jehovah's Witnesses that only 144,000 people will be allowed into heaven. Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. One former member of the 4400 Center accused it of making him take endless for-pay classes until he was bankrupted, at which point he was ejected from the program; Scientology has had similar accusations pointed at it.

at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). The 4400 Center targets celebrities for inclusion and promotes them through the program faster than non-celebrity members; the Church of Scientology definitely intentionally draws celebrities with its "Celebrity Centers". A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. The 4400 Center includes technological devices strapped onto its members during courses, similar to Scientology's E-Meters. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. At least one 4400 Center attendee has had his psychological medication confiscated, much as the Church of Scientology is opposed to psychology and its medications. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. The 4400 Center promises supernatural abilities to those who follow its training through for-pay courses, much as the Church of Scientology promises, though Scientology is not as forthcoming about its promises of supernatural powers.

Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. The 4400 Center run by Jordan Collier seems intended to resemble the real-world Church of Scientology. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Production of a third season is scheduled to begin in Vancouver in early 2006, and will be premiering in the summer. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. This serum neutralized the charge so the inhibitor isn't able to cross membranes and can be flushed out of the body. Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. A serum was created that contained pure promicin.

For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. It's a binding protein. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. It entered the brain through facilitated diffusion. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. The promicin-inhibitor would piggyback on glucose. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. This plot element uses the "Ten Percent Myth", which modern science has disproven..

The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. Promicin's behavior and effect are unpredictable, potentially giving any ability. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. Every 4400 produces a fifth neurotransmitter called Promicin that enables him or her to use parts of the cerebellum no human has ever had access to. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Apparently the body produces four main neurotransmitters that control and regulate everything. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. The abilities of the 4400 derive from activating dormant neural pathways.

Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. Several other members of the 4400 feature in specific storylines:. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). The main characters are:. It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. The series follows the lives and stories of a select few of the 4400. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). (It worked on the majority of the group, but not those who were later seen with powers.) The inhibitor caused a potentially fatal immune system condition in the returnees, forcing the government to inject all surviving returnees with replacement promicin; it is hinted that all of them will now exhibit powers.

Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. The government, afraid of what this large group would do with such power, secretly dosed all 4400 with a promicin inhibitor. In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. At the end of the second season, it was revealed that all 4400 had a new neurotransmitter called "promicin" in their brains; it was this which gave some of them their powers. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). At the end of the first season, we learn that the 4400 were abducted, not by aliens, but by someone in Earth's future, and that they were returned in order to prevent some sort of catastrophe. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. In addition, one of the 4400 had become pregnant between her disapperance and return.

For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. More significantly, a small number of the returnees begin to manifest paranormal abilities, such as telekinesis, telepathy, precognition, and much stranger ones. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. Most have trouble trying to get their lives back on track after being separated from their world for years. No structural damage. (A real-life NTAC now exists as well; however, it is specifically part of the Secret Service division of the Department of Homeland Security, and the "C" stands for "Center" instead of "Command".). Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. The series mainly follows two of them, as well as their immediate superior:.

Trees and bushes shake. There are a multitude of agents assigned to the case. Plaster in walls might crack. NTAC (National Threat Assessment Command), a division of the Department of Homeland Security, is formed in response to the return of the 4400. Furniture moves. . Pictures fall off walls. After their return, none have aged, all are disoriented, and they remember nothing between the time of their disappearance and their return.

Objects fall from shelves. All of the 4,400 had disappeared at various points starting from 1941 in a beam of white light. People have trouble walking. In the pilot episode, what is originally thought to be a comet deposits a group of exactly four thousand, four hundred people in the Seattle, Washington region. Everyone feels movement. The series is filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. The 4400 is produced by Paramount Network Television in Association with Sky Television for Sky One, Renegade 83 and American Zoetrope for USA Network.

These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The theme song of the show is "A Place in Time" written by Robert Phillips & Tim Paruskewitz, performed by Amanda Abizaid. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. It stars Joel Gretsch and Jacqueline McKenzie. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. It was created and written by Scott Peters and René Echevarria. Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. Production on thirteen new episodes for a third season has begun for a summer 2006 premiere.

Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. It began as a miniseries of five episodes, which aired weekly from July 11 to August 8, 2004; a second season of twelve episodes began airing on June 5, 2005 and concluded on August 28, 2005. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. The 4400 is a science fiction program on the USA Network, Space: The Imagination Station and Sky One. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". New Zealand: TV3 (New Zealand). That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. Turkey: CNBC-e.

Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. Brazil: NBC's Universal Channel. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Norway: TV3. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Netherlands: Talpa. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. United States: USA Network.

While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. United Kingdom: Sky One. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. Germany: ProSieben. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. France: M6. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. Australia: Network Ten.

In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. Switzerland: TSR. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. Canada: Space. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. [1]. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. Early marketing for the series included stencilled graffiti in public places across San Francisco, Houston, and Boston raising ire among residents.

At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. The second season was aired weekly but taken off air halfway through the season, but continued to air in New Zealand. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. In Australia and New Zealand the first series was shown as a miniseries of 3 episodes. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Vehicles from DaimlerChrysler's Chrysler Group, such as the Dodge Durango and Chrysler 300, appear frequently in the show being driven by members of NTAC. Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage . Nate McCullough, disappeared September 8, 2000.

. Werner Loecher, disappeared April 19,1973. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. Matthew Lombard, disappeared May 30,1977. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Rose Woodard, disappeared December 1,1991. Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Paranormal abilities: Increases the levels of adrenaline or other hormones (causing elevated levels of rage) in males within a certain radius through sonic means.

Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Kim, disappeared February 2, 1998. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. T.J. Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. Laurel Bryce, disappeared January 7, 1982. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Sara James, disappeared November 5, 1971.

The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. (Deceased). Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. Roger Wolcott, disappeared March 6, 1987. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Paranormal abilities: Could heal fetuses in utero (but causes progressive damage to self). An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Edwin Mayuya, aka Edwin Musinga, doctor, disappeared February 24, 1996.

Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). (Deceased) Paranormal abilities: sores on hands released plague-like disease (airborne, disappears in about half an hour, goes through biohazard gear). Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. Jean DeLynn Baker, disappeared October 27, 1999. Killed over 79,000 people. Paranormal abilities: Unlocked artistic potential in certain students in her classes. Kashmir earthquake (2005). Heather Tobey, school teacher, disappeared March 2, 1974.

Fukuoka earthquake (2005). Eric Papequash, disappeared August 5, 1955. Sumatran Earthquake (2005). (Deceased) Paranormal abilities: Could revive dead plants. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. Mary Deneville, disappeared August 4, 1999. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Given to her by the future so she can develop a relationship with Tom Baldwin to sustain him through the "coming troubles.".

One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Paranormal abilities: Ability to create an alternate reality. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). Artist (and debatably museum director). Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). Alana Mareva, disappeared September 5, 2001. Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures. He was shot during apprehension, but lived.

Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). The ability does cause Orson to suffer nosebleeds, and he has shown an inability to control this power. Bam Earthquake (2003). glass, bones). Dudley Earthquake (2002). Paranormal abilities: Telekinesis of a magnitude to cause tremors in immediate vicinity and shatter objects (e.g. Gujarat Earthquake (2001). Insurance Salesman and partner in Kensington & Bailey.

Nisqually Earthquake (2001). Orson Bailey, disappeared June 11, 1979, from Tacoma, WA. Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). Paranormal abilities: Saliva contains an agent that rapidly accelerates the metabolism of others. Düzce earthquake (1999). A telemarketer. İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey. Trent Appelbaum, disappeared May 18, 1989.

Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. Paranormal abilities: Is able to hear the thoughts of others. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). A baseball player. Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. Gary Navarro,disappeared January 5, 1973. Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Paranormal abilities: Ability to compel others to help her build a device, the plans for which have been planted in her head.

Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. A mental patient. Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Tess Doerner, disappeared April 3, 1955. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Paranormal abilities: Mind control/suggestion via speech. Killed over 25,000. Captured and imprisoned in soundproof cell.

Armenian earthquake (1988). Oliver Knox, disappeared August 22, 1983, from Friday Harbor, WA, a suspected serial killer. Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). Paranormal abilities: Enhanced reflexes and strength. 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). A supermarket employee (Deceased). Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). Carl Morrisey, disappeared February 16, 2003, from Seattle, WA.

The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. Note that many of these powers duplicate those from among the 4400. The most destructive earthquake of modern times. Paranormal abilities: Telepathic communication (with Lily Moore, Richard Tyler, and Jordan Collier), mind control, materialization projection, alteration (Jordan Collier's injury, Lily Moore's first daughter's spleen) and/or acceleration of biological growth (the growth of berries in one episode and herself in the Season 2 finale), precognition (warned Lily of a bomb before it exploded), telekinesis (the bending trees in the final scene of Season 1). Tangshan earthquake (1976). At the end of the season finale she ages considerably and shows up in Shawn's office, naked. Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989. As the only 4400 not affected by the ability-inhibitor, she provides blood used to heal Shawn Farrell and consequently all 4400s, activating their abilities.

Sylmar earthquake (1971). Technically not one of "The 4400" returned (she was still in the womb at the time of the count). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. Isabelle Tyler-Moore, born post-return, daughter of Richard Tyler and Lily Moore. Ancash earthquake (1970). Also, after being assassinated, he disappears and reappears alive at the very end of the second season finale. Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake. Possibly enhanced power of suggestion over other people, but this could just be a personality trait.

Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. Paranormal abilities: unknown. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Jordan Collier, disappeared April 10, 2002, from Seattle, WA area, a former real estate mogul. Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). Paranormal abilities: precognition. On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs. Maia Rutledge, disappeared March 3, 1946, at age 8, from Crescent City, CA.

Great Kanto earthquake (1923). Paranormal abilities: Healer and life taker. San Francisco Earthquake (1906). Shawn Farrell, disappeared April 22, 2001, at age 17, from Highland Beach, WA. Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. Paranormal abilities: None Known. Charleston earthquake (1886). Returned pregnant, but not by Brian, rather by Richard Tyler.

Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). At time of abduction, married to Brian Moore, mother to Heidi Moore. New Madrid Earthquake (1811). Louis, MO. Lisbon earthquake (1755). Lily Moore, disappeared in 1993, at age 26, from St. Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952). Paranormal abilities: apparent telekinesis.

Cascadia Earthquake (1700). Father of Lily Moore's second daughter, Isabelle. Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. At the time, in a relationship with Lily Moore's grandmother, Lily Bonham. Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Louis, MO. San Andreas Fault. Originally from St.

New Madrid Fault Zone. Richard Tyler, disappeared May 11, 1951, at age 29, while in South Korea during the Korean War. North Anatolian Fault Zone. Ryland is succeeded by Nina Jarvis in season two, but he takes his role back as a guest star on the 11th and 12th (season finale) episodes of season two. Hayward Fault Zone. Dennis Ryland: Baldwin's and Skouris's supervisor and director of the Seattle bureau of NTAC during season one. Calaveras Fault. In the first episode of season 2, Diana adopts Maia Rutledge.

Alpine Fault. The eight-year old pre-cog Maia asks to move in with her at some point in season 1. Earthquake prediction. Diana Skouris: Tom's partner. Seismic retrofit. Kyle was in a coma for three years, and after being awoken is troubled by blackouts. Household seismic safety. Tom Baldwin: Baldwin's nephew is Shawn Farrell; Shawn was with Baldwin's son Kyle Baldwin during the abduction.

Emergency preparedness. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year.

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